close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Investigation of diachronic dietary patterns on the islands of Ibiza and formentera Spain Evidence from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratio analysis.

код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 143:512–522 (2010)
Investigation of Diachronic Dietary Patterns on the
Islands of Ibiza and Formentera, Spain: Evidence from
Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis
Benjamin T. Fuller,1,2* Nicholas Márquez-Grant,3,4 and Michael P. Richards1,5
1
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
Laboratory of Animal Biodiversity and Systematics, Centre for Archaeological Sciences,
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
3
Ecology, Victim Recovery and Identification, LGC Forensics, F5 Culham Science Centre, Abingdon,
Oxon, OX14 3ED, United Kingdom
4
School of Anthropology and Museum of Ethnography, Institute of Human Sciences, The Pauling Centre,
University of Oxford, Oxford, OX2 6QS, United Kingdom
5
Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada
2
KEY WORDS
palaeodiet; Formentera; Ibiza; stable isotopes; Prehistoric; Punic; Byzantine; Islamic
ABSTRACT
To examine how dietary patterns may
have changed in the western Mediterranean through
time, stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were
measured on extracted bone collagen from fauna (n 5
75) and humans (n 5 135) spanning four distinct chronological periods: Chalcolithic (c.2100–1600 BC), Punic
(6th–2nd/1st century BC), Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine (4th–7th century AD), and Islamic (c.10th–13th
century AD) on the islands of Ibiza and Formentera,
Spain. The Chalcolithic, Punic, and Late Antiquity-Byzantine societies all showed evidence of a predominately
C3 terrestrial-based diet with a possible input of a
small amount of marine and/or C4 dietary resources. In
contrast, the Islamic population on Ibiza had a subsistence strategy that was reliant on a significant amount
of C4 plants and/or animals fed a C4 diet, likely millet.
These results indicate a fairly constant C3 terrestrialbased diet on the islands of Ibiza and Formentera
through time, with a shift to C4 dietary resources during the Islamic Period. Further research is needed from
other Islamic populations in and around the Mediterranean to better understand this unique dietary adaptaV 2010
tion. Am J Phys Anthropol 143:512–522, 2010.
Carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) stable isotope ratio
analysis of bone collagen is an established method used
for the reconstruction of long-term dietary protein
patterns in archaeological populations (Schwarcz and
Schoeninger, 1991; Schoeninger, 1995; Katzenberg,
2000). Although there have been numerous applications
of this technique in Europe (Richards et al., 1998, 2002,
2006; Müldner and Richards, 2005), there have been
only a handful of studies that have used stable isotopes
to elucidate dietary habits in Spain, most of which have
focused on the Balearic Islands (Davis, 2002; Van Strydonck et al., 2002, 2005; Márquez-Grant et al., 2003;
Garcia et al., 2004, Garcia-Guixé et al., 2009). To gain a
greater understanding of the food resources consumed
on these islands, human and fauna remains spanning
the Chalcolithic (ca. 2100–1600 BC), Punic (6th–2nd/1st
century BC), Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine (4th–7th
century AD), and Islamic (c.10th–13th century AD) periods were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen stable isotope
ratios. Although the Chalcolithic remains are from the
island of Formentera, the rest of the samples are from
Ibiza. As these islands have been subjected to numerous
waves of human colonization, the aim of this research
was to characterize if and to what extent the dietary
patterns of the inhabitants of the closely related islands
of Formentera and Ibiza changed through different periods of human occupation. In particular, because these
sites are located on islands in the middle of the western
Mediterranean Sea, this study was conducted to understand the possible extent and importance that marine
dietary resources may have played in the food economy
of these ancient inhabitants.
C 2010
V
WILEY-LISS, INC.
C
Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Archaeological, historical, and
geographical background
Formentera and Ibiza are part of the archipelago
known as the Balearic Islands, Spain. The Balearic
Islands themselves can be further divided into the Gymnesic islands (mainly Majorca and Minorca plus surrounding islets) and the Pityuses (Ibiza, and Formentera
plus surrounding islets). This division, geologically recognized due to an undersea channel about 80-km wide
that separates Ibiza from Majorca (Naval Intelligence
Additional supporting information may be found in the online version of this article.
Grant sponsor: British Academy.
*Correspondence to: Benjamin T. Fuller, Department of Human
Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology,
Deutscher Platz 6, Leipzig 04103, Germany.
E-mail: ben_fuller@eva.mpg.de
Received 6 October 2009; accepted 13 April 2010
DOI 10.1002/ajpa.21334
Published online 1 June 2010 in Wiley Online Library
(wileyonlinelibrary.com).
513
CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA
forces conquered the island in 902 AD. In 1,235 AD, the
island was taken over by the Christian forces of the
Crown of Aragon. For a description of the postmedieval
period, see Joan i Marı́ (1997).
Palaeodietary reconstruction using stable
isotope ratio analysis
Fig. 1. Map showing the location of the Pityuses and Gymnesic Islands in the western Mediterranean Sea. The location of
the archaeological sites studies on the islands Formentera (Ca
na Costa: c.2000 BC) and Ibiza (Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort:
5th–2nd/1st centuries BC; Via Romana 47: 5th–2nd/1st centuries BC; S’Hort des Llimoners: 3rd–7th centuries AD; Es Soto:
10th–13th centuries AD), Spain are display on the enlarged portion of the map.
Division, 1941), is associated with historical, genetic,
and ecological differences between the two island groups
(Palmer et al., 1999).
Because Ibiza and Formentera are only 6-km apart,
they share similar trends in terms of geography, ecology,
and history. These islands are located in the western
part of the Mediterranean Sea, 80 km off the eastern
coast of Spain, 100 km from Majorca, and around 450
km from the northern coast of Africa (Fig. 1). Ibiza’s
land surface area, together with its surrounding islets, is
estimated to be between 541 and 570 km2, with a maximum length and width of 41 km and 21 km, respectively
(Vallès Costa, 2000). In contrast, Formentera’s surface
area, including its smaller surrounding islands, is estimated to be between 81.70 and 83.20 km2 with a maximum length and width of 20 and 5 km, respectively
(Prats i Serra and Marı́ i Mayans, 1999).
The strategic location of the Pityuses, and particularly
Ibiza, in the western Mediterranean Sea has made them
important centers for trade and commerce during their
history. Recent research from pottery typology and radiocarbon dates indicates that Ibiza was first colonized by
humans in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC (Costa
and Benito, 2000; Costa and Guerrero, 2001). Around
the 8th century BC, the Phoenicians established a small
coastal settlement on Ibiza (Ramon, 2003). During the
6th century, the islands came under the economic and
political control of the city of Carthage, North Africa,
and this period from the 6th to the 2nd or 1st century
BC is now referred to as the Carthaginian or Punic
period (Aubet, 1995). After the fall of Carthage to Roman
forces in 146 BC, Ibiza became a confederate city of
Rome and remained under Roman influence for several
centuries until the period of the Vandal occupation of
455–534 AD, which was subsequently followed by the
Byzantine period in the 6th–7th centuries AD (Ramon,
1995). There is a gap in historical knowledge from the
7th century until the 10th century AD, when Islamic
Stable isotope ratio analysis is primarily used to identify the source of protein consumed by an individual over
the course of his or her life. The isotopic composition of a
dietary item is incorporated into body tissues (hair, muscle, blood, bones, etc) with a known fractionation pattern, and analysis of these tissues allows the direct
reconstruction of past dietary habits (Kohn, 1999; Katzenberg, 2000; Lee-Thorp, 2008). In archaeological
research, bone collagen is routinely analyzed for its carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) stable isotope ratios,
because the collagen is primarily all that remains of the
organic portion of the skeleton after burial. The results
obtained from stable isotope ratio analysis are semiquantitative and mainly reflect the origin of the protein portion of the diet averaged over the entire lifetime of an
individual including a significant amount of collagen
from the period of adolescence (Stenhouse and Baxter,
1979; Hedges et al., 2007). Stable isotope results are
analyzed as the ratio of the heavier isotope to the lighter
isotope (13C/12C or 15N/14N) and reported as d values in
parts per 1,000 or ‘‘per mil’’ (%) relative to internationally defined standards for carbon (Vienna Pee Dee
Belemnite, VPDB) and nitrogen (Ambient Inhalable Reservoir, AIR) (Schwarcz and Schoeninger, 1991).
