Energy and effort. Symposia of the Society for the Study of Human Biology. Volume 22. Edited by G.A. Harrison. London Taylor & Francis. 1982. ix + 323 pp. figures tables references index. 16код для вставкиСкачать
438 BOOK REVIEWS The stylistic problems with the volume are threefold. First, Charnov’s mathematical discussions are occasionally sloppy, relative to the formal precision and lucidity of the best theoreticians. It is generally possible to discover his reasoning, but such a task should not be imposed in a book of this kind. Second, Charnov frequently provides introductory lists of questions or themes that one expects to structure the material following. Too often, these signposts are then ignored, and the discussion wanders on, coming to a n end that is not a conclusion. Third, the English is not inspiring. In many ways, the book needs thorough subediting, a problem that is not uncommon these days. Nonetheless, The Theory of Sex Allocation is both useful and stimulating, trailing many leads that future investigators should pick up and sail with. MICHAEL R. ROSE Department of Biology Dalhousie University HalifM; Nova Scotia, Canada ENERGY AND EFFORT.Symposia of the Soci- and Endemic Disease,” by Collins provides a ety for the Study of Human Biology. Vol- very interesting examination of the effects of ume 22. Edited by G.A. Harrison. London: schistosomiasis on work performance among Taylor & Francis. 1982. ix + 323 pp., fig- Sudanese cane cutters. ures, tables, references, index. f16.00 The next five chapters deal with issues of human nutrition. The first of these is contro(cloth). versial, being a critique of the concept and practice of establishing energy requirements This volume presents a series of papers for populations or nations. Rivers and Payne given at the 49th meeting of the Society for write a scathing indictment of current estithe Study of Human Biology (SSHB). Its title mates of energy requirements produced by gives the central theme of the meetings held international committees such as FAONHO. January 7-8, 1981. The organizers (Profes- They recognize that their contribution will sors J.S. Weiner, J.M. Tanner, D.F. Roberts, be criticised as totally negative and they and G.A. Harrison) chose energetics as one claim, rightly so, that such is their honest possible focus for the examination of “the assessment. The following paper by Weymes functioning of whole human populations in a concludes its first paragraph with the senholistic way” (p. viii). The second focus on tence, “Someone has to assess how much food effort reflects all of the subjective influences is required to feed populations” (p. 107), and and choices made by individuals who are en- it goes on to discuss the determinants of nugaged in the expenditure of energy. Thus tritional need. I suspect that Rivers and both the biological and social aspects of hu- Payne’s contribution stimulated some of the man population studies are covered in the lively discussions mentioned by Harrison in book, but the two are largely dealt with in his preface to the volume. separate chapters. Ferro-Luzzi contributes a n extremely interResearch of the sort described in this vol- esting and important paper on the conume is usually multidisciplinary in person- straints encountered in undertaking energynel. That fact is reflected in chapters intake studies. Her discussion of individual contributed by human physiologists, a psy- variation in intake versus sample size and chologist, a n epidemiologist, nutritionists, length of survey should be required reading economists, social anthropologists, a n ar- for anyone contemplating such research. chaeologist, a geographer, and physical anThe fourth nutritional chapter by Norgan thropologistshman biologists. details the description, nature, and assessThe book begins with two basic primers on ment of energy stores in the human body. A definitions and methods of measurement of brief discussion of genetic factors underwork (Nelms) and mental effort (Brown). scores the relative lack of information on this Cotes et al. follow with a survey of the factors subject. In the fifth paper of this section, Bliss influencing human work capacity. The fourth and Stern use utility functions to show a chapter, “Energy Expenditure, Productivity theoretical relationship between worker’s BOOK REVIEWS weight, consumption of food, and productivity over the long-term. The next four chapters are written by anthropologists and reflect quite disparate perspectives. Wallman presents a series of propositions concerning the concept of work. These arose from a 1979 conference of social anthropologists that was organized to discuss this topic. Harris notes the “new orthodoxy” with regard to hunter-gatherers and then examines the optimal foraging model as it applies to Aborigines in Northern Australia. He concludes that the model appears to fit the contemporary data despite considerable dietary change. The next two papers are challenges to the validity of energetics studies as conducted by human biologists. Richards would replace quantitative assessment with dialogue between the investigator and the people studied. Burnham, in what must be the most controversial paper in the book, begins with a swipe a t H.T. Odum; continues with backhands at M. Harris, A.P. Vayda, and R. Rappaport; and ends with a long diatribe against the IBP Andean project of P.T. Baker and coworkers, generally, and the pioneering energy-flow work of R. Brooke Thomas, specifically. The very next paper by Thomas et al. provides a reasoned response to Burnham, noting particularly the latter’s disregard for what a model is and how it can be useful. In a postscript, the authors note Burnham’s use of early, summary sources in his critique and express disappointment at the unrealistic expectations that he holds. They conclude with a comment about the controversy being a 439 “paper confrontation” that makes the reader wonder whether Burnham attended the conference or amended his paper subsequent to it. After these fireworks, Energy and Effort concludes with two interesting papers on the efficiency (Bayliss-Smith) and comparative economics (Spedding) of agricultural systems. There is no summary or concluding chapter by the editor. This book is attractively packaged, tightly organized, and largely free of the typographic errors that so often plague such works. I found less than one typo per chapter. My only and minor quibble is with the placement of figures and tables that often seemed to be out of order with their mention in the text. This book is an excellent source of references, stressing the work of European researchers. It has a great deal of how-to and how-not-to information stored in its chapters for those interested in human energetics research. It should have its largest market among human ecologists and the students they teach in anthropology, biology, geography, or any other department. Additionally, human physiologists and nutritionists will find stimulating material of concern to their fields. I highly recommend Energy and Effort to those planning energetics research. The volume is dedicated to the memory of J.S. Weiner and stands as a fitting reminder of his life-long productive scholarship. PAULL. JAMISON Department of Anthropology Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana to social equality.” The book’s one-page Introduction elaborates other such hopeful propositions. Another is that deterministic models cannot deal satisfactorily with a variety of fundamental biological phenomena (several of which are touched on in this volume). As alternatives the editors suggest inThis book is a hardbound set of symposium teractive models, those which incorporate papers. The presentations originally were de- both genetic information and lifelong envilivered a t a meeting of the American Anthro- ronmental experiences. pological Association, the session having Professor Dyson-Hudson’s own paper is tibeen organized by Rada Dyson-Hudson in a n tled “An Interactive Model of Human Biologattempt “. . . to reconcile the implications of ical and Behavioral Adaptation.” The author natural selection theory with a commitment sees what the chapter presents as “. . . a RETHINKING HUMAN ADAPTATION. Edited by R. Dyson-Hudson and M.A. Little. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1983. xii + 180 pp., figures, tables, references, index. $20.00 (cloth).