close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Evaluation of the obstetric significance of some pelvic characters in an 18th century british sample of known parity status.

код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL. OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 89:431440 (1992)
Evaluation of the Obstetric Significance of Some Pelvic
Characters in an 18th Century British Sample of Known
Parity Status
MARGARET COX AND ANDREW SCOTT
Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, London SW7
5BD, England (M.C.)and Department of Applied Statistics, University of
Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 ZAN, England ( A S . )
KEY WORDS
Parity status
Preauricular sulcus, Pubic pitting, Pubic tubercle,
ABSTRACT
The excavations at Christ Church, Spitalfields (1984-86)
produced a sample of 968 human skeletons which were interred between 1729
and 1859. Of these, 387 were recovered in association with coffin plates
stating name, age at death, and date of death.
There are 138 adult females in the named sample and the obstetric histories of 94 have been reconstructed from historical documentation. Such variables as birth spacing, number of children, and age at first and last births are
known for the majority of this sample. Any individual about whose history
there is any doubt has been excluded from the analysis.
A middle-class group, they were largely of high nutritional status and, by
the standards of the day, lived in sanitary and comfortable conditions. Both
males and females have a mean age a t death of 56 years.
The presence or absence, the typology, the severity, the width and the
length of the preauricular sulcus, the presence or absence and the number of
pits on the dorsal aspect of the pubic body, sulci along the anterior sacrum
adjacent t o the auricular facet, and the extension of the pubic tubercle were
evaluated in relation to the obstetric histories of these females.
Statistical analysis has demonstrated a relationship between the presence
of pubic tubercle extension and parity status and between the degree of
extension and the number of children borne ( P < .02).
Statistically there is no significant relationship ( P > .05) between either
the preauricular sulcus or pubic pitting and parity status. Sacral scarring is
significantly associated ( P < .05) with parity status, but as it was evident in
only eight females it has little practical application. Sample sizes are small,
and it must be considered that statistical evaluation of larger samples might
detect associations between variables not demonstrated here. There is no
significant relationship between any of the cortical variants under consideration and age at death. o 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The distribution of cortical resorption and
remodelling adjacent to the ventral preauricular margins of the ilium and sacrum and
on the dorsal aspect of the pubic body is
strongly sexually dimorphic. The deep and
“scooped” preauricular sulcus is found almost exclusively in
(Derry,
Dunlap, 1981; Spring et al., 1989) while pU0 1992 WILEY-LISS, INC.
bic pits are occasionally seen in males
(Suchey et al., 1979; Tague, 1988). Following the work of Angel (1969).Stewart (1970),
-
~~
Received January 9,1990, accepted May 26, 1992
Address communlcatlon to Dr Margaret Cox, Grey Gables,
Summerfield Road, Beacon H111, Bath, Avon, BA15QB, England
432
M. COX AND A. SCOTT
Houghton (1974, 19751, and Ullrich (1975) area of research and includes in its analysis
on samples of unknown parity status, this such factors a s the number of births, age a t
dimorphism has resulted in such features first and last birth, and birth spacing.
becoming known collectively a s “scars of
MATERIALS AND METHOD
parturition” (i.e., Tague, 1988:252).
Evaluation of the obstetric significance of
Excavation of the vaults beneath Christ
these changes has been hampered by the Church, Spitalfields, London between 1984
lack of reliably documented skeletal sam- and 1986 yielded 968 discrete human skeleples. The Hamann-Todd collection, for ex- tons. Interred between 1729 and 1859, 387
ample, where parity status was largely de- of the skeletons were excavated with associtermined by soft tissue analysis, has been ated coffin plates from secure contexts.
subject to a number of studies (Andersen, These are referred to in this text a s “t,he
1988; Holt, 1978; Kelley, 1979). Of the stud- named sample.” The coffin plates are inies based on more reliably documented sam- scribed with name, age a t death, and date of
ples with information known on the number death. Occasionally other information was
--A
----:---L--L:lA--- S..-L--. - A - 1 i l O c i O \ _i1IcIuueu
_-1.. A J bUCl1-l as Lllt:- Y U I I o f . . . ” or ‘‘Lord
allu apaLlllg U l L l l l l U l C l l ) UL11C:y Gl. a1. ( l d I d )
found a weak correlation between full term Mayor of London.” The basic biographical
pregnancies and pubic pitting in a n autopsy data have facilitated research into many assample of known parity status. Bergfelder pects of each individual’s life history and life
and Herrmann (1980), using a dissecting style.
room sample with known obstetric histories,
The named sample interred beneath
found that there was no unequivocal Christ Church were largely of French derelationship between pubic pitting and scent and mainly engaged in the silk induspregnancy and parturition. Bergfelder and try. Their presence in Spitalfields was the
Herrmann (1980) also evaluated the rela- result of religious intolerance in France and
tionship between the degree of extension of the fact that Spitalfields was the contempothe pubic tubercle in relation to obstetric rary silk weaving centre of London. They
events. They found that there was no strong were middle class, well fed, and rarely emassociation with parity status but that a dis- ployed in manual labour. Among the named
tinctly prominent tubercle was usually asso- sample there are 138 female skeletons, aged
ciated with more than three births.
12 (the age of the youngest mother in the
Dunlap (1981), analysing a “willed body” sample) and above.
sample, all of postmenopausal age, conThe skeletal material varied in condition
cluded that accurate prediction of obstetric from excellent t,o very poor. In some cases
events was not possible but that Houghton’s data were available only from one 0s coxae
“groove of pregnancy” (1974), a deep and and in a small number of cases no data at all
rugged preauricular sulcus, was associated could be collected. The variation in sample
with parturition. Conversely, using a sam- size evident in the results reflects the state
ple studied radiographically with known ob- of preservation of the material.
stetric histories, Spring et al. (1989) found
The obstetric histories of 94 of the 138
no relationship between the deep preauricu- females were reconstructed from historical
lar sulcus and pregnancy and parturition.
records. An example of the method emThe results of assessments of the relation- ployed is illustrated in Appendix A. For full
ship between so called “parturition scars” details of the methodology employed in this
and parity status in different samples of reconstruction see Cox, 1989. Any obstetric
known parity status are to date conflicting. histories which were slightly dubious were
Interpopulation variability could be the ex- excluded from the sample.
planation for this a s could the accuracy of
The reconstruction of the obstetric histoeach sample’s obstetric data.
ries utilised data derived from death certifiThe named sample from Christ Church, cates, family genealogies, and wills but rests
Spitalfields (for further information see largely upon the baptism of infants. The
Molleson and Cox, in press) provides an- 18th and early 19th century Huguenots who
other opportunity to evaluate this important settled in Spitalfields were religious refuI__^
- I
1CLL
I
.
.
PARTURITION SCARS IN AN 18TH CENTURY SAMPLE
gees or their descendants and it seems unlikely that they would ignore baptism, a n
important religious rite. Furthermore, the
sobriety and moral fastidiousness of these
people was such that Hogarth satirized
them in “Noon” (1738) when he compared
them with their less pious English contemporaries. As most stillbirths were not baptised, they cannot be detected in the historical record and they represent a n area of
potential error in the data.
Of the 94 females of known parity status,
73 (77.6%) had borne children; the remaining 21 (22.4%) appear to have been nulliparous. Of the nulliparous group, approximately half died aged below the normal age
of marriage (twenty-six years) and may well
have borne children had they lived to a
greater age. Of the remainder, half were
married but childless, the rest being nulliparous and unmarried. Family size ranged
from 0 to 15 baptised infants; the mean was
2.7 infants (SD 2.82, SE mean 0.29). The age
a t first birth ranged from 12 to 45 years; the
mean was 27.1 years (SD 7.1, SE mean 0.9).
The age at last birth ranged from 14 to 47
years, the mean being 35.8 years (SD 7.2, SE
mean 0.9). Birth spacing ranged from 10 to
141 months; the mean was 29.4 months (SD
24.2, SE mean 3.3). Three females (4.3%) are
known to have experienced a twin birth and
five (7.1%) died within a few days of childbirth, probably from postpartum sepsis, Of
the latter group, four had experienced previous confinements and all were aged 29 and
below.
The observations on the 138 adult female
skeletons were made “blind to the obstetric
data, the skeletal analysis being undertaken
prior to the historical research.
The presence or absence of a preauricular
sulcus was observed, as was the type of sulcus. Four categories were used; the first and
second were a s described by Houghton
(1974). The first type, Houghton’s “groove of
pregnancy”, appears to have been formed by
the coalescence of a series of pits. It has a
“scooped floor and a n uneven inferior margin (Fig. l a ) . The second, Houghton’s
“groove of ligament”, has a smooth floor and
a smooth inferior margin (Fig. lb). Fitting
neither of Houghton’s categories, the third
sulcus type is one observed by Dunlap (1981)
433
Fig. 1. a: A deep preauricular sulcus with a
“scooped”appearance to the floor (Houghton’s“groove of
pregnancy”). Inhumation number CAS 2438, a 56-year
old of unknown parity status. b: A “groove of ligament”
as defined by Houghton (1974).This preauricular sulcus
is shallower than that illustrated in a,and has a smooth
floor and smooth inferior margin. Inhumation number
CAS 2438, a 56-year old of unknown parity status.
and by the first author when examining the
females from the Poundbury Camp sample
(Dorchester, England). This sulcus is comparatively wide, with an indistinct inferior
margin and a “grainy” floor (Fig. 2a). The
fourth sulcus was first described by Derry in
1909 (Fig. 2b). Usually seen in males, it is
only occasionally found in females. Rather
than being a true sulcus, that is a groove
formed by cortical resorption, a n accentuated pyriformis tubercle with associated cortical deposition is creating the appearance of
a sulcus.
The severity of the preauricular sulcus
was observed. Scored from 0 to 4, it is a
subjective measure of size (not a series of
precise mathematical increments) which
considers depth a s well a s width and length.
434
M. COX AND A. SCOTT
Fig. 2. a: A preauricular sulcus type fitting neither
of Houghton’s (1974) definitions. This sulcus is shallow,
has a grainy floor, and an ill-defined inferior margin.
Inhumation number CAS 2956, a 45-year old mother of
three. h: The effect of a sulcus is created by the pyriformis tubercle and associated cortical deposition. Inhumation number CAS 2602, a 51-year old male.
The maximum width and maximum length
of the sulcus were also measured.
The presence or absence of sulci along the
anterior margins of the sacrum adjacent to
the auricular facet (Ullrich, 1975) was
scored as present or absent.
Pitting on the dorsal aspect of the pubic
body was scored (Fig. 3a) both in terms of its
presence or absence and in the number of
discrete pits.
The extension of the pubic tubercle
(Fig. 3b) was scored from 0 to 3 in terms of
severity (after Bergfelder and Herrmann,
1980).
Examination of the cortical variants described above in association with measurements of pelvic capaciousness was also undertaken as a part of this study (Cox, 1989).
The results of statistical analysis show that
the presence of a preauricular sulcus (irrele-
Fig. 3. a: Pitting (cortical resorption) on the dorsal
aspect of the pubic body. Inhumation number 2070, a
35-year old mother of five. b: An example of a greatly
extended (grade 3) pubic tubercle (dorsal view). Inhumation number CAS 2566, a 74-year old mother
of one.
vant of type) and the size of the sulcus are
significantly. positively related t o each o f
the following pelvic dimensions: sciatic
notch width (Day, 19751, transverse diameter (Segeberth-Orban, 1980), bispinous diameter (Cox, 19891, inlet circumference
(Cox, 1989), pubo-sacro-iliac diameter (Segeberth-Orban, 19801, and sacral width at the
level of the caudal limit of the auricular facets. The presence of pubic pitting is significantly associated with bispinous diameter.
(For full details see Cox, 1989).
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
The type of test of significance used to
evaluate the relationships between different
variables was largely determined by the nature of the data in question.
The distribution of continuous variables
was examined using ranks to plot normal
PARTURITION SCARS IN AN 18TH CENTURY SAMPLE
435
scores and rootgrams. One way ANOVA was of those with extension were nulliparous.
used to estimate analysis of variance where The data presented in Table 3b illustrates
the data were normally distributed. Mann the distribution of the grades of tubercle exWhitney rank sum test and Kruskal Wallis tension in relation to parity status. A higher
statistic were used where the data were not percentage of parous than nulliparous fenormally distributed as, for example, where males have grades one and two and no
the analysis included number of births, age nulliparas have grade three extension.
Table 3c illustrates that the degree of extenat death, or age at first or last birth.
Chi square tests were used to examine the sion of the tubercle is significantly associdistribution of either two discrete variables ated with the number of births (P < .05),
or one discrete and one continuous variable. those with advanced extension having a meThe expected cell frequencies in some tabu- dian of five births each.
lations were occasionally very small (less
There is a significant association between
than one). In order to ensure valid results sacral scarring and parity status (Table 4), a
the significance levels of all chi square tests higher proportion of nulliparous than parhave been evaluated using exact conditional ous females exhibiting this feature. However, a s scarring was present in only 8 of 63
tests (Kreiner, 1987).
Pearson's r correlation coefficient was (12.7%) females this association has little
used to determine the extent to which two practical value.
Table 5 describes the results of analysis of
continuous variables changed in relation to
one another.
the cortical variants under consideration
As is traditional in such studies, the re- and age a t death. In no case was the associasults reported are those from the left 0s tion statistically significant ( P > .05).
coxae. This alleviates problems caused by
incomplete preservation and occasional
DISCUSSION
asymmetry in the distribution and type of
It is and always has been a fact of life that
preauricular sulcus and pubic pits (see also
the
birth of a child in certain circumstances
Houghton, 1974; Tague, 1988). Figures l a
is
undesirable.
This can lead to denial and
and l b , illustrating different preauricular
concealment
and
could affect the validity of
sulcus types, are from the same individual.
data retrieved from documentation. A further potential error lies in the fact that most
stillbirths were not baptised. This results in
RESULTS
their
absence from the historical record.
Appropriate statistical examination of
In
order
to take account of these two facparity status in relation to either the abtors,
each
cortical variant was examined
sence or presence, severity, type or size of
only
in
those
females known to have borne
the preauricular sulcus (Table 1)or the abchildren.
In
all
cases, as can be seen by refersence or presence, or number of pubic pits
ence
to
Tables
1, 2, 3, and 4,no feature oc(Table 2) indicates that none of these varicurs
consistently
among the parous females.
ants is significantly associated with parity
The
presence
of
a
n extended pubic tubercle
status in this sample. In all cases P > .05.
is
the
most
consistent
feature evident
Preauricular sulcus types one to three are
among
the
parous
females
in
this sample.
found in both parous and nulliparous females and there were only two cases of type
four, both seen in parous females. Interestingly, all of the females with more than one
pubic pit were parous but many parous females had no pitting or only one pit.
Table 3a illustrates that the presence or
absence of pubic tubercle extension is significantly associated with parity status
( P < .01). Of those without extension
66.66% were nulliparous, while only 12.5%
Scars of parturition and
maternal mortality
Houghton (1975:658) states that following
the delivery of a child ". . . processes of reorganisation and repair gradually return the
ligaments to their normal state within a few
weeks. Thereafter, a slow and variable replacement of bone appears to occur over
years a t the sites of previous osteoclastic ac-
M. COX AND A. SCOTT
436
TABLE 1. Parity status and the preauricular su1cu.s
l a . Presence
or absence and
parity status
Present
Nulliparous
Parous
4
6
22.2
9.5
N
%'
14
57
77.8
90.5
x2, 2.09; D.F., 1;P , 0.223; N, 81.
l b . Sulcus type
and parity
status
Type 1
Absent
2_
_ _Type
___
N
_ _9% _
~~
~~
N
Q
4
22.2
9.6
N
5%
7
29
38 9
46 7
~
Nulliparous
Parous
y2, 2.9: D.F.. 4:
6
P. 0.57; N. 80.
lc. Sulcus severity
and Daritv status
Nulliparous
Parous
%
4
22.2
9.5
6
8
35
~ _ N_
22 2
17 7
4
11
_ Grade
~ 1_
N
Q
Absent
N
Type 3
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~
3
14
44.4
55.6
Q
N
%
16 7
22 G
0
2
32
Grade 2
_
Grade 3 & 4l
N
%
N
3
15
16.7
23.8
3
7
~-
Type 4
______
3
_____
16.7
11.1
x2, 2.826; DF, 3; P , 0.46; N, 81.
Id. Preauricular sulcus
length and
parity status
N
Mean
SD
SE Mean
13
57
23.54
27.05
7.74
7.43
2.1
0.98
l e . Preauricular sulcus
width and
nnrit,v status
N
Mean
SD
SE Mean
Nulliparous
Parous
14
57
6.07
7.16
1.98
2.64
0.53
0.35
Nulliparous
Parous
T, -1.49; P , 0.16, DF, 17; N, 70.
T, -1.71; P , 0.099; DF, 25; N, 71.
Grades 3 and 4 have been combined for the purposes of this test; grade 4 had nu values in the nulliparous cell and only one in the parous cell
TABLE 2. Pubic pitting and parity status
_Prewnl
_ _ ~
-
2a Presence or absenw
of pubic pitting
and parity status
Absent
N
70
N
%
Nulliparous
Parous
6
24
66.67
60.00
3
16
33.33
40.00
~
x2, 0.138; DF, 1;P , 1.00; N, 49.
2b. Number of pits
and parity status
Absent
_____
N
%
N
One
$%
Nulliparous
Parous
6
24
66.67
60.00
3
10
33.33
25.00
~~
~ Two _
N
Q
0
3
_ Three
N
Four
%
N
?r
5.00
0
1
2.50
0
7.50
2
xa, 1.6; DF, 4; P , 0.88; N, 49.
tivity." If he is correct in this assumption, it
seems that the sites of attachment of the
inferior portion of the ventral sacroiliac ligament and the dorsal transverse ligament of
the pubis should be unusual in females who
die shortly after childbirth.
Five of the females among the Christ
Church sample are known t o have died
within days of parturition. None of these
had any skeletal abnormality, such as a rachitic pelvis, a flat sacrum (Posner et al.,
1955), nor any sign of pclvic disproportion
PARTURITION SCARS IN AN 18TH CENTURY SAMPLE
437
TABLE 3. Pubic tubercle extension and naritv status
3a Presence or
absence of tubercle extension
_and
_ _parity
__
_ _ _ -_ _ ~
____
N
- - _ -- - - -
Nulliparous
Parous
x‘, 9 682, DF, 1,P, 0 07, N, 33
3b Degree of tubercle
extension and
parity status
_ Absent
~ _ _~- __
_
_
76
__
--
6
3
66 7
12 5
2
_Grade
- -- - .
_ _Absent
___-
_ _Grade
_ _ -1_
-.
N
%
N
92
N
[k
N -__ __ _
~ ~ _
%,
66 66
12 50
2
8
22 22
33 33
1
8
11.11
33.33
0
5
00.00
20.83
~
~~~~
Nulliparous
6
Parous
3
x’, 10 37, DF, 3, P, 0 02, N, 33
3c Degree of tubercle
extension and number
of births
(Kruskal Wallis)
Grade
N
Grade 3
_ -
Median
~~
~_ _ _ _ _Avg
- - _Rank
~
9
10
9
5
33
86
18 0
21 0
23 1
17 0
0
3
4
5
H, 10.49; ADJ H, 10.84; P, 0.013.
which would have prevented vaginal delivery. Four of these females had borne children previously.
The skeletons of four of this group have
survived well enough for their preauricular
areas to be examined. All four had a preauricular sulcus, two were type 1 (Fig. l a ) and
two were type 2 (Fig. lb). Three were slight
and one moderately severe. The pubis survived in only one female; this had one pit on
the dorsal aspect of each pubic bodj7 and
slightly extended pubic tubercles. Xone had
sacral scarring.
This evidence suggests that the theory
that “scars of parturition” represent cortical
resorption which follows trauma incurred,
by the mother, during pregnancy and parturition is unlikely to be correct. The macroscopic morphological changes evident on the
pelvic bones of these four females were not
in any way different from that seen on other
females, some who died several decades after giving birth.
Age at death and scars of parturition
The work of Suchey et al. (1979) and
T a p e (1988) found that pubic pitting was
significantly associated with the age a t
death of the female. With one exception, the
TABLE 4. Sacral scarring and naritv status
Absent
Present
N
%
~
N
Nulliparous
8
Parous
47
x‘, 5.694; DF, 1;P, 0.04; N, 63.
%
66.67
92.16
4
4
33.33
7.84
age of the Christ Church females was known
from their coffin plates. In many caws thi.
could be checked against their baptism
records and proved to be correct in all cases
except one (where it was corrected for analytical purposes). The mean age a t death of
this sample was 56.7 years (STD = 18.9);
75% were post-menopausal a t death (the
oldest mothers were 47 years old at their
last confinements).
Appropriate statistical tests (Table 5)
were used to examine the possibility of a n
association between age at death and the
presence of a pre-auricular sulcus, sacral
scarring, pubic pitting, and a n extended pubic tubercle. Only for pubic tubercle extension ( P = 0.09) was the result even close to
significance for this sample. Nevertheless, it
was observed that in the young adult females whose iliac crests were unfused, there
M. COX AN1I A SCOTT
438
TABLE 5. A g e a t death and cortical remodelling
of the aelvss
5a. Preauricular sulci _
and
_ age
_ _at
~death
___
~~~
(Mann Whitney)
W, 724.0; P = 0.56; N
=
112
5b.~Preauricular
sulcus severity and age a t death
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~
~
~
(Kruskal Wallis)
H, 3.346; A D J H, 3.348; P
=
0.50; N
=
115.
5c. Preauricular width and length and age a t death
~
(Correlation coefficient)
Width
101
Length
98
0.001
0.117
:>.05
>.05
5d. Pubic pitting and age a t death
(Mann Whitney)
W, 1362.5; P = 0.65; N = 69.
at _
death
5e. Number of pubic pits and age _
_~
(Kruskal Wallis)
H, 1.560; A D J H, 1.561; P
=
0.67; N
=
69.
5f.
Sacral scarring and age a ___
t death
_____(Mann Whitney)
W, 3255.0; P = 0.67; N
=
CONCLUSION
88.
5g. Pubic tubercle extension and
_ age_a t death
_
__
(Mann Whitney)
W, 263.0; P = 0.09; N
=
~
47.
5h. Degree of tubercle extension and age at death_ _ _
~~~
~~
(Kruskal Wallis)
H, 2.919; A D J H, 2.922; P
=
0.40; N
between the two sets of results lends credibility to the obstetric histories of the Christ
Church sample and to the obstetric significance of an extended pubic tubercle.
It must be considered though that 33.3%
of the nulliparous females also had an extended tubercle. In view of this, the strong
statistical association between the presence
of an extended tubercle and parous females
cannot be considered as conclusive proof of a
causal relationship. Pregnancy may not be
the only cause of tubercle extension, as the
presence of an extended tubercle in 90.3%of
the Christ Church males (n = 31) attests. It
must be stressed though that the morphology of the extended tubercle is different in
males and females, the male tubercle being
far more robust and less fragile than the
female tubercle.
=
47.
was never more than the slightest trace of
either a preauricular sulcus or pubic pitting.
The pubic tubercle and pregnancy
and parturition
The association between the extended tubercle with parity status (Table 3) and the
number of births could be explained physiologically. A portion of abdominus rectus attaches to the pubic tubercle. It is possible
that the extended tubercle might represent
bone remodelling in response to the stress
imposed on the muscle insertion during the
later stages of pregnancy, when this muscle
is greatly extended.
The association between the pubic tubercle and parity status and the number of
births in the Christ Church sample concurs
with that obtained by Bergfelder and Herrmann (1980). Their sample was from a dissecting room and obstetric histories were obtained from medical records and from
relatives of the deceased. The concurrence
The results obtained by statistical analysis of the preauricular sulcus, pubic pitting,
and sacral scarring in relation to the parity
status of the Christ Church, Spitalfields
sample (n = 94) indicates that none of these
cortical variants is consistently associated
with parity status.
In this sample, the small number of females with more than one pubic pit had all
borne children, but the lack of pits, or only
one pit, is not associated with nulliparity.
Unfortunately, the number of nulliparous
females in this sample is small. It should be
considered that statistical analysis of larger
samples might detect associations between
variables not apparent here.
A significant association is, however,
demonstrated between the presence of an
extended pubic tubercle and parity status.
Eighty-seven percent of the parous females
had an extended pubic tubercle and the
greater the degree of extension, the greater
the number of births. However, 33.3%of the
nulliparous females also had an extended
tubercle and it must be considered that
pregnancy may not be the only causal factor.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I thank Theya Molleson of The Natural
History Museum, London and Don Brothwell, Simon Hilson, and Clive Orton of the
Institute of Archaeology, University College
PARTURITION SCARS IN AN 18TH CENTURY SAMPLE
London for their help and support with this
project. Phillip Crabb of The Natural History Museum took the excellent photographs. The Christ Church Spitalfields
project was funded by English Heritage and
The Nuffield Foundation.
439
Suchey JM, Wisely DV, Green RF, and Noguchi TT
(1979)Analysis of dorsal pitting in the 0s pubis in an
extensive sample of modern American females. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 51t517-540.
Tague RG (1988) Bone Resorption of the Pubis and
Preauricular Area in Humans and Nonhuman Mammals. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 76:251-267.
Ullrich H (1975) Estimation of fertility by means of
pregnancy and childbirth alterations a t the pubis, the
ilium. and the sacrum. OSSA 2.23-39.
LITERATURE CITED
Andersen BC (1988) Pelvic scarring analysis: Parturition or excess motion. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 75t181.
Angel J L (1969)The bases of palaeodemography. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 30:427437.
Bergfelder T, and Herrmann B (1980)Estimating fertility on the basis of birth traumatic changes in the pubic
bone. J. Hum. Evol. 93511-613.
Cox MJ (1989) PhD Thesis. Institute of Archaeology,
University College London. An Evaluation of the Significance of “Scars of Parturition” in the Christ
Church Spitalfields Sample.
Day MH (1975) Sexual differentiation in the innominate
bone studied by multivariate analysis. Ann. Hum.
Biol. 2t143-151.
Derry DE (1909)Note on the innominate bone as a factor
in the determination of sex. J. Anat. Physiol. 43:266276.
Dunlap SS (1981) PhD Thesis, Michigan State University. A study of preauricular sulci in a cadaver population.
Holt CA (1978)A re-examination of the parturition scars
on the female pelvis. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 4 9 9 94.
Houghton P (1974) The relationship of the preauricular
groove of the ilium to pregnancy. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 4It381-390.
Houghton P(1975) The bony imprint of pregnancy. Bull.
W A c a d . Med. 51t655-661.
Kelley MA (1979)Parturition and pelvic changes. Am. J.
Phys. Anthropol. 51t541-546.
Kreiner S 1,1987)Anaiysis of multidiniensional contingency tables by exact conditional tests: Techniques
and strategies. Scand. J . Statist. 14r97-112.
Molleson TI, and Cox MJ (In Press) Spitalfields: The
Middling Sort. London: Council for British Archaeology.
Posner A, Bloch NR, and Posner NS (1955) The flat
sacrum: Its importance in obstetrics. Am. J. Obstet.
Gynecol. 70: 1021-1025.
Segeberth-Orban R (1980) An evaluation of the sexual
dimorphism of the human innominate bone. J. Hum.
Evol. 9:GOl-607.
Spring DB, Lovejoy CO, Bender GN, and Duerr M (1989)
The Radiographic Preauricular Groove: Its Non-Relationship to Past Parity. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
79t247-252.
Stewart TD (1970) Identification ofthe scars of parturition in the skeletal remains of females. In TD Stewart
(ed.):Personal identification in mass disasters. Washington D.C.: National Museum ofNatural History, pp.
127-135.
APPENDIX A
The processes involved in reconstructing
the females’ obstetric histories were complex and involved working from, and building upon, the initial data base, the coffin
plates. These were inscribed with the individual’s name, age at death, and date of
death. Starting from this primary data, information was collected and collated piece
by piece until, where possible, a n understanding of each individual’s obstetric history had been achieved.
The first procedure was to establish if the
females were married, when, and to whom.
That a female was titled “Mrs.” on her coffin
plate did not necessarily signify that she
was married. The terms “Mrs.” and “Miss”
are both contracted from the term “Mistress” and it is not clear historically when
the use of the terms to distinguish married
from unmarried women crystallised. In order to illustrate the complexity of the inquiry one individual case is described below.
Mrs. Grace Wells (CAS 2666) died aged 62
on June 8th, 1811. Reference to the appropriate Christ Church Spitalfields Burial
Register (Greater London Reference Library) was made to verify the details and to
collect additional information contained
therein. Grace was buried on June 16th,
1811 and her “abode at death” was Dorset
Street, Spitalfields.
Grace’s year of birth would have been
1749, therefore her fecund period would
have extended from approximately 17601800. Any marriage she entered into after
this date would be irrelevant to this inquiry
a s there would have been no issue. Reference to the International Genealogical Index
for London (Guildhall Library) within the
period of concern revealed only one marriage in which a male with the surname
M. COX AND A. SCOTT
440
T A B L E 6. Baptism data relating to the children o f Grace and Christopher Wells
Child’s name
Date of birth
Date of baotism
Father’s occuo~
ition
19/06/1768
13/08/1769
06/09/1772
09/04/1775
20/07/1777
06/09/1778
3010511781
19/05/1782
07/05/1784
16/09/1785
16/07/1788
11/07/1790
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
Painter
~~
Christopher
Wi11ia m
Christopher
George
Ann
Robert
Grace Ann
Charlotte
Elizabeth
John
Mary
Richard
~
25/07/1769
14/08/1772
05/03/1775
24/06/1777
09/08/1778
02/05/1781
26/04/1782
07/04/1784
28/08/1785
23/06/1788
01/07/1790
Wells married a female with the Christian
name Grace. Christopher Wells of the parish
of Christ Church, Spitalfields married
Grace Duxbury on May 19th, 1767 a t St.
Leonard’s Church, Shoreditch. (Grace would
have been aged eighteen years old a t the
time of her marriage.) The place of marriage
suggests that Shoreditch had been the
bride’s place of residence. That the groom’s
parish of residence was Christ Church indicated that this could be the correct marriage.
The International Geneaological Index
also lists the baptisms at Christ Church Spitalfields of several children born to this couple. The next step was t o refer to the original
Parents’ address
~~~
Paler Noster Row
Paler Noster Row
Paler Noster Row
Brown’s Lane
Brown’s Lane
Brown’s Lane
Brown’s Lane
Brawn’s Lane
Brawn’s Lane
Brawn’s Lane
Brown’s Lane
Darset Street
Baptism Register in order to see if it contained any information which would confirm that the mother was CAS 2666. The
data derived from the registers relating to
the children of Grace and Christopher is
listed in Table 6.
The address given at the baptism of Richard, Grace’s last baptised child, was the
same as that on the registration of Grace’s
death. Reference to the Land Tax Returns
(Guildhall library) for the appropriate years
indicated that there was no other householder with the same surname living in Dorset Street. With this number of positive indicators it was considered that the obstetric
data did relate to the female in question.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
821 Кб
Теги
statue, character, parity, pelvic, british, evaluation, samples, obstetrics, know, century, significance, 18th
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа