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Report of an accessory pancreas on the ileum of a dog.

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REPORT O F AS ACCESSORY PANCREAS ON THE
ILEUM O F A DOG
EPHRAIM B. BOLDYREFF
Pavlov Physiological Instztute, Battle Creel; Sanitarium, Machinan
!MY0 FIGURES
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The importance of the pancreas as a vital organ is recognized by all; its digestive function as the chief gland of the
alimentary canal is firmly established, as well as its r81e in
the control of carbohydrate metabolism. There is also strong
evidence that the pancreatic function is closely associated
with other metabolic processes and not unlikely has some relation to the phenomena of immunity(2, 4). I n spite of rapid
progress made in the field of physiology of the pancreatic
function, some important problems concerning the morphology and functional relation of the glandular cells are still
awaiting solution. The generally accepted theory of th’e
specific activity of the islet tissue is being contradicted by
histological evidence and experimental findings ( 3 , 11, 12, 15).
Theref ore the anatomical anomalies of the pancreas should
be of some interest.
INSTAKCES O F OCCUBRENCE
In mammals there are at least three types of pancreatic
anomaly: 1) the accessory pancreas found in man, sheep,
pigs, cats, and dogs(l4, 13) ; 2) aberrant lobes of the ventral
pancreas, which in man take the form of an annular pancreas
encircling the duodenum(1, 9 ) , but which in cats and sheep
may extend into the fossa of the gall bladder as portal lobes
(6, 5) ; and, 3 ) pancreatic bladders, probably restricted to
cats, but possibly existing in man(5, 8).
47
l‘he owiirreiiw of ac*cessory pancreas in dogs is comparatively rare. T n man the first case was reported by Klob in
1859. I n 1904, Warthin( 14) publislied some new cases aiitl
compiled a list inclusive of works which had appeared iip
to that time devoted t o the iiicitleiice of accessory pancreatic,
tissue ill man. Simpson(l3), in 1928, made a review of the
151 human cases reported in the literature. Nevertheless,
most of the text-hooks of anatomy either make a very casnal
reference to this suhqject or pass it altogether in sileiicc.
The location of the accessory pancreas seems to be rcstricted to those parts of the intestinal tube that are derived
from the foregut, namely, the wall of tlie stomach, choclenum,
jejunum, and, in a fow instances, tlie lower part OS the small
i i i t estine.
ACCESSORY PAS(’HEAT1C TIKSI‘E I N TILE DOB
1here a r e oiily t h e e cases of tlw canine accessory p:iiicrcas
fount1 in the literature (Higgins(’7)). I n two of these cases
tlie aberrant paiicreatic tissue was located in the wall of the
call hladder, and in one case it ~ v a sfound 32 cm. helow the
pylorus. The cellular structure of the accessory panereah
is iisually similar to that of thrb iiormal pancreatic tissue. Ti1
the dog, however, according to llami (lo) and Riggins( 7), the
islaiids of Langerhaiis a r e either poorly tlcveloped or e ~ e i i
altogetlier absent. Maiiii(10) ~*eportedtwo cases, in one of
wliieh he fouiid in the accessory pancreas a “decrease in
i s l m d tissue and particularly in the size of the islands,”
while in the other the islet tissiie was not fouiid at all.
Higgins(7) states that in an aberrant pancreas of the dog
tlescrihetl 1,y him, “ Pancreatic islets were not defiiiitcl;\.
icleiitified. ” In all three vases the paiicrcaatic tliicAts mero
present.
11
CASE HE1’C)RT
Rlale, three-pear-old, mongrel bulldog, weighing 14,800
grams, w a s operated iipoii at tlie l’avlov Pliysiological Institute of tlie Rattle Vreek Sanitarium f o r the esperimciital
study of a prohlem in intestinal pli~siolog-y. Klieii Ihe*howels
ACCESSORY PARCIIEAS IN THg DOG
49
lifted lip, the accessory pancreas was found in the
mewiltcry of the lower ileum. This littlc accessory gland
n-as connected with the lumen of the gut by a small duct. The
TTCL'C
size of the accessory paiicreas was 1.5 Y 10 x G mm. I t was
situated 89 em. below the main pancreatic duct of the priiicipal gland. The accessory pancreas was immediately removed
and fixed in 10 per cent formalin. The photomicrographs accompanying the text were made from the stained sectioiis in
THE ANATOMICAL RECORD, VOL. 4 3 , NO. 1
50
EI’HBAIM B. BOLDYREFF
Dr. A. S. Warthin’s laboratory (University of JlicKigaii).