In Europe, d13C values are primarily used to identify
the consumption of marine protein resources and C3
plant protein diets (most vegetables, fruits, and wheat)
(Schwarcz and Schoeninger, 1991; Lee-Thorp, 2008).
Nitrogen isotope ratios are mainly used to determine
trophic level position or the amount of plant versus animal protein in the diet. With each ascending step of the
food chain, d15N values increase by 3–5% relative to
the diet (DeNiro and Epstein, 1981; Schoeninger and
DeNiro, 1984; Sponheimer et al., 2003); but see Hedges
and Reynard (2007) for a review of the complexity and
uncertainty associated with nitrogen isotope ratios in
bone collagen. This phenomenon is known as the
‘‘trophic level effect’’ and has been used in numerous ecological and palaeodietary studies to identify dietary
patterns such as humans who eat more animal protein
(carnivores and omnivores) compared to plant protein
(vegetarians and vegans) (Bol and Pflieger, 2002; Petzke
et al., 2005). For detailed reviews of stable isotope ratio
analysis applied to archaeology, see Schwarcz and Schoeninger (1991), Schoeninger (1995), Katzenberg (2000),
and Lee-Thorp (2008).
Sites
The human skeletal samples for this study come from
five sites. These are described below and range in age
from the Chalcolithic to the Medieval period. The Chalcolithic samples come from Formentera and are the oldest found in the Pityuses. The remaining four sites come
from the island of Ibiza; three of these are urban; and
one is rural. The total number of individuals chosen for
sampling from all of the sites was 135.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
514
B.T. FULLER ET AL.
The Chalcolithic remains: Ca na Costa
(Formentera), c. 2000 BC
The earliest evidence of human remains from the Pityuses is from the excavations at the important Chalcolithic site of Ca na Costa (see Fig. 1) in Formentera (Fernández-Gomez et al., 1988). The site of Ca na Costa is
characterized by a megalithic sepulcher, built from stone
slabs that form a circular structure with a main chamber and a corridor. Discovered in the 1974 by Manuel
Sorà, the site has been recently re-dated to c. 2,000 BC
making it, at present, the oldest megalithic burial monument in the Balearic Islands (Costa and Guerrero, 2001).
During excavations, a quantity of disarticulated bone
was recovered representing a minimum of eight individuals (Gómez-Bellard and Reverte, 1988).
Punic rural necropolis: Ses Paı̈sses de Cala
d’Hort (Ibiza), 5th–2nd/1st centuries BC
The Punic rural necropolis of Ses Paı̈sses de Cala
d’Hort is located on the southwest portion of the island
of Ibiza (see Fig. 1). Individuals were interred in rock
cut tombs or hypogea between the 5th–2nd/1st centuries
BC (Ramon, 1995). The site, consisting of 18 tombs, was
first excavated in 1917 by Carlos Román Ferrer (Román,
1920), although the most recent excavations took place
in the 1990s under the direction of Joan Ramon Torres.
During the 1917 excavation, the archaeological and
scientific value of the human remains was not fully
appreciated. Thus, after the removal of the archaeological artifacts from the tombs, the human remains were
left disturbed and commingled. Osteological analysis has
estimated that a minimum of 75 individuals were buried
at this site, and 38 individuals were randomly selected
for isotopic analysis (Márquez-Grant, unpublished thesis,
2006).
Punic urban necropolis: Puig des Molins,
5th–2nd/1st centuries BC
The Punic urban cemetery of Puig des Molins is a
World Heritage Site. The cemetery was in use from the
7th century BC with Phoenician cremations to the 13th
century AD with Islamic burials (Fernández, 1986; Costa
and Fernández, 2003a,b). It was during the 5th to 4th
centuries BC that the cemetery experienced a period of
maximum usage (Fernández, 1986; Costa and Fernández, 2003a,b), and the area of use in Punic times covered
at least 50,000 m2 (Costa and Fernández, 2003b). All the
skeletal remains analyzed for this study are from one
excavated sector of the site known as Via Romana 47
(Fig. 1). The Via Romana 47 site is 75 m2 and is situated on a slope in the southern part of the present capital city of Eivissa (or Ibiza). It is located 51 m above sea
level and 500 m from the old town (Gurrea and Ramon,
unpublished manuscript).
Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine necropolis: S’Hort
des Llimoners (Ibiza), 4th–6th centuries AD
The site of S’Hort des Llimoners is located on the
southern part of Ibiza just outside of the modern city of
Eivissa (Fig. 1). This urban cemetery covers an area of
1,000 m2 and was the subject of a rescue excavation in
1998 directed by Joan Ramon Torres (Ramon-Torres
et al., 2005). The graves surround two funerary
structures, located at either side of a main Roman road
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
running north–south. Radiocarbon dates indicate that
the cemetery was in use from the 3rd to 7th century AD,
but the bulk of the tombs are dated between the 4th–6th
centuries AD (Ramon-Torres et al., 2005). A total of 60
skeletons were isotopically analyzed from this location
(Márquez-Grant, unpublished thesis).
Medieval Islamic necropolis: Es Soto (Ibiza),
10th–13th centuries AD
The Islamic necropolis of Es Soto is located on the
southern part of the island of Ibiza and outside the old
city walls of Eivissa (Fig. 1). A total of 24 adult skeletons
were recovered during a rescue excavation in 1997 under
the direction of Joan Ramon Torres, and 21 of these skeletons were selected for isotopic analysis. From the burial
position and contextual evidence, the burials have been
dated to the Islamic Medieval period between the 10th
and 13th centuries AD. The burials were positioned with
the heads on the south/southeast side of the grave and
faced toward Mecca, and apart from some pottery, no
grave goods were recovered. The skeletal remains have
been subjected to osteological examination by MárquezGrant (1999, 2000).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The calculation of the minimum number of individuals
and the age and sex of the skeletons was determined
according to standard methods [e.g., Buikstra and Ubelaker, 1994; Brickley and McKinley, 2004; for a detailed
methodology, see Márquez-Grant (unpublished thesis)].
Because of the commingled and disarticulated nature of
the skeletons from Ca na Costa and Ses Paı̈sses de Cala
d’Hort, specific age and sex information on the samples
submitted for analysis was not possible for the adult
([18 years) samples.
Collagen was isolated from fauna (total n 5 75; cattle
n 5 7, pigs n 5 4, sheep/goats n 5 28, dogs n 5 24, birds
n 5 5, and cats n 5 7) and individual human (n 5 135)
bone samples at the Department of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bradford, using the protocol outlined
in Richards and Hedges (1999), modified to include a
final stage of ultrafiltration before lyopholization as
described in Brown et al. (1988). The extracted collagen
was generally very well preserved, and all the samples
reported here had collagen yields of over 1% and C:N
ratios between 2.9 and 3.6, which is indicative of collagen suitable for isotopic analysis (DeNiro, 1985). The
purified collagen was then placed in tin capsules and
combusted in duplicate in separate runs to CO2 and N2
in an automated carbon and nitrogen analyzer (Carlo
Erba) coupled to a continuous-flow isotope ratio-monitoring mass spectrometry (PDZ Europa Geo 20/20). Replicate measurement errors on known standards were less
than 60.2% for both 13C and 15N.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A summary of the faunal isotope data by time period
is given in Tables 1 and 2 and plotted in Figure 2 with
the complete values listed in Table S1. The faunal samples were analyzed to create an isotopic map of the local
food-web for the interpretation of the human diets. The
assorted fauna samples are from the Chalcolithic, Punic,
Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine and the Islamic periods.
