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Some useful morphologic factors in racial anatomy.

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SOME USEFUL MORPHOLOGIC FACTORS I N RACIAL
ANATOMY
ROBERT BENNETT BEAN
Medical Department, Tulane University of Louisiana
After measuring several thousands of individuals, and making
careful inspection of many thousands more, some Americans
(white), some Europeans, some Filipinos, Negroes, Negritos,
Chinese, Japanese, and East Indians, I have selected those
factors that seemed to me to be most distinctive in relation to
the development of the individual and the evolution of the race.
A few of the most important of these factors will be presented
below.
A. THE OMPHALIC INDEX
The position of the umbilicus varies from infancy to maturity,
it varies sexually, it varies in different races and in different types
in the same race. A factor that expresses this variation in terms
of a single number is desirable, therefore I have devised what
I call the omphalic index, which is obtained as follows: The
distance of the umbilicus from the symphysis pubis is divided
by the distance of the umbilicus from the suprasternal notch.
This gives the height of the umbilicus from the pubis in terms
of the distance of the umbilicus from the suprasternal notch, the
latter always being 100. If the umbilicus is high, or far from the
pubis, then the omphalic index will be high; and if the umbilicus
be low, or near the y b i s , then the omphalic index will be low.
A few general averages will suffice to illustrate the usefulness of
the omphalic index as a factor in racial anatomy:
IT4
ROBERT BENNETT BEAN
OVPHALIC
INDEX
CHOUP
Tgorot boys below the age of tcn years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tgorot.boys between the ages of tcn and seventeen years.
Igorot women.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Igolot men.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.............
Taytxy women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tnytny m e n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Califomin women (Miss Johnson), . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
California mcn (Miss Johnson). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-
'
~
I
'
~
I- 5
35
10
104
63
180
350
650
1
I
1
'
1
41 3
40 2
50
41
48
42
43
41
0
1
2
4
9
4
-~
~~
In any group of individuals the omphalic index varies accordinG to the apparent stage of development of the individual. We
may therefore segregate the individuals of any group into three
claw>s, Hypo-onto-morph, or the less developed, Hyper-ontomorph, or the well developed, and the Meso-onto-morph, or
ii:tL rmediate. A few illustrations will suffice:
W o m e n o j Tuytuy (Filipinos)
TYPE
0 M P H A I . I C INDEX
Hypo-onto-morph. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
hfrso-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TTypcr-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.48 4
.47.6
.46.4
M e n of Tuytuy ( F i l i p i n o s )
Iiypo-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meso-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
IIyper-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.44.1
.42.9
.41.4
T u l u n e studenls (white mule)
IIypo-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meso-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hypcr-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.36.2
.34.9
34.1
Different groups of people represent different stages of development therefore the terms, Hypo-phylo-morph, etc., may be used.
Examples :
175
MORPHOLOGIC FACTORS
--
- _________~
NUMBER
MEASURED
GROUP
--
Women of T a y t a y . . ..........
Women of Siberia. . . . . . . . . . . .
(Jockelyn-Brodsky)
Russian Jcwesses (Teumin) . .
Men of Taytay-Filipinos.. . .
Men of (3aint.a-East Indians,
Tulane students.. . . . . . . . . . . . .
'i
~.~
TYPE
1
OMPRALIC
INDEX
63
63
Hypo-phylo-morph
Meso-phylo-morph
48.2
42.0
180
38
55
Hyper-phylo-morph
Hypo-phylo-morph
Meso-phylo-morph
Hyper-phylo-morph
33.0
42.4
39.6
35.1
As may be inferred from the preceding, the women of the groups
presented may be called Hypo-morphs and the men Hypermorphs, in relation to the position of the umbilicus.
B. CRANIO-FACIAL I N D I C E S
The size of the face varies with age, sex, race and with interracial types. The size of the head varies so little that it may be
used to compare with the size of the face, obtaining in this way
an index that gives at once the relative and absolute size of the
face.
The most complete index would be obtained by dividing the
length plus the breadth plus the depth of the face by the length
plus the breadth plus the height of the head, but all of these
dimensions are seldom secured, therefore I have utilized the two
dimensions of the face and of the head that are usually taken.
The cranio-facial index that I have used is therefore the quotient
of the chin to the nasion diameter plus the bizygomatic diameter
of the face, divided by the glabella to the maximum occipital
diameter plus the maximum transverse diameter of the head.
It represents the size of the face in terms of the head size as 100.
If the face is large the cranio-facial index is large and vice versa.
For example, among 1530 children in the public schools of Ann
Arbor, Michigan, the cranio-facial index varied from 63.7 at
five years of age to 72.2 a t seventeen years of age for girls, and
from 62.3 at five years of age to 73.5 a t seventeen years of age for
boys. Among 780 children in the public schools of Manila, P. I.,
the index varied from 66.8 at nine years to 73.8 at seventeen
176
ROBERT BENNETT BEAN
years for girls, and from 63.8 at eight years to 74.2 at seventeen
years for boys. Among 44 Igorot boys the index varied from
64.8 to 68.8 at nine and fifteen years respectively.
An interesting feature of the growth of the face as represented
by the cranio-facial index is that the girls’ face is larger than the
boys’ a t an early age, after which it is passed by that of the boys;
later it passes that of the boys but is again passed by that of the
boys.
The face of the Filipino children, both sexes, has the same relation to the face of the American children that the American girl’s
face has to that of the American boy. The face of the Igorot
boys is uniformly smaller than that of the other groups mentioned
above.
Women have smaller faces than men as exemplified in the students eighteen to twenty years of age (female index 74, male 75),
and in the women and men of Taytay, 74.3 and 75 respectively.
The cranio-facial index varies with race as follows:
GROUP
Men of T a y t a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Men of C a i n t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ncgro men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NUMBER
:R.WIO-FACIAL
INDEX
TYPE
M E A SU RE D
--
Hypo-phylo-morph
Meso-phlyo-morph?
Hyper-phylo-morph
75.0
(3.7
78.8
~
.~
The types in each race vary according to development :
T u l a n e students
TY PE
CRANIO-FACIAL I N D E X
Hypo-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 . 8
Meso-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74.2
Hyper-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76.1
A m e r i c a n negroes
Hypo-onto-morph., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5 . 1
Meso-onto-morph.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T S . 8
Hyper-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SO.0
From the preceding it may be inferred that the negroes are
Hyper-phylo-morph and the whites are Hypo- or Meso-phylomorph in relation to the size of the face.
177
MORPHOLOGIC FACTORS
C. RELATIVE ARM AND LEG LENGTH
The total arm or leg length divided each by the stature gives
the lengths of each of the extremities in terms of the stature as
100. These factors are known to increase with age, to be larger
in men than in women and to be different indifferent races. They
may be utilized to determine the position in phylogeny of a given
people, and the position in ontogeny of a type within a group.
For example:
NUMBER
QROUP
TYPE
MEASURED
Igorotmen . . . . . . . . . . . .
104
Hypo-phylo-morph
Taytaymen . . . . . . . . . . .
180
Meso-phylo-morph
Negro men.. . . . . . . . . . . .
Hyper-phylo-morph
Igorot men
~-
~
-~
A R M INDEX
LEG INDEX
TYPE
_____
~
Hypo-onto-morph.. .......................
Meso-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
H yper-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51.5
43.5
51.7
~~.
.
~
~
~
..
Hypo-onto-morph ..........................
Meso-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
€I yper-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
,
~
~
_
_
50.5
51.7
52.4
45.6
46.3
46.4?
51.5
52.5
55.1
44.8
Negro men
H ypo-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Meso-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hyper-onto-morph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..
~~~
.
46.2
~
~~~
178
ROBERT BENNETT BEAN
The negroes represent advanced evolution in arm and leg, the
Igorots, retarded. I n each group there are individuals that represent advanced and retarded development.
D. THE HUMAN PINNA
Three types of the pinna have been found in every group of
mankind that I have studied. The three types differ mainly in
the helix and ant-helix systems around the lower part of the concha. One type is characterized by the inrolled helix and the
depressed ant-helix which gives a trumpet like shape to the pinna;
another type is characterized by the rolling out of the helix and
the eversion of the ant-helix (tragus and antiiragus); and the
third type appears to be somewhat intermediate between the
other two.
If the development of the pinna after the fourth month of
fetal life consists of the rolling in of the helix followed by the eversion of the ant-helix, as suggested by Schwalbe, then the types
of the pinna that I have discovered represent stages in the development of the human external ear.
Negroes, Europeans, Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese, East Indians
and Negritos exhibit these three distinct forms of the human
pinna : (1) Hypo-onto-morph: Depressed anthelix, inrolled helix,
deep bowl or trumpet shape; (2) Meso-onto-morph: Intermediate; (3) Hyper-onto-morplz: Everted anthelix, everted tragus
and anti-tragus, rolled out helix.
SUMMARY O F FACTORS
The ear form or the shape of the pinna is not the only factor
that makes these three types distinct. Enumerated below will
be found other fact80rsthat stamp these types as entit,ies:
179
MORPHOLOGIC FACTORS
HYPO-ONTO-YORPH
I
MESO-ONTO-MORPH
1
HYPER-ONTO-MORPH
Brachycephalic
Mesocephalic
Platyrrhine
Leptorrhine
Small stature
1
Medium stature
High umbilicus
Sound teeth
Sound teeth
Highly susceptible t o dis- Highly susceptible to1
eases of the tissues desamediseasesashyporived from mesothelium' onto-morph
(circulatory system)
I
Dolichocephalic
Lcptorrhine
Tall stature
Low umbilicus
Badly decayed teeth
Highly susceptible t o diseases of the tissues derived from epithelium
(central nervous system,
alimentary canal)
Small face
Large face
1 Intermediate sized face
Short legs
Intermediate length legs
Long legs
Short arms
1 Intermediate length arms
Long arms
Short, flat nose with de- Large,straightnosewith Long, narrow nose, with
pressed root and bridge,
straight bridge de-~ high root, high bridgc,
flaring nostrils t h a t open pressed root, nostrils/ nostrils open downward
forward
open downward and1
slightly forward
I
1
1
I
These three types were previously designated Primitive,
Xustraloid and Iberian respectively, and the present nomenclature was adopted after Dr. Hrdlicka suggested that the former
names were inappropriate. The present terms do not fit entirely,
as may be seen where the Meso-onto-morph has larger face, longer
legs and longer arms than the Hyper-onto-morph. The Mesoonto-morph represents a form that has developed these characters to a greater extent than have the other types, whereas the
Hyper-onto-morph has developed other characters to a greater
extent than have the other types.
The Hypo-onto-morph is characteristic of the Filipino and
Asiatic, and the Meso- and Hyper- types partake of the form of
the Hypo- among these people, therefore the term Hypo-phylomorph may be applied to the Filipino and Asiatic. Likewise
the term Hyper-phylo-morph may be applied to the European,
and Meso-phylo-niorph to the negro, although the negro is Hyperphylo-morphic in face, arms and legs.
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