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Professor charles rupert stockard.

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On April 7, 1939, during its fifty-fifth meeting, tlie American
Association of Anatomists learned with sorrow of tlie passing
of Professor Charles Rupert Stockard, a member who had
iriadc contributions of great clistinctioii not only to the science
of Anatomy but also to biological science in geiieral. He became a member of tlie American Association of Anatomists on
January 2, 1908; lie served as its Sccrctai.y-Treasnrer from
1914-1922 aiid as its Presideiit 1925-1930. He was managing
editor of The American Journal of Anatomy and coeditor of
the American Aiiatomical Memoirs and The Journal of Experimental Zoology. After Professor Stockard’s appointment as
I’i.ofessor of Anatomy a t Corncll University Medical College
was announced in 1911, tlie late Professor Franklin P. Ah11
wrote, “Dr. Stockard is an expei~iriieiital ailatomist whose
broad foundation insures scientific aiiatoniy at Coriiell. He
will stimulate a scientifically productive attitude to develop
broadly along the several phases of aiiatomical investigation. ”
His career in anatomy, whicli more than justifies the entliusiasm with wliicli his appointnieiit was rcceivcd hy leadcrs in
tlie field at that time, has been cliai.actei.izccl by stirrmlating
leadership, originality and breadth of vision in the appi’oach t o
aiid prosecution of his problems, perseverance and indefatigaliility in the face of difficulties, s t r a i ~ l i t f o r ~ v a r d n ein
s s dealings
with his fellows and ail amazing ability to get done well a
great many things.
Resolution presented a t t h e Fiftg-sixth Session of the Aiiieric:iii Association of
Anatomists, convened a t the University of Louisville School of hfcclicilic, Louisville,
Kentucky, March 20-22, 1940.
Charles Rupert Stockard was born in Wasliiiigtoii County,
JIississippi, on February 27, 1137'9. His enthusiasm along biological lines in his youth is attested by observations on the
iiestiiig habits of birds and a collection of eggs which is still
intact. He reccivcd the degree of Bachelor of Scieiice in 1899
aiid of Master of Science in 1901 from tlie hlississippi Agric u l t u d and Rlecliaiiical College, where he served as Acting
Professor of Rlilitary Science. He lield a similar position in
thc .Jefferson Military College f rom 1901-1903. H e eni.olled in
the Graduate Scliool of Columbia TJnivcrsity in 1903 to work
for his degrec in zoology. Here he came under the influence
and direction of Professors T. H. Morgan, the late Bashford
Dean, the late E. B. Wilson and others. He received the Doctor
of Philosophy degree a t Columbia in 1907'. I n tlie preceding
e ~ a s an
year, he came to the Cornell University Medical C o l l oe
Assistant in Embryology and HistologT. Two years later, he
was made an Instructor in Comparative Xorpliology ; in 1909,
he was appointed Assistant Professor of Embryology and
Expeiimcntal Morphology. Furthei. advanceniciit came in
1911 wheii lie was made Professor of Anatomy and Director
of the department, a post which lie lield thi*ougliout the remainder of his academic life. He worked in the Calwegie Institution Laboratory at the Dry Tortugas, Florida, in 1908 and
several later years and at the Zoological Station in Naples in
1911. He pursued liis investigations in the PIIai.ine Biological
Lahoi.ato1.y a t Woods Hole during the summer months. Tlie
University of Cincinnati awardcd him the Doctor of Science
degree in 1920 and tlie University of Wiirzburg the degree of
Doctor of Xedicine iii 1922.
The bt*eadth of his interests is 1-eflecteclin his menibcrship
iii scientific societies among wliicli may be mentioned the
American Association of Anatomists, the Natioiial Academy
of Scieiices, Amci-ican Philosophical Society, ilmcricaii Society
of Katui*alists, American Society of Zoologists, Society of
Experimental Biology and Medicine, Harvey Society and the
Americaii Sssociation for Cancer Research. H e w a s a fellow
of the American Association for the Advanceniciit of Science,
the New York Zoological Society, and the New Pork Academy
of Medicine. I n addition to the offices he held in the American
Association of Anatomists, he served as Secretary of the
American Society of Naturalists (1909-1911) and as President
of the American Society of Zoologists (1925). He was a trustee
of the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, the Long
Island Biological Association, and the Bermuda Biological
Station, and he served as a member of the Advisory Board of
The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology. I n 1925 he
became a member of the Board of Scientific Directors of the
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research and in 1935 was
elected President of the Board, a position which had been held
by two distinguished predecessors, the late Doctors William
H. Welch and Theobald Smith. He was a member of Sigma Xi,
Nu Sigma Nu and Alpha Omega Alpha.
In his research, Professor Stockard might be characterized
as a “trail-blazer” or a pioneer in that his work opened new
fields. His experiments were conceived and carried out in such
a manner that they would throw light on broad biological problems. His bibliography of over 150 titles covers work in the
fields of cytology, genetics, embryology, hematology, endocrinology, growth, medicine and education. Broadly speaking,
his major contributions might be grouped under four main
headings : regeneration and the artificial production of structural anomalies in lower forms; influence of alcohol on invertebrate and embryonic mammalian development and racial
degenerative changes ; the histological changes, particularly in
the vaginal smear, which accompany the oestrous cycle (with
Dr. G. N. Papanicolaou); and the role of endocrines and
heredity in the determination of constitution. The last of these
was carried out on different breeds of dogs and, for a period
of 1 2 years, he accumulated data on animals of different constitutional types which were raised on a farm in Westchester
County, New York. This undertaking was supported with the
aid of the Rockefeller Foundation. It is regrettable that his
passing has prevented the consummation of this monumental
work in this hitherto unexplored field. His final manuscript
will be published in the form in which he left it under the title,
“The Genetic and Endocrinic Basis for Differences in Form
and Behavior.” H e wrote several chapters for textbooks and
special volumes.
I n addition to contributing to the fundamental knowledge
of biolo,gy, Stockard’s research has stimulated, and served as
a basis for, additional work by others as is illustrated particularly well by the studies on the oestrous cycle. He was selected
to give many special lectures, among which the following may
be enumerated : Harvey Lecture, 1921; De Lamar Lectures,
Johns Hopkins, 1925 ; Harririgton Lectures, University of
Buffalo, 1926 ; Beaumont Foundation, Detroit, 1927 ; Lane Lectures, Stanford University, 1930 ; Potter Memorial Lecture,
Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, 1934 ; and the Joseph
Collins Lectures at the Academy of Medicine, New York, 1937.
The Lane Lectures were expanded into a volume, “The Physical Basis of Personality” (New York, W. W. Norton, ’31)
which was translated into German as “Die Korperliche Grundlage der Personlichkeit,” (Jena, G. Fischer, ’32).
Doctor Stockard joined the faculty of the Cornell University
Medical College just 8 years after it was established and participated with a small group of his contemporaries in the
development of its standards and educational ideals. His devotion to fundamental research, his broad and conservative
outlook, and his vigorous personality contributed greatly to
making this institution what it is today. As a teacher with his
clarity of presentation, his breadth of knowledge, interest in
human nature, his wit and engaging personality, and enthusiasm for stimulating thought, he influenced the many students
who passed through his classes. His consideration for the
independence of, and interest in, the development of his colleagues and graduate students instilled the deepest loyalty and
cooperation. H e believed that a laboratory should be “invaded
by that shy and intangible spirit which inspires enthusiasm
and creates devotion to research,” “ a free dwelling for students of nature conscious of and charitable to the faults and
virtues of those that surround them’’ (quoted from his lecture
“ T h e Spirit of the Laboratory” given at the dedication of the
Theobald Smith Laboratory a t the Albany Medical College
in 1937).
I n 1912, Professor Stockard married Miss Mercedes Muller
of Munich, Germany, and she and two children, Marie Louise
and Richard Robert survive him. He was intensely devoted to
his family and they in turn entered into the spirit of his career
in a cooperative and helpful manner. Those who visited them
either in their home in New York City, at tlie Experimental
F a r m in Westchester, or a t their summer home in Woods Hole
could not help but be impressed by their happiness and devotion to one another.
To the many who knew him, Stockard will be remembered
not only as a scientist of the first rank but also as a friendsteadfast and true. His tastes were simple, his motives sincere.
He was outspoken, constructive and fearless in his criticisms.
His multifarious interests and his free and engaging conversation made him a most pleasant companion. He tapped the
resources of liis acquaiiitarices in many fields by his thoughtprovoking discussion and resynthesized such information in
a unique manner which made his counsel exceedingly helpful
and sought after. Science lias lost a leader and scientists a
valued and esteemed colleague.
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