Although the sample size is small and not all species are
present in the three time periods, no significant differen-
515
CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA
13
TABLE 1. Mean d C results for the fauna from Ibiza and Formentera, Spain arranged by the different time periods
Time period
Cow d13C(%)
Pig d13C(%)
Chalcolithic
Punic
Late Antiquity-Byzantine
Islamic
Total mean 6 SD
all time periods
220.6*
NA
220.1 6 0.3
220.3 6 0.1
220.3 6 0.2
NA
221.1*
220.8 6 0.0
219.7*
220.6 6 0.6
Sheep/goat d13C(%)
NA
219.7 6
219.9 6
219.8 6
219.8 6
0.8
0.8
0.7
0.8
Bird d13C(%)
Cat d13C(%)
Dog d13C(%)
NA
NA
NA
219.0 6 0.6
219.0 6 0.6
NA
NA
NA
219.0 6 0.1
219.0 6 0.1
NA
NA
219.0*
218.8 6 0.3
218.8 6 0.3
Standard deviations are included where there is more than one individual sample.
* 5 only one sample.
TABLE 2. Mean d15N results for the fauna from Ibiza and Formentera, Spain arranged by the different time periods
Time period
Chalcolithic
Punic
Late Antiquity-Byzantine
Islamic
Total mean 6 SD all time periods
Cow d15N(%)
Pig d15N(%)
Sheep/goat d15N(%)
Bird d15N(%)
Cat d15N(%)
Dog d15N(%)
7.8*
NA
7.5 6 0.4
8.1 6 0.3
7.8 6 0.4
NA
4.8*
5.8 6 0.4
5.1*
5.4 6 0.6
NA
5.6 6 2.1
5.5 6 1.4
6.5 6 2.3
6.0 6 2.0
NA
NA
NA
8.0 6 0.4
8.0 6 0.4
NA
NA
NA
9.4 6 0.4
9.4 6 0.4
NA
NA
9.2*
10.3 6 0.6
10.3 6 0.7
Standard deviations are included where there is more than one individual sample.
* 5 only one sample.
values have been used to indicate that the cattle were
kept in pens or enclosures, because their manure would
increase the d15N values of the soil, and thus the plants
that the cattle were consuming (Commisso and Nelson,
2006, 2007). It is interesting to note that the mean d15N
values of the pigs (5.4%) and the sheep/goats (6.0%) are
not as elevated as the cattle, and this could indicate that
the pigs and the sheep/goats were free to roam and graze
on plants across the settlement.
Chalcolithic diet
Fig. 2. Plot of mean 6 SD results for the adult human and
faunal bones collagen d13C and d15N values from the islands of
Ibiza and Formetera, Spain.
ces were found between the faunal stable isotope values
from the different eras. The d13C faunal results have a
range of 3% (218.1% to 221.1%), which indicates that
the majority of the animals were consuming a terrestrial
C3 diet with some animals having a noticeable input of
C4 resources (possibly millet) in their diet (some sheep/
goats, dogs, and birds during the Islamic period). In
addition, the dogs from the Islamic era have the most
13
C-enriched (218.8 6 0.3) and 15N-enriched (10.3 6 0.6)
values of all the animals, and this suggests that they
were possibly feeding on human refuse, which had a
component of C4-influenced protein. It is difficult to compare and comment upon the diet of the dogs from other
time periods, because only one other dog from the Late
Antiquity-Byzantine time period was recovered.
In contrast to other sites that have been isotopically
analyzed in Europe (Müldner and Richards, 2005; Jay
and Richards, 2006; Richards et al., 2006), the average
d15N values of the cows are more elevated (7.8 6 0.4%)
than expected (Table 2). In other studies, enriched 15N
A summary of the data for the Chalcolithic humans
from the site of Ca na Costa on Formentera is given in
Tables 3 and 4 and plotted in Figures 2 and 3a,b. The
eight adults display a narrow range of d13C values
(218.4% to 219.2%), but a wide range of d15N values
(9.5% to 15.0%) (Table S2). The isotopic evidence, in
particular, the mean d15N results (12.7 6 1.6%) reveal
that these individuals likely had the highest animal and/
or fish protein intake of all the populations studied.
However, the source of this protein (marine or terrestrial) is somewhat ambiguous and open to interpretation
and debate at the present time [see Müldner and
Richards (2007) and Craig et al. (2009)]. Although
15
N-enriched, the Chalcolithic individuals are not
13
C-enriched, and this indicates that the diet was predominately terrestrial based with the major sources of
protein likely cows, sheep/goats, and birds, but with a
possible minor input of marine dietary resources such as
fish. In contrast, humans with elevated d15N values but
with terrestrial d13C values have been interpreted as
consuming a diet rich in carbohydrates and lipids such
as cereals, wine, and olive oil (sources of the d13C values)
with the addition of significant amounts of marine
resources (sources of the d15N values) such as hightrophic level fish (Prowse et al., 2004, 2005; Craig et al.,
2009). As detailed archaeological studies of diet (faunal
remains, excavated food residues, etc) are lacking from
this time period (as well as from the other time periods
on Formentera and Ibiza), it is difficult to make firm
conclusions about the source of this dietary protein.
Excavations at Ca na Costa have revealed some mollusk
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
516
B.T. FULLER ET AL.
13
TABLE 3. Statistical summary of the d C results for the humans from Ibiza and Formentera, Spain arranged by the different time
periods
Statistics
Chalcolithic
d13C(%)
Punic
(rural) d13C(%)
Punic
(urban) d13C(%)
Late Antiquity-Byzantine
d13C(%)
Islamic
d13C(%)
No. of individuals
Minimum
Maximum
Mean 6 SD
8
219.2
218.4
218.9 6 0.2
38
219.3
218.3
218.7 6 0.3
8
219.2
218.4
218.8 6 0.3
60
219.9
218.0
219.0 6 0.4
21
219.4
213.1
218.1 6 1.3
TABLE 4. Statistical summary of the d15N results for the humans from Ibiza and Formentera, Spain arranged by the different time
periods
Statistics
No. of individuals
Minimum
Maximum
Mean 6 SD
Chalcolithic
d15N(%)
Punic
(rural) d15N(%)
Punic
(urban) d15N(%)
Late Antiquity-Byzantine
d15N(%)
Islamic
d15N(%)
8
9.5
15.0
12.7 6 1.6
38
10.8
13.3
12.5 6 0.5
8
10.4
12.7
11.3 6 0.7
60
8.3
13.6
11.1 6 1.1
21
8.5
12.5
10.9 6 1.0
Fig. 3. (a) Plot of mean 6 SD results for the adult human
collagen d13C values from the different populations studied
through time on Ibiza and Formentera, Spain. (b) Plot of mean
6 SD results for the adult human collagen d15N values from the
different populations studied through time on Ibiza and Formetera, Spain.
deposits and marine bird skeletons (puffins, B. Costa,
personal communication), which could account for the
minor marine component to the diet in the d13C values,
but these are low-trophic level dietary items and
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
unlikely to have caused the elevated d15N values in the
Chalcolithic humans.
At this point, on the basis of the limited forms of evidence, we interpret the d13C and d15N values as reflecting a diet that was primarily based on terrestrial protein
resources with the consumption of a small amount of
marine foods. This lack of a significant consumption of
marine protein is further supported by the fact that isotopic analysis of both modern and archaeological fish
bones (grouper, pandora, barracuda, and moray eel) from
Formentera has enriched 13C (28.3% to 214.1%) and
15
N (7.8% to 11.4%) values (Garcia-Guixé et al., 2010).
Thus, we would have expected humans consuming these
marine fish to display the typical 13C-enrichment that
has been documented in other populations (Walker and
DeNiro, 1986; Richards et al., 2006). In addition, the
prevalence of dental caries in the population of Ca na
Costa is the lowest among the different periods for which
data are available [see Márquez-Grant (Márquez-Grant,
unpublished thesis)]. This low-caries rate (\2%) has
been interpreted as reflecting a high-protein diet with
only a minor amount of carbohydrates (Gómez-Bellard
and Reverte, 1988; Sealy and van der Merwe, 1988; Littleton and Frohlich, 1993). An inverse correlation
between the frequency of caries and marine food consumption has been documented in many coastal populations (Walker, 1978; Costa, 1980; Arnay-de-la-Rosa et al.,
2009b), because the consumption of protein rich marine
foods such as fish contain high levels of fluoride, which
can inhibit the formation of caries (Sealy and van der
Merwe, 1988). However, if these low rates of caries in
the Chalcolithic population reflect a high-marine protein
diet with a small amount of carbohydrates, then we
would also expect to observe 13C-enriched values in the
population as the carbon would be mainly originating
from the protein portion of the diet and not from carbohydrates as postulated by Prowse et al. (2004). Thus,
these low rates of caries coupled with the terrestrial
d13C values and high-d15N values suggest a high-protein
diet that was terrestrial based. This is especially true
when other sites from the Punic, Roman, and Medieval
periods are compared to the Chalcolithic period (Márquez-Grant, unpublished thesis). In these latter periods,
there is a likely increase in carbohydrate consumption,
which correlates with an increase in dental caries. Yet,
517
CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA
caution is warranted in the interpretation of these
results as the small number of individuals studied (n 5
8), and the fact that caries rates and tooth-wear are
influenced by age (for which we could not account in
these disarticulated remains) make dietary comparisons
between the sites difficult. A more detailed study of the
oral pathology through the ages on Formentera and
Ibiza is an area of current research.
The reason for the elevated d15N values in some of
these Chalcolithic individuals is unknown due to the
lack of available data on fauna from this period (only
one cow/bovid bone could be sampled for this study),
but it could indicate the consumption of an unknown
terrestrial dietary item or a diet containing juvenile
animals that had not been fully weaned and thus 15Nenriched (Jay and Richards, 2006). It is also possible
that these 15N-enriched values in the Chalcolithic
humans are indicative of the consumption of animals
that grazed on salt marsh plant species, because this
can result in an environmental baseline enrichment of
the 15N values (Britton et al., 2008). It is significant to
note that the large range of d15N values (5.5%) in these
eight individuals mirrors the large range of d15N values
(7.1%) in the sheep/goats from the Late Antiquity-Early
Byzantine and the Islamic periods. Although it is speculative at this point to make a dietary interpretation
due to the lack of sheep/goat remains recovered from
the Chalcolithic, this observed large range in the sheep/
goats does suggest the possibility that the high d15N of
the humans could have been the result of the consumption of terrestrial animals such as sheep/goats. Because
one of these sheep/goat bones produced a d15N value of
10.3% (IB-A-41) and given the assumed 15N tropic level
fractionation factor of 3–5% (Hedges and Reynard,
2007), it is certainly possible that the Chalcolithic individual with a d15N value of 15.0% had diet based primarily on terrestrial foods without a significant input
of marine foods. This lack of consumption of marine
foods has also been observed in isotopic studies from
Majorca (Davis, 2002;Van Strydonck et al., 2002, 2005;
Garcia et al., 2004) and the Mediterranean region in
general (Craig et al., 2006). Ultimately, this debate
about the terrestrial versus marine origin of dietary
protein in humans from the Mediterranean with elevated d15N values and terrestrial d13C values needs to
be settled with additional research from sites that have
a large and diverse collection of animal and fish
remains. In addition, new isotopic techniques such as
sulfur (d34S) (Richards et al., 2001) and the analysis of
carbon (Corr et al., 2005; Smith et al., 2009) and nitrogen (Styring et al., 2010; Naito et al., in press) single
amino acids has the potential to glean more detailed dietary information from this site, and this is an area of
current research. Also, it should be noted that these
high-nitrogen values from Formentera were also documented by previous work on two skeletal samples (d13C
5 218.7% and 218.8%; d15N 5 9.1% and 12.7%,
respectively) from the same site (Van Strydonck et al.,
2002, 2005), but due to the small sample size no further interpretation was possible.
Punic diet
A summary of the results from the rural Punic site of
Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort is given in Tables 3 and 4
with the complete results in Table S2 and plotted in
Figures 2 and 3a,b. The individuals from this site have a
13
15
mean d C value of 218.7% and a mean d N value of
12.5%. These results indicate that the dietary sources
were primarily C3 terrestrial with the likely input of a
small amount of marine protein. A comparison of the frequency of dental caries from several different rural Punic settlements across Ibiza indicate that the diet was
likely homogeneous as the level of dental caries (12.8%;
Márquez-Grant, 2009) and oral pathology (MárquezGrant, unpublished thesis) was similar in these populations.
The data from the urban Punic section known as Via
Romana 47, part of the large necropolis of Puig des
Molins, are presented in Tables 3 and 4 and Table S2
and plotted in Figures 2 and 3a,b. The d13C values range
from 218.4% to 219.2%, and the d15N values range
from 10.4% to 12.7%. The urban Punic mean d13C values (218.8 6 0.3) are nearly identical to the rural Punic
mean d13C values (218.7 6 0.3) and were not found to
be statistically significant (ANOVA ad hoc Bonferroni
test; P value 5 0.463). In contrast, the mean d15N values
are lower in the adult urban population (11.3 6 0.7%)
compared to the adult rural population (12.5 6 0.5%),
and this was found to be statistically significant (ANOVA
ad hoc Bonferroni test; P value 5 0.002). Although these
results suggest that the rural Punic individuals had
more animal-based proteins in their diet, it is difficult to
compare and contrast these two populations, because
only eight individuals were isotopically analyzed from
the site of Via Romana 47, and thus a larger number of
measurements are needed from this population. Again
the diet for the urban Punic individuals is based mainly
on C3 terrestrial protein sources with only a minor component from marine foods.
Unfortunately, there are no excavated food residues
from these sites, but if historical accounts and archaeological evidence are examined, it is possible to obtain a
better understanding of the food resources that were
likely consumed. The Greek historian Diodorus of Sicily,
wrote about how Ibiza’s production in Punic times, was
noted for its wool, wine, and olive oil (Tarradell and
Font, 1975), and Pliny refers to the high quality of figs
grown on Ibiza (Ramon, 1995). Archaeological evidence
confirms olive oil production and the preparation of cereal using mills, and this suggests that these items were
likely consumed by the Punic population (Ramon, 1995).
A limited number of fishing implements were found from
this time period, but it has been argued that fishing was
only a secondary activity and people largely lived of the
land (Ramon, 1995).
Zooarchaeological evidence from Spanish sites from
the Phoenician and Punic period indicate that there is
a clear domination of goat/sheep remains over other
animals such as cows, horses, pigs, and dogs
(Riquelme-Cantal, 2001; Iborra et al., 2003). Analysis of
dog remains from Ibiza reveals cut-marks that might
indicate their consumption by humans (Saña, 1994),
and other contemporary sites in Spain also suggest possible dog consumption [see Niveau de Villedary and
Ferrer (2004)]. Documentary evidence has shown, however, that bans were imposed on dog consumption in
the 5th century BC, which suggests that dogs were previously eaten by at least some members of Punic
society (Saña, 1994). The possible consumption of pigs
during the Punic period is also of interest. Historical
sources indicate that the Phoenicians and Punic people
did not eat pork, but the high representation of pig
remains recovered in habitation contexts from Punic
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
518
B.T. FULLER ET AL.
Fig. 4. (a) Mean 6 SD d13C bone collagen values plotted
against estimated age at death categories (n 5 5 for 0–1 years;
n 5 10 for 1–5 years; n 5 2 for 5–10 years; n 5 8 for 10–15
years; n 5 1 for 15–20 years; n 5 10 for 20–30 years; n 5 4 for
501 years) for the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine population
from Ibiza, Spain. (b) Mean 6 SD 15N bone collagen values
plotted against estimated age at death categories (n 5 5 for 0–1
years; n 5 10 for 1–5 years; n 5 2 for 5–10 years; n 5 8 for 10–
15 years; n 5 1 for 15–20 years; n 5 10 for 20–30 years; n 5 4
for 501 years) for the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine population from Ibiza, Spain.
Ibiza seems to suggest that pigs were consumed
(Ramon, 1994; Morales-Pérez, 2003). In addition, ostrich
eggs from North Africa were a common feature of the
grave goods recovered in Punic tombs from Ibiza [see
Astruc (1957)]. Their presence in the tombs, however,
was likely for ritual or funerary purposes, and it seems
unlikely that these animals and/or their eggs were consumed.
Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine diet
13
The d C and d15N values for the Late AntiquityEarly Byzantine site of S’Hort des Llimoners are presented in Tables 3 and 4 and Table S2 and plotted Figures 2 and 3a,b. The range of d13C values for this population is 218.0% to 219.7%, and the range of d15N values is 8.3% to 12.6%. The mean d13C (219.0 6 0.4%)
results indicate that the majority of the protein consumed was C3 terrestrial in origin, but the individuals
with d13C values near 218% show an input of C4 or
marine-based protein in the diet. In addition, the mean
d13C value of this Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine population was found to be significantly different from the
rural Punic population (218.7 6 0.3%) using an
ANOVA ad hoc Bonferroni test; P-value 5 0.005.
Future work with a more suitable sample collection,
where disturbance and taphonomic factors affecting the
bones are minimal, may examine dietary variation
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
according to sex and burial practices as was the case
with Richards et al. (1998).
The data from the site of S’Hort des Llimoners are
also plotted with respect to age in Figure 4a,b. The
mean d13C values in the age range 0–1 (218.7 6
0.3%) and 1–5 years (218.8 6 0.5%) are elevated compared to the other age categories. In addition, the
mean d15N values in the age range 0–1 (11.7 6 1.7%)
and 1–5 years (11.7 6 1.1%) are also elevated compared to the other age categories. These 13C and 15Nenriched mean values in the infants and young children are possibly influenced by the consumption of
breast milk (Schurr, 1998; Fuller et al., 2006a), but as
these values are not statistically significant from the
other age categories this interpretation is tenuous.
During adolescence (the 10–15 years and 15–20 years
age categories), the mean d13C and d15N values show a
decreasing trend, and this is possibly linked to a different diet with less meat protein and more terrestrial
plant consumption during this period, but the results
are not statistically significant and further analysis is
unwarranted. However, it should be noted that previous isotopic research has shown a similar trend in
other archaeological populations with children and adolescents consuming less meat in the diet compared to
the adults (Tuross and Fogel, 1994; Richards et al.,
2002; Fuller et al., 2006b).
The isotopic evidence indicates that the diet during
the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine Period on Ibiza was
predominately C3 terrestrial based. This is in agreement
with the findings from other isotopic studies from the
Balearic Islands during the same time period (Garcı́a et
al., 2004). During the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine
Period on Ibiza, there seems to be a dominant presence
of terrestrial animal remains, especially goats as
observed during excavation (Ramon, 1995), although no
detailed zooarchaeological study has been undertaken
yet on these remains. In addition, there are no excavated food residues or archaeological studies of diet from
this site. Extrapolating from other areas in Europe, the
individuals interred in the necropolis of S’Hort des
Llimoners likely had a terrestrial-based diet that
included bread, legumes, vegetables, and perhaps some
supplements of cheese, olives, fruit, fish, and wine
(Karpozilos and Kazhdan, 1991). Regarding meat, there
was a probable increase in pork consumption with
Romanization [see King (2001)].
It is interesting to note that the isotopic dietary evidence is supported by historical sources. The Greeks and
Romans believed that people who depended upon the sea
were very poor, because reliance on sea resources was
perceived as a sign of need and poverty (Purcell, 1995).
However, this view was not embraced by the upper class
and elite of these societies as fish and shellfish were considered expensive or luxury items (Purcell, 1995; Garcı́aVargas, 2001). In addition, the consumption of garum or
fish sauce was popular in the upper classes (Curtis,
1991), and it would be interesting to see how it may
have influenced the isotopic values on Ibiza, but see
Prowse et al. (2004) for garum and isotopic values from
Italy. Isotopic results from the Roman site of Poundbury
on the southwestern coast of England support this paradoxical view of marine diet in Roman society,
because individuals considered elite and buried in highstatus tombs had isotopic values more indicative of a
marine protein diet compared to the general population
(Richards et al., 1998).
CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA
519
Islamic diet
CONCLUSIONS
The data from the Islamic necropolis of Es Soto are
given in Tables 3 and 4 and Table S2 and graphed in
Figures 2 and 3a,b. In contrast to the other societies
that inhabited the Pityuses, the population of Ibiza during the Islamic period display a significant increase in
reliance on C4 plants and/or animals raised on a C4based diet. The d13C (213.1% to 219.4%) and d15N (8.5–
12.5%) results exhibit a wide range of values, with some
individuals exhibiting an exclusive C3 terrestrial protein
diet (ES-T15) and others showing a C4-dominated plant
and/or animal protein diet (ES-T18-2). The mean d13C
value (218.1 6 1.3%) of the individuals from Es Soto
was found to be significantly different from all of the
other populations using an ANOVA ad hoc Bonferroni
test (Chalcolithic vs. Islamic, P-value 5 0.002; Punic rural vs. Islamic, P-value 5 0.001, Punic urban vs. Islamic,
P-value 5 0.004, Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine,
P-value \0.0001), and this confirms the large breadth of
dietary diversity during this period (Fig. 3a). In addition,
the mean d15N value (10.9 6 1.0%) of the individuals
from Es Soto was found to be significantly different from
the Chalcolithic (Chalcolithic vs. Islamic, P-value
\0.0001) and the rural Punic (Punic rural vs. Islamic,
P-value \ 0.0001) but not the urban Punic (Punic urban
vs. Islamic, P-value 5 0.337) or the Late Antiquity-Early
Byzantine (Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine, P-value 5
0.420) populations using an ANOVA adhoc Bonferroni
test (Fig. 3b). Some of the sheep/goats and birds display
evidence of being fed a C4 diet, and these were likely
some of the sources of the C4-based animal protein in
the Islamic diet on Ibiza. At present, it is unknown if
the predominately C4 diet of ES-T18-2 was acquired
before or after arriving in Ibiza and future work on sulfur isotope ratios, which can track migration patterns,
may help address this question (Richards et al., 2001).
Again there is an unfortunate lack of excavated food
residues or archaeological studies of diet from this site.
According to historical sources, the most popular meats
in the Islamic diet were young goat, lamb, and chicken,
whereas pork was rarely mentioned in the medical and
dietary works of Islamic authors (Garcı́a-Sánchez, 2002).
A review of the documentary sources on medieval
Islamic Spain by Garcı́a-Sánchez (2002) suggests that
variation in diet can be linked to socioeconomic factors.
For instance, while legumes were the foodstuffs for the
poor who had a predominantly cereal economy, fish was
enjoyed by the upper classes of Al-Andalus. However, in
coastal areas and settlements near rivers where fish
were plentiful, fish became a popular substitute in the
lower classes for the more expensive meats (Garcı́aSánchez, 2002). Regarding further protein intake, eggs,
milk, and milk products were consumed by all segments
of the population.
These isotopic results shed additional light on how the
inhabitants of Ibiza and Spain changed during the period of Islamic rule. It is well established that the wave
of North African Berber and Arab immigrants had a dramatic impact on the culture and language of Iberia, but
this study is the first to directly document a change in
subsistence strategies during this time period from skeletal remains. This dietary component to the Islamization
of Spain needs to be verified by additional isotopic work
from other sites on the Balearic Islands and the mainland to enable a better understanding of the cultural
and demographic impact that the Islamic Period had on
Spanish identity and Iberian history.
Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured on bone collagen extracted from fauna and human
samples and from four chronological periods (Chalcolithic, Punic, Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine, and
Islamic) of populations that inhabited the islands of
Ibiza and Formentera, Spain. The focus of this research
was to examine how the food economies of these different societies changed through time. Given the fact that
the sites were located on islands, it was surprising that
all the societies studied exhibited isotopic values indicative of little marine protein consumption, but this is consistent with the low consumption of marine resources on
islands that has also been documented on the Canary
Islands (Tieszen et al., 1992; Arnay-de-la-Rosa et al.,
2009a) and Majorca (Davis, 2002; Van Strydonck et al.,
2002, 2005; Garcia et al., 2004) and the Mediterranean
in general (Craig et al., 2006).
