Migration and mobility. Edited by A.J. Boyce. Philadelphia Taylor & Francis. 1984. 378 pp. figures tables index. $36код для вставкиСкачать
BOOK REVIEWS the appearance of abstract thought and fine nuances of subjective feelings interesting and plausible. Part Two addresses social interactions and altruism as they appear from corals to humans, including the rise of conscience, sympathy, and sense of justice. Maxwell relies on sociobiologicaltheory here to show how mind and society could come to exist biologically without the knowing or rational help of humans. It would have strengthened her argument to have first discussed the basic tenets of sociobiology rather than assuming they must apply. The same could be said of the neo-Darwinian foundation on which her entire argument rests. Maxwell does not initially make a strong case for evolution per se (though her book as a whole could be considered so) and alternatives are almost unacknowledged. Punctuated equilibrium is discarded in a couple of lines with “there is little evidence for this so far,” prompting the reply that there is as little for macroevolution by Darwinian means. Punctuated equilibrium could in fact support her case for how the human brain evolved to do what it can do. The culmination of the book, and of evolution thus far, is the appearance of language and culture (Part Three) which, Maxwell suggests, must almost inevitably result from the joining of high individual intelligence and social organization. This is the most speculative part of her book; for example, her suggestion that words for relations between objects were probably invented before naming of objects themselves can be read simply as her opinion. I am, however, inclined to agree that “just because language, like morality or marital love, is uniquely human, does not mean it is above Nature.” Lastly, it should be noted that Maxwell states clearly that while supporting the evidence for a n evolutionary basis for development of uniquely human qualities, she does not support deterministic or negative views of humanity. Nor does she deny that there are problems with the evolutionary picture, which is sketchy. There may be a more sat- MIGRATION AND MOBILW. Edited by A.J. Boyce. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis. 1984.378pp., figures, tables, index. $36.00 (cloth). 303 isfactory, perhaps more spiritual explanation. The reader does not come away with the feeling that any final solutions to the question of origin of human qualities have been offered, but that it is profitable to continue seeking them in biology as more data accumulate. The conclusion contains, besides a n anthropological philosophy, a message to philosophers. Evolutionary biology coordinates mental traits and prevents projection of any one of them into a n ontology (such as Hegel or Kant’s ‘Reason as the Absolute Substance of the Universe’). Various traits of mind have evolved according to Darwinian principles and probably do not hold the key to the nature of the universe. There are some mistakes of fact, for instance Washburn and DeVore’s original study in Kenya was of olive, not hamadryas baboons, and there was no means of following up references. No dates appear by names in the text nor is there a n alphabetical listing at the end. A section of ‘Notes’ has numbered references which could have been made to correspond to names in the text. In general, paIaeontoIogists or primatoIogists should not expect to find much new information in their specialties, but a consistent argument for the premiss on which the disciplines are based that human beings evolved. Maxwell’s effort to include all human behaviour under this rubric is well written and laudable. Few attempt to include morality and justice within the evolutionary rubric. For that alone the book is of interest to the specialist and nonspecialist in human evolution. Further, Maxwell’s book not only advocates but serves as a n example of the importance of philosophy to this area of study of humans, and the contribution these sciences can make to the integrity of philosophical study of mankind. PAMELA J. ASQUITH Department of Anthropology The University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta, Canada the most important general features of the species is that its individual members are not firmly rooted in place throughout their lifetimes. That is to say that it is of some significance that humans moue. Moreover, they It has always been intuitively obvious to move around a good deal and they do so for a anyone who has undertaken to study the bi- variety of reasons. This said, it is not surprisology and/or evolution of humans that among ing that as students we all recognized, or 304 BOOK REVIEWS should have, that many of the most important concepts with which we dealt were formulated in one way or another with reference to movement. Gene flow and admixture, for example, refer to the movement of genes. The concept of a n isolate is in fact based upon a n idea of a lack of movement of genes. Thus, the subject of human movement; i.e., migration, assumed great importance. As a consequence of this importance, when I was a graduate student, the newly published volume The Structure of H u m a n Populations, edited by G.A. Harrison and A.J. Boyce (1972), was a t the top of the reading lists. Though referenced innumerable times in the intervening years, this book has needed a suitable successor. The new volume Migration and Mobility, edited by A.J. Boyce (1984), is just such a worthy successor. Migration and Mobility is a collection of nineteen papers from a symposium held in Cambridge in 1982. These nineteen papers cover a wide range of issues and topics under the general heading of human movement. Quite literally, there is something for everyone in this volume. The mix of interests and perspectives is exceptional, running the gamut from eminently readable reviews to substantive theoretical papers. Several of the contributors are concerned with historical data, others with more modern data, and still others present a mixture of data types. Three of the contributions, those by G.A. Harrison, B. Dyke, and R.W. Hiorns may properly be called theoretical papers with computer simulations. The models the authors develop address questions of the relationships between migration and selection (Harrison), between migration and population size (Dyke), and between selective migration and genetic structure (Hiorns). Two other papers, by E.A. Thompson and V. Jovanovic and colleagues, may also be called theoretical but with applications to data from island populations, the Faroes and Hvar respectively. Two more discussions deriving from theoretical questions having practical implications are presented by M.T. Smith and L.B. Jorde. Smith considers the impact of human migration on the results of sampling human populations and Jorde offers a valuable comparison of parentoffspring and marital migration data with respect to inferences drawn from each regarding genetic structure. The volume opens appropriately enough with a discussion of historical studies of migration by Alan Swedlund. In this lead paper it is pointed out that historical data on human movements may profitably be used to examine a wide range of biological phenomena including disease patterns. This theme is taken up with both historical and modern data in a series of six papers packaged together about two thirds of the way through the volume (Papers 10-15). In the first of these six papers, by C.G.N. Mascie-Taylor, the question of biological selectivity among migrants is raised. However, the finding that the distribution of variables such as height and weight is significantly associated with both social and geographical mobility raises more questions than it could ever hope to answer. Indeed, the trickiest question of all is addressed in the two papers that follow Mascie-Taylor’s. Both C. Susanne and H.M. Macbeth consider whether there is such a thing as a biological propensity to migrate in humans. That is, are some humans actually biologically predisposed toward being migrants? Macbeth (p. 206)) observes that, “. . . demonstration of a direct biological propensity to move has proved more difficult. This could be because the biological characteristic is not among those so far studied or because its effects are swamped either by indirect selectivity or by the great variability in individual circumstances.” To quote the cartoon character Pogo when pondering a n equally tricky question, “Either way, it’s a mighty soberin’ thought.” Of course it could also be that a biological predisposition to migrate does not exist at all. These three papers are followed by three excellent reviews which consider the other, better known end of the spectrum-the biological consequences of migration. P.T. Baker recounts the unique history of modern Polynesian populations and how this relates to their disease experience. In particular, Baker refers to the now classic work he and his colleagues have done in hypertension and non-insulin dependent diabetes whose observed patterns of variation in the Pacific may be better understood when couched in the framework of the migration history of the area. J.H. van Ee and colleagues then examine the consequences of the dietary changes that so often accompany migration. They show from their study of the children of migrants to the Netherlands that there are some positive effects to changing nutrition in the form of increased height and weight. Thus, this paper and the one by Baker are a good subset showing both positive and negative responses to such changes. The sixth and final paper of this group is a fascinating discussion of mental illness among migrant groups by B. Ineichen. One 305 BOOK REVIEWS might easily be led to assume a priori that psychiatric distress is a natural concomitant to migration. However, as Ineichen shows, there is no clear consensus on this point due to the numerous problems associated with assessing mental illness. Among the more relevant of these problems are exaggerated self-reporting of symptoms and culturally irrelevant or inappropriate diagnostic criteria. Ineichen concludes, however, that controlling for many of these factors does reveal some underlying increased risk for psychiatric illness among some migrants. A question not asked in this paper, and one which refers back to the contributions of Susanne and Macbeth, is whether there might be mental predisposition to migration that would later show up as psychiatric illness if exacerbated? That is, could there be some base-line psychiatric differences between migrants and nonmigrants? A clue in this regard comes from the fact that men diagnosed for anti-social personality disorder (ASP or sociopathy) tend to be much more likely to move around and be “homeless” than non-ASP males (see Goodwin and Guze, 1984). This is not to suggest that migrants are latent sociopaths but, clearly, the area of migration and mental health needs more attention. The last four papers of the volume, plus a n earlier review by D.A. Coleman, represent another excellent block. In this case, the contributions were written by geographers and provide for the reader unfamiliar with the literature and techniques of geography a small goldmine of information. Coleman reviews the area of mate choice and migration. Using both modern and historical data, it is shown that great care must be taken in making inferences from marital records. Follow- ing upon this idea, T.L.F. Devis and N.R. Southworth consider the general topic of short-range migration and how it may be studied. J.H. Johnson then focuses upon migration exclusively between urban areas. In this paper the primary concern is with economic factors. P. Rees and J. Stillwell offer a long and detailed account of the joint quantitative modelling of migration and population change. Finally, J.I. Clark closes the volume with a thought-provoking essay on the nature of human movement itself and how it is studied. To my mind, these five papers are worth the whole book to anyone who is not already a geographer, whereupon they would get the added bonus that the rest of the volume is equally valuable. In sum, Migration and Mobility is a n excellent collection both in content and in presentation. Though it could have benefitted from a slightly different organization of the papers, the figures and tables are clear and readable, equation notation is easy to follow, and the index is adequate and useful. This book will make a proper addition to the library of persons whose interests run to nearly any aspect of human migration studies. ”HE PHENOMENON OF MAN REVISITED. By Edward 0. Dodson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. xix + 257 pp., figures, tables, references, index. $32.50 (cloth). Dodson sets forth to decouple Teilhard’s ideas from orthogenesis and Lamarckism, and provide more data from the history of life (beyond the mammalian evidence which predominates in Teilhard’s original work). Dodson also promises to be clearer than his predecessor about when he is leaving science for speculation. Teilhard De Chardin, born in 1881, was trained as both a Jesuit and a scientist in the fields of geology and paleontology. His associates and travels read like a who’s who and where’s where of early paleontologists, sites, and fields: Marcellin Boule, the Abbe Breuil, Smith Woodward, Davidson Black, Weindenreich, Dart, Broom, Choukoutien, Java, South Africa, and Piltdown. (The issue of This is a difficult book to review for a scientific journal. As Dodson describes his work, it is in the middle world of “philosophically oriented science or scientifically oriented philosophy.” The object of The Phenomenon of Man Revisited is to restate the evolutionary-religious views of Pierre Teilhard De Chardin in not only a “simpler, more precise, and more prosaic manner” but also to analyze the French Jesuit’s views from the persepective of modern evolutionary theory. ERICJ. DEVOR Department of Psychiatry Washington University School of Medicine St. Louis. Missouri LITERATURE CITED Goodwin, DW, and Guze, SB (1984)Psychiatric Diagnosis, 3rd. ed. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Harrison, GA, and Boyce, AJ (1972) The Structure of Human Populations. Oxford Clarendon Press.