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Polymorphism of the C line of palmar dermatoglyphics with a new classification of the C line terminations.

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Polymorphism of the C Line of Palmar Dermatoglyphics
with a New Classification of the C Line Terminations
CHRIS C . PLATO‘
Children’s Diagnostic and Study Branch, National Institute of Child Health
and Human Development, National institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Maryland 20014
ABSTRACT
The terminations of the C line of the palm were classified into four
modal types according to the direction of their path. These are ( 1 ) Ulnar type with
3, 4, 5’, 5”, 6 or 7 terminations; (2) Radial type with terminations in the palmar
areas 9, 10, 11, 12,or 13; ( 3 ) Proximal type representing the terminations X, x, or 8;
and ( 4 ) Absent type where no c triradius is present. The frequency of these four
modal types exhibits strong racial variation, as well as strong bilateral polymorphism.
In describing the main line termination
one is mainly concerned with the modal
types of the D line and the main line index,
both of which serve as measures of the degree of transversality of the palmar ridges;
the B and the C lines for the most part have
been cited for descriptive purposes only.
Rife in recent reports on the dermatoglyphics of the Seminole Indians (Rife, ’68a)
and the Puerto Ricans (Rife, ’68b) emphasized the importance of the termination of
the C line in terms of the pattern fonnation in the III and the IV interdigital areas,
as well as to the overall measure of ridge
transversdity. He also discussed the existence of geographic variation as well as
the bimanual differences of the C line termination.
Line C is the only main line of the palm
which is truly polymorphic, since it demonstrates qualitative (directional) as well
as quantitative variation manifested in the
degree of transversality and size reduction
culminating in complete suppression. That
is, the paths of the A and the B lines almost always follow an ulnar direction
while the D line characteristically has a
radial pathway. The C line on the other
hand may have an ulnar direction, a radial,
a proximal or even be completely absent
when no c triradius is present.
Modal types of the C line. In accordance with the above mentioned polymorphism, it is proposed herewith, that the
terminations of the C line be classified into
AM. J.
PRYS. ANTHROP.,33:
413-420.
four modal types depending on the direction of its path. The four modal types are:
( 1 ) UZnar, which includes the terminations 4, 5 , 6, and 7; (2) RadiaZ, with terminations 9, 10, 11, 12,or 13; ( 3 ) P~oximal,
represented by the X, x and 8 terminations;
and ( 4 ) Absent, where no c triradius is
present. The characteristic terminations of
the four modal types of the C line are presented graphically in figures l a , lb, l c and
Id. The notation “modaI type” was chosen
in order to conform with that of Cummins
and Midlo (’26) as applied to the D line
terminations.
In order to evaluate the geographic and
racial distribution and variation of these
types, a considerable share of the available
literature on the population studies was
reviewed and the published terminations
of the C lines were converted into the four
modal types. Only studies giving separate
frequencies for each hand were considered. The frequencies of the four types in
the various populations are listed in table 1.
In order to facilitate the racial coniparisons the entries in table 1 have been
grouped rather arbitrarily into six “racial
groups” and are presented in figure 2. This
figure represents a modification of the original cyclogram which we used in our New
Guinea study. Its main advantage is that it
offers a “birds eye view” of a large number
1Address reprint requests to Chris C. Plato, Children’s Diagnostic and Study Branch, NICHD,National
Institutes of Health, NNMC Building 125, Room 35,
Bethesda, Maryland 20014.
413
414
CHRIS C. PLAT0
Fig. 1 Classification of the c line of the palm into four modal types according to its direction and degree of transversality. ( a ) Absent, (b) Proximal, ( c ) Ulnar, ( d ) Radial (see
text for explanation).
of comparisons. The six “racial groups” and central; (5) Caucasians; and (6) Asian
presented here are: (1) Orientals, which Indians. The individual histograms (bars)
include the Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, represent ranges of distributions rather
Filipinos, and Indochinese; (2) Oceanians, than individual frequencies with the two
composed mainly of our studies in Micro- ends of each entry representing the maxinesia, New Guinea and New Hebrides; ( 3 ) mum and minimum percent frequencies reNegroes; ( 4 ) American Indians, both north ported in each “racial group.” For more
415
POLYMORPHISM OF THE C LINE
F
W
Asian Indians
Fig. 2 Distribution of the four modal types of the C line among six “racial groups.” The
bars represent the range of the distributions of each type within each racial group.
meaningful comparisons the midpoint of
each entry would be more appropriate. The
distributions are given separately for each
hand as well as combined.
Looking at the pooled distributions at
the lower third of the figure, it becomes
evident that the Orientals have the highest
frequency of ulnar types with a maximum
frequency of almost SO%, followed closely
by the Negroes, Oceanians and American
Indians. An abrupt decrease in the frequency of ulnar types is encountered
among the Caucasians and even more so
among the Asian Indians. The decrease is
so pronounced that the maximum frequencies in these two groups are lower than the
minimum frequencies of the other “racial
groups.” The opposite trend is encountered
in the frequencies of the radial types. The
proximal types do not show such striking
differences among the various groups, although the Caucasians have the highest
frequency of this modal type. The Oceanians and the American Indians show the
highest incidence of absence of the c triradius. Similar observations can be made
when the racial distributions of the left
and right hands are considered independently. It should be noted here that no
averaging or statistical analyses were attempted in view of the heterogeneity of the
data under consideration.
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Male
Male
Male
Taiwan (Atayal)
Taiwan (Pokpokami)
Taiwan (Pokpokami)
Taiwan (Bunum)
Taiwan (Bunum)
Japanese
Japanese
Koreans
Micronesia (Truk)
New Hebrides
(Tongariki)
New Guinea ( Anga)
New Guinea (Fore)
100
150
146
Biswas ('36)
Bansal ('65)
Bansal ('65)
Female
714
Geipel ('58)
Male
Male
135
128
Cummins ('30)
Steggerda et al. ('36)
Asian Indians
Asian Indians
( Maharashtrians)
Asian Indians
(Maharashtrians )
575
156
126
144
144
310
324
552
200
64
248
232
481
86
92
378
46.6
48.5
52.9
50.0
62.5
58.0
58.8
57.6
62.5
71.9
31.5 32.9 32.2
46.0 28.0 37.0
41.4 29.3 35.3
66.2 53.5 59.0
76.4 53.6 64.9
56.3 56.2 56.3
61.2 49.4 55.3
63.6 56.3 60.0
50.8 27.9 39.3
68.8 51.2 39.2
71.9 51.3 61.8
69.3
69.1
62.3
75.0
81.3
79.3 53.7 66.5
76.6 55.5 66.0
82.1 67.0 74.4
34.3
26.9
25.0
43.0
25.0
20.7
17.4
16.5
30.0
17.2
45.2 57.5 51.4
44.0 70.0 57.0
34.7 57.3 46.0
25.7 39.2 33.1
13.5 38.8 26.1
25.0 40.6 32.8
13.2 22.2 17.7
9.1 21.8 15.4
15.9 47.6 31.8
12.5 33.3 23.9
10.9 31.5 21.2
7.1
8.0
8.0
17.0
9.4
4.6 23.4 14.0
6.5 23.3 14.9
4.6 21.1
12.8
L+R
9.3 28.0 18.6
6.8 34.1 20.4
5.3 17.5 11.4
R
Radial
palms
L
Ulnar
L
R
L-tR
86.1 62.7 74.4
77.3 52.3 64.8
85.7 71.4 78.5
Number
Male
Plato and Gajdusek
('70a)
Geipel ('58)
('70a)
Plato and Niswander
('67)
Plato and Gajdusek
('70b)
Plato and Gajdusek
Keith ('24 )
Jungwirth ('59 )
Wu Tsau-Chin et al.
( '60)
Wu Tsau-Chin et al.
('60)
Hung and Cheng
('66)
Hung and Cheng
('66)
Chen et al. ('60)
Chen et al. ('60)
Hasebe ('18)
Keith ('24 )
Keith ( '24)
Author (year)
Negroes (West Africa)
Negroes (Jamaica)
Pygmies (Central
Africa )
New Guinea
(Ayom Pygimies)
Male
Sex
Filipinos
Indochinese (Tonkin)
Taiwan (Atayal)
Population
TABLE 1
The distribution of the modal types of the C line in various populations
R
Proximal
4.6
8.0
10.11
L+R
12.3
0
17.3
5.3
6.1
12.5
5.9
9.1
12.7
6.2
9.4
4.1
0
8.0
4.0
3.7
1.6
9.4
5.8
9.8
7.7
9.3
8.2
0
12.6
4.6
4.9
7.0
7.6
7.4
11.2
7.0
9.4
23.5' 19.7' 21.6'
22.8' 24.7' 23.8'
29.7 22.1 25.9'
6.0
5.0
5.5
6.2
0
3.1
19.5 '
21.1 ' 19.2'
16.0' 23.0
17.4
13.4 ' 12.0 ' 12.7
2.3
7.0
6.8
9.1
9.0' 11.1 1
L
7.7
7.4
9.9
7.6
5.5
5.3
11.0
2.0
6.7
3.3
3.7
1.6
10.0
2.8
3.7
6.2
8.3
6.0
6.0
3.1
3.7
3.9
16.8 15.2 16.0
18.2 16.1 17.2
20.6 14.8 17.7
12.5
7.8
2.0
7.8
R L+R
2.3 2.3
4.5 6.8
Absent
2.0 2.0
3.1 12.5
2.3
9.1
L
Female
Male
Female
Male
French
European-Americans
European-Americans
Semitic-Americans
Arabs (Rwala
Bedouins )
Syrians (Mitwali)
1 Authors
Hasebe ('18)
Pons ('54b)
Rife ('68b)
Chamla ('59)
Chamla ('59)
Cummins ('35)
Shanklin and
Cummins ('37)
Cummins and
Shanklin ('37)
Plato ('70)
Plato ('70)
Pons ('54a)
Pons ('54a)
Gessain andGessain
('56)
Gessain and Gessain
('56)
Cummins and Midlo
('26)
Steggerda et al. ('36)
Steggerda et al. ('36)
Rife ('68a)
Rife ('68a)
Cummins and
Goldstein ('32)
Leche ('36a)
Leche ('36a)
Leche ('36b)
Leche ( ' 3 6 c )
Leche ('36d)
Steggerda et al. ('36)
made no discrimination between X,x and 0 types.
Male
Female
Male
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Greeks (Cyprus)
Greeks (Cyprus)
Spaniards
Spaniards
French
Aino
Basques
Puerto Ricans
Madagascar
Madagascar
Eskimos (Point
Barrow)
Male
Female
Male
Male
Male
Male
Florida (Seminoles)
Florida (Seminoles)
North American
(Comanche)
Mexican (Yucatan
Maya)
Mexican (Zapoteca)
Mexican (Mixteca)
Mexican( Azteca)
Mexican (Tarascans)
Mexican (Chamula)
24.0
36.6
47.0
35.0
35.6
32.2
45.2
52.6
44.8
36.8
27.0
23.1
27.0
21.7
21.5
62.0
46.3
50.0
57.0
47.2
46.2
35.4
38.2
42.2
43.6
54.6
47.0
43.3
56.4
64.0
64.1
36.4
32.0
35.3
56.0
48.2
28.3
45.5
39.6
39.3
56.2
56.1
46.1
18.2
35.0
34.1
26.0
16.8
11.3
38.2
60.9
53.8
40.0
36.8
54.7
28.2
47.7
44.0
33.0
26.8
33.0
31.2 60.1 45.6
42.0 27.5 34.7
276
110
197
242
50
250
10.6
16.9 45.9 31.4
29.3 52.7 41.0
44.0 68.0 56.0
25.5 59.5 42.5
33.1 42.2 37.8
30.4
24.4
26.5
27.3
40.1
14.8 39.3 27.0
21.2 42.4 31.8
10.1 36.4 23.2
32.0
30.8
38.5
35.4
33.0
51.3 33.5 42.4
52.6 41.3 47.0
48.0 26.0 37.0
47.0 28.5 37.8
42.2 42.2 42.2
40.5
53.7
58.1
54.7
38.4
55.7 39.4 47.6
57.7 44.7 51.2
55.7 46.8 51.2
16.0
15.4
15.4
8.0
10.0
16.5 37.9 27.2
448
300
100
400
296
158
82
198
199
335
122
170
156
54.0
55.1
52.5
48.2
50.5
66.0
61.5
60.2
57.5
55.0
100
156
156
113
100
42.0
48.7
44.8
38.9
46.0
68.8 50.5 59.6
448
7.2
5.0
5.8
4.3
8.8
1.9
12.6
14.9'
9.6
11.7
6.4
9.2
17.0
5.8
26.4
6.2
6.7
0
8.1
11.3
2.7
0
4.0
1.3
5.1
7.3
2.0
3.0
0
18.0
15.4
19.9
21.5
14.0
8.2
3.0
5.0
4.2
7.6
3.8
4.0
6.5
5.7
6.8
17.2
1.0
4.0
4.2
1.4
5.7
7.3
2.6
4.6
1.2
1.0
4.2
6.5
18.3 16.0
5.3
2.0
4.5
1.4
6.3
7.3
3.1
3.1
2.3
19.6
27.3
13.0
16.7
12.9
10.4
22.7
16.0
16.7
11.5
16.8
13.0
8.5
13.1
9.8 11.4
10.6 10.5 10.6
17.7 11.7 14.7
12.0
19.2
19.2
23.0
30.0
8.9
9.0
8.0
6.0
15.5
18.7
15.8
12.2
6.6
8.6
18.2
14.0
6.5
10.8
5.0
3.8
5.1
10.2
6.5
4.5
4.4
3.3
6.0
8.0
14.3
8.9
9.8
1.0
5.0
17.2
11.5
2.4
5.2
4.0
3.8
5.1
8.8
8.0
3.1
13.5
12.7
6.0
23.0
23.2
22.8
14.6
12.2
12.2
19.2
16.4
10.6
16.5
6.0
3.8
5.1
11.5
5.0
5.8
418
CHRIS C. PLAT0
80
70
60
50
40
t
1T
L
10
0
I
1
ULNAR
I
II
1
I
1
1
I
RADIAL
MODAL TYPE OF C LINE
Left
I
Right
Fig. 3 Bimanual differences in the distribution o f the Ulnar and Radial modal types of
the C line of the palm. Each bar represents the range of distributions for each hand in a
particular racial group.
In order to observe the bilateral differ- higher frequencies in the left than the
ences within each group the frequencies of right hands. These differences, however,
the ulnar and radial types were rearranged are not as pronounced as those of the two
and are presented in figure 3. The racial major types.
differences notwithstanding, there is a
LITERATURE CITED
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in Maharashtrians of India. Acta Gen. Med.
in regards to the frequency of the two main
Gem. Roma, 14: 431-437.
types. The ulnar type is without exception
Biswas, P. C. 1936 Uber Hand-und Fingerleismore frequent in the left hand reaching as
ten von Indern. Zeits. fur Morphol. und Anhigh a frequency as 87%. Conversely the
throp., 35: 519-550.
radial type is more frequent in the right Chamla, M. C. 1959 Les empreints digitales et
palmaires des Malgaches (analyse complemenhand. The bilateral asymmetry is more protaire et donnCes comparatives). Bull. et Mbm.
nounced in the frequency of the radial
SOC. d’Anthrop. de Paris, 10: 251-263.
types, where in most “racial groups” the Chen, I-li P.-y. Hsieh and S.-t. Huang 1960 Dermatoglyphic study in Bunum tribe (Takebanoa
maximum of the left hand is close to, or
group ) Hua lien perfecture, Taiwan. Quarterly
lower than, the minimum of the right.
J. Anthr., 7: 373-752.
The proximal and absent types as seen Cummins,
H. 1930 Dermatoglyphics in Negroes
in figure 2 (not shown in fig. 3 ) also show
of West Africa. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 14: 9bilateral asymmetry in all groups, with
21.
POLYMORPHISM OF THE C LINE
-
419
1936c Dermatoglyphics of the Tarascan
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1936d Dermatoglyphics and functional
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Hung, K. S., and T.-F. Cheng 1966 Palmar dermatoglyphics i n the Pokpok Ami, Taiwan. J. Rife, D. C. 1968a Finger and palmar dermatoglyphics in Seminole Indians of Florida. Am.
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1968b Finger and palmar dermatoglyphPapillarliniensystem der Fingerbeeren and
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Leche, S. M. 1936a Dermatoglyphics and funcA racial study of palmar dermatoglyphics with
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