The eight Chalcolithic skeletons studied from the site
of Ca na Costa in Formentera had d13C results that
mainly indicated the consumption of a C3 terrestrial protein diet. The interpretation of the d15N values from
these individuals is less clear, but these results were the
highest of the populations studied. This could suggest a
high-protein diet that was based on marine protein
(high-trophic level fish), the consumption of an unknown
terrestrial animal (sheep/goats) dietary component, or
the fact that animals were raised on plants grown in a
salt marsh environment. At the moment, we interpret
the d13C and d15N values as reflecting a Chalcolithic diet
that was based primarily on terrestrial protein resources
with the consumption of a small amount of marine foods.
Because of a lack of faunal remains or other forms of
archaeological dietary evidence from the same period, it
is impossible to be more specific about the sources of
food during this time period. The d13C and d15N results
from the urban and rural Punic populations on Ibiza
indicate that the primary protein sources were C3 terrestrial, with the likely input of a small amount of marine
protein. The individuals buried in the Late AntiquityEarly Byzantine necropolis of S’Hort des Llimoners
displayed isotopic values consistent with a primarily C3
terrestrial diet. It also seems that there was a more noticeable, albeit small, addition of C4 and/or marine foods
in the Late Antiquity-Early Byzantine population when
compared with the Chalcolithic and Punic societies. The
Islamic population displayed the most unique dietary
pattern with a significant increase in reliance on C4
plants and/or C4-fed animals. These results indicating a
shift to a C4-based diet on Ibiza are highly significant,
and more research is required from other Islamic populations in and around Spain to make sure this finding is
unique to the island of Ibiza.
In conclusion, this research project represents the
largest and most detailed isotopic study of dietary habits
on the Pityuses. Although the results of this study are
limited in terms of the specific foods that can be identified, the diachronic nature of this research has illustrated how different societies have adapted various subsistence strategies to survive on these strategically vital
islands in the western Mediterranean. However, the
interpretation and discussion of the isotopic results are
supported when combined with other forms of evidence
such as dental caries and historical sources. This combination of available information about an archaeological
site creates a clearer picture of how individuals lived
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
520
B.T. FULLER ET AL.
and survived in the past. Finally, it is hoped that this
research will provide useful comparative isotopic information for other studies in the Mediterranean and that
this project stimulates future work on skeletal remains
from Ibiza and other western and central Mediterranean
islands with similar historical backgrounds.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Mandy Jay is thanked for help with collagen preparation and isotopic analysis. Olaf Nehlich, Kate Britton,
and Roger Mundry are thanked for help with the statistical analysis. Andrew Lukkonen is thanked for the help
with the map production and editing. Access to the Ibiza
material was granted by B. Costa and J. Fernández from
the Museu Arqueològic d’Eivissa i Formentera for the
samples from Ca na Costa, Joan Ramon from the Consell
Insular d’Eivissa i Formentera for the samples from Ses
Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort, S’Hort des Llimoners and Es
Soto and Rosa Gurrea (Ajuntament d’Eivissa) and Joan
Ramon for the samples from the Punic urban site of Via
Romana 47 and most of the faunal remains. Finally, we
thank two anonymous reviewers and the Associate Editor for their detailed comments and suggestions on an
earlier form of this manuscript.
LITERATURE CITED
Arnay-de-la-Rosa M, Gámez-Mendoza A, Navarro-Mederos JF,
Hernandez-Marreo JC, Fregel R, Yanes Y, Galindo-Martin L,
Romanek CS, González-Reimers E. 2009a. Dietary patterns
during the early prehispanic settlement in La Gomera (Canary Islands). J Archeol Sci 36:1972–1981.
Arnay-de-la-Rosa M, González-Reimers E, Gámez-Mendoza A,
Galindo-Martı́n L. 2009b. The Ba/Sr ratio, carious lesions,
and dental calculus among the population buried in the
church La Concepción (Tenerife, Canary Islands). J Archeol
Sci 36:351–358.
Astruc M. 1957. Exotisme et localisme: étude sur les coquilles
d’oeufs d’autruche decorées d’Ibiza. Arch Prehistoria Levantina 6:47–112.
Aubet ME. 1995. From trading post to town in the PhoenicianPunic world. In: Cunliffe B, Keay S, editors. Social complexity
and the development of towns in Iberia. From the Copper Age
to the Second Century AD. Oxford: Oxford University Press;Aubet ME. Proc Br Acad 86:47–65.
Bol R, Pflieger C. 2002. Stable isotope (13C, 15N and 34S) analysis of the hair of modern humans and their domestic animals.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 16:2195–2200.
Brickley M, McKinley JI, editors. 2004. Guidelines to the standards for recording human remains. Institute of Field Archaelogists Paper Number 7. Reading: British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology, Southampton,
and Institute of Field Archaeologists.
Britton K, Muldner G, Bell M. 2008. Stable isotope evidence for
salt-marsh grazing in the Bronze Age Severn Estuary, UK:
implications for palaeodietary analysis at costal sites. J
Archaeol Sci 35:2111–2118.
Brown TA, Nelson DE, Vogel JS, Southon JR. 1988. Improved
collagen extraction by modified longin method. Radiocarbon
30:171–177.
Buikstra JE, Ubelaker DH. 1994. Standards for data collection
from human skeletal remains. Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series No. 44. Arkansas. Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Commisso RG, Nelson DE. 2006. Modern plant d15N values
reflect ancient human activity. J Archaeol Sci 33:1167–1176.
Commisso RG, Nelson DE. 2007. Patterns of plant d15N values
on a Greenland Norse farm. J Archaeol Sci 34:440–450.
Corr LT, Sealy JC, Horton MC, Evershed RP. 2005. A novel
marine dietary indicator utilizing compound-specific bone col-
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
lagen amino acid d13C values of ancient humans. J Archaeol
Sci 32:321–330.
Costa RL. 1980. Incidence of caries and abscesses in archaeological Eskimo skeletal samples from Point Hope and Kodiak
Island, Alaska. Am J Phys Anthropol 52:501–514.
Costa N, Benito N. 2000. El poblament de les Illes pitiüses
durant la prehistòria. Estat actual de la investigació. In:
Guerrero VM, Gormes S, editors. Colonització humana en
ambients insulars. Interacció amb el medi i adaptació cultural. Mallorca: UIB. p 215–321.
Costa B, Fernández JH. 2003a. Necrópolis del Puig des Molins
(Eivissa): las fases fenicio-púnicas. In: Costa B, Fernández
JH, editors. Miscelánea de arqueologı́a ebusitana (II), El Puig
des Molins (Eivissa): un siglo de investigaciones. Treballs
Museo Arqueol d’Eivissa Formentera 54:87–147.
Costa B, Fernández JH. 2003b. La necròpolis del puig des
molins. In: Julbe F, editor. Eivissa patrimoni de la humanitat,
ibiza patrimonio de la humanidad, Demarcació d’Eivissa i
Formentera del Collegi Oficial d’Arquitectes de les Illes
Balears. p 161–173.
Costa B, Guerrero VM. 2001. La prehistòria Pitiüsa: Avenços,
rectificacions i perspectives de futur. Fites 2:28–41.
Craig OE, Biazzo M, O’Connell TC, Garnsey P, Martinez-Labarga C, Lelli R, Salvadei L, Tartaglia G, Nava A, Renò L,
Fiammenghi A, Rickards O, Bondioli L. 2009. Stable isotopic
evidence for diet at the Imperial Roman costal site of Velia
(1st and 2nd centuries AD) in southern Italy. Am J Phys
Anthropol 139:572–583.
Craig OE, Biazzo M, Tafuri MA. 2006. Palaeodietary records of
coastal Mediterranean populations. J Mediter Stud 16:63–77.
Curtis RI. 1991. Garum and salsamenta. Production and commerce in materia medica. Studies in ancient medicine, Vol. 3.
Leiden, The Netherlands: E.J. Brill.
Davis MHLA. 2002. Putting meat on the bone: an investigation
into palaeodiet in the Balearic Islands using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis. In: Waldren WH, Ensenyat J,
editors.World islands in prehistory: international insular
investigations. V Deià International Conference of Prehistory.
British Archaeological Reports International Series 1095.
Oxford. p 198–216.
