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Negritos Australian Aborigines and the Уproto-sundadontФ dental pattern The basic populations in East Asia V.

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Negritos, Australian Aborigines, and the “Proto-Sundadont”
Dental Pattern: The Basic Populations in East Asia, V
Department of Anatomy, Sapporo Medical College, South I , West 17,
Chuo-ku, Sapporo, 060, Japan
Tooth crown feature, Sundadont, Southeast Asia
Five evolutionarily significant dental traits were identified
from a B-square distance analysis of nine crown characters recorded for several populations of East Asia and Oceania. Intergroup variation in these
traits distinguishes three major divisions of the Mongoloid dental complex:
sundadonty, sinodonty, and the dental pattern of Australian Aborigines. The
Australian crown features may be characterized a s having high frequencies of
evolutionarily conservative characters. Negritos, one of the probable representatives of indigenous inhabitants of Southeast Asia who may have shared
a common ancestor with Australians, possess the more derived sundadont
dental pattern. As far as the five crown traits treated here are concerned,
Australian dental features may be described as conforming to a “proto-sundadont” dental pattern, applying Turner’s terminology. This pattern may represent a microevolutionary step prior to the emergence of the sundadont and
sinodont patterns. o 1992 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The peoples of East Asia are distinguished
by the so-called Mongoloid dental complex
(K. Hanihara, 1968), which is characterized
by high frequencies of shovel-shaped upper
first incisors, the sixth cusp, the seventh
cusp, the deflecting wrinkle, and the protostylid on lower first molars. Turner (1976,
1979, 1983, 1987, 1989, 1990) distinguished
two types or subdivisions of this complex:
sundadonty and sinodonty. The sinodont
pattern differs from the sundadont in frequencies of secondary traits (e.g., number of
cusps on the molars, number of roots, various tiny ridges and grooves in the enamel,
and other small anatomical features). According to Turner, eight key crown and root
traits distinguish sundadonty and sinodonty: shoveling and double-shoveling of
the upper first incisors; root number of upper third premolars; enamel extension of upper first molars; peg, reduced, or congenital
absence of upper third molars; deflecting
wrinkle and root number of lower first molars; and cusp number of lower second molars. Addition and intensification of these
traits is characteristic of sinodonty, whereas
reduction and simplification characterize
sundadonty (Turner, 1985). Turner (1979,
1985, 1987, 1989, 1990) has long argued
that the sundadont pattern was present
among late Pleistocene peoples of Southeast
Asia, and th a t the more specialized sinodont
pattern that characterizes today’s Northeast Asians and all indigenous Americans
arose from sundadont antecedents at least
12,000-20,000 years B.P. The antecedents
of the sundadont pattern are, however, less
Negritos, one possible representative of
the aboriginal population of Southeast Asia,
have a sundadont dental pattern (T. Hanihara, 1989c, 1990a,b,c, 1991a,b, 1992). The
dental pattern characteristic of modern Aus-
Received October 30,1990; accepted January 1, 1992.
Address reprint requests to Tsunehiko Hanihara, Department
of Anatomy, Sapporo Medical College, South 1,West 17, Chuoku, Sapporo, 060, Japan.
TABLE 1. Materials used
Ainu #I
Ainu #2
Collection of
University of Tokyo,
Jichi Medical School
University of Tokyo,
Sapporo Medical College
University of Tokyo,
Sapporo Medical College
University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, etc.
Yayoi #I
University of Tokyo,
National Science Museum, Tokyo
Kyushu University
Yayoi #2
Kyushu University
Kyushu University
University of Tokyo, Kyoto University
University of Tokyo
University of Hawaii
Bishop Museum
BishoD Museum
Bishop Museum, University of Tokyo
University of Tokyo, Kagoshima University
tralian Aborigines resembles sundadonty in
seven out of eight key traits (the exception is
the low frequency of four-cusped lower second molars) (Turner, 1990).
It is now widely held that the modern Australians and the indigenous inhabitants of
Southeast Asia, or Negritos, diverged in the
early late Pleistocene from an ancestral
“Proto-Australoid” population inhabiting
Sundaland (Bellwood, 1978, 1985; Omoto,
1984). If so, then a comparison between the
dental features of Negritos and Australian
Aborigines might shed light on the morphology of that Proto-Australoid ancestry and
the process of its divergence and expansion
into Australia and eastern Asia. This study
undertakes such a comparison.
In addition to the samples previously described by the present author (T. Hanihara,
1989a,b,c, 1990a,b,c, 1991a,b, 19921, this
study includes data for some groups of Australian Aborigines reported by various authors (K. Hanihara, 1976; Richards and Tefler, 1979; Smith et al., 1981; Townsend et
Recent main-island Japanese
Central and eastern Hokkaido
Southwest Hokkaido
Recent Nansei Islanders:
Tanegashima, Amami-Oshima, Kikai,
Okinoerabu, Yoro, Yoron, Okinawa, Miyako,
Ishigaki, Hateruma, and Yonaguni Islands
Honshu, Japan
(12,000-2,300 years B.P.)
Doigahama site, Yamaguchi Prefecture
(2,300-1,700 years B.P.)
Kanenokuma site, Fukuoka Prefecture
Mitsu site, Saga Prefecture
(2,300-1,700 years B.P.)
Hirota site, Tanegashima, Kagoshima Prefecture
(2,300-1,700 years B.P.)
Manchuria (19th century)
Aeta tribe, Bataan Peninsula, Luzon,
The Philippines (recent)
Early metal age of Thailand
(ca. 3,000-6,000 years B.P.)
Ban Chiang site, Nong Han district of Udon Thani
province in Northeast Thailand
Guam. Manana (me-contact)
Mokapu site, Oahu, Hawaii (pre-contact)
Fiji, New Guinea, Bismarck Arch. (recent)
Mainly from Western Australia (recent)
al., 1990; Turner, 1990). A list of the samples recorded by the present author is given
in Table 1.The number of Melanesian individuals (mainly from Fiji) is relatively
small, so that the sampling reliability is low.
However, some examinations reported by
Dahlberg (19491, Bailit et al. (19681, Barksdale (1972), Doran (19771, and Turner and
Swindler (1978) provide results similar to
those presented here. Accordingly, my data
on Melanesians are included in the comparisons.
Initially, nine permanent tooth crown
traits were recorded for each individual. The
exact sample sizes for each trait are given in
Table 2. For the upper first incisor, the presence of shoveling was recorded. If the lingual fossa was less than 0.5 mm depth, the
tooth was classified as no shovel (-); if between 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm, as moderate (+);
and if deeper than 1.0 mm, as strong (+ +).
For the upper first and second molars, the
presence or absence of Carabelli’s cusp and
the hypocone was scored, respectively. For
the lower first molar, the existence of sixth
cusp, seventh cusp, deflecting wrinkle, dis-
tal trigonid crest, and protostylid were recorded. For the lower second molar, cusp
number and development of hypoconulid
were scored. Data were obtained from the
right-side teeth. When a right tooth was
missing or badly damaged, the corresponding left tooth was investigated. The criteria
for classification of non-metric crown traits
are outlined elsewhere (T. Hanihara, 1990b,
1991a, 1992). In this study, male and female
samples were combined, since almost no
sexual dimorphism in frequencies was found
in most of the groups studied.
Modern Japanese have two primary origins: aboriginal Jomonese and Yayoi people
from Northeast Asia. The Jomonese may
have arrived from Southeast Asia via the
now-submerged East Asian continental
shelf by 12,000 years ago. During the period
from Yayoi age to the early historic age, or
from 2,300 years B.P. to 1,300 years B.P.,
admixture between the Jomonese and the
incoming Yayoi people from Northeast Asia
blurred the distinction between the two populations. The impact of the post-Yayoi migrants was unexpectedly large, so that a majority of modern main-island Japanese carry
a large amount of Northeast Asian characteristics (Turner, 1976,1979, 1987,1990; K.
Hanihara, 1985, 1987, 1991). Some Aeneolithic Yayoi populations, as represented by
the skeletal remains excavated from the
Doigahama site in the westernmost part of
Honshu and Kanenokuma and Mitsu-Nagata sites in the northern part of Kyushu,
are now believed to be typical representatives of immigrants from Northeast Asia (K.
Hanihara, 1985, 1987, 1991; Dodo and
Ishida, 1990). On the other hand, the more
geographically isolated Ainu and residents
of the Nansei Islands (the island chain
stretching from the south end of main-island
Japan to the east of Taiwan for about 1,200
kilometers) are clearly descended from
Jomonese (Turner, 1979, 1987, 1990; T.
Hanihara, 1989a,b,c, 1990a,b,c, 1991a,b,
1992). On the basis of such findings, some
Japanese groups with physical affinities
with Jomonese, or the Jomon lineagesnamely, Ainu and the inhabitants of the
Nansei Island chain-are
from a majority of main-island Japanese. In
the present study, prehistoric and recent
groups from the Nansei island chain are separately analyzed. The prehistoric material
consists of skeletal remains excavated from
the Hirota site in Tanegashima Island, the
northern end of the island chain (ca. 2,3001,700 years B.P.); the recent material comprises a pool of small local collections containing individuals from almost all islands
of the chain.
The populations properly referred to as
the Neolithic Jomon population, Aeneolithic
Yayoi populations, residents of the Nansei
Island chain, the skeletal remains excavated from Hirota site in Tanegashima,
those from Ban Chiang site in north Thailand, etc., will be simply referred to as
Jomonese, Yayoi, Nansei Islands, Hirota,
early Thailand, etc., in the tables and figures.
Balakrishnan and Sanghvi (1968) proposed a B-squared distance coefficient. The
distance between two populations P , and P ,
is defined as
tained according to the formula for the elements:
i= 1
i= 1
This method also offers an advantage in
providing contribution rates of each trait to
the distance obtained (Constandse-Westermann, 1972). Although no formulae for this
procedure could be found in the paper of Balakrishnan and Sanghvi (19681,the contribution of the difference in each trait between
is defined by
every pair of populations (Bmnj)
the formula
B-squared distance coefficients applied to
the original nine discrete dental traits recorded in 14 samples are given in Table 3. In
the scattergram resulting from multidimen*:
sional scaling of the B-squared values (Fig.
B,L =
11, three major clusters are evident. The
j = l
first includes modern Japanese, Chinese
from the northern part of China (Manchuriwhere
ans), and the immigrant Yayoi populations,
corresponding to the sinodont dental group.
The second is comprised of sundadont
Jomonese and their lineages including samP,k is the frequency of the kth class, k = 1,2, ples from the Hirota site, Negritos, early
3, . , . , sj + 1, of the j t h character Sj, J = 1, Thailand people, Polynesians, and Microne2 , . , . , r, in the ith population Pi, z = 1, sians. Australian Aborigines are separated
2, . . . , q. The detailed procedure for comput- from the former two groups and comprise a
ing this coefficient is as follows: the matrix third, separate entity.
[A,,], being the per-trait dispersion matriFigure 2 shows the contribution of each
ces for each population separately, has the trait to the B-squared distance coefficients
between the Australian sample and the others calculated from the last formula in the
previous section. It is easily recognized that
Ay.k. l = p .y k. (1- p .y.k )In..
y7 k = 1
= -pUk . pyllnu, k f 1 k, 1 = 1,2, . . . . ,
the contributions of the differences in the
frequencies of shoveling, the hypocone, the
sixth cusp, the deflecting wrinkle, and the
and n y is the sample size for Sj from Pi.
The four-cusped lower second molars are relasame dispersion matrices for the samples tively high. The five characters are almost
can be symbolized by n,[Aijkll,from which perfectly consistent with the key traits disthe pooled dispersion matrices [ c j k , ] , per tinguishing sinodonty from sundadonty
trait, for all the samples combined, are ob- (Turner, 1987,1989,1990).
Examinations of Figures 3-7 show the frequencies of five crown traits for each sample
(modified from Turner, 1990). The left side
of these figures is based on my own data.
The right side gives the frequencies of the
traits for Australian Aborigines reported by
other workers (K. Hanihara, 1976; Richards
and Tefler, 1979; Smith et al., 1981;
Townsend et al., 1990; Turner, 1990).
Although data from several mainland and
island Southeast Asians are needed to assess the population history within East Asia
and the Pacific, the frequencies of the five
traits nevertheless accord fully with an underlying dichotomy between sinodonty and
sundadonty (Turner, 1987,1989,1990). The
pattern of frequencies of five traits of Philippine Negritos from Luzon can be characterized as one of overall crown simplification.
These populations fall within the range of
sundadonty. On the other hand, these data
suggest a rather unique position of Australian Aborigines. The Australian dental pattern includes low frequencies of marked incisor shoveling, more examples of the sixth
cusp and the deflecting wrinkle expression
on mandibular first molar, and high frequencies of the hypocone and the hypoconulid on maxillary and mandibular second
molars, respectively.
Phylogenetic significance of crown traits
Population variation of shovel-shaped incisors was first studied by Hrdlicka (1911,
1920). Concerning the phylogenetic significance of shoveling, HrdliEka (1920),Weidenreich (19371, Robinson (19561, Remane
(19601, and others regarded this character
as being primitive, since it was observable
not only in modern human populations but
also in Australopithecus, Homo erectus pekinensis (Sinanthropus),Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, and Hylobates. On the other
hand, Adloff (1938) insisted that an incisor
with a well-developed lingual tubercle, as
seen in Sinanthropus, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, and other fossil hominids, was
not shovel-shaped but rather “tubercleshaped.” He argued that shoveling was a
special character derived at a late evolutionary stage. Gorjanovic-Kramberger (1906) re-
Early ThailandA
Nansei Islands
Y w oiX 1
9 0
Fig. 1. Two-dimensional expression of multidimensional scaling applied to B-square distances based
on nine discrete crown traits, expressing 85.7% of the total variance.
ported that the Krapina incisors definitely
exhibited shoveling and well-developed lingual tubercles. According to Adloff (1927),
the basal lingual tubercle had been generated from the cingulum and was a feature
common to mammals, thus a primitive character. McCown and Keith (1939) investigated the Neanderthaloid teeth from Tabun
and pointed out that the well-developed lingual tubercle seen in the maxillary incisors
was a feature distinguishing Homo sapiens
neanderthalensis from modern human populations.
In his study of American Indians and
American Whites, Dahlberg (1949) provided
the following discussion (p. 148)of the evolution of incisor shoveling: “The ancestral pattern for the incisors is a large tooth with
prominent lateral borders on the lingual
surface. Sinanthropus and Neanderthal
man have these characters, but specialization has taken place in degree and in minor
characteristics associated with the cingulum in modern man. Some populations, notably Whites, have proceeded in sirnplification to the point of having high frequency of
no shovel-producing borders at all, whereas
in the Indian the borders have specialized to
even greater degrees of prominence than is
seen in the specimens of early man.”
Hominid maxillary molars are primitively
four-cusped, but the hypocone tends to be
reduced or lost in recent human populations
as part of a general trend toward reduction
and simplification of the molar dentition. In
the lower molars, this trend is expressed in
the reduction or loss of the hypoconulid on
M, and M,, converting the primitive Y-5 pattern inherited from Dryopithecus into a symmetrical 4-cusped arrangement (“+4” pattern). The sixth cusp or “tuberculum
accessorium” (Selenka, 1898) is seen on the
lower molars of many fossil and extant hominoid (Dryopithecus, Australopithecus,
“Sinanthropus,” Hylobates, and Neanderthals), and is generally thought to be a primitive character in modern human populations (Gregory, 1916, 1922; Gregory and
Hellman, 1926;Hellman, 1928;Weidenreich,
1937; Jorgensen, 1956; Dahlberg, 1949; K.
Hanihara, 1956, 1957; Robinson, 1956; Remane, 1960; Frisch, 1965; M. Suzuki and T.
Nansei Islands
Early Thailand
Y w o i#2
I. 0
CI aM1)
1. 0
Y w o i#l
Protosty1id CMD
I. 0
I. 0
Distal Trigonid Crest QM1)
Fig. 2. Contribution of each trait to the B-square distances between Australians and other populations.
Nansei Islands
Early Thailand
Mi cronesian
Hypocone US9
2. 0
Nansei Islands
Early Thai land
Mi cronesiau
1. 0
Deflecting Wrinkle QMD
Nansei Islands
Early Thailand
Ywo i#l
Y w o i#2
Carabelli Wl)
Shovel UID
Y w o i#Z
Y w o i#l
Nansei Islands
Early Thai land
P A i n u S l Negrito
Jamnese Micronesian Polynesian
Ai n&2
Early Thai land
Hirota hklanesian
Shovelling W11)
50 ( X )
4 0
Pan+ustral ia*
P a n A s t r a l ia*
Ai nuU2
Anson B w
AinuSl Negrito
Austral iao
Early Thai land
Polynesian Nansei-Islands
Japanese YayoiXt
Chinese Yayoi#2
~a I mim rum
Fig. 3. Percentages of shovel-shaped upper first incisors *Turner, 1990; **Smith et al., 1981; ***Richards and Tefler, 1979; ***“K. Hanihara, 1976; *****Townsendet al., 1990. Shading indicates the sinodont populations; the others are the sundadont populations. (Modified from Turner, 1990).
Sakai [unpublished]). The deflecting wrinkle, a variant of the metaconid median
ridge, is also regarded as primitive, for similar reasons (Weidenreich, 1937, 1945; K.
Hanihara, 1956; M. Suzuki and T. Sakai unpublished; Swindler and Ward, 1988). Australians are generally conservative in all
these features, and also retain a high frequency of lingual tubercles on I’ (Smith et
al., 1981).
Population history in Southeast Asia
and Australia
Human occupation in Australia is now believed to date back at least 40,000-50,000
years (Bowler, 1976; Howells, 1976; Thorne,
1976; Birdsell, 1977; Brace and Hinton,
1981; Groube et al., 1986). Because of the
substantial morphological variation in Australians, diverse schemes of their origin(s)
have been advanced, including monophyletic (Abbie, 19681, diphyletic (Thorne,
1976), and triphyletic models (Birdsell,
1967).Although early Australian fossils and
recent Australians present a morphological
continuum ranging from gracile (e.g., Keilor
and Lake Mungo) to quite robust crania
(e.g., Kow Swamp and Broadbeach), the
gracile and robust groups are more similar
to each other than they are to other anatomically modern Homo sapiens crania (Macintosh, 1963; Larnach, 1974; Macintosh and
Hypocone Kh€2
I00 (X)+
Japanese Chinese Yayoi#;! Australian
Me 1 anes i an
Hirota Negrito Early-Thailand
Ywoitll Nansei-I s I ands
Ai nuff2
Fig. 4. Frequency distribution of hypocone on upper second molar (modified from Turner, 1990).
Symbols as in Fig. 3.
50 (%)
5 0
Japanese Yayortl Jawnese
Melanesian Australian
Hi rota
Nansei Islands
Ainuff2 Early-Thailand
Ainu#l Negrito
Fig. 5. Percentages of sixth cusp on lower first molars (modified from Turner, 1990). Symbols as in
Fig. 3.
Larnach, 1976; Pietrusewsky, 1984, 1990; both gracile and robust types (Jacob, 1976),
Habgood, 1986; Brown, 1987). Smith et al. represent a t least part of the morphological
(1981) concluded from the available dental background of the Australians. More immedata that metric and non-metric dental vari- diate antecedents may be represented by the
ation within the various groups of Austra- Wajak, Niah, and Tabon individuals
lians is associated with differences in envi- (Thorne, 1976).
ronmental conditions, rather than gene
The geographic source of Australian Abflow. Thorne (1976) suggested that the origines, or the original homeland of “ProtoHomo erectus remains from Java, including Australoids” from which the early Austra-
Deflecting wrinkle a
50 (%)
Chinese Micronesian
Ywi#l Melanesian Early-Thailand
4 0
Jamnese Nansei-Islands
AinuSI AinuffL Negrito
Hi rota
Fig. 6. Percentages of deflecting wrinkle on lower first molars (modified from Turner, 1990). Symbols
as in Fig. 3.
4 cusp pattern
Negrito Early-Thailand
Yayoill2 Australian
Pan++ustral la*
Fig. 7. Frequency distributions of four-cusped pattern on lower second molars (modified from Turner,
1990) Symbols as in Fig 3
lians may have diverged, can be traced to
late Pleistocene mainland Southeast Asia or
the landmass of the continental shelf called
Sundaland. In the tropical rain forest, open
inland areas, and the shores of Sundaland, a
Proto-Australoid population may have
evolved into modern “Proto-Malays” beginning some 20,00040,000 years ago (Omoto,
1984; T. Hanihara, 1990a,b, 1991a, 1992).A
number of investigators have emphasized
the degree of Australoid inheritance in the
physical characteristics of the Proto-Ma-
lays-for example, Negritos (Birdsell, 1949,
1977; Garn, 1961; Coon, 1962; Howells,
1976; Jacob, 1976; Brues, 1977; Kennedy,
1979; Glinka, 1981; Bellwood, 1985). Genetic and metric dental studies suggest,
however, that the Philippine Negritos do not
show close similarity to Australians (Omoto,
1984; T. Hanihara, 1989c, 1990a,b, 1991a,
1992).The sundadont dental pattern of Negritos documented here provides more direct
biological evidence favoring a local-evolution hypothesis for the origin of the reduced
Years B P.
Negr i to
40. 0 0 0
60. 000
70. 0[10
Sahul land
30. 0 0 0
Sunda land
Dental Pattern
Fig, 8. A hypothetical schema showing modification of dental morphology and racial diversification in
East Asia and West Oceania during late Pleistocene times (modified from Omoto, 1984).
size and simple crown morphology that
characterize sundadonty.
On morphological and historical grounds
it is quite likely that in Australian dental
groups the formation of a Negrito-like sundadont dental pattern may have accompanied a phenotypic specialization to small
size and gracilization under the environmental condition of late Pleistocene Sundaland over a period of some 20,000 years.
Turner (1990) pointed out the strong similarity between the dentitions of Southeast
Asians and Australians. From Turner’s review of frequency variation of eight key
crown and root traits, the Australian dentition is closely associated with the sundadont
dental pattern (Turner, 1990). The five
characters treated here are minor traits
which distinguish Australians from Southeast Asian sundadont populations. Australian Aborigines are distinctive in exhibiting
high frequencies of weak shoveling (I1), hypocone (M2), sixth cusp and deflecting wrinand hypoconulid (MJ, traits that
kle (MI),
also appear frequently in individuals of the
Upper Pleistocene or earlier ages. It is probable, therefore, that high frequencies of
these traits characterized a microevolutionary phase prior to the emergence of the
Southeast Asian sundadont pattern. If so, it
may be tentatively termed the “proto-sundadont” dental pattern, applying Turner’s terminology.
Figure 8 displays a hypothetical reconstruction of microevolution and modification
of dental characters in East Asian and western Oceanic populations (modified from
Omoto, 1984). This hypothesis is in full
agreement with that proposed by Turner
The frequencies of the five traits discussed above (Figs. 3-7) link Australians to
the sinodont groups. However, it is still far
from obvious whether the sinodont dental
pattern was derived from a “proto-sundadont” pattern or from the sundadont pattern. As Turner (1987) points out, we cannot
rule out genetic drift or founder effect i n explaining the origin of sinodonty from sundadonty, particularly in the system of small,
relatively isolated populations that must
have prevailed in the late Pleistocene of
Northeast Asia. A great many more data on
early occupants of Southeast and Northeast
Asia are needed to elucidate the relationship
among sinodonty, sundadonty, and protosundadonty.
I am deeply indebted to Professor C.G.
Turner I1 of the Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, for his great
encouragement, invaluable support, and
critical advice at Kyoto in September, 1990.
I wish to express my sincere gratitude to
Professor G. Ito of the Department of Orth-
odontics, Kagoshima University Dental
School; Professor M. Pietrusewsky of the
Department of Anthropology, University of
Hawaii; Professor Y.H. Sinoto of the Department of Anthropology, Bernice P. Bishop
Museum in Honolulu; Professor K. Omoto
and Professor B. Endo of the Department of
Anthropology, Faculty of Science, the University of Tokyo; Professor T. Yohro of the
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, the University of Tokyo; Professor Y.
Dodo and Professor H. Ishida of the Department of Anatomy, Sapporo Medical College;
Professor H. Ishida and Professor K.
Katayama of the Department of Zoology,
Faculty of Science, Kyoto University; and
Dr. T. Nakahashi and Dr. N. Doi of the Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine,
Kyushu University, for permission to examine materials in their care.
This study was supported in part by a
grant-in-aid for overseas scientific surveys,
“Anthropological Studies on the Origin of
the Pacific Populations,” and “The Population Genetic Survey of Negritos” from the
Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture
in Japan. The principal investigators are
Professor K. Hanihara of the International
Research Center for Japanese Studies and
Professor K. Omoto, respectively. This research was also financially supported by
grants-in-aid for scientific research
01740483, 02740412, 02225213, 03209210,
and 03740424 from the Japanese Ministry of
Education, Science, and Culture.
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