REPORT O F AS ACCESSORY PANCREAS ON THE ILEUM O F A DOG EPHRAIM B. BOLDYREFF Pavlov Physiological Instztute, Battle Creel; Sanitarium, Machinan !MY0 FIGURES GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS The importance of the pancreas as a vital organ is recognized by all; its digestive function as the chief gland of the alimentary canal is firmly established, as well as its r81e in the control of carbohydrate metabolism. There is also strong evidence that the pancreatic function is closely associated with other metabolic processes and not unlikely has some relation to the phenomena of immunity(2, 4). I n spite of rapid progress made in the field of physiology of the pancreatic function, some important problems concerning the morphology and functional relation of the glandular cells are still awaiting solution. The generally accepted theory of th’e specific activity of the islet tissue is being contradicted by histological evidence and experimental findings ( 3 , 11, 12, 15). Theref ore the anatomical anomalies of the pancreas should be of some interest. INSTAKCES O F OCCUBRENCE In mammals there are at least three types of pancreatic anomaly: 1) the accessory pancreas found in man, sheep, pigs, cats, and dogs(l4, 13) ; 2) aberrant lobes of the ventral pancreas, which in man take the form of an annular pancreas encircling the duodenum(1, 9 ) , but which in cats and sheep may extend into the fossa of the gall bladder as portal lobes (6, 5) ; and, 3 ) pancreatic bladders, probably restricted to cats, but possibly existing in man(5, 8). 47 l‘he owiirreiiw of ac*cessory pancreas in dogs is comparatively rare. T n man the first case was reported by Klob in 1859. I n 1904, Warthin( 14) publislied some new cases aiitl compiled a list inclusive of works which had appeared iip to that time devoted t o the iiicitleiice of accessory pancreatic, tissue ill man. Simpson(l3), in 1928, made a review of the 151 human cases reported in the literature. Nevertheless, most of the text-hooks of anatomy either make a very casnal reference to this suhqject or pass it altogether in sileiicc. The location of the accessory pancreas seems to be rcstricted to those parts of the intestinal tube that are derived from the foregut, namely, the wall of tlie stomach, choclenum, jejunum, and, in a fow instances, tlie lower part OS the small i i i t estine. ACCESSORY PAS(’HEAT1C TIKSI‘E I N TILE DOB 1here a r e oiily t h e e cases of tlw canine accessory p:iiicrcas fount1 in the literature (Higgins(’7)). I n two of these cases tlie aberrant paiicreatic tissue was located in the wall of the call hladder, and in one case it ~ v a sfound 32 cm. helow the pylorus. The cellular structure of the accessory panereah is iisually similar to that of thrb iiormal pancreatic tissue. Ti1 the dog, however, according to llami (lo) and Riggins( 7), the islaiids of Langerhaiis a r e either poorly tlcveloped or e ~ e i i altogetlier absent. Maiiii(10) ~*eportedtwo cases, in one of wliieh he fouiid in the accessory pancreas a “decrease in i s l m d tissue and particularly in the size of the islands,” while in the other the islet tissiie was not fouiid at all. Higgins(7) states that in an aberrant pancreas of the dog tlescrihetl 1,y him, “ Pancreatic islets were not defiiiitcl;\. icleiitified. ” In all three vases the paiicrcaatic tliicAts mero present. 11 CASE HE1’C)RT Rlale, three-pear-old, mongrel bulldog, weighing 14,800 grams, w a s operated iipoii at tlie l’avlov Pliysiological Institute of tlie Rattle Vreek Sanitarium f o r the esperimciital study of a prohlem in intestinal pli~siolog-y. Klieii Ihe*howels ACCESSORY PARCIIEAS IN THg DOG 49 lifted lip, the accessory pancreas was found in the mewiltcry of the lower ileum. This littlc accessory gland n-as connected with the lumen of the gut by a small duct. The TTCL'C size of the accessory paiicreas was 1.5 Y 10 x G mm. I t was situated 89 em. below the main pancreatic duct of the priiicipal gland. The accessory pancreas was immediately removed and fixed in 10 per cent formalin. The photomicrographs accompanying the text were made from the stained sectioiis in THE ANATOMICAL RECORD, VOL. 4 3 , NO. 1 50 EI’HBAIM B. BOLDYREFF Dr. A. S. Warthin’s laboratory (University of JlicKigaii). In figure 1 is shown the microscopic structure of tlie accessory paiicreas, which appears to be quite identical with the ecllular strwture of the noi.ma1 pa.iicrea.tic tissue. Nost of the gltiiid is composed of secretory aLciiii, the cells with more (listinct o n t h e s aiirl darker in color ; several groups of islauds of Langerhaiis art! also shown 011 tlie photograph (groups of cells of lighter color with less distiiict ontlines). ACCESSOBY PANCREAS IN THE DOG 51 Figure 2 show8 tlie same specimen under greater magiiification. No decrease of the islet tissue, either in the size or in the numbcr of islands, is observed in this case, as is demonstrated by the photomicrographs. Therefore this accessory gland, a8 far as the moiyhological structure is concerned, is in no way different from normal fuiictioiial pancreas. BIBLIOGRAI'H Y 3 4 6 " 8 9 10 11 12 l3 14 15 BALDWIN, W. &f. 1910 A specimen of aiinular panereas. Anat. Rcv., vol. 4, pp. 299-304. BOLDDYREFF, E. R. 1928 Die Sekretioii (ICH I'aiikre:isssftc.~~iii glykoly tisclier P:iktor im .Hut. Pfliigers Arcliir f. cl. ges. Yhysiol., Bd. 218, s. 553-567. 1928 Glycolytic enzyme of tlie ptiuereatie juice. 11. Esperinients under sterilc eonditioiis in ritro. J. Biol. (:hem., rol. 78, lis. BOLDYREFF, W. K. 1916 Ponetion pCriodiquc de 1'orgiinismc chez 1'Iioiniiie et 11% aiiiniiiux d 'ordre suphieur. Quart. J. Exper. PhpioL, roi. 10; pp. 17+201. BOYDEN,E. A. 1925 The prol)leni of the panereotie l~lirdder-a eritiettl surrey of six new cases, basorl on new histological ant1 enil)ryologicul olmrratious. Am. Joiir. Anat., rol. 36, pp. 1.51-184. HEWER,(4. T. 1906 The pu.ncre:itie ducta in the (*:it. Bull. Johns Hopkina Jlosp., 1-01.17, pi). 106-111. HIGGINS,G . Jd. 1926 An :ilmr:iiit p:iiieiwis in tlic w:ill of the grill ld:iddc*r in the dog. Anat. Rec., vol. 33, 110. 3, pp. 149-161. JOHNSON, C?. E. 1914 An nclclitinniil GIRO of pancreatic bliiddor in the cloiiicstie cat. Anat. Itre., rol. 8, 110. 5, pp. 2G7-270. LEWIS, F. T. 1911 The bi-lobrd foriii of the rcwtral pmcreas in mainmala. Am. .Tour. Aimt., vol. 12, pp. 359400. MANS,3'. C. 1920 Ac.cessory p:iiicre:rs in tile dog. Aiiat. Bec., rol. 19, i i o . 5, pp. 263-267. ' OERTEL, ti. 1924 The p:iiiCrrits r i i i d diiil~.tic! iiietrrbolisiii. Imicet, vol. 1, p. 695. OTANI, S. 19'27 Studies of tile is1:iiitl~ of I.:iiigerli:tiiu in Iiuaurii p:inei*e:ra. Ani. J . Path., VOI. 3, 110. 1, 1 ) ~ .1-11. SIUPSO?~, \Ir. If. 1928 A1)crraiit puiiertutic tisnit*. Wartliiii A i i i i . Vol., p. 435. WARTIIIW,A. 8. 1904 Two e~isesof :iccc.ssory paiicreqs (oniciitum and stamacli). Physician and Hurgeon, rol. 26, pp. 337.340. WRIOHT,A. W. 1927 lfyrilinc degcnenition of the islands of Imigerlitins i n noii-tli:il)etics. Am. J. I?ritli., rol. 3, no. 5, pp. 461-481.