DeNiro MJ. 1985. Postmortem preservation and alteration of in
vivo bone collagen isotope ratios in relation to palaeodietary
reconstruction. Nature 317:806–809.
DeNiro MJ, Epstein S. 1981. Influence of diet on the distribution of nitrogen isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim
Acta 45:341–351.
Fernández JH. 1986. Necrópolis del Puig des Molins (Ibiza):
nuevas perspectivas. In: del Olmo Lete G, Aubet Semmler
ME, editors. Los fenicios en la Penı́nsula Ibérica, Vol. 1:
Arqueologı́a, cerámica y plástica. Barcelona: Editoria AUSA.
p 149–175.
Fernández-Gomez JH, Plantalamor Massant L, Topp C, GomezBellard F, Reverte Coma JM. 1988. El Sepulcro Megalı́tico de
Ca Na Costa. Ibiza: Trabajos del Museo Arqueológico de Ibiza.
p 19.
Fuller BT, Fuller JL, Harris DA, Hedges REM. 2006a. Detection
of breastfeeding and weaning in modern human infants with
carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. Am J Phys Anthropol 129:279–293.
Fuller BT, Molleson TI, Harris DA, Gilmour LT, Hedges REM.
2006b. Isotopic evidence for breastfeeding and possible adult
dietary differences from late/sub-Roman Britain. Am J Phys
Anthropol 129:45–54.
Garcia E, Subirá ME, Richards MP. 2004. Régime et société d’
après l’analyse des isotopes stables: l’exemple de la population
de hhCan Reinésii (Mallorca. Espagne, 600 ap. J.C.). Anthropos
7:171–176.
Garcia-Guixé E, Martinez-Moreno J, Mora R, Nuñez M, Richards
MP. 2009. Stable isotope analysis of human and animal remains
from the Late Upper Palaeolithic site of Balma Guilanya, southeastern Pre-Pyrenees, Spain. J Archaeol Sci 36: 1018–1026.
Garcia-Guixé E, Subirá ME, Marlasca R, Richards MP. 2010.
d13C and d15N in ancient and recent fish bones from the Mediterranean Sea. J Nord Archaeol Sci 17:83–92.
CHANGING DIETS ON IBIZA AND FORMENTERA
Garcı́a-Sánchez E. 2002. Dietic aspects of food in Al-Andalus.
In: Waines D, editor. Patterns of everyday life. Aldershort,
Hampshire: Ashgate. p 275–288.
Garcı́a-Vargas E. 2001. Pesca, sal y salazones en las ciudades
fenicio-púnicas del sur de Iberia. In: Costa B, Fernández JH,
editors. De la Mar y de la Tierra. Producciones y Productos
Fenicio-Púnicosqq. XV Jornadas de Arqueologı́a Fenicio-Púnica (Eivissa, 2000). Ibiza: Treballs del Museo Arqueològic
d’Eivissa i Formentera47. p 9–66.
Gómez-Bellard F, Reverte Coma JM. 1988. Análisis antropológico y paleopatológico de los restos óseos humanos de Ca Na
Costa (Formentera), Parte 2. In: Fernández JH, Plantalamor
L, Topp C, Gómez-Bellard F, Reverte Coma JM, editors. El
Sepulcro Megalı́tico de Ca Na Costa. Ibiza: Trabajos del
Museo Arqueológico de Ibiza, 19. p 55–76.
Hedges REM, Clement JG, Thomas CDL, O’Connell TC. 2007.
Collagen turnover in the adult femoral mid-shaft: modeled
from anthropogenic radiocarbon tracer measurements. Am J
Phys Anthropol 133:808–816.
Hedges REM, Reynard LM. 2007. Nitrogen isotopes and the
trophic level of humans in archaeology. J Archaeol Sci
34:1240–1251.
Iborra MP, Grau E, Pérez Jordà G. 2003. Recursos agrı́colas y
ganaderos en el ámbito fenicio-occidental: estado de la cuestión. In: Gómez-Bellard C, editor. Ecohistoria del Paisaje
Agrario. La Agricultura Fenicio-Púnica en el Mediterráneo.
Valencia: Universidad de Valencia. p 33–55.
Jay M, Richards MP. 2006. Diet in the iron age cemetery population at Wetwang Slack, East Yorkshire, UK: carbon and
nitrogen stable isotope evidence. J Archaeol Sci 33:653–662.
Joan i Marı́ B. 1997. Historia de Ibiza. Ibiza: Editorial Mediterrània-Eivissa.
Karpozilos A, Kazhdan A. 1991. Diet. In: Kazhdan AP, editor.
The Oxford dictionary of Byzantium, Vol. 1. New York: Oxford
University Press. p 621–622.
Katzenberg MA. 2000. Stable isotope analysis: a tool for studying past diet, demography, and life history. In: Katzenberg
MA, Saunders SR, editors. Biological anthropology of the
human skeleton. New York: Wiley-Liss. p 305–327.
King A. 2001. The Romanization of diet in the Western Empire:
comparative archaeozoological studies. In: Keay S, Terrenato
N, editors. Italy and the West. Comparative issues in Romanization. Oxford: Oxbow Books. p 210–223.
Kohn MJ. 1999. You are what you eat. Science 283:335–336.
Lee-Thorp JA. 2008. On isotopes and old bones. Archaeometry
50:925–950.
Littleton J, Frohlich B. 1993. Fish-eaters and farmers: dental
pathology in the Arabian Gulf. Am J Phys Anthropol 92:427–
447.
Márquez-Grant N. 1999. Paleopathological comparison between
two Mediterranean populations in the island of Ibiza (Spain).
Unpublished M.Sc. dissertation, University of Sheffield, Sheffield.
Márquez-Grant N. 2000. Estudio antropológico de la necropolis
islámica de Es Soto (Ibiza). Unpublished report for the Consell Insular de Eivissa i Formentera, Ibiza.
Márquez-Grant N. 2006. A bioanthropological perspective on
the Punic period in Ibiza (Spain) as evidenced by human skeletal remains. Unpublished D.Phil. thesis, University of
Oxford, Oxford.
Márquez-Grant N. 2009. Caries correction factors applied to a
Punic (6th–2nd BC) population from Ibiza (Spain). Bull Int
Assoc Paleodont 3:20–29.
Márquez-Grant N, Fuller B, Richards MP. 2003. Análisis de
patrones de dieta en restos humanos de la isla de Ibiza a partir del contenido de los isótopos estables de carbono, nitrógeno
y azufre. In: Aluja MP, Malgosa A, Nogués R, editors. Antropologı́a y biodiversidad. Barcelona: Ediciones Bellaterra.
p 352–356.
Morales-Pérez JV. 2003. Estudio de la fauna de la cueva-santuario púnica de Es Culleram (Sant Joan. Eivissa). SagvntvmPlau 35:113–122.
Müldner G, Richards MP. 2005. Fast or feast: reconstructing
diet in later medieval England by stable isotope analysis.
J Archaeol Sci 32:39–48.
521
Müldner G, Richards MP. 2007. Stable isotope evidence for 1500
years of human diet at the city of York, UK. Am J Phys
Anthropol 133:682–697.
Naito YI, Honch NV, Chikaraishi Y, Ohkouchi N, Yoneda M.
Quantitative evaluation of marine protein contribution in ancient diets based on nitrogen isotope ratios of individual
amino acids in bone collagen: an investigation at the Kitakogane Jomo site. Am J Phys Anthropol (in press).
Naval Intelligence Division. 1941. Spain and Portugal, Vol. I:
Geographical handbook series. Oxford: Oxford University
Press.
Niveau de Villedary AM, Ferrer Albelda E. 2004. Sacrificios de
cánidos en la necrópolis púnica de Cádiz. Huelva Arqueol
20:63–88.
Palmer M, Pons GX, Cambefort Y, Alcover JA. 1999. Historical
processes and environmental factors as determinants of interisland differences in endemic faunas: the case of the Balearic
Islands. J Biogeog 26:813–823.
Petzke KJ, Boeing H, Metges CC. 2005. Choice of dietary protein of vegetarians and omnivores is reflected in their hair
protein C-13 and N-15 abundance. Rapid Commun Mass
Spectrom 19:1392–1400.
