close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Erythrocyte and HLA antigens of Atacameo Indians.

код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 65:243-247 (1984)
Erythrocyte and HLA Antigens of Atacamefio Indians
FRANCISCO ROTHHAMMER, H. WERNER GOEDDE, ELENA LLOP,
MONICA ACUNA, AND PATRICIA CARVAJAL
Department of Cellular Biology and Genetics (RR., E.L., M.A.), Department
ofDermatology (t?C.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Casilla IOD,
Santiago, Chile, and Institute o f Human Genetics, University of Hamburg,
Hamburg R R. G. (H. W.G.)
K E Y WORDS
Atacameiios
Blood groups, Andean populations of Chile,
ABSTRACT
The present study reports the results of erythrocyte antigen
typing for the following systems: ABO, MN, Rh, Kell, Duffy, and Diego in
roughly 180 Atacamefio Indians from the oasis of Toconao, northern Chile. A
subsample was tested for variation at the histocompatibility loci A, B, and C.
Results agree with previous findings based on smaller samples. Caucasian
admixture of the Atacameiios from Toconao was estimated to be 0.056 & 0.022.
As part of a broader study whose general
aims are to quantify the participation of evolutionary factors in the microdifferentiation
of Andean aborigines and to assess their genetic response to drugs and environmental
agents, the population of the oasis of Toconao
in the Atacama desert was surveyed in
March of 1983.
The Atacama desert is located in northern
Chile between lat. 19 S and lat. 27 S. Only
one permanent river, the Loa, reaches the
Pacific Ocean in this area, which is supposed
to be one of the driest deserts on earth. The
western slopes of the Andes are bare t o about
2.500 m. In the lower mountain region a few
oases have been inhabited by men for at least
10,000 years, as judged by archaeological
findings (Bittmann et al., 1978). The Atacameiios’ cultural elaboration began at about
the start of the Christian era. Subsequently,
they received the influences of the highland
cultures of Tiwanaku around 600 AD and
Inca at 1400 AD. The area was invaded by
the Spanish in 1536, first under the command of Diego de Almagro, and 4 years later
under Pedro de Valdivia and Francisco de
Aguirre. The Spanish conquest was consolidated in 1557 through a treaty (Hidalgo,
1981).
Toconao, located a t 2,500 m of altitude, was
founded in 1557 by Juan Velasquez Altamirano, but archaeological evidence indicated
that the oasis has been inhabited since prehistoric times (Hidalgo, 1981). The Atacame-
0 1984 ALAN R. LISS, INC.
iios were originally Kunza speakers, a
language classified by Greenberg (1956) in
the Paezan subfamily of the Macro-Chibchan
linguistic family and by Loukotka (1957)
among the languages of the Andean tribes
together with Aymara, Diaguita, and Mapuche, among others.
The object of this report is to present the
results of erythrocyte and HLA antigen typing. Other communications will be devoted
to the analysis of the genetic response to
drugs and environmental agents (Goedde et
al., 1984a), the typification of erythrocyte enzymes and serum proteins (Goedde et al. N.D.
1984b), and sanitary aspects (Castillo et al.,
1584).
POPULATIONS AND METHODS
The oasis of Toconao has 441 inhabitants
according to the 1980 National Census. Of
these, 206 are males and 235 females. The
sample obtained by us comprised 182 individuals. Fifty-five percent of these were born in
the same oasis, the remaining in the hamlets
of Socaire (17%), Peine (9%), Talabre (7%),
and Camar (6%) located in the immediate
proximity of Toconao. Six percent of sampled
individuals were born in San Pedro, 50 km
north of Toconao, a somewhat larger village,
which is the center of the civil adminstration.
Received September 7, 1983; revised June 25, 1984; accepted
July 3, 1984.
244
F. ROTHHAMMER ET AL
By means of a sterile syringe, 20 ml of
blood was obtained from volunteers by arm
venipuncture. Three milliliters of blood with
ACD as preservative was used for blood group
determinations and 8 ml with heparin as
anticoagulant for HLA typing. The remaining 9 ml was employed for enzyme electrophoresis. Antigenic specificities were determined for the following systems: ABO, Rh,
MN, Duffy, Diego, and Kell. All determinations were carried out in tubes with 2% red
cell suspensions using Biotest-Serum-Institut Gmbh., Offenbach, F.R.G. sera.
