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Expression of hypoxia-inducible membrane-bound carbonic anhydrase isozyme XII in mouse tissues.

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THE ANATOMICAL RECORD PART A 277A:171–177 (2004)
Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible,
Membrane-Bound Carbonic
Anhydrase Isozyme XII in
Mouse Tissues
PIIA HALMI,1 JONNA LEHTONEN,1 ABDUL WAHEED,2 WILLIAM S. SLY,2
1,3
AND SEPPO PARKKILA
*
1
Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere and Tampere University
Hospital, Tampere, Finland
2
Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis
University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri
3
Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
ABSTRACT
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) XII is a membrane-associated enzyme that has been demonstrated to be normally expressed in some human tissues, to be upregulated in some cancers,
and to be a hypoxia-inducible gene product. In mouse, CA XII has been recently localized in
the kidney. In the present study, we investigated CA XII gene and protein expression in other
mouse tissues, with the kidney serving as a positive control for the reagents. The expression
of CA XII mRNA was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of
commercial cDNAs produced from selected mouse tissues. A strong positive signal for CA XII
mRNA was detected in the kidney, and weak signals were obtained in the testis and lung.
Heart, spleen, liver, and skeletal muscle were negative. Immunohistochemical staining was
performed using a mouse CA XII-specific antibody and biotin-streptavidin complex method.
The results showed high expression of CA XII in the kidney, as expected. It was also highly
expressed in the surface epithelial cells of the colon, whereas it was absent in the stomach,
proximal small intestine, pancreas, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. The maturing sperm
cells showed a weak staining in a pattern that most probably indicates expression in the
developing acrosomal membrane. The high expression in the kidney and colon suggests a role
for CA XII in the maintenance of body ion and pH homeostasis in the mouse. However, the
present findings demonstrated that CA XII has a very limited distribution in mouse tissues
outside these two organs. Anat Rec Part A 277A:171–177, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Key words: carbonic anhydrase; colon; gastrointestinal; kidney; plasma
membrane
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) form a family of enzymes
that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide in
the reaction CO2 ⫹ H2O 7 H2CO3 7 HCO3– ⫹ H⫹. All
enzymatically active isoforms contain a zinc ion (Zn2⫹),
which is considered critical for the catalytic activity. Different CA isozymes have been implicated in a number of
physiological processes such as CO2 transport, regulation
of pH balance, production of biological fluids, fertilization,
gluconeogenesis, ureagenesis, cell proliferation, and adhesion (Sly and Hu, 1995; Henry, 1996; Parkkila et al.,
2003). Recent studies have also suggested that CA activity
may be involved in long-term synaptic transformation and
gating of memory storage (Sun and Alkon, 2002).
CAs are divided into three distinct classes (␣, ␤, and ␥)
that evolved independently and have no sequence homol©
2004 WILEY-LISS, INC.
ogy (Hewett-Emmet and Tashian, 1996). The ␣-CA gene
family includes at least 11 active CA isozymes, which have
Grant sponsor: Academy of Finland; Grant number: 200969;
Grant sponsor: National Institutes of Health; Grant number:
GM34182, DK40163; Grant sponsor: Sigrid Juselius Foundation.
*Correspondence to: Professor Seppo Parkkila, MD, PhD, Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Lenkkeilijänkatu 6, 33520 Tampere, Finland. Fax: ⫹358-3-2158597.
E-mail: Seppo.Parkkila@uta.fi
Received 9 October 2003; Accepted 12 November 2003
DOI 10.1002/ar.a.20001
172
HALMI ET AL.
Fig. 1. PCR analysis of mouse CA XII mRNA expression. The strongest 700-bp signal is seen in the
kidney, followed by the testis, embryos, and lung. In embryos, the signal becomes more prominent at stages
of 15 and 17 days.
been characterized in the animal kingdom. Four of these
are cytoplasmic (CA I, CA II, CA III, and CA VII) (Sly and
Hu, 1995; Earnhardt et al., 1998), two are mitochondrial
(CA VA and CA VB) (Fujikawa-Adachi et al., 1999), one is
secreted (CA VI) (Murakami and Sly, 1987), and four are
membrane associated (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, and CA XIV)
(Zhu and Sly, 1990; Pastorek et al., 1994; Ivanov et al.,
1998; Türeci et al., 1998; Mori et al., 1999). Some isozymes
such as CA II are expressed in a number of different
tissues, whereas others (e.g., CA VI, IX, and XIV) show a
more limited distribution. It is notable, however, that all
active isozymes are expressed in the alimentary tract,
although the cellular localization is unique for each
isozyme (Parkkila et al., 1994; Fleming et al., 1995; Sly
and Hu, 1995; Parkkila and Parkkila, 1996, Pastoreková
et al., 1997; Kivelä et al., 2000; Parkkila et al., 2003).
Human CA XII was cloned and characterized by two
groups independently (Ivanov et al., 1998; Türeci et al.,
1998), in both cases as a gene whose mRNA is greatly
upregulated in renal cell carcinomas. The cDNA sequence
predicted a 354-amino acid polypeptide with a molecular
mass of 39,448 Da. CA XII is a one-pass, Type I transmembrane protein with an intact catalytic domain in the
extracellular CA module (Ivanov et al., 1998). Recently,
Whittington et al. (2001) described the crystal structure of
a secretory form of human CA XII at 1.55-Å resolution. CA
XII was found to exist as a dimer in both solution and the
crystal. Interestingly, the CA12 gene has been identified
as a von Hippel-Lindau target gene, suggesting a potential
role for CA XII in von Hippel-Lindau carcinogenesis
(Ivanov et al., 1998). More recently, CA XII has been found
to be a hypoxia-inducible gene (Ivanov et al., 2001; Wykoff
et al., 2001; Watson et al., 2003), possibly explaining its
upregulation in certain tumors. These recent reports suggest that CA XII may be an excellent marker for hypoxia
in tumors.
CA XII mRNA is expressed in several normal human
tissues such as kidney, colon, prostate, pancreas, ovary,
testis, lung, and brain (Ivanov et al., 1998; Türeci et al.,
1998). Immunohistochemical studies showed that CA XII
protein is expressed in the human reproductive tissues,
colon, and kidney (Karhumaa et al., 2000, 2001; Kivelä et
al., 2000; Parkkila et al., 2000). Kyllönen et al. (2003) have
recently studied the localization of CA XII in the mouse
kidney and reported its localization in the proximal tubules and intercalated cells of the collecting ducts. This
study was designed to investigate the expression of CA XII
in other mouse tissues.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Tissue Preparation
Samples of stomach, duodenum, colon, jejunum, liver,
ileum, rectum, psoas muscle, heart, and testis were obtained from two adult mice. The specimens were fixed in
Carnoy’s fluid (absolute ethanol ⫹ chloroform ⫹ glacial
acetic acid, 6:3:1) for 18 hr. Then they were dehydrated,
embedded in paraffin in a vacuum oven at 58°C, and 4-␮m
sections were placed on gelatin-coated microscope slides.
Antibody and Immunohistochemical Method
The production of polyclonal rabbit antibody raised
against the recombinant mouse CA XII has recently been
described by Kyllönen et al. (2003). The specificity of the
antibody was confirmed by Western blotting.
The tissue sections were immunostained by the biotinstreptavidin complex method, employing the following
steps: 1) pretreatment of the sections with undiluted cow
colostral whey (Biotop Oy, Oulu, Finland) for 30 min and
rinsing in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 2) incubation
for 1 hr with anti-mouse CA XII serum or normal rabbit
serum (1:100) in 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA)-PBS, 3)
incubation for 1 hr with biotinylated goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) (Zymed Laboratories, South San
Francisco, CA) diluted 1:300 in 1% BSA-PBS, 4) incubation for 30 min with peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin
CARBONIC ANHYDRASE XII IN MOUSE TISSUES
173
Two primers for amplifying CA XII cDNA were chosen
based on the published mouse CA XII sequence (accession numbers BC033432 and AK052639): forward 5⬘TGGTGATCCTTAAGAAGCA-3⬘ and reverse 5⬘-GCACAGGGTTTCGGAAAACT-3⬘, which generated a 692-bp
amplification product. The primers were produced by
Sigma Genosys (Cambridgeshire, UK). Primers for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH, BD
Biosciences) were used to monitor the quality of the
cDNA samples.
Five nanograms of total cDNAs were used as templates
for PCRs. The PCR cycling protocol consisted of denaturation at 94°C for 1 min, followed by 33 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 30 sec, annealing at 55°C for 30 sec, and
extension at 72°C for 1.5 min, followed by final extension
at 72°C for 3 min. The PCR products were analyzed by
electrophoresis on 1.2% agarose gel containing 0.1 ␮g/ml
ethidium bromide. DNA standard (100-bp DNA ladder)
was purchased from New England Biolabs (Beverly, MA).
RESULTS
CA12 Gene Expression in Mouse Tissues
The expression of the CA12 gene was investigated by
PCR amplification of a commercially available set of
cDNAs produced for selected mouse tissues, including
heart, spleen, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, testis,
7-day embryo, 11-day embryo, 15-day embryo, and 17-day
embryo. Figure 1 shows a strong 700-bp band in kidney
and a weak band in the testis. A very faint signal was also
seen in the lung. Heart, spleen, liver, and skeletal muscle
were negative. Embryos showed positive bands and the
signal became stronger with increasing age of the embryo,
indicating developmental regulation.
Distribution of CA XII Protein
Fig. 2. Positive control staining of CA XII in the mouse kidney. The
enzyme is located in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) and collecting
ducts (CD) (A). Immunostaining using normal rabbit serum instead of the
anti-CA XII serum is negative (B). GL, glomerulus. Original magnifications, ⫻200 (A and B), ⫻630 (insert in A).
(Zymed Laboratories), and 5) incubation for 1 min in DAB
solution containing 9 mg of 3,3⬘-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) in 15 ml of PBS ⫹ 5
␮l of 30% H2O2. The sections were washed three times for
10 min in PBS after incubation in steps 2 and 3, and four
times for 5 min in PBS after step 4. All the incubations
and washings were carried out at room temperature. The
stained sections were examined and photographed with
Zeiss Axioskop 40 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Göttingen, Germany).
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Method
The expression of mouse CA XII mRNA was examined
using a cDNA kit (MTC™ panel I) purchased from BD
Biosciences (Palo Alto, CA). The cDNAs included in the
MTC™ panel were used as templates for PCR using CA12
gene-specific primers. The mouse MTC™ panel I contained first-strand cDNA preparations produced from total poly-A RNAs isolated from a number of different tissues.
Immunohistochemical staining of CA XII revealed a
distribution pattern that was limited to only a few mouse
tissues. Kidney served as a positive control for the reagents, which were used to demonstrate CA XII by immunofluorescence in the proximal tubules and in the intercalated cells of the collecting ducts (Kyllönen et al., 2003).
This result is confirmed in Figure 2. In the gastrointestinal tract, CA XII was not expressed in the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum (Fig. 3). The enterocytes in the ileum
showed a faint positive staining, and the reaction became
much stronger in the colon and rectum. In the large intestine, the staining was most intense in the surface epithelial cuff region as described previously for human CA
XII. The highest expression was seen on the basolateral
surfaces. No specific staining for CA XII was found in the
mouse liver and pancreas (Fig. 4). Weak staining was
detected in the developing sperm cells, in which the signal
showed a crescentic or point-form pattern, suggesting CA
XII expression in the acrosomal membrane (Fig. 5). No
specific reaction was found in the psoas and heart muscle
specimens (Fig. 6).
DISCUSSION
Both immunohistochemical and PCR analyses indicated
that CA XII is expressed only in a few mouse organs.
Based on the present and previous (Kyllönen et al., 2003)
results, kidney appears to contain the highest amount of
CA XII. This is in line with the findings by Türeci et al.
(1998) and Ivanov et al. (1998), who showed high CA XII
174
HALMI ET AL.
Fig. 3. Immunohistochemical staining of CA XII in the mouse gastrointestinal canal. Stomach (A), duodenum (B), and jejunum (C) are negative. Faint staining is seen in the ileal enterocytes (D). The strongest
reaction is present in the surface epithelial cuff region of the colon (E)
and rectum (F) (arrows). Insert in panel F demonstrates that the most
prominent immunoreaction is confined to the basolateral surfaces of the
enterocytes. Original magnifications, ⫻200 (A–F), ⫻630 (insert in F).
mRNA expression in the human kidney and renal tumors.
A more extensive transcription analysis confirmed that
the strongest signal for human CA XII mRNA was in the
kidney and the second strongest was in the colon (Ivanov
et al., 2001). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that
CA XII protein is located at the basolateral plasma membrane of certain epithelial cells in both the human colon
and kidney (Kivelä et al., 2000; Parkkila et al., 2000).
Although CA XII has a similar pattern of expression in
the mouse colon to that previously reported in the human
colon (Kivelä et al., 2000), i.e., in the most superficial part
of the mucosa called the epithelial cuff region, the localization of CA XII in mouse kidney was clearly different
from that reported for human kidney. In the human kid-
ney, CA XII was localized to the proximal and distal tubules and principal cells of the collecting ducts (Parkkila
et al., 2000), whereas in mouse, it was found in the proximal tubules and intercalated cells of the collecting ducts
(Kyllönen et al., 2003). The physiological implications of
these differences are not yet clear, nor is the role of CA XII
in gut obvious. However, conservation of CA XII expression in the colonic enterocytes in both species suggests
that the enzyme serves a similar role in human and mouse
gut.
It is well known that colonic enterocytes are equipped
with a number of ion channels, carriers, and pumps, allowing highly efficient transport of salt and water. The
enterocytes located in the epithelial cuff region are differ-
CARBONIC ANHYDRASE XII IN MOUSE TISSUES
Fig. 4. Immunostaining of CA XII in the mouse liver (A) and pancreas
(B). No reaction is seen. Original magnifications, ⫻200 (A and B).
Fig. 5. Immunohistochemical staining of CA XII in mouse testis.
Weak staining is located to the developing sperm cells. Higher magnification reveals that the reaction is probably located at the site of the
developing acrosome (arrows). Original magnifications, ⫻200, ⫻630
(insert).
175
entiated from the colonic crypt cells (Lipkin, 1985). The
base crypt enterocytes show the highest proliferative activity, demonstrate limited expression of differentiation
markers, and have a high chloride secretory activity (Kunzelmann and Mall, 2002). The most luminal epithelial
cells, representing the mature enterocytes, have a lower
tendency to proliferate, express several differentiation
marker proteins and certain lectins, and have a primarily
absorptive function. The colonic absorption of NaCl can be
electrogenic via epithelial Na⫹ channels or is electroneutral via parallel Na⫹/H⫹ and Cl–/HCO3– exchange (Kunzelmann and Mall, 2002). From these two pathways, electroneutral NaCl absorption has been shown to take place
in both crypts and surface epithelial cuff region. In contrast, electrogenic absorption via Na⫹ channels is mainly
located at the epithelial cuff region that is also the site of
CA XII expression. Unfortunately, the role of CAs in electrogenic NaCl absorption is largely unknown. On the
other hand, the participation of the colonic CA in the
electroneutral NaCl absorption has been well established
by CA inhibitors (Charney et al., 1986). Here, CA has been
shown to be involved in the absorption of NaCl via the
synchronous operation of apical Na⫹/H⫹ and Cl⫺/HCO3⫺
exchange processes. CAs also participate in the alkalization of the luminal contents by generating HCO3⫺ for
apical Cl⫺/HCO3⫺ exchange (Feldman, 1994). Interestingly, recent results have indicated that CAs can be physically and functionally associated with Cl⫺/HCO3⫺ (AE1)
and Na⫹/H⫹ exchangers (Sterling et al., 2001, 2002; Li et
al., 2002). So far, CA IV is the only membrane-bound CA
isozyme that has been shown to interact with AE1 protein
(Sterling et al., 2002). It is quite possible that CA XII also
could drive ion exchange processes across the colonic
plasma membranes via a direct link with an ion transport
protein.
To date, there have been two major techniques to define
the physiological role of CA isozymes. One is to use a
membrane-permeant or -impermeant CA inhibitor, even
though these studies are often hampered by lack of
isozyme specificity. Another approach is to develop and
analyze knockout mouse models deficient in one CA
isozyme. To date, two such mouse colonies with CA deficiency have been reported: CA II-deficient mice produced
by chemical mutagenesis (Lewis et al., 1988) and CA IXdeficient mice developed by targeted mutagenesis and homologous recombination (Ortova Gut et al., 2002). Extrapolating from the present findings, physiological studies of
renal and colonic function in CA XII-deficient mice should
be quite interesting. One might predict that disruption of
CA XII function would result in abnormal regulation of ion
and pH homeostasis, because both kidney and colon play
key roles in the maintenance of body electrolyte and pH
balance. However, both organs also express a number of
other CA isozymes such as CA II, CA IV, and CA XIV (Zhu
and Sly, 1990; Parkkila et al., 1994; Fleming et al., 1995;
Parkkila et al., 2002, Kyllönen et al., 2003; Parkkila et al.,
2003), which may compensate for the loss of one isozyme
following a gene disruption. Although this potential functional redundancy makes predicting the phenotype of the
mouse with a targeted gene disruption less straightforward, establishing whether and which CA genes are upregulated would provide a clue as to the functional importance of the disrupted gene.
176
HALMI ET AL.
Fig. 6.
Immunostaining of CA XII in the mouse psoas muscle and heart. No reaction is seen. Original magnifications, ⫻200.
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