PrefaceInsect signal transduction systemsCurrent knowledge and future directions.код для вставкиСкачать
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 62:105106 (2006) Preface Insect Signal Transduction Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Directions Jozef Vanden Broeck,* Guest Editor, and David Stanley,* Executive Editor The papers in this special issue were originally Claeys et al. report on new findings relative to derived from presentations at the International Con- the influence of the major insect hormones, juve- gress of Entomology, Brisbane, Australia, in 2004. nile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-E), The corresponding authors appeared as speakers in on expression of genes encoding neuroparsins a symposium entitled Insect Signal Transduction (NPs), small proteins originally known from the Systems: Current Knowledge and Future Directions, pars intercerebraliscorpus cardiacum complex of organized by Jozef Vanden Broeck (Leuven, Bel- the migratory locust brain. Four distinct NPs have gium) and David Stanley (Columbia, MO). been detected in the desert locust. These proteins Among the many exciting areas of insect sci- regulate cellular events in nervous, reproductive, ence, it would be extremely difficult to exaggerate and perhaps other tissues. Claeys et al. now report the importance of our growing knowledge on signal on hormone-regulated NP gene expression in vari- transduction systems. In recent years, the available ous desert locust tissues, including ovaries, and molecular information has grown exponentially as place this new information into the biological con- a result of genome and EST (expressed sequence text of locust reproduction. The study also exem- tags) sequencing projects. These projects already plifies how downstream effects of hormones can have an important impact on signal transduction be analyzed on a molecular level. research and provide novel insights in the evolu- Sun and Song contribute important new details tion of genes coding for important components of on the regulation of the ultraspiracle protein (USP) Drosophila. The ecdysone receptor (EcR) and its signaling processes. Future challenges are to study in the functional relationships between (this plethora heterodimerization partner, USP, are transcriptional of) genes, as well as the regulation of their expres- factors that mediate the gene expression actions sion. In addition to the more traditional insect of 20-E. Their activity can be regulated by transcrip- Droso- tional/translational and also posttranslational phila genetics and germline transformation tech- mechanisms, including protein phosphorylation. nology, some very powerful methods have now Sun and Song surfaced the question of which pro- become available for functional genomic analyses tein kinases are responsible for regulating USP in the postgenomic research era. phosphorylation. The authors propose that Protein physiology and the fruitful combination of The four contributions to this issue highlight Kinase C (PKC) phosphorylates USP based on their important advances and illuminate emerging con- data that inhibition of PKC blocks USP phospho- cepts in insect signal transduction research. rylation and 20-E-dependent gene expression. *Correspondence to: Jozef Vanden Broeck, Laboratory for Developmental Physiology, Genomics and Proteomics, Department of Biology, Animal Physiology and Neurobiology Section, Zoological Institute, Naamsestraat 59, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. E-mail: Jozef.VandenBroeck@bio.kuleuven.be and David Stanley, Research Leader at USDA/ARS, Biological Control of Insects Research Laboratory, 1503 South Providence, Research Park, Columbia, MO 65203. E-mail: email@example.com © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. DOI: 10.1002/arch.20126 Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) 106 Vanden Broeck and Stanley Taneja-Bageshwar et al. investigated structure tion coupling is stimulated by two biogenic amines, activity relationships of arthropod kinins and ki- dopamine and serotonin. Both amines stimulate nin receptors. They stably expressed kinin receptors increases in intracellular cAMP and Ca from the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, and from trations. However, the quality of the secreted sa- the mosquito Aedes aegypti in CHO-K1 cells. This liva varies according to the stimulating biogenic achievement allowed them to test the activity of amine. Serotonin stimulates secretion of a protein- kinin core analogs using a calcium biolumines- rich saliva, while dopamine stimulates secretion of cence assay. They report that the kinin core pen- a protein-free saliva. This work reveals two sepa- tapeptide FFSWGa is the minimum 2+ concen- sequence rate saliva-secreting mechanisms under the control required and the C-terminal amide is necessary for of two distinct receptor ligands. Walz et al. point receptor-mediated activity. Their assay also revealed to future work on the receptors. substantial differences between the tick and mos- We bring these reports together to illuminate quito kinin receptors. The work may form a basis progress in the broad field of insect signal trans- for the development of biologically stable kinin- duction systems. The future holds real promise like analogs. for great advances in a research area that has al- Finally, Walz et al. report on their advances in ready contributed important fundamental informa- understanding the physiology of the cockroach sali- tion about how cells function in their biological vary gland at the molecular level. Excitationsecre- context. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology July 2006 doi: 10.1002/arch.