The white cells of a subsample of 21 supposedly unrelated individuals were separated and tested for HLA antigenic specificity
using the Biotest microtray Lymphotype
ABC-60 with the NIH two stage citotoxicity
test in the field, some 5 hours after the blood
samples were obtained. Eight specificites of
the A series, sixteen of the B series, and five
of the C series are included in the Biotest
microtray. On the average, more than one
serum is provided for each specificity.
Maximum likelihood gene frequency estimates were obtained using the MAXLIK
computer program of Reed and Schull(l968).
parture of the phenotype frequencies from
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was analyzed
using the chi-square test. A significant deficiency in the observed proportion of heterozygotes was observed for the MN system (x2
= 5.07; p < 0.05). The gene frequency estimates are shown in Tables 3 and 4.
DISCUSSION
The Atacameiios have been the object of
previous communications (Etcheverry et al.,
1967; Matson et al., 1967; Van der Does et
al., 1972,1978). Our blood group findings are
in general agreement with the results of
Etcheverry et al. (1967) and Matson et al.
(1967) based on substantially smaller samples. Van der Does et al. (1972)in a survey of
the Atacameiio village of Socaire, located in
the proximities of Toconao, reported higher
frequencies of the K , Fya and Dia genes. Unfortunately, these authors called the subjects
of their study Aymara, causing some confusion in the specialized literature.
TABLE 2.
HLA Phenotype frequencies in Atacamerio Indians
RESULTS
Tables 1 and 2 illustrate absolute and relative erythrocyte and HLA antigen phenotype frequencies of the Atacameiios. The de-
Phenotypes
A
TABLE 1.
Erythrocyte antigen phenotypes in A tacamerio Indians
Phenotypes
A
B
AB
0
MM
MN
NN
CCDEE
CCDEe
CCDee
CcDEE
CcDEe
CcDee
ccDEE
ccDEe
ccDee
K+
KFy (a+b-)
Fy ( a + b + )
Fy (a-b+)
Fy(a-b-)
Di (a+)
Di (a-)
Observed
numbers
Observed
proportions
20
0.110
0.005
0.000
0.885
0.433
0.389
0.178
0.000
0.033
0.199
0.055
0.458
0.061
0.166
0.028
0.000
0.000
1.000
0.628
0.267
0.105
0.000
0.016
0.984
1
0
161
78
70
32
0
6
36
10
83
11
30
5
0
0
182
113
48
19
0
3
179
1
2
3
9
10
11
w 19
B
28
Blank
5
7
8
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
C
w 21
w22
27
w35
37
40
Blank
w1
w2
w3
w4
w5
Blank
Observed
numbers
Observed
proportions
3
16
1
4
0
0
16
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0.1428
0.7619
0.0476
0.1905
0.0000
4
14
1
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
5
0
9
2
0
5
0
7
0.0000
0.7619
0.0000
0.0000
0.0476
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0476
0.1905
0.6667
0.0476
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.2381
0.0000
0.2381
0.0000
0.4286
0.0952
0.0000
0.2381
0.0000
0.3333
ERYTHROCYTE AND HLA ANTIGENS
TABLE 3.
Erythrocyte antigen gene frequencies in Atacameiio
Indians
Genes
A
B
0
M
N
CDE (RZ)
CDe (R’)
cDE (R2)
cDe (Ro)
cde (r)
K
~k
FYa
FYb
FY
Dia
Dib
Estimated
freauencv
Standard
error
0.0565
0.0027
0.9407
0.6278
0.3722
0.0465
0.4727
0.4340
0.0267
0,0198
0.0000
1.0000
0.7008
0.2158
0.0832
0.0082
0.9917
0.0123
0.0274
0.0125
0.0255
0.0255
0.0113
0.0263
0.0261
0.0343
0.0340
0.0000
0.0000
0.0322
0.0227
0.0292
0.0047
0.0047
TABLE 4.
H L A gene frequencies in Atacameiio Indians
1
2
3
9
w 19
Blank
5
13
14
15
16
w35
40
Blank
w1
w2
w2
Blank
Estimated
frequency
Standard
error
0.0714
0.4047
0.0237
0.0952
0.4048
0.0000
0.0255
0.0238
0.1070
0.3990
0.0238
0.1256
0.1328
0.1622
0.2431
0.0495
0.1259
0.5813
0.0397
0.0757
0.0252
0.0453
0.0757
0.0000
0.0245
0.0244
0.0501
0.0859
0.0257
0.0561
0.0583
0.0759
0.0711
0.0339
0.0530
0.0819
The deficiency in the observed proportions
of heterozygotes observed for the MN system
may be attributed either to inbreeding or to
the fact that o w sample included individuals
born in different Atacameiio villages. The
heterogeneity caused by the inclusion in one
sample of different subpopulations may result in heterozygote deficiency (Cavalli-Sforza
and Bodmer, 1971).
Phenotype and gene frequencies of the A
and B histocompatibility loci are in reasonably good agreement with the results of Van
der Does et al. (1972) obtained in the Ataca-
245
meiio village of Socaire. The A2, Aw19, and
A9 (Aw24) genes of the A locus exhibit the
highest frequencies following a general tendency reported for South American Indians
(Black et al., 1980). When considering the B
locus, the B15 and B40 genes turn out to be
the most frequent. The high CW1 frequency
is somewhat unusual and, if verified, may be
attributed to post-Columbian admixture and
or drift.
In the absence of family data, haplotype
frequencies and linkage disequilibrium parameters (D values) were computed from
three-locus phenotypes using the method
suggested by Piazza (1976). The three most
frequently encountered haplotypes among
the Atacameiios are Aw19, B15, CW1, A2,
B E , C-, and A2, BW35, CW4. These haplotypes exhibit frequencies of 0.2450, 0.1569,
and 0.1282, respectively. Other less frequently observed haplotypes were A2, B15,
CW1 (0.07), Aw19, B40, CW1 (0.061, A9,
BW35, CW4 (0.05),and finally A2, B15, CW4
(0.04). The three most frequent haplotypes
exhibited positive D values above 0.03. Given
the small sample of probably related individuals (an unavoidable feature of isolated Indian populations), we were reluctant to test
the significance of the D values. Nevertheless, we note that the combination A2, BW35,
C4 accounted for 14% of all sequences among
South American Indians (Black et al., 1980).
The presence among the Atacameiios of the
A, B, r, and HLA-A1 genes in relatively high
frequencies may indicate Caucasian admixture. The statistical procedures suggested to
estimate the amount of “foreign” genes in a
population start from the supposition that
the gene frequencies of the ancestral populations are known (see, for example, Bernstein,
1931; Roberts and Hiorns, 1962; Chakraborty, 1975; Szathmary and Reed, 1978).Only
rarely, however, can these fundamental parameters be directly estimated. The Atacameiios are one of these few exceptions.
Actually, Allison et al. (1978) published the
results of ABO blood group typing of 49 Atacameiio mummies dated by radiocarbon a t
200-300 AD and of 12 mummies belonging
to the colonial period. Under the assumption
that technical problems have not biased the
results of Allison et al. (19781, that the frequency of 0 in the Spanish populations is
0.6487 (Campillo, 1976), and that this frequency has remained relatively constant over
the last 450 years, it is possible to estimate
the Caucasian admixture of the Atacameiios
of Toconao (Table 5). The M values and error
246
F. ROTHHAMMER ET AL.
variances were obtained following Bernstein
(1931) and Cavalli-Sforza and Bodmer (1971).
The increase of Caucasian admixture in
the Atacameiios of Toconao after the Spanish
conquest is a n expected finding. It is surprising, however, that despite the fact that this
aboriginal population is undergoing transculturation a t a n increasing rate, Caucasian
admixture has remained constant during the
last 20 years.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported by the Deutsche
Forschungs-gemeinschaft, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Project 1068 of the Fondo Nacional de
Ciencias, CONICYT, Santiago de Chile, Project B-518-845F of DIB, the University of
Chile, and grant 820599LJNDPMrorld BanW
WHO Special Programme for Research and
Training in Tropical Diseases.
We are grateful to the members of our field
team, Mrs. Heide Benkmann, Mrs. Petra
Bogdanski, Mrs. Patricia Carvajal, Mrs. Syl-.
via Quevedo, and Dr. Hernan Palomino.
We are also indebted to the Alcalde of San
Pedro, Mr. Hans Schmauck Alarcon, and to
the director of the Archaeological Museum of
San Pedro, Mr. Agustin Llagosteras, for their
help in solving logistic problems. We are especially beholden to Mrs. Amanda Fabian
Gonzales for helping us to organize the examinations in Toconao.
LITERATURE CITED
Allison, JA, Hossaini, AA, Munizaga, J, and Fung, R
(1978) ABO blood groups in Chilean and Peruvian
mummies. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 49:139-142.
Bernstein, F (1931) Die geographische Verteilung der
Blutgruppen und ihre anthropologische Bedeutung. In
Comitato Italian0 per lo Studio dei Problemi della Populaziones. Rome: Instituto Poligrafico dello Stato, pp.
227-243.
Bittmann, B, Le Paige, G, and Ndiiez, L (1978) Cultura
Atacamefia. Santiago: Gabriela Mistral.
Black, FL, Berman, LL, and Gabbay, Y (1980) HLA
antigens in South American Indians. Tissue Antigens
16;368-376.
Campillo, FL (1976) Estudio de 10sgrupos sanguineos en
la poblacion espafiola. Anales de la Real Academia
Nacional de Medicina. Tom0 XCIII 3:3-22.
Castillo, S, Rothhammer, F, and Goedde, HW (1984) Algunos indices de salud de indios atacamenos. Rev. Med.
Chile. (in press).
Cavalli-Sforza, LL, and Bodmer, WF (1971) The Genetics
of Human Populations San Francisco: W.H. Freeman
co.
Chakraborty, R (1975) Estimation of race admixture: A
new method. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 42:507-511.
Etcheverry, R, Guzman, C, Hille, A, Nagel, R, Covarrubias, E, Regonesi, C, Miranda, M, Duran, N, and Montenegro, A (1967) Investigacion de grupos sanguineos
y otros caracteres geneticos sanguineos en indigenas
de Chile. Rev. Med. Chile 95599-604.
ERYTHROCYTE AND HLA ANTIGENS
Goedde, HW, Rothhammer, F, Benkmann, HG, and Bogdanski, P (1984a) Genetic response to drugs and environmental agents of Atacameiio Indians. Hum. Genet.
(in press).
Goedde, HW,Rothhammer, F, Benkmann, HG, and Bogdanski, P (1984b) Erythrocyte enzymes and serum proteins of Atacameiio Indians. Ann. Hum. Genet.
(submitted).
Greenberg, (1956) Linguistic classification of South
America. In J Steward and L Faron (eds): Native Peoples of South America. New York Mc Graw-Hill.
Hidalgo, J (1981) Fechas coloniales de fundacion de Toconao, y urbanizacion de San Pedro de Atacama. Chungara. 8r255-264.
Loukotka, C (1957) Classification of South American
Indians’ Languages. Los Angeles: UCLA.
Matson, GA, Sutton, HE,Etcheverry, R, Swanson, J, and
Robinson A (1967) Distribution of hereditary blood
groups among Indians in South America. lV.In Chile.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 27:157-194.
247
Piazza, A (1976) Haplotypes and likage disequilibria from
the three-locus phenotypes. In: Histocompatibility
Testing, 1975. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, pp. 923-927.
Reed, TE, and Schull, W J (1968) A general maximum
likelihood estimation program. Am. J. Hum. Genet.
2Or579-580.
Roberts, DF, and Hiorns, RW (1962) The dynamics of
racial intermixture. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 14r261-277.
Szathmary, EJE, and Reed, TE (1978) Calculation of the
maximum amount of gene admixture in a hybrid population. Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 48r29-34.
Van der Does,JA, D’Amaro, J, Van Leeuwen, A, Meera
Khan, P, Bernini, LF, et al. (1972) HL-A typing in
Chilean Aymara Indians. In: Histocompatibility Testing. 391-395.
Van der Does, JA, Rubinstein, P, and Khan, PM (19781
A rare PGMl variant in Chilean Aymara Indians.
Hum. Genet. 34r327-329.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
1
Размер файла
343 Кб
Теги
atacameo, hla, antigen, indian, erythrocytes
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа