Investigation of diachronic dietary patterns on the islands of Ibiza and formentera Spain Evidence from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio analysis.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 143:512–522 (2010) Investigation of Diachronic Dietary Patterns on the Islands of Ibiza and Formentera, Spain: Evidence from Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis Benjamin T. Fuller,1,2* Nicholas Márquez-Grant,3,4 and Michael P. Richards1,5 1 Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany Laboratory of Animal Biodiversity and Systematics, Centre for Archaeological Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium 3 Ecology, Victim Recovery and Identiﬁcation, LGC Forensics, F5 Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3ED, United Kingdom 4 School of Anthropology and Museum of Ethnography, Institute of Human Sciences, The Pauling Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6QS, United Kingdom 5 Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada 2 KEY WORDS palaeodiet; Formentera; Ibiza; stable isotopes; Prehistoric; Punic; Byzantine; Islamic ABSTRACT To examine how dietary patterns may have changed in the western Mediterranean through time, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured on extracted bone collagen from fauna (n 5 75) and humans (n 5 135) spanning four distinct chronological periods: Chalcolithic (c.2100–1600 BC), Punic (6th–2nd/1st century BC), Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine (4th–7th century AD), and Islamic (c.10th–13th century AD) on the islands of Ibiza and Formentera, Spain. The Chalcolithic, Punic, and Late Antiquity-Byzantine societies all showed evidence of a predominately C3 terrestrial-based diet with a possible input of a small amount of marine and/or C4 dietary resources. In contrast, the Islamic population on Ibiza had a subsistence strategy that was reliant on a signiﬁcant amount of C4 plants and/or animals fed a C4 diet, likely millet. These results indicate a fairly constant C3 terrestrialbased diet on the islands of Ibiza and Formentera through time, with a shift to C4 dietary resources during the Islamic Period. Further research is needed from other Islamic populations in and around the Mediterranean to better understand this unique dietary adaptaV 2010 tion. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:512–522, 2010. Carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) stable isotope ratio analysis of bone collagen is an established method used for the reconstruction of long-term dietary protein patterns in archaeological populations (Schwarcz and Schoeninger, 1991; Schoeninger, 1995; Katzenberg, 2000). Although there have been numerous applications of this technique in Europe (Richards et al., 1998, 2002, 2006; Müldner and Richards, 2005), there have been only a handful of studies that have used stable isotopes to elucidate dietary habits in Spain, most of which have focused on the Balearic Islands (Davis, 2002; Van Strydonck et al., 2002, 2005; Márquez-Grant et al., 2003; Garcia et al., 2004, Garcia-Guixé et al., 2009). To gain a greater understanding of the food resources consumed on these islands, human and fauna remains spanning the Chalcolithic (ca. 2100–1600 BC), Punic (6th–2nd/1st century BC), Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine (4th–7th century AD), and Islamic (c.10th–13th century AD) periods were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. Although the Chalcolithic remains are from the island of Formentera, the rest of the samples are from Ibiza. As these islands have been subjected to numerous waves of human colonization, the aim of this research was to characterize if and to what extent the dietary patterns of the inhabitants of the closely related islands of Formentera and Ibiza changed through different periods of human occupation. In particular, because these sites are located on islands in the middle of the western Mediterranean Sea, this study was conducted to understand the possible extent and importance that marine dietary resources may have played in the food economy of these ancient inhabitants. C 2010 V WILEY-LISS, INC. C Wiley-Liss, Inc. Archaeological, historical, and geographical background Formentera and Ibiza are part of the archipelago known as the Balearic Islands, Spain. The Balearic Islands themselves can be further divided into the Gymnesic islands (mainly Majorca and Minorca plus surrounding islets) and the Pityuses (Ibiza, and Formentera plus surrounding islets). This division, geologically recognized due to an undersea channel about 80-km wide that separates Ibiza from Majorca (Naval Intelligence Additional supporting information may be found in the online version of this article. Grant sponsor: British Academy. *Correspondence to: Benjamin T. Fuller, Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig 04103, Germany. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 6 October 2009; accepted 13 April 2010 DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21334 Published online 1 June 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). 513 CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA forces conquered the island in 902 AD. In 1,235 AD, the island was taken over by the Christian forces of the Crown of Aragon. For a description of the postmedieval period, see Joan i Marı́ (1997). Palaeodietary reconstruction using stable isotope ratio analysis Fig. 1. Map showing the location of the Pityuses and Gymnesic Islands in the western Mediterranean Sea. The location of the archaeological sites studies on the islands Formentera (Ca na Costa: c.2000 BC) and Ibiza (Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort: 5th–2nd/1st centuries BC; Via Romana 47: 5th–2nd/1st centuries BC; S’Hort des Llimoners: 3rd–7th centuries AD; Es Soto: 10th–13th centuries AD), Spain are display on the enlarged portion of the map. Division, 1941), is associated with historical, genetic, and ecological differences between the two island groups (Palmer et al., 1999). Because Ibiza and Formentera are only 6-km apart, they share similar trends in terms of geography, ecology, and history. These islands are located in the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, 80 km off the eastern coast of Spain, 100 km from Majorca, and around 450 km from the northern coast of Africa (Fig. 1). Ibiza’s land surface area, together with its surrounding islets, is estimated to be between 541 and 570 km2, with a maximum length and width of 41 km and 21 km, respectively (Vallès Costa, 2000). In contrast, Formentera’s surface area, including its smaller surrounding islands, is estimated to be between 81.70 and 83.20 km2 with a maximum length and width of 20 and 5 km, respectively (Prats i Serra and Marı́ i Mayans, 1999). The strategic location of the Pityuses, and particularly Ibiza, in the western Mediterranean Sea has made them important centers for trade and commerce during their history. Recent research from pottery typology and radiocarbon dates indicates that Ibiza was ﬁrst colonized by humans in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC (Costa and Benito, 2000; Costa and Guerrero, 2001). Around the 8th century BC, the Phoenicians established a small coastal settlement on Ibiza (Ramon, 2003). During the 6th century, the islands came under the economic and political control of the city of Carthage, North Africa, and this period from the 6th to the 2nd or 1st century BC is now referred to as the Carthaginian or Punic period (Aubet, 1995). After the fall of Carthage to Roman forces in 146 BC, Ibiza became a confederate city of Rome and remained under Roman inﬂuence for several centuries until the period of the Vandal occupation of 455–534 AD, which was subsequently followed by the Byzantine period in the 6th–7th centuries AD (Ramon, 1995). There is a gap in historical knowledge from the 7th century until the 10th century AD, when Islamic Stable isotope ratio analysis is primarily used to identify the source of protein consumed by an individual over the course of his or her life. The isotopic composition of a dietary item is incorporated into body tissues (hair, muscle, blood, bones, etc) with a known fractionation pattern, and analysis of these tissues allows the direct reconstruction of past dietary habits (Kohn, 1999; Katzenberg, 2000; Lee-Thorp, 2008). In archaeological research, bone collagen is routinely analyzed for its carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) stable isotope ratios, because the collagen is primarily all that remains of the organic portion of the skeleton after burial. The results obtained from stable isotope ratio analysis are semiquantitative and mainly reﬂect the origin of the protein portion of the diet averaged over the entire lifetime of an individual including a signiﬁcant amount of collagen from the period of adolescence (Stenhouse and Baxter, 1979; Hedges et al., 2007). Stable isotope results are analyzed as the ratio of the heavier isotope to the lighter isotope (13C/12C or 15N/14N) and reported as d values in parts per 1,000 or ‘‘per mil’’ (%) relative to internationally deﬁned standards for carbon (Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite, VPDB) and nitrogen (Ambient Inhalable Reservoir, AIR) (Schwarcz and Schoeninger, 1991). In Europe, d13C values are primarily used to identify the consumption of marine protein resources and C3 plant protein diets (most vegetables, fruits, and wheat) (Schwarcz and Schoeninger, 1991; Lee-Thorp, 2008). Nitrogen isotope ratios are mainly used to determine trophic level position or the amount of plant versus animal protein in the diet. With each ascending step of the food chain, d15N values increase by 3–5% relative to the diet (DeNiro and Epstein, 1981; Schoeninger and DeNiro, 1984; Sponheimer et al., 2003); but see Hedges and Reynard (2007) for a review of the complexity and uncertainty associated with nitrogen isotope ratios in bone collagen. This phenomenon is known as the ‘‘trophic level effect’’ and has been used in numerous ecological and palaeodietary studies to identify dietary patterns such as humans who eat more animal protein (carnivores and omnivores) compared to plant protein (vegetarians and vegans) (Bol and Pﬂieger, 2002; Petzke et al., 2005). For detailed reviews of stable isotope ratio analysis applied to archaeology, see Schwarcz and Schoeninger (1991), Schoeninger (1995), Katzenberg (2000), and Lee-Thorp (2008). Sites The human skeletal samples for this study come from ﬁve sites. These are described below and range in age from the Chalcolithic to the Medieval period. The Chalcolithic samples come from Formentera and are the oldest found in the Pityuses. The remaining four sites come from the island of Ibiza; three of these are urban; and one is rural. The total number of individuals chosen for sampling from all of the sites was 135. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 514 B.T. FULLER ET AL. The Chalcolithic remains: Ca na Costa (Formentera), c. 2000 BC The earliest evidence of human remains from the Pityuses is from the excavations at the important Chalcolithic site of Ca na Costa (see Fig. 1) in Formentera (Fernández-Gomez et al., 1988). The site of Ca na Costa is characterized by a megalithic sepulcher, built from stone slabs that form a circular structure with a main chamber and a corridor. Discovered in the 1974 by Manuel Sorà, the site has been recently re-dated to c. 2,000 BC making it, at present, the oldest megalithic burial monument in the Balearic Islands (Costa and Guerrero, 2001). During excavations, a quantity of disarticulated bone was recovered representing a minimum of eight individuals (Gómez-Bellard and Reverte, 1988). Punic rural necropolis: Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort (Ibiza), 5th–2nd/1st centuries BC The Punic rural necropolis of Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort is located on the southwest portion of the island of Ibiza (see Fig. 1). Individuals were interred in rock cut tombs or hypogea between the 5th–2nd/1st centuries BC (Ramon, 1995). The site, consisting of 18 tombs, was ﬁrst excavated in 1917 by Carlos Román Ferrer (Román, 1920), although the most recent excavations took place in the 1990s under the direction of Joan Ramon Torres. During the 1917 excavation, the archaeological and scientiﬁc value of the human remains was not fully appreciated. Thus, after the removal of the archaeological artifacts from the tombs, the human remains were left disturbed and commingled. Osteological analysis has estimated that a minimum of 75 individuals were buried at this site, and 38 individuals were randomly selected for isotopic analysis (Márquez-Grant, unpublished thesis, 2006). Punic urban necropolis: Puig des Molins, 5th–2nd/1st centuries BC The Punic urban cemetery of Puig des Molins is a World Heritage Site. The cemetery was in use from the 7th century BC with Phoenician cremations to the 13th century AD with Islamic burials (Fernández, 1986; Costa and Fernández, 2003a,b). It was during the 5th to 4th centuries BC that the cemetery experienced a period of maximum usage (Fernández, 1986; Costa and Fernández, 2003a,b), and the area of use in Punic times covered at least 50,000 m2 (Costa and Fernández, 2003b). All the skeletal remains analyzed for this study are from one excavated sector of the site known as Via Romana 47 (Fig. 1). The Via Romana 47 site is 75 m2 and is situated on a slope in the southern part of the present capital city of Eivissa (or Ibiza). It is located 51 m above sea level and 500 m from the old town (Gurrea and Ramon, unpublished manuscript). Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine necropolis: S’Hort des Llimoners (Ibiza), 4th–6th centuries AD The site of S’Hort des Llimoners is located on the southern part of Ibiza just outside of the modern city of Eivissa (Fig. 1). This urban cemetery covers an area of 1,000 m2 and was the subject of a rescue excavation in 1998 directed by Joan Ramon Torres (Ramon-Torres et al., 2005). The graves surround two funerary structures, located at either side of a main Roman road American Journal of Physical Anthropology running north–south. Radiocarbon dates indicate that the cemetery was in use from the 3rd to 7th century AD, but the bulk of the tombs are dated between the 4th–6th centuries AD (Ramon-Torres et al., 2005). A total of 60 skeletons were isotopically analyzed from this location (Márquez-Grant, unpublished thesis). Medieval Islamic necropolis: Es Soto (Ibiza), 10th–13th centuries AD The Islamic necropolis of Es Soto is located on the southern part of the island of Ibiza and outside the old city walls of Eivissa (Fig. 1). A total of 24 adult skeletons were recovered during a rescue excavation in 1997 under the direction of Joan Ramon Torres, and 21 of these skeletons were selected for isotopic analysis. From the burial position and contextual evidence, the burials have been dated to the Islamic Medieval period between the 10th and 13th centuries AD. The burials were positioned with the heads on the south/southeast side of the grave and faced toward Mecca, and apart from some pottery, no grave goods were recovered. The skeletal remains have been subjected to osteological examination by MárquezGrant (1999, 2000). MATERIALS AND METHODS The calculation of the minimum number of individuals and the age and sex of the skeletons was determined according to standard methods [e.g., Buikstra and Ubelaker, 1994; Brickley and McKinley, 2004; for a detailed methodology, see Márquez-Grant (unpublished thesis)]. Because of the commingled and disarticulated nature of the skeletons from Ca na Costa and Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort, speciﬁc age and sex information on the samples submitted for analysis was not possible for the adult ([18 years) samples. Collagen was isolated from fauna (total n 5 75; cattle n 5 7, pigs n 5 4, sheep/goats n 5 28, dogs n 5 24, birds n 5 5, and cats n 5 7) and individual human (n 5 135) bone samples at the Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford, using the protocol outlined in Richards and Hedges (1999), modiﬁed to include a ﬁnal stage of ultraﬁltration before lyopholization as described in Brown et al. (1988). The extracted collagen was generally very well preserved, and all the samples reported here had collagen yields of over 1% and C:N ratios between 2.9 and 3.6, which is indicative of collagen suitable for isotopic analysis (DeNiro, 1985). The puriﬁed collagen was then placed in tin capsules and combusted in duplicate in separate runs to CO2 and N2 in an automated carbon and nitrogen analyzer (Carlo Erba) coupled to a continuous-ﬂow isotope ratio-monitoring mass spectrometry (PDZ Europa Geo 20/20). Replicate measurement errors on known standards were less than 60.2% for both 13C and 15N. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A summary of the faunal isotope data by time period is given in Tables 1 and 2 and plotted in Figure 2 with the complete values listed in Table S1. The faunal samples were analyzed to create an isotopic map of the local food-web for the interpretation of the human diets. The assorted fauna samples are from the Chalcolithic, Punic, Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine and the Islamic periods. Although the sample size is small and not all species are present in the three time periods, no signiﬁcant differen- 515 CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA 13 TABLE 1. Mean d C results for the fauna from Ibiza and Formentera, Spain arranged by the different time periods Time period Cow d13C(%) Pig d13C(%) Chalcolithic Punic Late Antiquity-Byzantine Islamic Total mean 6 SD all time periods 220.6* NA 220.1 6 0.3 220.3 6 0.1 220.3 6 0.2 NA 221.1* 220.8 6 0.0 219.7* 220.6 6 0.6 Sheep/goat d13C(%) NA 219.7 6 219.9 6 219.8 6 219.8 6 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 Bird d13C(%) Cat d13C(%) Dog d13C(%) NA NA NA 219.0 6 0.6 219.0 6 0.6 NA NA NA 219.0 6 0.1 219.0 6 0.1 NA NA 219.0* 218.8 6 0.3 218.8 6 0.3 Standard deviations are included where there is more than one individual sample. * 5 only one sample. TABLE 2. Mean d15N results for the fauna from Ibiza and Formentera, Spain arranged by the different time periods Time period Chalcolithic Punic Late Antiquity-Byzantine Islamic Total mean 6 SD all time periods Cow d15N(%) Pig d15N(%) Sheep/goat d15N(%) Bird d15N(%) Cat d15N(%) Dog d15N(%) 7.8* NA 7.5 6 0.4 8.1 6 0.3 7.8 6 0.4 NA 4.8* 5.8 6 0.4 5.1* 5.4 6 0.6 NA 5.6 6 2.1 5.5 6 1.4 6.5 6 2.3 6.0 6 2.0 NA NA NA 8.0 6 0.4 8.0 6 0.4 NA NA NA 9.4 6 0.4 9.4 6 0.4 NA NA 9.2* 10.3 6 0.6 10.3 6 0.7 Standard deviations are included where there is more than one individual sample. * 5 only one sample. values have been used to indicate that the cattle were kept in pens or enclosures, because their manure would increase the d15N values of the soil, and thus the plants that the cattle were consuming (Commisso and Nelson, 2006, 2007). It is interesting to note that the mean d15N values of the pigs (5.4%) and the sheep/goats (6.0%) are not as elevated as the cattle, and this could indicate that the pigs and the sheep/goats were free to roam and graze on plants across the settlement. Chalcolithic diet Fig. 2. Plot of mean 6 SD results for the adult human and faunal bones collagen d13C and d15N values from the islands of Ibiza and Formetera, Spain. ces were found between the faunal stable isotope values from the different eras. The d13C faunal results have a range of 3% (218.1% to 221.1%), which indicates that the majority of the animals were consuming a terrestrial C3 diet with some animals having a noticeable input of C4 resources (possibly millet) in their diet (some sheep/ goats, dogs, and birds during the Islamic period). In addition, the dogs from the Islamic era have the most 13 C-enriched (218.8 6 0.3) and 15N-enriched (10.3 6 0.6) values of all the animals, and this suggests that they were possibly feeding on human refuse, which had a component of C4-inﬂuenced protein. It is difﬁcult to compare and comment upon the diet of the dogs from other time periods, because only one other dog from the Late Antiquity-Byzantine time period was recovered. In contrast to other sites that have been isotopically analyzed in Europe (Müldner and Richards, 2005; Jay and Richards, 2006; Richards et al., 2006), the average d15N values of the cows are more elevated (7.8 6 0.4%) than expected (Table 2). In other studies, enriched 15N A summary of the data for the Chalcolithic humans from the site of Ca na Costa on Formentera is given in Tables 3 and 4 and plotted in Figures 2 and 3a,b. The eight adults display a narrow range of d13C values (218.4% to 219.2%), but a wide range of d15N values (9.5% to 15.0%) (Table S2). The isotopic evidence, in particular, the mean d15N results (12.7 6 1.6%) reveal that these individuals likely had the highest animal and/ or ﬁsh protein intake of all the populations studied. However, the source of this protein (marine or terrestrial) is somewhat ambiguous and open to interpretation and debate at the present time [see Müldner and Richards (2007) and Craig et al. (2009)]. Although 15 N-enriched, the Chalcolithic individuals are not 13 C-enriched, and this indicates that the diet was predominately terrestrial based with the major sources of protein likely cows, sheep/goats, and birds, but with a possible minor input of marine dietary resources such as ﬁsh. In contrast, humans with elevated d15N values but with terrestrial d13C values have been interpreted as consuming a diet rich in carbohydrates and lipids such as cereals, wine, and olive oil (sources of the d13C values) with the addition of signiﬁcant amounts of marine resources (sources of the d15N values) such as hightrophic level ﬁsh (Prowse et al., 2004, 2005; Craig et al., 2009). As detailed archaeological studies of diet (faunal remains, excavated food residues, etc) are lacking from this time period (as well as from the other time periods on Formentera and Ibiza), it is difﬁcult to make ﬁrm conclusions about the source of this dietary protein. Excavations at Ca na Costa have revealed some mollusk American Journal of Physical Anthropology 516 B.T. FULLER ET AL. 13 TABLE 3. Statistical summary of the d C results for the humans from Ibiza and Formentera, Spain arranged by the different time periods Statistics Chalcolithic d13C(%) Punic (rural) d13C(%) Punic (urban) d13C(%) Late Antiquity-Byzantine d13C(%) Islamic d13C(%) No. of individuals Minimum Maximum Mean 6 SD 8 219.2 218.4 218.9 6 0.2 38 219.3 218.3 218.7 6 0.3 8 219.2 218.4 218.8 6 0.3 60 219.9 218.0 219.0 6 0.4 21 219.4 213.1 218.1 6 1.3 TABLE 4. Statistical summary of the d15N results for the humans from Ibiza and Formentera, Spain arranged by the different time periods Statistics No. of individuals Minimum Maximum Mean 6 SD Chalcolithic d15N(%) Punic (rural) d15N(%) Punic (urban) d15N(%) Late Antiquity-Byzantine d15N(%) Islamic d15N(%) 8 9.5 15.0 12.7 6 1.6 38 10.8 13.3 12.5 6 0.5 8 10.4 12.7 11.3 6 0.7 60 8.3 13.6 11.1 6 1.1 21 8.5 12.5 10.9 6 1.0 Fig. 3. (a) Plot of mean 6 SD results for the adult human collagen d13C values from the different populations studied through time on Ibiza and Formentera, Spain. (b) Plot of mean 6 SD results for the adult human collagen d15N values from the different populations studied through time on Ibiza and Formetera, Spain. deposits and marine bird skeletons (pufﬁns, B. Costa, personal communication), which could account for the minor marine component to the diet in the d13C values, but these are low-trophic level dietary items and American Journal of Physical Anthropology unlikely to have caused the elevated d15N values in the Chalcolithic humans. At this point, on the basis of the limited forms of evidence, we interpret the d13C and d15N values as reﬂecting a diet that was primarily based on terrestrial protein resources with the consumption of a small amount of marine foods. This lack of a signiﬁcant consumption of marine protein is further supported by the fact that isotopic analysis of both modern and archaeological ﬁsh bones (grouper, pandora, barracuda, and moray eel) from Formentera has enriched 13C (28.3% to 214.1%) and 15 N (7.8% to 11.4%) values (Garcia-Guixé et al., 2010). Thus, we would have expected humans consuming these marine ﬁsh to display the typical 13C-enrichment that has been documented in other populations (Walker and DeNiro, 1986; Richards et al., 2006). In addition, the prevalence of dental caries in the population of Ca na Costa is the lowest among the different periods for which data are available [see Márquez-Grant (Márquez-Grant, unpublished thesis)]. This low-caries rate (\2%) has been interpreted as reﬂecting a high-protein diet with only a minor amount of carbohydrates (Gómez-Bellard and Reverte, 1988; Sealy and van der Merwe, 1988; Littleton and Frohlich, 1993). An inverse correlation between the frequency of caries and marine food consumption has been documented in many coastal populations (Walker, 1978; Costa, 1980; Arnay-de-la-Rosa et al., 2009b), because the consumption of protein rich marine foods such as ﬁsh contain high levels of ﬂuoride, which can inhibit the formation of caries (Sealy and van der Merwe, 1988). However, if these low rates of caries in the Chalcolithic population reﬂect a high-marine protein diet with a small amount of carbohydrates, then we would also expect to observe 13C-enriched values in the population as the carbon would be mainly originating from the protein portion of the diet and not from carbohydrates as postulated by Prowse et al. (2004). Thus, these low rates of caries coupled with the terrestrial d13C values and high-d15N values suggest a high-protein diet that was terrestrial based. This is especially true when other sites from the Punic, Roman, and Medieval periods are compared to the Chalcolithic period (Márquez-Grant, unpublished thesis). In these latter periods, there is a likely increase in carbohydrate consumption, which correlates with an increase in dental caries. Yet, 517 CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA caution is warranted in the interpretation of these results as the small number of individuals studied (n 5 8), and the fact that caries rates and tooth-wear are inﬂuenced by age (for which we could not account in these disarticulated remains) make dietary comparisons between the sites difﬁcult. A more detailed study of the oral pathology through the ages on Formentera and Ibiza is an area of current research. The reason for the elevated d15N values in some of these Chalcolithic individuals is unknown due to the lack of available data on fauna from this period (only one cow/bovid bone could be sampled for this study), but it could indicate the consumption of an unknown terrestrial dietary item or a diet containing juvenile animals that had not been fully weaned and thus 15Nenriched (Jay and Richards, 2006). It is also possible that these 15N-enriched values in the Chalcolithic humans are indicative of the consumption of animals that grazed on salt marsh plant species, because this can result in an environmental baseline enrichment of the 15N values (Britton et al., 2008). It is signiﬁcant to note that the large range of d15N values (5.5%) in these eight individuals mirrors the large range of d15N values (7.1%) in the sheep/goats from the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine and the Islamic periods. Although it is speculative at this point to make a dietary interpretation due to the lack of sheep/goat remains recovered from the Chalcolithic, this observed large range in the sheep/ goats does suggest the possibility that the high d15N of the humans could have been the result of the consumption of terrestrial animals such as sheep/goats. Because one of these sheep/goat bones produced a d15N value of 10.3% (IB-A-41) and given the assumed 15N tropic level fractionation factor of 3–5% (Hedges and Reynard, 2007), it is certainly possible that the Chalcolithic individual with a d15N value of 15.0% had diet based primarily on terrestrial foods without a signiﬁcant input of marine foods. This lack of consumption of marine foods has also been observed in isotopic studies from Majorca (Davis, 2002;Van Strydonck et al., 2002, 2005; Garcia et al., 2004) and the Mediterranean region in general (Craig et al., 2006). Ultimately, this debate about the terrestrial versus marine origin of dietary protein in humans from the Mediterranean with elevated d15N values and terrestrial d13C values needs to be settled with additional research from sites that have a large and diverse collection of animal and ﬁsh remains. In addition, new isotopic techniques such as sulfur (d34S) (Richards et al., 2001) and the analysis of carbon (Corr et al., 2005; Smith et al., 2009) and nitrogen (Styring et al., 2010; Naito et al., in press) single amino acids has the potential to glean more detailed dietary information from this site, and this is an area of current research. Also, it should be noted that these high-nitrogen values from Formentera were also documented by previous work on two skeletal samples (d13C 5 218.7% and 218.8%; d15N 5 9.1% and 12.7%, respectively) from the same site (Van Strydonck et al., 2002, 2005), but due to the small sample size no further interpretation was possible. Punic diet A summary of the results from the rural Punic site of Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort is given in Tables 3 and 4 with the complete results in Table S2 and plotted in Figures 2 and 3a,b. The individuals from this site have a 13 15 mean d C value of 218.7% and a mean d N value of 12.5%. These results indicate that the dietary sources were primarily C3 terrestrial with the likely input of a small amount of marine protein. A comparison of the frequency of dental caries from several different rural Punic settlements across Ibiza indicate that the diet was likely homogeneous as the level of dental caries (12.8%; Márquez-Grant, 2009) and oral pathology (MárquezGrant, unpublished thesis) was similar in these populations. The data from the urban Punic section known as Via Romana 47, part of the large necropolis of Puig des Molins, are presented in Tables 3 and 4 and Table S2 and plotted in Figures 2 and 3a,b. The d13C values range from 218.4% to 219.2%, and the d15N values range from 10.4% to 12.7%. The urban Punic mean d13C values (218.8 6 0.3) are nearly identical to the rural Punic mean d13C values (218.7 6 0.3) and were not found to be statistically signiﬁcant (ANOVA ad hoc Bonferroni test; P value 5 0.463). In contrast, the mean d15N values are lower in the adult urban population (11.3 6 0.7%) compared to the adult rural population (12.5 6 0.5%), and this was found to be statistically signiﬁcant (ANOVA ad hoc Bonferroni test; P value 5 0.002). Although these results suggest that the rural Punic individuals had more animal-based proteins in their diet, it is difﬁcult to compare and contrast these two populations, because only eight individuals were isotopically analyzed from the site of Via Romana 47, and thus a larger number of measurements are needed from this population. Again the diet for the urban Punic individuals is based mainly on C3 terrestrial protein sources with only a minor component from marine foods. Unfortunately, there are no excavated food residues from these sites, but if historical accounts and archaeological evidence are examined, it is possible to obtain a better understanding of the food resources that were likely consumed. The Greek historian Diodorus of Sicily, wrote about how Ibiza’s production in Punic times, was noted for its wool, wine, and olive oil (Tarradell and Font, 1975), and Pliny refers to the high quality of ﬁgs grown on Ibiza (Ramon, 1995). Archaeological evidence conﬁrms olive oil production and the preparation of cereal using mills, and this suggests that these items were likely consumed by the Punic population (Ramon, 1995). A limited number of ﬁshing implements were found from this time period, but it has been argued that ﬁshing was only a secondary activity and people largely lived of the land (Ramon, 1995). Zooarchaeological evidence from Spanish sites from the Phoenician and Punic period indicate that there is a clear domination of goat/sheep remains over other animals such as cows, horses, pigs, and dogs (Riquelme-Cantal, 2001; Iborra et al., 2003). Analysis of dog remains from Ibiza reveals cut-marks that might indicate their consumption by humans (Saña, 1994), and other contemporary sites in Spain also suggest possible dog consumption [see Niveau de Villedary and Ferrer (2004)]. Documentary evidence has shown, however, that bans were imposed on dog consumption in the 5th century BC, which suggests that dogs were previously eaten by at least some members of Punic society (Saña, 1994). The possible consumption of pigs during the Punic period is also of interest. Historical sources indicate that the Phoenicians and Punic people did not eat pork, but the high representation of pig remains recovered in habitation contexts from Punic American Journal of Physical Anthropology 518 B.T. FULLER ET AL. Fig. 4. (a) Mean 6 SD d13C bone collagen values plotted against estimated age at death categories (n 5 5 for 0–1 years; n 5 10 for 1–5 years; n 5 2 for 5–10 years; n 5 8 for 10–15 years; n 5 1 for 15–20 years; n 5 10 for 20–30 years; n 5 4 for 501 years) for the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine population from Ibiza, Spain. (b) Mean 6 SD 15N bone collagen values plotted against estimated age at death categories (n 5 5 for 0–1 years; n 5 10 for 1–5 years; n 5 2 for 5–10 years; n 5 8 for 10– 15 years; n 5 1 for 15–20 years; n 5 10 for 20–30 years; n 5 4 for 501 years) for the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine population from Ibiza, Spain. Ibiza seems to suggest that pigs were consumed (Ramon, 1994; Morales-Pérez, 2003). In addition, ostrich eggs from North Africa were a common feature of the grave goods recovered in Punic tombs from Ibiza [see Astruc (1957)]. Their presence in the tombs, however, was likely for ritual or funerary purposes, and it seems unlikely that these animals and/or their eggs were consumed. Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine diet 13 The d C and d15N values for the Late AntiquityEarly Byzantine site of S’Hort des Llimoners are presented in Tables 3 and 4 and Table S2 and plotted Figures 2 and 3a,b. The range of d13C values for this population is 218.0% to 219.7%, and the range of d15N values is 8.3% to 12.6%. The mean d13C (219.0 6 0.4%) results indicate that the majority of the protein consumed was C3 terrestrial in origin, but the individuals with d13C values near 218% show an input of C4 or marine-based protein in the diet. In addition, the mean d13C value of this Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine population was found to be signiﬁcantly different from the rural Punic population (218.7 6 0.3%) using an ANOVA ad hoc Bonferroni test; P-value 5 0.005. Future work with a more suitable sample collection, where disturbance and taphonomic factors affecting the bones are minimal, may examine dietary variation American Journal of Physical Anthropology according to sex and burial practices as was the case with Richards et al. (1998). The data from the site of S’Hort des Llimoners are also plotted with respect to age in Figure 4a,b. The mean d13C values in the age range 0–1 (218.7 6 0.3%) and 1–5 years (218.8 6 0.5%) are elevated compared to the other age categories. In addition, the mean d15N values in the age range 0–1 (11.7 6 1.7%) and 1–5 years (11.7 6 1.1%) are also elevated compared to the other age categories. These 13C and 15Nenriched mean values in the infants and young children are possibly inﬂuenced by the consumption of breast milk (Schurr, 1998; Fuller et al., 2006a), but as these values are not statistically signiﬁcant from the other age categories this interpretation is tenuous. During adolescence (the 10–15 years and 15–20 years age categories), the mean d13C and d15N values show a decreasing trend, and this is possibly linked to a different diet with less meat protein and more terrestrial plant consumption during this period, but the results are not statistically signiﬁcant and further analysis is unwarranted. However, it should be noted that previous isotopic research has shown a similar trend in other archaeological populations with children and adolescents consuming less meat in the diet compared to the adults (Tuross and Fogel, 1994; Richards et al., 2002; Fuller et al., 2006b). The isotopic evidence indicates that the diet during the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine Period on Ibiza was predominately C3 terrestrial based. This is in agreement with the ﬁndings from other isotopic studies from the Balearic Islands during the same time period (Garcı́a et al., 2004). During the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine Period on Ibiza, there seems to be a dominant presence of terrestrial animal remains, especially goats as observed during excavation (Ramon, 1995), although no detailed zooarchaeological study has been undertaken yet on these remains. In addition, there are no excavated food residues or archaeological studies of diet from this site. Extrapolating from other areas in Europe, the individuals interred in the necropolis of S’Hort des Llimoners likely had a terrestrial-based diet that included bread, legumes, vegetables, and perhaps some supplements of cheese, olives, fruit, ﬁsh, and wine (Karpozilos and Kazhdan, 1991). Regarding meat, there was a probable increase in pork consumption with Romanization [see King (2001)]. It is interesting to note that the isotopic dietary evidence is supported by historical sources. The Greeks and Romans believed that people who depended upon the sea were very poor, because reliance on sea resources was perceived as a sign of need and poverty (Purcell, 1995). However, this view was not embraced by the upper class and elite of these societies as ﬁsh and shellﬁsh were considered expensive or luxury items (Purcell, 1995; Garcı́aVargas, 2001). In addition, the consumption of garum or ﬁsh sauce was popular in the upper classes (Curtis, 1991), and it would be interesting to see how it may have inﬂuenced the isotopic values on Ibiza, but see Prowse et al. (2004) for garum and isotopic values from Italy. Isotopic results from the Roman site of Poundbury on the southwestern coast of England support this paradoxical view of marine diet in Roman society, because individuals considered elite and buried in highstatus tombs had isotopic values more indicative of a marine protein diet compared to the general population (Richards et al., 1998). CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA 519 Islamic diet CONCLUSIONS The data from the Islamic necropolis of Es Soto are given in Tables 3 and 4 and Table S2 and graphed in Figures 2 and 3a,b. In contrast to the other societies that inhabited the Pityuses, the population of Ibiza during the Islamic period display a signiﬁcant increase in reliance on C4 plants and/or animals raised on a C4based diet. The d13C (213.1% to 219.4%) and d15N (8.5– 12.5%) results exhibit a wide range of values, with some individuals exhibiting an exclusive C3 terrestrial protein diet (ES-T15) and others showing a C4-dominated plant and/or animal protein diet (ES-T18-2). The mean d13C value (218.1 6 1.3%) of the individuals from Es Soto was found to be signiﬁcantly different from all of the other populations using an ANOVA ad hoc Bonferroni test (Chalcolithic vs. Islamic, P-value 5 0.002; Punic rural vs. Islamic, P-value 5 0.001, Punic urban vs. Islamic, P-value 5 0.004, Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine, P-value \0.0001), and this conﬁrms the large breadth of dietary diversity during this period (Fig. 3a). In addition, the mean d15N value (10.9 6 1.0%) of the individuals from Es Soto was found to be signiﬁcantly different from the Chalcolithic (Chalcolithic vs. Islamic, P-value \0.0001) and the rural Punic (Punic rural vs. Islamic, P-value \ 0.0001) but not the urban Punic (Punic urban vs. Islamic, P-value 5 0.337) or the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine (Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine, P-value 5 0.420) populations using an ANOVA adhoc Bonferroni test (Fig. 3b). Some of the sheep/goats and birds display evidence of being fed a C4 diet, and these were likely some of the sources of the C4-based animal protein in the Islamic diet on Ibiza. At present, it is unknown if the predominately C4 diet of ES-T18-2 was acquired before or after arriving in Ibiza and future work on sulfur isotope ratios, which can track migration patterns, may help address this question (Richards et al., 2001). Again there is an unfortunate lack of excavated food residues or archaeological studies of diet from this site. According to historical sources, the most popular meats in the Islamic diet were young goat, lamb, and chicken, whereas pork was rarely mentioned in the medical and dietary works of Islamic authors (Garcı́a-Sánchez, 2002). A review of the documentary sources on medieval Islamic Spain by Garcı́a-Sánchez (2002) suggests that variation in diet can be linked to socioeconomic factors. For instance, while legumes were the foodstuffs for the poor who had a predominantly cereal economy, ﬁsh was enjoyed by the upper classes of Al-Andalus. However, in coastal areas and settlements near rivers where ﬁsh were plentiful, ﬁsh became a popular substitute in the lower classes for the more expensive meats (Garcı́aSánchez, 2002). Regarding further protein intake, eggs, milk, and milk products were consumed by all segments of the population. These isotopic results shed additional light on how the inhabitants of Ibiza and Spain changed during the period of Islamic rule. It is well established that the wave of North African Berber and Arab immigrants had a dramatic impact on the culture and language of Iberia, but this study is the ﬁrst to directly document a change in subsistence strategies during this time period from skeletal remains. This dietary component to the Islamization of Spain needs to be veriﬁed by additional isotopic work from other sites on the Balearic Islands and the mainland to enable a better understanding of the cultural and demographic impact that the Islamic Period had on Spanish identity and Iberian history. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured on bone collagen extracted from fauna and human samples and from four chronological periods (Chalcolithic, Punic, Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine, and Islamic) of populations that inhabited the islands of Ibiza and Formentera, Spain. The focus of this research was to examine how the food economies of these different societies changed through time. Given the fact that the sites were located on islands, it was surprising that all the societies studied exhibited isotopic values indicative of little marine protein consumption, but this is consistent with the low consumption of marine resources on islands that has also been documented on the Canary Islands (Tieszen et al., 1992; Arnay-de-la-Rosa et al., 2009a) and Majorca (Davis, 2002; Van Strydonck et al., 2002, 2005; Garcia et al., 2004) and the Mediterranean in general (Craig et al., 2006). The eight Chalcolithic skeletons studied from the site of Ca na Costa in Formentera had d13C results that mainly indicated the consumption of a C3 terrestrial protein diet. The interpretation of the d15N values from these individuals is less clear, but these results were the highest of the populations studied. This could suggest a high-protein diet that was based on marine protein (high-trophic level ﬁsh), the consumption of an unknown terrestrial animal (sheep/goats) dietary component, or the fact that animals were raised on plants grown in a salt marsh environment. At the moment, we interpret the d13C and d15N values as reﬂecting a Chalcolithic diet that was based primarily on terrestrial protein resources with the consumption of a small amount of marine foods. Because of a lack of faunal remains or other forms of archaeological dietary evidence from the same period, it is impossible to be more speciﬁc about the sources of food during this time period. The d13C and d15N results from the urban and rural Punic populations on Ibiza indicate that the primary protein sources were C3 terrestrial, with the likely input of a small amount of marine protein. The individuals buried in the Late AntiquityEarly Byzantine necropolis of S’Hort des Llimoners displayed isotopic values consistent with a primarily C3 terrestrial diet. It also seems that there was a more noticeable, albeit small, addition of C4 and/or marine foods in the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine population when compared with the Chalcolithic and Punic societies. The Islamic population displayed the most unique dietary pattern with a signiﬁcant increase in reliance on C4 plants and/or C4-fed animals. These results indicating a shift to a C4-based diet on Ibiza are highly signiﬁcant, and more research is required from other Islamic populations in and around Spain to make sure this ﬁnding is unique to the island of Ibiza. In conclusion, this research project represents the largest and most detailed isotopic study of dietary habits on the Pityuses. Although the results of this study are limited in terms of the speciﬁc foods that can be identiﬁed, the diachronic nature of this research has illustrated how different societies have adapted various subsistence strategies to survive on these strategically vital islands in the western Mediterranean. However, the interpretation and discussion of the isotopic results are supported when combined with other forms of evidence such as dental caries and historical sources. This combination of available information about an archaeological site creates a clearer picture of how individuals lived American Journal of Physical Anthropology 520 B.T. FULLER ET AL. and survived in the past. Finally, it is hoped that this research will provide useful comparative isotopic information for other studies in the Mediterranean and that this project stimulates future work on skeletal remains from Ibiza and other western and central Mediterranean islands with similar historical backgrounds. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Mandy Jay is thanked for help with collagen preparation and isotopic analysis. Olaf Nehlich, Kate Britton, and Roger Mundry are thanked for help with the statistical analysis. Andrew Lukkonen is thanked for the help with the map production and editing. Access to the Ibiza material was granted by B. Costa and J. Fernández from the Museu Arqueològic d’Eivissa i Formentera for the samples from Ca na Costa, Joan Ramon from the Consell Insular d’Eivissa i Formentera for the samples from Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort, S’Hort des Llimoners and Es Soto and Rosa Gurrea (Ajuntament d’Eivissa) and Joan Ramon for the samples from the Punic urban site of Via Romana 47 and most of the faunal remains. Finally, we thank two anonymous reviewers and the Associate Editor for their detailed comments and suggestions on an earlier form of this manuscript. 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