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Molecules and Ions with Heptacoordinated Central Atoms.

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Molecules and Ions with Heptacoordinated Central Atoms
Rolf Minkwitz*
Since the valence-shell electron-pair-repulsion (VSEPR)
model was developed to predict molecular structures, it has
proved to be a strong stimulus for advances in structural chemistry. Key concepts to illustrate this are “stereochemical activity
of lone pairs” or “steric demand of single and multiple bonds”.
Heptacoordination is currently the focus of investigations by
K. 0. Christe et. al.,[’.’] K. Seppelt et. al..[3341and J. K. Cockcroft et. al.‘”‘] So far it is only known for IF,, ReF,, and OsF,,
and the latter decomposes already at temperatures above 170K.
Not until K. 0. Christe et. al. characterized the “naked fluoride”, the significance of which was previously highlighted”] in
this journal. could the anions [XeF,]-[81. [OIFJ. [TeF,]-.
[OTeFJ-.[91 [CH3TeII6-. and [(CH,),TeF,]- [31 be prepared.
Monomeric and/or unchelated complex cations with the coordination number (CN) 7 around the central atom are unknown.
For molecules and ions with coordination numbers 5 and 7
around their central atoms. we find many parallels with respect
to their structural diversity and their intramolecular dynamics.
For C N 5, calculations, which take into consideration that electrostatic repulsions occur between ligands, allow two polyhedra,
the trigonal bipyramid and the square pyramid. Their difference
in energy is small and they can be interconverted by a succession
of angular shifts according to the Berry pseudorotation mechanism. For C N 7, three polyhedra with only small energy differences and minimum energies for the C,,, and C3rstructures“’]
have been calculated under the same assumptions (Scheme 1).
Schcrne I
The results of earlier IR spectroscopic investigations“] on IF,
had been consistent with a pentagonal-bipyramidal stucture of
the molecule. This assumption was confirmed by electron diffraction in the gas phase.“’] in spite of much uncertainty in the
structural data. Crystal structure analyses performed by K. Seppelt et. al. on salts with the [TeF,]-, [CH,OTeFJ,
[(CH,0),TeF,]-,[31 and [OIFJ anions give a more refined picture.”] Without exception, these anions are distorted pentagonal bipyramids with slightly shortened bonds to the axial ligands. The large methoxy ligands and the oxygen atom in
[OIFJ also occupy axial positions. The distortion relates to the
fluorine atoms in close contact’ around the pentagonal base.
Prol: Dr R. Minkwitz
Fachbereich Cheinie der Universitiit
D-44221 Dortmund (FRG)
Telefax Int. code + (231)755-3771
They avoid steric crowding by arranging themselves above and
below the theoretical plane of the pentagon.
Details of this puckering can be studied in the crystal structure of ReF,. which has been determined at 1.5K by T. Vogt.
A. N . Fitch, and J. K. Cockcroft, by using high-resolution
powder neutron diffraction.“’ The mean displacement of the
equatorial F atoms from the ideal ring plane is 0.17 8, and the
mean deviation from perpendicular of the angle between axial
and equatorial Re-F bonds is 6.2”. The average Re-F,, and
Re-Fa, bonds are 1.851 and 1.823 8,, respectively, that is the
axial bonds are 1.4% shorter. The F,,-Re-F,, angle is 174.6’ in
the crystal and 172.5’ in the gas phase, as determined by electron
diffraction analysis.[121The crystallographic point symmetry of
the molecule is C , , but within experimental error it has a mirror
plane, so that the molecular symmetry is C,. Because of strong
deviations of the distorted pentagonal bipyramid from ideal D,,
symmetry, the molecular structure at 1.5K is interpreted as a
frozen-in state of the pseudorotational motion.
In a remarkable paper by K. 0. Christe, E. C. Curtis. and
D. A. Dixon, problems of heptacoordination are discussed for
IF, as the most-studied prototype. On steric grounds. there is
no high-symmetry arrangement of five ligands with normal
bond lengths in a plane. Therefore, dynamic ring puckering
occurs with large vibrational amplitudes, comparable to the
vibrational ring motion in cyclopentane. This “ring puckering”,
also termed “Bartell-type pseudorotation” by K . 0. Christe,
has an unexpectedly low vibrational frequency (59 cin(0.1 7 kcalmol- I ) ) , which means that there are thermally activated overtones even at very low temperatures. Unfortunately,
these vibrations (E; in D5,,)
are neither IR nor Raman active
and can be detected only indirectly in the form of very lowintensity combination bands.
All F atoms in neutral molecular fluorides and fluoro anions
with CN 7 are equivalent by N M R spectroscopy. Aside from the
very fast ring-puckering mechanism, this equivalence is attributed to a much slower fluxionality between the axial and the
equatorial ligands according to the Berry mechanism. The lifetime of a single configuration for IF, is estimated to be
2.7 x
s. The exchange starts from a deformation mode at
265 cm- and the activation energy corresponds to a multiple
of this frequency. The ligand exchange motion as such is best
described as a combination of the out-of-phase
axial and equatorial deformation modes (described by the symmetry coordinates S , and
S7)* accompanied by an out-of-plane twisting
mode of the remaining three equatorial F
atoms (Scheme 2).
In the [OIF,]- ion, the 0 atom avoids the
Fequatorial position because of a partial
Scheme 2,
double bond and thus inhibits axial-equatorial fluxionality. Additionally, in crystalline [(CH,),N][OIF,],
the puckering of the equatorial F atom plane is static rather than
fluxional, since interionic H . . F contacts hinder the vibrations.
Questions about the true structure of molecules with strong
D-6945/ Weinltrinr, 1994
OS70-0X33:94:191Y-1941S /O.OO+ .25:0
fluxionality can only be answered with respect to the method of
measurement and its corresponding time scale.
According to ab initio calculations at different theoretical
levels. IF, in its minimum potential"] has an undistorted D,,
symmetry. Indicative of this is the absence of microwave transitions and of a permanent dipole moment. Also, temperature-dependent crystal structure analyses of [(CH,),N][OI F,] show
that the ring puckering diminishes with falling temperature. that
is the arrangement of the equatorial F atoms approaches the
arrangement in a plane.
Normal coordinate analyses of IF,. [OIFJ, and [XeFJ
give a picture of the vibrating molecule or ion. They are dynamically rather than statically distorted, and on average also have
D,,symmetry. According to force-field calculations, the equatorial (in-plane) deformation force constant is in good approximation a measure of the steric hindrance of the ligands in the
pentagonal plane. Crowding increases with decreasing bond
length and decreasing size of the central atom. It also increases
with increasing size of the ligand and increasing temperature.
Because in electron diffraction in the gas phase the time scale
is very short, such investigations register only average structures
with an equilibrium symmetry between C , and C,. Not only is
the equatorial ring puckering evident. but also an
inclination of the axial F atoms away from the
ideal 180' angle towards approximately 171 for
IF,"] and 172.5" for ReF, . [ I 2 ] Through the dynamic ring puckering in the pentagonal plane,
these axial F atoms experience a non-uniform repulsion in such a way that they are each dynami&
cally forced aside by the closest lying ligand
Scheme 3.
(Scheme 3). In other words, the dynamic equatorial puckering gives rise to a coupled in-phase
precession of the axial F atoms, which had earlier been
interpreted by Bartell as a static inclination. We now know that
it is a consequence of the dynamic ring puckering.
Molecules and ions with a heptacoordinated central atom do
not adopt the minimum-energy structures of a capped prism
(C3csymmetry) or a capped octahedron
symmetry) as predicted by VSEPR theory. They rather reside on a slightly raised
saddle point of the energy hypersurface, where they adopt a
pentagonal-bipyramidal structure with D,, symmetry. K. Seppelt has pointed outf3]that of the possible structures for compounds with coordination numbers 5 , 8 , and 7, the arrangement
with the highest symmetry is also the most common one, and
not the minimum-energy structure. This seems to be a general
principle for the for the formation of such structures.
As regards chemical bonding, K. 0 . Christe et. al. have proposed a model,[" in which the five pentagonal ligands are bound
through p,, hybrid orbitals from the central atom in a semiionic
six-center, ten-electron bond. The axial ligands are mainly covalently bonded through two sp, hybrid orbitals.
German version: Angew. Chem. 1994, 106, 2017
[l] K . 0. Christe, E. C. Curtis, D. A Dixoii. 1. A m . Cheni Soc. 1993, 115. 15201526.
[2] K . 0. Christr, D. A Dixon. A,-R. Mahjaub. H. P. A. Mercier, J. 0. P.
Sanders. K . Seppelt. G. J. Schrobilgen, W. W. Wilson, J A m . C h m . Sot.. 1993,
115. 2696 -2706.
[ 3 ] A.-R. Mahjauh, R. Drews. K. Seppelt. Angew. Chern. 1992. 104. 1047-1050:
Al'l~f'll'. Chl'J?l./ l l / . Ed. €Jig/. 1992, 31, 1036-1039.
[4] A.-R. Mahjaub. K. Seppelt. L. Chem. Soc. Cheni. C'ommun. 1991, 840-841.
151 T. Vogt. A . N. Fitch, J. K . Cockcroft. 1 Solid Sture Cheni. 1993. 103.275-279.
[6] T. Vogt. A. N . Fitch. J. K . Cockcroft. Science. 1994, 243, 1265 -1267.
[7] K . Seppelt. dngeu,. Cheni. 1992, 104. 299-300, A n p i . Cheni. /nr. Ed. C i x I .
1992. 311. 292 -293
[XI K . 0. Christe. E C. Curtis. D A. Dixon, H. P. Mercier. J. C. P. Sanders, G . J.
Schrobilgen. J. A m . Chem. So(,. 1991, 113. 3351 -3361
[9] K. 0. Christe. J. C . P. Sanders. G. J. Schrobilgen. W. W Wilson. J Chcmn. So<
Ch1'111. ~ O n l J ~ I l ~ 1991.
837 840.
[lo] Thc V S P R Model of Moleculur Geometrj (Eds.: R. Gillesp~e,I. Hargittai).
A l l y and Bacon. Needham Heights. MA, USA 1991, p. SX.
[ I l l W. J. Adams. B. H. Thomson, L. S Bartell. J. Ch1vn. P/i!x. 1970, 53, 40404046.
[l?] E. J. Jakoh. L. S. Bartell. J. Chrm. Phjs. 1970, 53. 2235-2242.
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central, atom, molecules, heptacoordinated, ions
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