Polymorphism of palmar C- and D-line terminations among the Sikligars of Chandigarh.код для вставкиСкачать
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 65199-200 (1984) Polymorphism of Palmar C- and D-Line Terminations Among the Sikligars of Chandigarh R.S. BALGIR Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014,India KEY WORDS Polymorphism, Palmar C- and D-line terminations, Sikligars, Chandigarh ABSTRACT Modal types of palmar C- and D-line terminations of 60 couples of Sikligars from Chandigarh have been evaluated and compared with the populations from Northwestern India. The distribution of palmar C- and Dline terminations among the Sikligars resembles those of the Rajputs and Hindu Gujars, suggesting a common population origin, a n infrequent inflow of genes from the surrounding populations, and their biosocial isolation. Bilateral distribution asymmetry and sexual dimorphism were also observed. The Sikligars are nonpastoral and nonagricultural nomadic people of India. They are found in small clusters, leading a gypsy life in the Northwestern part of India. Historically and traditionally, the Sikligars were armour suppliers to the rulers of this region and were experts in making swords, daggers, shields, and guns. Today they are blacksmiths and produce utensils from scrap iron. They are the counterparts of the Gypsies (who call themselves Roma) living in Europe and other parts of the world G a l , 1962; Sher, 1966; Balgir, 1980a,b; 1982). Among the tribal communities of India, the Sikligars occupy a unique position because of their distinct culture, profession, and mode of living (Balgir, 198Oa). They are a n endogamous community that practices clan exogamy. Although marriage by brother-sister exchange is the most culturally accepted form, ‘3indalpada”-a form of marriage by service-is also prevalent (Balgir, 1984a). In the present study the variability of modal types of palmar C-and D-line terminations among the Sikligars has been evaluated and compared to other populations in the region. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was carried out in sector 42 (Sikligar Colony) of Chandigarh. Dermatoglyphic features of 60 unrelated couples (husbands and wives) of Sikligars were studied. The couples were selected in such a way that only one member of each line of descent participated in the study. Clan (Gotras) exog0 1984 ALAN R. LISS, INC amy is observed for at least two or three generations, allowing the identification of common lines of descent. Palmar prints were taken by the ink-and-pad technique as described by Cummins and Midlo (1961) and analyses of modal types of C-line and D-line terminations followed Plato (1970a) and Cummins and Midlo (1961), respectively. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Bilateral Distribution Asymmetry The modal types of C-line termination among the Sikligars show bilateral distribution asymmetry in both sexes (males, P < 0.05; females, P < 0.001). The incidence of the radial type is consistently high on the right palm in both sexes (Table 1).The ulnar type occurs more frequently on the left palm in both sexes. The proximal type in both sexes and the absent type in females have higher incidences on the left palms. The Sikligars show statistically significant bimanual variation for D-line terminations in both males (P < 0.01) and females (P < 0.05). The frequency of D-line terminations a t position 11is higher on the right palm in both sexes than at 9 and 7 (Table 2). The frequency of D-line terminations at 7 is the lowest on both palms in both sexes. Received January 13, 1984; revised May 25, 1984; accepted May 25,1984. Dr. Balgir’s present address is: Dr. R.S. Balgir, Yo Dr. B.S. Balgir, 8 Holman Street, Curtin, Canberra, A.C.T. 2605, Australia. 200 R.S. BALGIR TABLE I . Bilateral variations of C-line terminations among the Sikligars* Sex * * Males Females No. of palms 60 60 120 60 60 120 Radial Ulnar Proximal Absent Side (%) (%I (%) (%I R L 50.00 33.33 41.67 63.33 30.00 46.67 36.67 53.33 45.00 20.00 26.67 23.33 6.67 13.33 10.00 10.00 26.67 18.33 6.67 0.00 3.33 6.67 16.67 11.67 R +L R L R +L *Bilateral distribution asymmetry: males, 0.001. **Sex differences. ,yz = 17 082, P < 0.001 TABLE 2. Bilateral variations of D-line terminations among the Sikligars* Sex** Males Females No. of Dalms 60 60 120 60 60 120 Side 11(%) 9(%) 7(%) R L 63.33 33.33 48.33 50.00 30.00 40.00 25.00 45.00 35.00 30.00 50.00 40.00 11.67 21.67 16.67 20.00 20.00 20.00 R +L R L R +L *Bilateral distribution asymmetry: males, = 6.000; P < 0.05. 0.01; females, **Sex differences: ~5 = 1.708; P, N.S. x% = 10.814; P < Sex Variations The polymorphism of C-line termination shows highly significant sexual dimorphism among the Sikligars of Chandigarh (P < 0.001). The ulnar type is most frequent in males, whereas the radial type occurs most frequently in females among the Sikligars (Table 1). The frequency of D-line termination a t position 11is higher in males than in females, but the sex differences are not statistically significant (Table 2). Population Comparisons The results of the present study regarding the frequency distribution, bilateral distribution asymmetry, and sex differences are identical to those of Plato (1970a,b), Bhanu and Malhotra (19721, andBalgir (1983,1984b1, and further support the hypotheses that each of the modal types of the C - and D-line terminations have a strong association with a particular palm. The distribution of modal types of C - and D-line terminations of Sikligars closely resembles those of Rajputs (Chattopadhyay and Kushwaha, 1978) and Hindu Gujjars (Balgir, 1983). This further supports the argument that all three populations represent fission groups of a common population that owing to migration, isolation and occupational patterns, evolved separately (Balgir, 1980a,b; 1982). Similarities in fingerprint patterns, interdigital and hypothenar patterns, total finger ridge counts, xz = 9.186; P < 0.05; females, xi; = 14.832; P < “atd” angles (Balgir, 1980b1, and in the distribution of c- and D-line terminations and other morpho-genetic traits (Balgir, 1982) of these populations may be explained on the basis of a common racial substratum, a n infrequent inflow of genes from surrounding populations, and biosocial isolation from neighboring communities. Further studies using other techniques should be done on Sikligars to gain additional information on their migration from India and their diversity in different parts of the world. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author is grateful to all participants for their cooperation in this study. LITERATURE CITED Balgir, RS (1980a) The Sikligars of Chandigarh. Jeevan Mehak 2:9-12. Balgir, RS (1980b) Etude des Dermatoglyphes D’une Tribu Gitane les de Chandigarh. L’Anthropologie 84:460-465. Balgir, RS (1982)Etude de quelques traits Morpho-Genetiques chez les Sikligars de Chandigarh. L’ Anthropologie 85313-320. Balgir, RS (1983)Demogenetic Investigations among the Hindu and Muslim Gujars-The Two Breeding Isolates of Sub-Himalayan and Himalayan Regions. Doctoral Thesis, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Balgir, RS (1984a) A demographic study of Sikligars of Chandigarh (personal communication). Balgir, RS (1984b) A dermatoglyphic study of normal Punjabis. Bull. Mem. SOC. Anthropol. (Paris) (in press). Bhanu, BV, and Malhotra, KC (1972) Palmar C-line polymorphism among Gavdas of Goa and Ezhavas of Kerala. Man in India 52t261-267. Chattopadhyay, PK, and Kushwaha, KPS (1978) A dermatoglyphic approach to the problem of Rajput origin. I. Mankind Quart. 18:283-292. Cummins, H, and Midlo, C (1961) Fingerprints, Palms and Soles: An Introduction to Dermatoglyphics. New York: Dover Publications. Lal, Chaman (1962)Gypsies-The Forgotten Children of India. Delhi: Publication Division, Government of India. Plato, CC (1970a)Polymorphism of the C-line with a new classification of the C-line Termination. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 33;413-420. Plato, CC (1970b) Dermatoglyphics and flexion creases of the Cypriots. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 33:421-428. Sher, Sher Singh (1966) The Sikligars of Punjab. Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited.