Mammalian thermogenesis. Edited by L. Girardier and M.J. Stock. New York Chapman & Hall. 1983. viii + 359 pp. figures tables references index. $80код для вставкиСкачать
74 BOOK REVIEWS self praise that occurs seems to have affected the objectivity of the papers and in turn of the book. What is the best part of the book? The volume shows that forensic anthropologists are patient and careful scientists (e.g., articles by Kerley, Snow and Luke, Buikstra et al.). The articles on cause of death (e.g., by Angel and Caldwell, and Sauer) and identification by means of antemortem health assessment (by Maples) show in-depth knowledge of osteological variation. Historically significant cases (the work by Snow and Reyman) further support the patience and endurance anthropologists have. Of all the sections. Section 11is the best. Technical problems associated with the production of the book are few and do not distract the reader. Figures and tables are, however, clear and neatly produced. Unfortunately the book is prohibitively expensive. Its most likely purchasers will be libraries, and pathologists, dentists, and lawyers who not only can afford it but can also use the knowledge it provides. MAMMALIAN THERMOGENESIS. Edited by L. Girardier and M.J. Stock. New York: Chapman & Hall. 1983. viii + 359 pp., figures, tables, references, index. $80.00 (cloth). defect in heat production as much as a n eating disorder. Rather than being dissipated as heat, excess energy is deposited as lipid within adipose cells of susceptible individuals. The evidence assembled by the authors is impressive, and various chapters cover the anatomy and physiology of brown fat, the effect on NST of the autonomic nervous system (essential) and the thyroid (permissive), and relationships to trauma and fever. Most of the evidence on brown fat is based upon animal studies, since this tissue is virtually impossible at present to recognize in adult humans. However, a wealth of supportive indirect evidence does exist. For example, as is found in obesity-susceptible strains of animals such as the oblob mouse, obese humans are metabolically more efficient following the ingestion of a meal (i.e., they produce less heat). Because of their background and training, physical anthropologists have focused upon the morphological adaptations to temperature. This book emphasizes the importance of NST, not as a substitute for Bergman’s Rule, but as a n alternate of it. For those interested in nutrition, the role of excessive energy intake in obesity is not rejected. Instead, obesity is seen as etiologically complex, with a strong individual component that may have a genetic aspect. Girardier and Stock have produced a book which is worth reading by physical anthropologists. The evidence is complex and the This is a n excellent book, authoritative and up-to-date, comprehensive and well written. It is a n important book for those physical anthropologists who are concerned with human adaptability and nutrition. Girardier and Stock have edited a volume which deals with heat production in mammals. However, the thermogenesis upon which they focus does not result from shivering. Rather, the authors review the evidence for non-shivering thermogenesis (NST). NST in response to cold stress has been recognized for more than 20 years and attributed to the unique metabolic properties of brown adipose tissue (BAT).By and large, BAT has been presented as a property of immature mammals and of little importance in adults. However, the authors of the 11 chapters comprising the volume summarize a n impressive body of evidence indicating that BAT is distributed more widely in the body than previously supposed, and, more importantly, is the crucial variable in acclimatization to cold in adults as well as the young. Of great interest is the linkage of NST to diet induced thermogenesis (DIT), the heat produced in response to a meal. A number of chapters, but especially the one by Trayhurn and James, point to impaired DIT in obese animals and humans. Obesity is seen a s a M.YASAR I ~ C A N Department of Anthropology Florida Atluntic Uniuersity Boca Raton, Florida BOOK REVIEWS authors have not chosen the route of over simplification. However, the payoff is well worth the effort. NAVAJOINFANCY.By J.S. Chisholm. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine Publishing. 1983. xii + 267 pp., figures, tables, references, index. $29.95 (cloth). James Chisholm’s book Navajo Infancy is the first in a promising Aldine series entitled “Biological Foundations of Human Behavior,” edited by Me1 Konner and Richard Wrangham. Two contributions in this book are of potential interest to biological anthropologists. One is Chisholm’s description of the newly emerging discipline of human ethology, demonstrating its potential contributions to the broader field of anthropology, and its limitations. The second is his ethological study of Navajo infancy that demonstrates how infant development proceeds in the context of both the evolutionary history of the human species and the socio-cultural milieu of the individual. According to Chisholm, human ethology represents a n integration of the methods and theories of classical ethology, developmental psychology, evolutionary biology, and social anthropology. It is none of these and it is all of these, a fact which results in misunderstandings of the discipline similar to those that have plagued biological anthropology in general. Although the human ethologist begins with hypotheses to test in his or her research, these are not usually given much attention during data collection or interpretation. Rather, according to Chisholm, the human ethologist casts a “wider research net’’ and looks for hypotheses to generate themselves. This is based on a conviction that behavior, particularly in humans, has many “causes,” (e.g., proximate, ontogenetic, and phylogenetic) and that most of them will be missed if the focus of research is narrowly defined by a rigid hypothetico-deductive approach. In this way, the methods of human ethology are more like those of social anthropology than of developmental or experimental psychology. But in its insistence that initial categories of behavior be derived strictly from observa- 75 F.E. JOHNSTON Department of Anthropology University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania tion devoid of meaning, human ethology stands to the “hard science” side of most of social anthropology. Chisholm points out that in most anthropological studies of child development (e.g., those by the Whitings) behaviors are interpreted in the context of the social environment in which they occur. Thus, they are given “meaning” by observers who are usually aware of the social context from having spent years and months as participating observers in the group being studied. By avoiding attribution of meaning to behaviors during data collection, human ethologists claim greater objectivity in methodology and a more “etic” approach to interpretation. As Chisholm says “The goal of the ethological method is . . . to . . . strive for as high a degree of etic ‘purity’ as possible.” According to most ethologists, this is valid in that behaviors must be objectively described for human beings as a species before any particular theory can be developed. This seems equivalent to the Boasian stage in the evolution of method and theory in social anthropology. The major theme of the book is that child development can be studied in a n evolutionary context, thus avoiding the nature-nurture dichotomy that has plagued anthropology and psychology in recent years. The aspect of child development that Chisholm chooses to examine is mother-infant attachment. The population he studies is primarily Navajo and the environmental factor that he focuses on is the cradleboard. It has been assumed in past studies that since the cradleboard restricts movement and body contact, the full range of behaviors used in the development of mother-infant attachment is also limited. Furthermore, assuming that reciprocal interaction is important in the attachment process, restriction of that should lead to a mother-infant bond characterized by anxiety, resistance, and avoidance. Finally, for those who believe that early experience affects later behavior, the use of the cradleboard in infancy “explains” adult Navajo characteristics of anxiety, melancholia, and uneasiness in the presence of strangers.