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East of the Mountains of the Moon Chimpanzee Society in the African Rain Forest. By Michael P. Ghiglieri. New York The Free Press. 1988. xv + 315 pp. figures index. $22

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but it is precisely the kind of synthetic approach that is needed to analyze, interpret,
and frame new research paradigms (or even
“models”)in hominid evolutionary studies.
Marks starts from the fact that gibbons,
whose social structure and socioecology favor genetic drift, show much greater chromosomal differentiation than do the largely
terrestrial, mobile, polygynous papionines.
Because humans do not show a significantly
greater degree of chromosomal differentiation than Pan or Gorilla, Marks concludes
that “early hominids did not diverge radically from an ancestral chimp-like or gorillalike social structure (p. 149). The question of
whether this conclusion is fully warranted is
less important than the fact that this paper
is a reasoned attempt a t integrating data
that have all too often been considered in
The book has more than a few typographical errors, and its photographs and graphics
are of only average quality. Nevertheless,
there is much of worth in this volume, and a
careful reading and comparison of its papers
will repay the serious student.
Virginia Museum of Natural History
Martinsville, Virginia
CHIMPAN- culties, disappointments, and dangers of
By field work as well as the excitement of new
Michael P. Ghiglieri. New York: The Free discoveries and personal insights.
During the course of his book, Ghiglieri
Press. 1988. xv + 315 pp., figures, index.
introduces several sociobiological and eco$22.50 (cloth).
logical concepts (e.g., reproductive success,
parental investment, optimal foraging), imThis book is an entertaining and informa- portant if the reader is to appreciate the
tive account of a 2 year field study of the author’s theoretical perspective and the
chimpanzees of the Kibale Forest in western complexities of chimpanzee behavior.
Uganda. Unlike Ghiglieri’s previous book, Ghiglieri clearly makes no assumptions
The Chimpanzees of the Kibale Forest, which about the prior knowledge of his readers and
was intended for biologists, anthropologists, uses a patient, uncomplicated style to exand other professionals well versed in prima- plain these sometimes difficult scientific
tology and evolutionary biology, East of the concepts. The author occasionally departs
Mountains of the Moon takes a very different from his chronological approach with perapproach and is designed to appeal to a much sonal anecdotes and insightful observations.
broader audience. As the author states in the These departures not only heighten interest
Preface, this book “is not aimed at scien- but also prove crucial to an understanding of
tists.” This fact does not, however, preclude the ideas presented.
Although each successive chapter of this
it being of a great deal of interest to biological
book represents a single step forward in
professionals as well as lay persons.
This book is organized chronologically, time, each also presents an in depth look at
taking the reader from the origin of Ghig- one significant aspect of chimpanzee behavlieri’s initial interest in chimpanzee socio- ior andor tropical forest ecology. In his
ecology through his arrival a t the study site choice of both chapter titles and writing
at Ngogo in the Kibale Forest and ultimately style, Ghiglieri’s sense of humor is evident,
to his departure 2 years later. I believe the and this adds to the book’s appeal. “Stalking
organization of this book contributes sub- The Wild Fig,” for example, is a lesson in the
stantially to its palatability to the general significance of creative thought and persevreader. Because events are temporally ar- erence to the making of a successful and
ranged, the reader is able to more thoroughly ultimately informative field experience. Speshare in the experiences of the author. Spe- cifically, Ghiglieri is able to overcome the
cifically, he is initially introduced to problem of habituating his intelligent
Ghiglieri’s theoretical perspective, his ex- quarry by taking a less direct approach and
pectations, and his original goals and is thus monitoring favorite food sources. ‘You Are
able to understand and experience the diffi- What You Eat” is, as one might expect, a
discussion of chimpanzee diet and foraging
behavior. “The Creature That Ate the Forest” centers on the problem of human encroachment and poaching on the survival of
chimpanzees and the tropical forest in general. Intra- and interspecific competition for
food and opportunistic chimpanzee predation on other primates is the focus of “It’sA
Jungle Out There.” “Cultured Chimpanzees”
compares and contrasts the ecology and behavior of two distinct populations of Kibale
Forest chimpanzees. Finally, the moral implications of the systematic extermination of
our closest relatives is examined in “Cain
and Abel.”
East of the Mountains of the Moon will
appeal to both established and budding professionals as well as to a more general readership. As an anthropologist experienced in
the field observation of tropical forest primates, I found this narrative to be a thoroughly enjoyable and accurate portrayal of
the rigors, the frustrations, and the excite-
ment of discovery shared by nearly all who
have undertaken similar field work. Primarily for this reason, Ghiglieri’s eye-opening
account is a must for scholars preparing for
the initial field experience. Most significant,
however, is this book’s potential for strong
popular appeal. In my opinion, as scientists,
it is our responsibility to keep the general
public accurately informed about discoveries
and advances in our various fields; and ultimately, by legitimizing our work, it is in our
best interests to do so. In East of the Mountains of the Moon, Michael Ghiglieri has
accomplished what too few informed professionals are either willing or able to do. He
has successfully bridged the gap between
scientific and popular literature without sacrificing content or accuracy.
AND GIBBONS. By C. Jean DeRousseau. Contribu-
ity to the development of osteoarthritis at
any given joint site. Studying contemporary
populations allows for a better definition of
the activity, but these populations tend to
engage in a variety of complex behaviors not
generally characteristic of the whole population. This disadvantage, plus the difficulty in
thoroughly and conveniently examining
joint surfaces, makes studying contemporary populations problematic. The author
suggests that the relationship of biomechanical stress to the development of osteoarthritis can be studied in skeletal populations of
nonhuman primate species with distinctively different locomotor patterns. This allows models to be developed and hypotheses
Having established this premise, the next
two chapters deal with the basics of bone
remodelling and the role locomotor stress
plays in the remodelling process. Since
macaques and gibbons engage in patterns of
locomotive and positional behavior that
place different stresses across their joints,
DeRousseau proposes to study these two
primate species to test hypotheses concerning the biomechanical effects on joint degeneration.
Chapter 4 compares interspecies and intraspecies patterning of osteoarthritis in the
tions to Primatology Vol. 25. Basel: S.
Karger AG. 1988. xiii + 145 pp., figures,
tables, index. $64.00 (cloth).
Osteoarthritis i n Rhesus Monkeys and
Gibbons examines the incidence of this joint
disease in primates with different locomotor
patterns. In the first part of the book, DeRousseau carefully draws together the essential elements to build a locomotor model of
joint degeneration. These first three chapters provide an overview of bone biology that
would be extremely valuable reading for students of anthropological osteology.
Chapter 1 includes a brief introduction on
how and why anthropologists study osteoarthritis. DeRousseau presents a variety of
anthropological studies to emphasize the importance of biomechanical stresses in the
etiology of this joint condition. Clearly, osteoarthritis involvement of a single joint or a
pattern of joints is associated with specific
long-term, repetitive activities, but an anthropologist is presented with a dilemma.
Accurately defining these activities in prehistoric, skeletal populations presents problems of assessing the relationship of an activ-
Department of Anthropology
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
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figuren, michael, moon, 1988, rain, east, index, forest, new, ghiglieri, york, mountain, free, africa, chimpanzee, society, 315, pres
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