Number and distribution of taste buds on the epiglottis pharynx larynx soft palate and uvula in a human newborn.код для вставкиСкачать
Number and Distribution of Taste Buds on the Epiglottis, Pharynx, Larynx, Soft Palate and Uvula in a Human Newborn' ERNEST R. LALONDE AND JOHN A. EGLITIS Department of Anatomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio The description of taste buds usually cut at 10 p and stained with Delafield's indicates their presence on the dorsum of hematoxylin and eosin. the tongue and relatively little is said conOBSERVATIONS cerning their appearance in other locations. A total of 2583 taste buds were seen The works of Lov6n (1868), Verson upon microscopic examination of the epi(1868), Krause (1870), Hoffman (1875), thelium on the oral surface and free edge Heymann (1889), Kanthack (1889 and of the soft palate, the oral and nasal sur1890a and b), Kiesow ('O2), Ponzo ('07a faces of the uvula, the epiglottic vallecuand b), Grossmann ('21) and Patzelt ('21 lae, the anterior and posterior surfaces of and '23) provide us with most of the in- the epiglottis, the larynx and the oral and formation available about the location of laryngeal pharynx. Each taste bud was taste buds in areas exclusive of the tongue plotted as to its location and care was in the human. However, these papers do taken that none was counted more than not provide accurate data concerning the once. number and distribution of these taste On the soft palate, 419 taste buds were buds. Therefore, it was felt that a more counted (fig. 1 ) . Of this total, 254 were accurate and detailed analysis should be seen in the stratified squamous epithelium made of the soft palate, uvula, epiglottis, on the oral surface with the remaining 165 larynx, oral and laryngeal pharynx. located on the posterior free edge, lateral The newborn was selected for study be- to the uvula. Most of the 165 taste buds cause relatively little research has been seen on the free edge of the soft palate done at this age of the life span, although were located in stratified squamous epiHeiderich ('06) and Arey, Tremaine and thelium but approximately 20% of them Monzingo ('35) report a decrease in the were seen in pseudostratified ciliated conumber of taste buds after birth. It was lumnar epithelium near the nasal surface felt that reporting the number and distri- (fig. 2). Although the nasal surface of bution of taste buds in this single speci- the soft palate was not included in this men was justified by the fact that similar study, a few taste buds were observed information has not been previously avail- there in peudostratified ciliated columnar able. epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS No taste buds were found on the surThe tissues used in this study were ob- face of the uvula. Forty-eight taste buds were found in tained from a male negro who died 18 hours after birth. The epiglottis, larynx and the epiglottic valleculae; 21 in the right oral and laryngeal pharynx were excised and 27 in the left. Three other taste buds as one block and the soft palate and uvula were present in the glossoepiglottic fold as another block. These two bIocks were near its attachment to the dorsum of the fixed in Heidenhain's "Susa" fixative, tongue. washed and dehydrated in alcohol before 'This paper represents a portion of a thesis doubly imbedding in pyroxylin and paraf- presented by E.R.L. for a M.Sc. degree at The fin. A total of 2590 serial sections were Ohio State University. 91 .. .. ... 0.12... . .' *.* .... .... ... ... .... . ..... . ... .... ..=.:;. ..... ... . y*.* 0. = , b ..* . .. .. ma.. .. .- ....... ** .: .. '. :: ... .'..... *. w Fig. 1 Plot of 419 taste buds on the oral surface and free edge of the soft palate. Each dot represents one taste bud. Fig. 2 Taste bud in pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium from the nasal surface of the soft palate. Delafield's hematoxylin and eosin. x 860. EXTRALINGUAL TASTE BUDS 93 The epiglottis contained a total of 949 the mid-dorsal line, 135 in the right lateral taste buds. Three were seen at the very wall and 100 in the left lateral wall. tip of the anterior surface; the remaining In the laryngeal pharynx, 656 taste 946 were scattered on its posterior surface buds were counted; 26 scattered along the (fig. 3). About 10% of these taste buds length of the posterior wall, 10 in the right were found in pseudostratified ciliated lateral wall and 7 in the left lateral wall. columnar epithelium in the area corre- All of these taste buds were located quite sponding to the upper portion of the ary- high up in the laryngeal pharynx, above epiglottic folds. the level of the interarytenoid notch. In In the oral pharynx, 267 taste buds were the anterior wall, 613 taste buds were obpresent with 32 in the posterior wall along served as a narrow midline patch extend- Fig. 3 Plot of 946 taste buds on the posterior surface of the epiglottis and 27 taste buds in the anterior wall of the vestibule of the larynx. The horizontal line between the pharyngoepiglottic folds separates the posterior surface of the epiglottis from the anterior wall of the vestibule of the larynx. Each dot represents one taste bud. 94 ERNEST R. LALONDE AND JOHN A. EGLITIS ing from the interarytenoid notch down to could be obtained from studies on the number and distribution of taste buds the level of the cricoid cartilage. A total of 241 taste buds were counted throughout the life span in areas such