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The development of the chick. An introduction to embryology. By Frank R. Lillie Professor in the University of Chicago. Henry Holt & Co. 1908

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BOOK REVIEWS.
THEDEVELOPMENT
OF THE CHICK. An introduction to embryology.
By Frank R. Lillie, Professor in the University of Chicago.
Henry Holt & Co., 1908.
Every one who has long wished for an up-to-date text book on the
development i n the egg of the common fowl, to replace the classic
book of Foster and Balfour, and the most excellent book of Marshall,
mill need to judge by trial whether this is his ideal, or but the
roice of one crying in the wilderness. This is a book of some four
hundred and fifty pages and two hundred and fifty most excellent
illustrations, six of these being full page colored plates. The illustrations are well chosen from many recent sources and very
many, both surface views and sections, arc original. I n fact, it
is this aspect of the book which is emphasized ; it is no mere complication but full of the original work of the author, and the work of
others has been very judicially and fairly balanced. It may be
said that the vast body of known facts on this subject has been
digested by the author, digested to fit his needs ; whether the process
has been carried far enough to suit the tender assimilative powers
of the “beginners in embryology,” for whom it is said to be written,
may well be doubted.
Every teacher of embryology must have the book, and the man
who really wants to study the einbrgology of the fowl mnst use this
as the most complete book of rcfereiice. The average beginner,
however, who actually knows nothing of embryology, wilI scarcely
hare either the time or the pertinacity of purpose to get an adequate
notion of the events in the egg of thc fowl from such a technical
treatment.
Until the second part, which treats of the organology from tho
fourth day on, shall hare been much shortened and the first part
recast in presentation, the book can scarcely be judged as a text
book far beginners, though doubtless it will be an inspiration to
those fortunate, good students whose teachers introduce it to them.
(141)
142
Book Reviews.
As the foremost book, in English, that presents the subject of the
development of the fowl, as it appears to-day, the book of Professor
Lillie deserves only praise. Throughout it is marlred by conscientious matter of fact treatment and a precision that shows both in
the illustrations and the text. The author’s attitude is indicated
by the section on the eleventh cranial nerve which is merely, “No
observations on the development of this nerve in the chick are known
to me.” The book is restricted to the description of the visible
developments of the common fowl, except for a few necessary illustrations from other birds. It is neither experimental nor comparative,
barring a few very brief references to probable recapitulations. It
will be understood also that there is no reference to methods and no
directions for laboratory work. There is, on the other hand, an
excellent bibliography of some four or five hundred recent original
contributions to the subject of the embryology of the fowl.
The introductory first fifteen pages take up the subjects of the
cell theory, the recapitulation theory, the physiology of development, the law of genetic restriction, the sperm and ovum and the
polarity of the ovum. The book being essentially a chronicle of
facts, this introduction might well be omitted.
The facts are arranged in fourteen chapters, as follows :
A brief account of the reproductive organs of the hen, the formation of the egg and the structure and chemical make up that it has
when laid, makes the first chapter. As nothing is known of the
fertilization, and maturation, and little enough of the cleavage, of
the hen’s egg; these phases are figured and described from the
excellent work that has been done upon the pigeon. The second
chapter devotes some thirty pages to the details of these events in
the bird’s egg before it is laid, including the formation of the ectoderm and entoderm. The third chapter contains a discussion of
the rate of development, with a folding plate presenting the amount
of development of organs in the hen’s egg at different stages up to
forty-one somites, at 96 hours. Here also is a brief sketch of the
orientation of the embryo in the egg and its relations to the yolk
sac, biit the expected epitome of the entire development within the
egg, as far as embryo is related to membranes, is deferred for later
chapters, which must prove troublesome to the novice,
Book Reviews.
143
111 chapter four the events from laying to the formation of the
first somite are given twenty pages with excellent views of sections,
as well as some surface views taken from Schauinsland and represeiitiiig the blastoderm of the sparrow. The fifth chapter, though
of sonic forty pages, includes only the events from the head fold
to the period of twelve somites, thus advancing only to about the
S3d hour of incubation. This indicates the detailed care with
which the subject is treated, even though here as throughout, much
of the space is taken up with most uscful and finely executed illustrations. Chapter six runs over the events from 34 to '72 hours;
but this, ending at the lapse of three times twenty-four hours, is
about the only remnant of the old method of describing the chick's
progress as if done by day labor. As most of the organs are
laid down in this important third day, all the eighty pages of this
chapter are necessary.
With the next chapter begins the sccond part of the book, the
events of the fourth day to the time of hatching. This part is chiefly
the completion or advancement of organs already begun, and such
organology could, from the view point of beginners in Embryolog,
well be more briefly described than it is in the following two hundred
and thirty pages, the more so as many students who are interested
in medicine may get such information from the study of pig or
other mammalian embryos.
The seventh chapter deals with the general form and the fate
of the embryo with reference to the amnion, allantois and yolk sac,
and much of this, as above noted, might have been aweptable earlier
in the book. The beautiful colored plates of the rascular area add
much to this part of the rolume.
The eighth chapter deals with thc nervous system, the neuroblasts, neurons, brain, cord, and origin of cranial and spinal nerrcy.
The ninth chapter takes up the eye and the ear where they were
left in the sixth chapter and carries them to their definitive form.
The tenth chapter gives thirty pages t o the alimentary tract.
The eleventh some fifteen pages to the difficult problems of the body
carities and mesenteries, while the twelfth devotes thirty pages
to a very good account of the later stages of the heart and the
141
Eook Reviews.
vascular system. The rcniaiiiiiig two describe, in each about tht.
above number of pagcs, the urinogenital system and the skeleton.
This presentation of the facts of the developmeiit of the sesnal and
the excretory organs will be most welcome to all who h a w not ready
access to all the recent literatnre, and it is a good sample of the
great raluci of the book throughout, both for the teacher ancl the
student who is prepared to realize what has been done for him.
r ,
1liroiighont, points that liavcl received 110 attenrioii as Fet are i ~ ~ ~ e t l ,
and one will not get the idea that the subject is a completed oiie
despite the great inass of fact that has accuniulakd siiice our old
texts were written. The press work and the esccntion of the illustrations do credit to the publishers.
The volume well represents the prescnt status of oiir lmoir-ledge
of the development of the fowl : a great moniiimait of hard woii facts,
evidently connected with thc embryology of other animals. in fact
faintly illuminated still by the principle of recapitiilation, h i t on
the oiie hand shorn of the mysteries of the imfamiliar and on the
other awaiting some future more fundamental interpretatioii and
explanation. With the incrcase of accuracy ancl solid achievement
w1iic.h this volume should incite in the study of the chick, ivc may
expect even better progress i n the future and reaction for the better
in the stud,y of embryology in connection with medical schools.
Received for publication, February 19, 1009.
E.3.Asi)i:i.:\vs.
QUAIX’SELEMENTS
014’ ANATOMY.
Rlcventh Edition. Val. I. Embryology. J3v T. I€. Bryce. I,onpians, Grccn & Po., London
and New York. 1908.
The appearance of a new edition, the eleventh, of Quxin’s Anatomy
is a noteworthy event, since, among English text-books, this has long
occupied a foremost place as an exposition of Anatomy from a
scientific standpoint. The first volurnc of the present edition, like
that of the tenth, is devoted to Embryology, a subdivisinn of hnatoinp
c*onccriiingwhich our knowledge bas inadc remarkable progrtyss since
the publication of the earlier edition (1892), not only as a resnlt
of the study of greater numbers of embryos and c:f eiiihryos of
earlier stages of development than were formerly awilable, but also
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development, embryology, introduction, 1908, henry, holtz, university, chick, professor, chicago, lillie, frank
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