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Infra-red photography in anatomy some experimental observations.

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IK’FRA-RED PHOTOGRAPHY I N Ah’ATOMY
S O M E E X P E R I M E N T A L OB S E R V A T I O N S
’
LEO C. MASSOPUST
DeparttriletLl of A n a t o m y , Marquette Fniversity sclloo7 of Siedicinf,
Mil waukee, 77 iseons in
THREE PLATES (ELETEN FIGURES)
Photographs by reflected light of various parts of the body
arc being taken with infra-red materials in the photographic
departnicnt of Ihe hlarquctle Univcrsi t y School of Medicine.
The results show the possibilities of this method of photography as an aid in the study of anatomy in the living
subject, particularly in thc study of the superficial venous
system (Massopust, ’34).
Infra-red plates permit photography with transmitted light
of anatoniic inaterial in which visible light does not penetrate.
MA‘I’ERIAIJS AND h[BTHOT)
I n the photography of gross specimens any ordiiiary camera map bc used, with the Wratten no. 25 or A filter. Tn
pliotomicro~:.raph~r
thc horizontal pliotornicrograpliic cquipment is used. The source of illumination, a direct currcnt
carbon arc lamp, passes through a water cell. A Kausch 65
Lomb 32-mm. and 72-nim. Tessar objective is used in the
Bausch bi Lomb type DDS microscope. The tube of tlic
microscope is removed. Eastman infra-red sensitive plates
type 1R are used with R Wratten no. 25 o r A filter. The most
satisfactory results arc obtained by focusing with tlie Wratteii
no. 25 filter in place. The plates are developed for 34 minutes
in Eastman x-ray developer at 65” F. T t is important t o
Presented i n part (by invitation) before the Wisconsin Section of t h e Society
f o r Esprrimcntsl Biology a n d Medicine, Map 18, 1934.
71
72
LF,O C. MASSOPUST
agitate the developing solution during the entire time of
development, otherwisc streaking of the plate will occur. The
plates are handled and developed in total darkness, or with
care by the light from a Wratten no. 3 safelight. Some of
the older plate holder slides are unsuited for LISP with the
infra-red plate, a i d canse fogging. However, fiber board,
metal slides, or the hard rubber slides manufactured by the
Eastinan TCoclak Company and marked by five dots 011 the
metal tops of the slides are quite safe in this respect.
Photomicrographs obtained with the infrtl-red plate and
filter show greater definition, due t o the greater transparency
obtained by the infra-red method. I n comparing figures 1,
4, 6, 10 with figures 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, this diKercncr in transparency is quite evident. It is interesting t o note that the
detail shown in a11 of the infra-red photographs is not visible
in the image reflected on the ground glass of the camera.
Hence, it is important in thick niicroscopic sections or gross
mounts t o try several exposures at different depths of focus.
In comparing figures 2 and 3, a. decided improvement in
contrast is obtained in figure 3 by usiiig the violet filter.
Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the results obtained with reflected
light by thc infra-red method. The conducting system of thc
heart which is only partly visible by the ordinary method of
photography (fig. 9 ) is clearly shown in the infra-red photograph (fig. 10).
CONCLUSIONS
Infra-red photography amplifies existing methods by permitting photographs to bc obtained with transmitted light in
cases in which visible light docs not penetrate.
LITERSTTIRE OITEI)
C. 1934 Infrx-red clinical photography. Radiography arid Clinical Photography, vol. 10, pp. 2-6.
~ f . 4 s s O P U s T ,L.
73
PLATE 1
EXPL4NBTTON OF FIGURES
1 Photomicrograph of 3.5-hour chick embryo gross mount, stained n ith carmine.
Carbon-arc illumination, B filter, Eastman D.C. ortho plate. 4 seconds ’ exposure.
2 Photograph of BS-liour chick embryo gross mount, stained with cariniiie.
Carbon-arc illumination, A filter, Eastrnrtn infra-red plate, type 1R. 1/ 3 secotld
exposure.
3 Photograph of 35-hoar chirk embryo gross mount, stained w t h carmine.
Carbon-arc illuiiihiation, violet filter, Eastman infra-red plate, t i p 113. l / 5 second
exposure.
74
I N F R A RED PllOTOCR 9PTIY TY APL’ATOMY
LhO C. MASSOYCST
PLATE 1
PLATE 2
EXPLANATION O F FIGIJRES
4 P’hotomirrograph of rabbit embryo gross mount, approximately 1 4 days old,
s t a i n d with carmine. Carbon-arc illumination, H filter, Eastman 11.0. ortho plate,
6 seconds ’ exposure.
5 Photoniieroprapli of rabbit embryo gross mount, approximately 14 days old,
stained with carmine. Carbon arc illumination, A filter, Eastnian infra-red plate,
type 1R. 1 second exposure.
6 Photomicrograph of a cross section of bone, stairicd heaiily with silver
nitrate. Carbon-arc illumination, B filtei, Enstniun D.C. ortlio plate. 4 seconds ’
exposure.
7 Photomicrograph of a cross section of bone stained heavily with silver
nitrate. Ckrbnn-arc illumination, A filter, Eastmaii iiifrn red plate, type 1R.
1 second exposure.
76
PLATE: 2
77
PLATE 3
EXPLA’Jh‘PlON
O F Y’IUUKES
8 Pliotogiaph of a calf heart, fresh specimen. ‘l’lic conducting system is
injected with India ink. Photographed under water by rcfleeted light f r o m a
300 m. tungstcn lamp. Eastman par speed portrait film. 6 seconds’ exposure.
(Specimen from the physiology d e p tment.)
~
9 Photograph of a calf heart, fresh specimen. The conducting systcin is
injceted with India ink. Photographed under water by reflected light from a
300 w. tnngstcn lamp. A filter, Eastrnari i n f r a rcd platc, t j p c 1R. 13 seconds’
exposure. (Speeiincn from the yliysiologa department .)
1 0 Photograph of a prong-horn antelope heart, the conducting system is
injected mitli India ink. The specimen is partially cleared. Photographed under
oil of wintergreen by transmitted light froni a zc5IT. tiingsten Iinlb. Eastman
par speed pnrtrait film a t F 2 2 . 2 minutes’ exposure. (Specimen from the
physiology department.)
11 Photograph o f a prong-horn antelope heart, the condiicting system is injected with India ink. The specimen is only partially cleared. Photographed
iinder oil of mintergreen by transmitted light from a 25 R . tungsten bulb. A filter,
Ehstman infra-red plate, type 1R at F 22. 8 nrinutes’ exposure. (Kpecimcn
from the physiology department.)
78
IIiFRB-RED PIIOTOGRAPI-IY I N L4NATOhlY
LEV C. NASSOPUST
1’LATE 3
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