as in the triangular shaped vestibule of the those reported in this paper. larynx. The anterior wall, here considered SUMMARY to be a continuation of the posterior suface Microscopic examination of serial secof the epiglottis below the level of the pharyngoepiglottic folds down to the rima tions revealed the presence of 2583 taste glottidis, contained 27 taste buds (fig. 3). buds on areas exclusive of the tongue in The lips of the inlet of the larynx just the human newborn. The areas studied medial to the cuneiform, corniculate, and included the soft palate, uvula, epiglottic arytenoid cartilages contained 213 taste valleculae, epiglottis, larynx and the oral buds with 110 on the left side and 103 and the laryngeal pharynx. Many taste buds were seen in pseudoon the right side. One other taste bud was seen in the vestibule of the larynx on the stratified ciliated columnar epithelium on left ventricular fold. There were no taste the free edge and nasal surface of the soft buds present in the ventricular recesses palate as well as the posterior surface of the epiglottis. or the laryngeal cavity. DISCUSSION Patzelt (’23) found taste buds on the posterior surface of the epiglottis in small areas of stratified squamous epithelium which were surrounded by ciliated epithelium in adult human tissues. It appears, however, that ours is the first report of taste buds in pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium as well as stratified squamous epithelium on the soft palate and the epiglottis in the newborn. Taste buds were often found to be grouped quite close together. This clustering effect might be attributed to the innervation of the taste buds and the formative influence that nerves have on taste bud development. (Torrey, ’34; Arey and Monzingo, ’42 ) If we use the quantitative data of Heiderich, of 251 taste buds per circumvallate papilla between the ages of 0-11 months, then we estimate that between 2500-3000 taste buds might be found on the circumvallate papillae of the tongue in this age period. The 2583 taste buds reported here, in areas exclusive of the tongue therefore, represent a significant portion of the total number of taste buds that could be expected in a human newborn. Arey, Tremaine and Monzingo (’35) report a decrease in the number of taste buds on the circumvallate papilla of the tongue with an increase in age. This was especially true of old age. Their data suggest that some very interesting information LITERATURE CITED Arey, L. B., and F. L. Monzingo 1942 Can hvaoelossal nerve fibers induce formation of taste-buds? Quart., Bull. Northw. Univ. Med. Sch., 16: 170-178. Arey, L. B., M. J. Tremaine and F. L. Monzingo 1935 The numerical and topographical relations of taste buds to human circumvallate papillae throughout the life span. Anat. Rec., 64: 9-25. Grossmann, B. 1921 Uber das Vorkommen von Geschmacksknospen a n der Vorderwand der Pars laryngea pharyngis beim Menschen. Mschr., Ohrenheilk., 55: 1174-1186. Heiderich, F. 1906 bber das Vorkommen von Flimmerepithel a n menschlichen Papillae vallatae. Anat. Anz., 28: 315-316. Heymann, R. 1889 Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Epithels und der Driisen des menschlichen Kehlkopfes im gesunden und im kranken Zustande. Virchow’s Arch. Path. Anat., 118: 320-348. Hoffman, A. 1875 Uber die Verbreitung der Geschmacksknospen beim Menschen. Ibid., 62: 516-530. Kanthack, A.A. 1889 Studien iiber die Histologie der Larynxschleimhaut. I. Die Schleimhaut des halb ausgetragenen Fotus. Ibid., 118: 137-147. 1890a Studien iiber die Histologie der Larynxschleimhaut. I1 Die Schleimhaut des neugebornen Kindes nebst einigen Bemerkungen iiber die “Metaplasie” des Larynxepithels und die “epidermoidale Umwandlung” desselben. Ibid., 119: 326-342. 1890b Studien iiber die Histologie der Larynxschleimhaut. I11 Die Schleimhaut des neugebornen Kindes nebst einigen Bemerkungen iiber die “Metaplasie” des Larynxepithels und die “epidermoidale Umwandlung” desselben. Ibid., 120: 273-294. Kiesow 1902 Sur la presence de boutons rrustatives a la surface finguale de I’epiglotG humaine etc. Arch. Ital. Biol., 38: 334, cited in Kolmer (1927). EXTRALINGUAL TASTE BUDS Kolmer, W. 1927 C. Geschmacksorgan. Mollendorffs Handb. Mikr. Anat. Menschen, vol. III/l : 154-196, J. Springer, Berlin. Krause, W. 1870 Die Nervendigungen i n der Zunge des Menschen. Nachr. v. d. Kgl. Ges. d. Wiss., Gottingen, Math.-physik. Klass 1870. Nr. 18: 331-349. Lovh, C. 1868 Beitrage zur Kenntnis vom Bau der Geschmackswkzchen der Zunge. Arch. Mikr. Anat., 4: 96-110. Patzelt, V. 1921 Die Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung iiber die Histologie und Histogenese der menschlichen Epiglottis unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Metaplasiefrage. Anat. Anz., 54: 161-184. 1923 Ober die menschliche Epiglottis und die Entwicklung des Epithel in den Nach- 95 bargebieten. Z. Anat. Entwickl. Gesch., 70: 1-178. Ponzo, M. 1907a Intorno alla presenza di organi gustativi sulla faccia intefiore della lingua del feto umano. Anat. Anz., 30: 529532. 1907b Sulla presenza di organi del gusto nella parte laryngea della pharinge nel tratto cervicale dell'esofago enet palato del feto umano. Ibid., 31: 570-575. Torrey, T. W. 1934 Relation of taste buds to their nerve fibers. J. Comp. Neur., 59: 203-220. Verson 1868 Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Kehlkopfes und der Luftrohre. S.-B. Akad. Wiss. Wien, math.-nat. KI., 57: cited in Kolmer (1927).