Prats i Serra JA, Marı́ i Mayans E. 1999. Geografia i història de
formentera. Ibiza: Editorial Mediterrània-Eivissa.
Prowse T, Schwarcz HP, Saunders S, Macchiarelli R, Bondioli L.
2004. Isotopic paleodiet studies of skeletons from the Imperial
Roman-age cemetery of Isola Sacra. Rome, Italy. J Archaeol
Sci 31:256–272.
Prowse TL, Schwarcz HP, Saunders SR, Macchiarelli R, Bondioli L. 2005. Isotopic evidence for age-related variation in
diet from Isola Sacra, Italy. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:2–13.
Purcell N. 1995. Eating fish: the paradoxes of seafood. In: Wilkins J, Harvey D, Dobson M, editors. Food in antiquity.
Exeter: University of Exeter Press. p 132–224.
Ramon J. 1994. El Pozo Púnico del ‘‘Hort d’en Xim’’ (Eivissa).
Ibiza: Trabajos del Museo Arqueológico de Ibiza. p 32.
Ramon J. 1995. Ses Paı̈sses de Cala d’Hort. Un Establiment Rural d’Època antiga al Sud-Oest d’Eivissa. Quaderns d’Arqueologia pitiüsa, 1. Servei Tècnic d’Arqueologia. Conselleria de
Cultura. Eivissa: Consell Insular d’Eivissa i Formentera.
Ramon J. 2003. L’assentament fenici de sa Caleta. In: Julbe F,
editor. Eivissa Patrimoni de la Humanitat. Ibiza Patrimonio
de la Humanidad. Ibiza: Demarcació d’Eivissa i Formentera
del Col legi Oficial d’Arquitectes de les Illes Balears. p 152–
159.
Ramon-Torres J, Martı́n Parrilla A, Márquez-Grant N. 2005.
Llimoners, hort des. Enciclopèdia d’Eivissa i Formentera.
Ibiza: Consell Insular d’Eivissa i Formentera. Vol. 8. p 22–23.
Román C. 1920. Excavaciones en diversos lugares de la Isla de
Ibiza. Memoria de los Resultados Obtenidos en 1918. Madrid.
Richards MP, Fuller BT, Hedges REM. 2001. Sulphur isotopic
variation in ancient bone collagen from Europe: implications
for human palaeodiet, residence mobility, and modern pollutant studies. Earth Planet Sci Lett 191:185–190.
Richards MP, Fuller BT, Molleson TI. 2006. Stable isotope
palaeodietary study of humans and fauna from the multi-period (Iron Age, Viking and late Medieval) site of Newark Bay,
Orkney. J Archaeol Sci 33:122–131.
Richards MP, Hedges REM. 1999. Stable isotope evidence for
similarities in the types of marine foods used by Late Mesolithic humans at sites along the Atlantic coast of Europe. J
Archaeol Sci 26:717–722.
Richards MP, Hedges REM, Molleson TI, Vogel JC. 1998. Stable
isotope analysis reveals varations in human diet at
the Poundbury Camp cemetery site. J Archaeol Sci 25:1247–
1252.
Richards MP, Mays S, Fuller BT. 2002. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of bone and teeth reflect weaning age at
the Medieval Wharram Percy site, Yorkshire, UK. Am J Phys
Anthropol 119:205–210.
Riquelme-Cantal JA. 2001. Ganaderı́a fenicio-púnica: ensayo
crı́tico de sı́ntesis. In: Costa B, Fernández JH, editors. De la
Mar y de la Tierra. Producciones y Productos Fenicio-Púnicosqq. XV Jornadas de Arqueologı́a Fenicio-Púnica (Eivissa,
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
522
B.T. FULLER ET AL.
2000). Ibiza: Treballs del Museu Arqueològic d’Eivissa i Formentera 47. p 111–120.
Saña M. 1994. Apéndice 1: análisis zooarqueológico del pozo
HX-1. In: Ramón J, editor. El pozo púnico del ‘‘Hort d’en Xim’’
(Ibiza). Ibiza: Trabajos del Museo Arqueológico de Ibiza, 32.
p 71–81.
Schoeninger MJ. 1995. Stable isotope studies in human evolution. Evol Anthropol 4:83–98.
Schoeninger MJ, DeNiro MJ. 1984. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic
composition of bone collagen from marine and terrestrial animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:625–639.
Schurr MR. 1998. Using stable nitrogen isotopes to study weaning in past populations. World Archaeol 30:327–342.
Schwarcz HP, Schoeninger MJ. 1991. Stable isotopic analyses in
human nutritional ecology. Yearb Phys Anthropol 34:283–321.
Sealy JC, van der Merwe NJ. 1988. Social, spatial and chronological patterning in marine food use as determined by d13C
measurements of Holocene human skeletons from the southwestern Cape, South Africa. World Archaeol 20:87–102.
Smith CI, Fuller BT, Choy K, Richards MP. 2009. A three-phase
liquid chromatographic method for d13C analysis of amino
acids from biological protein hydrolysates using liquid chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem
390:165–172.
Sponheimer M, Robinson T, Ayliffe L, Roeder B, Hammer J,
Passey B, West A, Cerling T, Dearing MD, Ehleringer J. 2003.
Nitrogen isotopes in mammalian herbivores: hair 15N values
from a controlled feeding study. Int J Osteoarchaeol 13:80–87.
Stenhouse MJ, Baxter MS. 1979. The uptake of bomb 14C in
humans, in radiocarbon dating. In: Berger R, Suess HE, editors. Radiocarbon dating. Berkeley: University of California
Press. p 324–341.
Styring AK, Sealy JC, Evershed RP. 2010. Resolving the bulk
d15N values of ancient human and animal bone collagen via
compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of constituent
amino acids. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:241–251.
American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Tarradell M, Font M. 1975. Eivissa cartaginesa. Barcelona:
Curial Edicions Catalanes.
Tieszen LL, Matzner S, Buseman SK. 1992. Dietary reconstruction based on stable isotopes (13C, 15N) of the Guanche, preHispanic Tenerife, Canary Islands. In: Aufderheide AC, Rodrı́guez Martı́n C, Estévez González F, Torbeson M, editors.
Actas del I Congreso Internacional de Estudios sobre Momias
(Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Islas Canarias), Vol. I. p 41–57.
Tuross N, Fogel ML. 1994. Stable isotope analysis and subsistence patterns at the Sully Site, South Dakota. In: Owsley
DH, Jantz R, editors. Skeletal biology of the Plains: migration, warfare, health, and subsistence. Washington DC:
Smithsonian Institution Press. p 283–289.
Vallès-Costa R. 2000. ‘‘Eivissa’’. Enciclopèdia d’Eivissa i Formentera, Vol. 4. p 263–264.
Van Strydonck M, Boudin M, Ervynck A. 2002. Stable isotopes
(13C and 15N) and diet: animal and human bone collagen from
prehistoric sites in Mallorca, Menorca and Formentera (Balearic Islands, Spain). In: Waldren WH, Ensenyat J, editors.
World islands in prehistory: international insular investigations. V Deià International Conference of Prehistory. British
Archaeological Reports International Series 1095. Oxford.
p 189–197.
Van Strydonck M, Boudini M, Ervynck A, Orvay J, Borms H.
2005. Spatial and temporal variation of dietary habits during
the prehistory of the Balearic Islands as reflected by 14C,
d15N and d13C analyses on human and animal bones.
Mayurqa 30:523–541.
Walker PL. 1978. A quantitative analysis of dental attrition rate
in the Santa Barbara channel area. Am J Phys Anthropol
48:101–106.
Walker PL, DeNiro MJ. 1986. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios in bone collagen as indices of prehistoric dietary
dependence on marine and terrestrial resources in southern
California. Am J Phys Anthropol 71:51–61.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
5
Размер файла
312 Кб
Теги
ibiza, spain, stable, isotopes, islands, investigation, diachronic, patterns, dietary, formentera, evidence, nitrogen, analysis, ratio, carbon
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа