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KurzmitteilungenPassiflora and Lime-blossomsMotility Effects after Inhalation of the Essential Oils and of Some of the Main Constituents in Animal Experiment.

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Passiflora and Lime-Blossoms
Passiflora and Lime-blossoms:Motility Effects after Inhalation of the
Essential Oils and of Some of the Main Constituents in Animal
Passionsblume und Lindenbliiten: Motorik bei Tieren nach Inhalation der atherischen Ole und einiger
G. Buchbauer*,L. Jirovetz, and W. Jager
Institute of PharmaceuticalChemistry,University of Vienna, WthingerstraBe 10, A-I090 Vienna, Austria
Received October 21.1991
Only a few authors have examined the composition of the
essential oils of Passzji'ora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae) and
Tilia cordata MiUJTilia platophyllos Scop. (Tiliaceae)14).
These drugs, used in folk medicine for their sedative propertie^'.^'^), have not been studied in detail at all. Only the
sedative effects of maltol (l),one of the volatile constituents of Passifzora, and benzyl alcohol (2), one of the volatile constituents of Tilia, were mentioned' 3,5),though there
has not been any research of the effects after an aromatherapeutical application (inhalation: for the correct definition of the term "aromatherapy"see lit.@).
In this study the influence upon motility of mice by inhalation only of the essential oils and some of its constituents
(Passiflora: maltol and 2-phenylethanol(3); Tilia: benzaldehyde (4) and benzyl alcohol) was investigated. Additional
inhalation experiments with the mentioned fragrances after
an induced over-agitation of the mice, caused by an i.p.-ap
plication of caffeine, were performed.
Gaschromatography: GC-14A with FID (Shimadzu Comp.) and C-R6AChromatopacintegrator; 30 m bonded FSOT RSL-200 (PDMS) fused silica
column with 0.32 mm i.d. and 0.25 pm film thickness: hydrogen; temperatures: injector: 25OOC; detector: 320°C; temp.-programme: 40"Cn min to
28OoC/5 min with a heating-rate of 6"C/min.
Quantification of the volatile components in the blood samples was accomplished by the use of tiglinic acid benzyl ester as internal standard (4
samples = 1 test group were pooled after standard extraction procedure''*)).
GC-MS: HP-5890 GC with HP-597023 MSD and data system 5997OC
Chem Station (Hewlett-Packard Comp.): 70 eV, 35-450 amu; interface
heating: 280°C: other parameters see GC.
GC-Fl'IR: HP-5890 GC with HP-5965 A IRD (MCT detector) and data
system 5997OC Chem Station (Hewlett-Packard Comp.); 840-4000 cm-';
interface heating: 250°C; other parameters: see GC.
After the motility-tests blood was taken and analyzed after
a mild extraction procedure7**)by GC-MS (MID) and GCFTIR (SWC) to identify and by GC-FID to quantify
possible volatiles in the blood*).
We gratefully acknowledge the animal experiments by Dr.H. Dierrich
and F. Mayer, University of Innsbruck, Central Lab. Animal Facilities, the
Inshumentation Support by the Austrian Fonds zur Firrderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (projects P8299CHE and F"587CHE) and the support of Dragoco-Vienna.
Experimental Part
1 kg of Herba Passiflorae (U.S.A.) and 1 kg of Flores Tiliae (France),
(both drugs supplied by Mag. Kottas-HeldenbergComp., Vienna), respectively, were steam distilled with a yield of about 3 g of the essential oil of
Passiflora and 0.4 g of Tilia.
Fig. 1:Values of motor activity (control = 100%) of mice after inhalation
experiments with fragrances.
MID = multiple ion detection and SWC = selected wavelength chromatogramme.
Arch. Pharm. (Weinheim)325,247-248 (1992)
OVCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, D-6940 Weinheim, 1992
0365-6233/92/0404-0247 $3.50 + .25/0
Buchbauer, Jirovetz. and Jtiger
Parameters for the motility testings by animal experiments under standardized conditionswere used according to lit?').
Results and Discussion
The inhalation-experiments with mice using the essential
oil of Herba Passiflorae as well as its main constituents
maltol and 2-phenylethanol showed no significant decrease
of the motility of the animals (Fig. l), while the use of
benzyl alcohol and especially of lime-blossoms or benzaldehyde decreased motility down to 55% (benzaldehyde; control 100%).
The decrease of motility after caffeine application was
caused by all fragrances (but surprisingly it was not significant for lime-blossoms) in a range from 76% @enzyl alcohol) down to 50% (maltol) in respect to the control value of
100%(Fig. 2).
Table 1: Used ion traces (GC-MSI and wavelength values (GC-FTLR) for
the detection and identification (retention-time correlations hy coinjection
of pure substances) of the fragrance compounds. Quantificationof them in
the blood samples of mice after inhalation experiments by GC-FIDwith
IS in ng/ml serum range.
nLJml serum.
m/z (amu)
91; 122
Benzyl alcohol
91; 106; 108
79; 108
77; 106
1730; 3660
n.d.: not detected
tenzyl alcohol
(2-phenylethanol) is near the detection limits of the used
In conclusion we can report that under normal test conditions as well as under caffeine produced over-agitation the
essential oil of lime-blossoms and its constituent benzyl alcohol decrease the motility of test animals in inhalation experiments. The essential oil of Herba Passiflorae, maltol and
2-phenylethanol, in contrast, decrease the motility of test
animals only after caffeine caused overagitation. In the
blood samples of mice after the inhalation experiments with
the fragrances only in the case of 2-phenylethanol, limeblossoms, benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol low concentrations (0.12 to 1.23 ng/ml serum) of volatiles could be identified and quantified.
For the first time we could confirm the sedative properties
of the essential oils of lime-blossoms and Herba Passiflora
in inhalation experiments and justify the use in aramatherapeutical applications.
Fig. 2: Values of motor activity of mice after an induced over-agitation
by an i q . application of caffeine (control = 100%).
Only in blood samples of the mice after inhalation experiments with 2-phenylethanol, lime-blossoms, benzyl alcohol
and benzaldehyde (Tab. 1) volatiles could be detected,
identified (GC-MS, G C - m ) , and quantified (GC-FID
with IS). The range of 0.12 (benzaldehyde) to 1.23 ndml
J. Lutomski, E. Segiet, K. Szpunar, and K. Grisse, Phatm. unserer Zeit
10,45 (198 1).
N. Aoyagi, R. Kimura, and T. Murata, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 22, 1008
M. Wichtl, in: Teedrogen (M.Wichtl ed.). 2"d ed., p. 312 and 362,
Wiss. Verlagsges.m.b.H., Stuttgan 1989.
G. Buchbauer and L.Jirovetz, Dtsch. Apoth. Ztg., in press.
D.L.J.Opdyke, Food Comet. Toxicol. 11, 1011 (1973); C.A. 81,
54261b (1974).
0.Buchbauer, (2sterr. Apoth. Ztg. 43.65 (1989); Perf. & Rav. 15. 47
L. Jimvetz, G. Buchbauer, W. Jiiger. V. Raverdino, and A. Nikifomv,
Fres. J. Anal. Chem. 338,922 (I 990).
G. Buchbauer, L. Jirovek W. Jlger. H. Dietrich, Ch. Plank, and E.
Karamat, 2.Naturforsch. 46C. 1067 (1991).
K.A. Kovar, B. Gropper, D.Friess, and H.P.T. A m o n , Planca Med.
53,315 (1987).
Arch. Pharm. (WeinheimJ 325,247-248 (1992)
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experimentov, effect, essential, inhalation, kurzmitteilungenpassiflora, constituents, blossomsmotility, animals, limes, main, oils
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