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George Washington Crile 1864 У1943.

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GEORGE WASHINGTON CRILE
1864-1943
George Washington Crile was born at Chili, a village in
north-central Ohio, November 11, 1864, and died in Cleveland,
January 7, 1943. He was graduated in arts in 1884 at what
is now Ohio Northern University and in medicine at the
Medical Department of TVooster ‘IJniversity in Cleveland in
1887.
Dr. Crile was widely known as a skillful surgeon. His teaching career and his interest and work in anatomy are less well
known. He began his medical teaching in 1889 as lecturer
and demonstrator of histology in the medical school from
which he was graduated. A year later physiology was added
and from 1893 to 1896 he was Professor of Physiology. After
1896 his teaching was entirely in surgery. He was Professor
of Surgery in the same medical college from 1896 to 1900 and
was a professor of surgery in the School of Medicine of
Western Reserve University from 1900 to 1924, when he
resigned to devote himself to other medical interests. He
taught in medical schools in Cleveland continuously for 35
years.
He began animal experimentation in physiology in 1893.
T.his led to publication of a book on shock in 1897. His experimental work in physiology brought interest in comparative
organology, which he investigated in domestic and feral animals of northern Ohio and in all the types of exotic animals
he was able to secure from the local zoological garden. It was
this interest that led to his becoming a member of the American Association of Anatomists in 1910.
619
620
GEORGE WABHINGTON CRlLE
His work in comparative organology was at first confined
to the adrenals and thyroids and later extended to the heart,
sympathetic nervous system, and central nervous system.
He, with three medical associates, established the Cleveland
Clinic in 1921. I n this, at the outset, was a laboratory for
animal experimentation and comparative organology, small
at first, but later provided with an adequate building and a
considerable full time staff of individuals well trained in
science.
After his retirement from teaching Dr. Crile began explorations in 1927 to study the action of wild animals in their
native habitat and to collect the organs in which he was interested. These expeditions, continued until 1941, extended
in North America from the shores of Hudson Bay to Panama,
to South America, Central Africa, and Pacific islands. He took
with him a trained zoologist, a technician and equipment to
set up a laboratory in the field. Animals that were killed were
immediately dissected to expose the organs in which he was
interested. These were photographed or sketched in situ,
then extirpated and accurately weighed in fresh condition and
the weights compared with the total body weight. The organs
were preserved and sent to the laboratory in Cleveland for
further gross and microscopical study. The greater part of
the work was on mammals, ranging from small rodents to
manatees, whales, and elephants. Some attention was given
to reptiles and birds.
Accurate comparative weight determinations in the fresh
condition of each of the organs mentioned have been made
and compared with the other organs, and with total weight of
the individual animals for nearly 4000 sets of specimens.
Some of this work has been published. Endowment of the
laboratory in Cleveland assures that the study of these extensive collections will continue, with resulting publication.
Dr. Crile was engaged personally on experimental and
comparative research for nearly 50 years, from 1893 until
a few months before his death, and aided in later years by a
staff of workers under his direction. He was the author of
GEORGE WASHINGTON CRILE
621
twenty-four published books and over 500 articles in periodical literature. His research in physiology and comparative
organology much influenced his surgical work and led to
notable contributions to surgical practice and technique.
Dr. Crile was a man of personal charm, with great energy
and tireless industry. He was generous in financial contributions to many cultural, medical, and scientific undertakings.
He was a member of many medical and scientific societies of
the United States and other countries, and received numerous
testimonials of high regard of his scientific and surgical work.
He was a surgeon in the Spanish American and first World
War with foreign service in both, and was a brigadier general
in the Reserve Corps from 1921.
FREDERICK
C. WAITE
FRANKLIN PARADISE JOHNSON
1888-1943
Franklin P. Johnson was born in Hannibal, Missouri, January 7, 1888, the parental Paradise and Johnson families
being of, French and English ancestry. Of his Missouri boyhood we have little information, but he sold stereoscopes and
worked for a jeweler to support himself at the University of
Missouri, where he received the A.B. degree in 1908. As
undergraduate he took five medical school courses in anatomy
under Prof. C. M. Jackson, with grade A in each of them. Then,
when he saw on the bulletin board a notice sent by Prof.
Charles S. Minot to his friend Dean Jackson, stating that a
Teaching Fellowship in microscopic anatomy was available at
the Harvard Medical School, “Johnny” applied and was
accepted. He came like a breath of fresh air in a musty laboratory, and the professor, captivated by his buoyant personality,
cleared the way f o r rapid advance. Johnson was athletic-
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