In figure 1 is shown the microscopic structure of tlie accessory paiicreas, which appears to be quite identical with the
ecllular strwture of the noi.ma1 pa.iicrea.tic tissue. Nost of
the gltiiid is composed of secretory aLciiii, the cells with more
(listinct o n t h e s aiirl darker in color ; several groups of
islauds of Langerhaiis art! also shown 011 tlie photograph
(groups of cells of lighter color with less distiiict ontlines).
ACCESSOBY PANCREAS IN THE DOG
51
Figure 2 show8 tlie same specimen under greater magiiification. No decrease of the islet tissue, either in the size or in
the numbcr of islands, is observed in this case, as is demonstrated by the photomicrographs. Therefore this accessory
gland, a8 far as the moiyhological structure is concerned, is
in no way different from normal fuiictioiial pancreas.
BIBLIOGRAI'H Y
3
4
6
"
8
9
10
11
12
l3
14
15
BALDWIN,
W. &f. 1910 A specimen of aiinular panereas. Anat. Rcv., vol.
4, pp. 299-304.
BOLDDYREFF,
E. R. 1928 Die Sekretioii (ICH I'aiikre:isssftc.~~iii glykoly
tisclier P:iktor im .Hut. Pfliigers Arcliir f. cl. ges. Yhysiol., Bd. 218,
s. 553-567.
1928 Glycolytic enzyme of tlie ptiuereatie juice. 11. Esperinients under sterilc eonditioiis in ritro. J. Biol. (:hem., rol. 78, lis.
BOLDYREFF,
W. K. 1916 Ponetion pCriodiquc de 1'orgiinismc chez 1'Iioiniiie
et 11% aiiiniiiux d 'ordre suphieur. Quart. J. Exper. PhpioL, roi. 10;
pp. 17+201.
BOYDEN,E. A. 1925 The prol)leni of the panereotie l~lirdder-a eritiettl
surrey of six new cases, basorl on new histological ant1 enil)ryologicul
olmrratious. Am. Joiir. Anat., rol. 36, pp. 1.51-184.
HEWER,(4. T. 1906 The pu.ncre:itie ducta in the (*:it. Bull. Johns Hopkina
Jlosp., 1-01.17, pi). 106-111.
HIGGINS,G . Jd. 1926 An :ilmr:iiit p:iiieiwis in tlic w:ill of the grill ld:iddc*r
in the dog. Anat. Rec., vol. 33, 110. 3, pp. 149-161.
JOHNSON,
C?. E. 1914 An nclclitinniil GIRO of pancreatic bliiddor in the
cloiiicstie cat. Anat. Itre., rol. 8, 110. 5, pp. 2G7-270.
LEWIS, F. T. 1911 The bi-lobrd foriii of the rcwtral pmcreas in mainmala.
Am. .Tour. Aimt., vol. 12, pp. 359400.
MANS,3'. C. 1920 Ac.cessory p:iiicre:rs in tile dog. Aiiat. Bec., rol. 19, i i o .
5, pp. 263-267. '
OERTEL, ti. 1924 The p:iiiCrrits r i i i d diiil~.tic! iiietrrbolisiii. Imicet, vol. 1,
p. 695.
OTANI, S. 19'27 Studies of tile is1:iiitl~ of I.:iiigerli:tiiu in Iiuaurii p:inei*e:ra.
Ani. J . Path., VOI. 3, 110. 1, 1 ) ~ .1-11.
SIUPSO?~,
\Ir. If. 1928 A1)crraiit puiiertutic tisnit*. Wartliiii A i i i i . Vol.,
p. 435.
WARTIIIW,A. 8. 1904 Two e~isesof :iccc.ssory paiicreqs (oniciitum and
stamacli). Physician and Hurgeon, rol. 26, pp. 337.340.
WRIOHT,A. W. 1927 lfyrilinc degcnenition of the islands of Imigerlitins
i n noii-tli:il)etics. Am. J. I?ritli., rol. 3, no. 5, pp. 461-481.
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