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New teaching models for anatomy.

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N E W TEACHING XODELS FOR ,4NdTOMY1
WILLIAM F. WINDLE
Anatomical Laboratory of Northwestern Univevsity Mrdical School
T W O FIGURES
The following descriptions pertain to several new models
that have recently been prepared for us and that have been
found useful as aids in teaching gross anatomy.
A M0I)EL O F THE PLEURA
This model is intended to show the parietal and visceral
pleura, excluding all other structures except the thoracic
skeleton. It is a companion piece to the unique model of the
peritoneum recently described by Bean ( 'as),the original of'
wliich was prepared under the direction of our staff, and
which has subsequently been improved still further. It is
useful in conjunction with the Senior model of the thoracic
viscera (Morrill, '17) for demonstrating the relations of the
pleura and lungs to the ribs, diaphragm, and mediastinum.
Upon the inner surface of the thoracic skeleton is molded
wax-impregnated cloth in the form of the two pleural sacs.
The mediastinum is represented as a space, and from this the
invagination of the visceral pleura at the liilum of the lung
may be clearly seen. The sternum with the costal cartilages
is removable, to facilitate the examination of the mediastinal
relations. Windows have been cut in the sternocostal, diaphragmatic, and mediastinal pleura to bring the visceral layer
into view, the latter being represcnted ax shrunken away from
the parietal pleura. The continuity between parietal and
visceral pleura is strikingly shown because of the simplicity
of this model.
Contribution no. 138.
99
TIIBEE CKhNIAI,-NEBvE MODELS
Tlic nsnal crania-nerve models available oii the market
s~crrito 1)c of littlc value iii teaching hecaixse of their tomplexity; all, or a t lcast several, of tlic nerves are usually
showii togctlier. hlotlels of the dissectioiis of tlw head
prove veiy iiseful if l h e y a r e not too elaborate,
regioiis
aiid tlic three dcscrilwtl herc liavc ht.eii prepared vitli lliis
fact in mind. The?- show the origin, course, relations, aiid
t3istrihtioii of thcl trigeminal, facial, arid glossopharyngcal
iiervcs. Halves of sltulls serve as the foundations upon nrhich
tlie soft parts have heeii xnodeled in colored wax and waxed
thread.
In oiie model tlw course of tlie trigemiiial nerve may he followed from the poiis, w-hic*li is represcii~tedin situ, periphcrally to the distributioii of its larger hranchings. T l i ~relation
of tlie ophthalmic iierve t o the internal carotid and ophthalmic
NEW TEACHING MODELS FOR ANATOMY
101
artery, optic nerve, optic bulb, lacrimal gland, and muscles of
the orbit is diagrammatic. Most terminal cutaneous hranches
a r e brought t o the surface of the skull and there sectioned
as is cvicleiit iii figure 2. The nerves to the mucous membraiies of the iiasttl a i d oral cavities a r e tvcll shomii. Portions of the muscles of mastication are modeled and their
nerve supply is indicated. Other muscles that a r e included
a r e the digastric and mploliyoid a i d , for purposes of orienta-
Fig. 2
S t c r e o p I i n t ~ ~ r ~ 1of) l itlic i:iorlcl of tlic trigeiniiial nerve.
tion, p a r t of the huccinator, stylohyoid, and muscles of the
tongue. Likewise, such structures as tlie middle meningeal
artery, tlie submaxillary and sublingual glands, and the hyoid
bone a r e retained, but a definite attempt has been made to
exclude as many a s possible f o r the sake of clarity.
A model of the facial iierve has been prepared in the same
may. Its full course may he followed outward from the brain
stem through a window cut in the temporal bone; aiid this
allows the student to view practically the entire iierve from
i l i c lateral aspect of the head. The parotid gland is reprewiited as having heeii partiall>- dissected away. Resides the
facial musclcs, stylohpojd, a i d posterior belly of the digastric, tlic masseter miiscle and the temporal fascia and
aalea aponeurotica a r e shown.
'The model of' the glossophargngeal nerve shows its origin
from the brain stern, its relation t o the carotid vessels, and
its dist ributioii to tlic stglopharpngeus muscle, pharyiix,
t on gsu e, and ton si1.
Tliesca models have been manufactured f o r us, according
t o our specifications, by Gregory Bazinski, and may be duplicaatcd upon request. Inquiries concerning them should ht.
atltlrcssed t o him in care of our laboratory.
1,ITE:RATURE CITED
R. B. 1929 A unique model of the m t i r e peritoneimi. Anat. Rec., 101.
41, no. 3, pp. 387-393.
> I ~ R I { I I , I . . c'. V. 1917 Reference model of the tlioracic riwera. Anat. Rec..
~ 0 1 .12. pp. 397-402.
Hr
IX,
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