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The effects of antuitrin S and pituitary extract upon the armadillo ovary.

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TIIE E F F E C T S O F ANTTTITRIN S AND PITUITARY
EXTRACT UPON THE ARI\1AI)ILL@ OVAEY
G . W. D. HAMLETT
I)epart?npnt of Anatomy, Haward Nedwal School, Boston
ONE PLATE (EIGIIT FIGURES)
I n the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctns, the
cleavage of the fertilized orum is followed by a quiescent
period almost four months long during which time the blastocyst lies free in the uterine cavity. Iii attempting to abolish
this ‘free vesicle’ period and to induce implaiitatioii soon after
the ovum reached the uterus, a series of armadillos were given
ovary stimulating extracts. The injections failed t o hasten
implantation, but produced striking effects in tlie ovaries and
uterus both in pregnant and lion-pregiiant animals. I am reporting these briefly, since the reproductive cycle of the armadillo differs so markedly from those of tlie laboratory animals
usually used as subjects.
The armadjllo ovulates, in Texas, during July; females used
in the experiments were accordingly caught between J ~ i l y15th
and August 15th. It should be explained that it was impossible t o kiiom beforehand whether any given animal had
bred. Most of I he individuals revealed as non-pregnant by
subsequent events were among those first received and apparently had been caught just before the onset of the breeding
season. The animals received intramuscular iiijeclions of
liuman urine of pregnancy extract ( P a r k , Davis & Co.’s
‘Antuitrin S’) or of whole sheep pituitary extract twice daily
The experiments reportrd liere were done in the Iahoratory of the Indiana
Vnivcrsity Biologicgal Station while the writer was on the staff of the Department
of Zoolog). The purc*haseof the animals was made under a grant from the Waterman Fund of Indiana Uniwrsity.
201
202
G . W. I). HAMLETT
for various periods. The Antuitrin S and pituitary extract
were furnished by tlie research division of Parke, Davis 6:
Co. ; 1express here my obligations to Dr. Oliver Kamm for his
kindness in supplying me with tlic large quantities of extracts
used. Illy tlianlis arc also due to bliss Blanche Foglesong and
Dr. Tir. R. Brmeman f o r their assistance in handling the
animals.
A+atuitri?iS. Fourteen animals received various doses of
pregnancy urine extract. Autopsy at subsequent times revealed that tell were non-pregnaiit as evidenced by the absence
of a large corpus luteum. The ovaries of each of the four remaiuing animals coiitained a large corpus luteum of pregnancy although no blastocyst was recovered from any of the
uteri. The ova apparently had been clestroyecl by some iiifluence of tlic iiijectcd pregnancy urine, a matter 7s-liich will be
referred t o again later. A summary of procedure and results
is given in table 1.
TF’Mr pituitary. Seven aiiimals M-ere injected with an extract of whole sheep pitiiitaries. Five of the animals proved
at autopsy to he non-pregnant as their ovaries revealed no
corpus hiteiim of pregnancy. The remaining two animals each
sliowed a large corpus luteum at autopsy, and iii each case a
perfectly normal free lulastoc>-stwas washed out of the uterine
cavity. The protocols are summarized in table 2.
Regardless of whether they were pixgnaiit o r not, nineteen
out of the series of twenty-one armadillos showed striking and
consistent changes iii both ovaries and uterus follo\ving administration of the ovary stimulatiiig extracts. These results
are briefly set forth.
The injections produced three effects in the ovaries. 1)
They almost invariably caiised cystic eiilargement of the f ollicks, as shown in figures 4 t o 8. I n pregnant ariimalP this effect was usually more marlied in the ovary which (lid not contain tlie c o r p s luteurn. 2) Sometimes the graiiulosa cells of
the follicles became transformed into liiteal cells without tlie
ri-rpturc of the follicle. Various stages of this process can be
seen in the figures, from follicles in which the cavity is still
EFFECTS O F A N T C I T X l N S -4ND PITUITAltY
203
TABLE 1
Armadzllos injected Icztla Antttitrin S. Thr f i g w e n rmrlrr ‘ d o s n q r ’ nkou dad!/ nmozrnt
in cuhw
rs nnd nurnhcr of days zngtctt d. Y‘hitn, antnicil 786 r r c c t w d
1 cc. the n i g h t of arrival, 1 cc. mornzng a?id night for 3 dngs, and 1 cc.
t h e morning of t h e da?l tt u’a.~killpd
786
789
791
DOSAGE IN
CUBIC
CEFTINETEES
PREGNANCY
.4NIMAL
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~
I Noii-pregnant
~
1 2 2 2 1
Non-pregnant 1 2 2 2 1
1 Non-pregnant
1 2 2 2 1
1 2 2 2 1
Yon-pregnant 1 2 2 . 1 1
1 2 2 2 1
796
1 on-pregnant 3 2 2
1 Non-pregnant 1 2 2 2 1
797
798
!
795
RESULTS
Non pregnant 1 2 2 2 1
Corpus luteurn 1 2 2 2 1
820
Corpus luteun1 10 1 0 5
891
Corpus luteum
892
Non-pregnant
fGGziGXtGG enlarged
(Ovaries cjstic, left with luteal tissue; uterus
enlarged
Ovaries cystic ; uterus enlarged
Ovttries q s t i e , luteal tissue ; uterus enlarged
Ovaries cystic, left with luteal tissue; uterus
enlarged
Ovaries cystic; uteius enlarged
Ovaries with blood spots; uterus slightly enlarged
Oraries and uterus unaffected
Oraries eystie ; uterus enlarged
Ovaries cystic ; uteriis enlarged: vesicle not
found
Ovaries and uterus moderately affected ; vesi1 cle not found
uterus enlarged
Oraiies cystic, luteal tissue ; uterus hyperemir ;
icsiclc not foullcl
for 10 d a i s
for 10 iiayxj
823
1 Corpus lutrum 10 daily
_ANIXAJ.
___
799
800
Non-pregnant
Corpusluteurn
801
802
Non-pregnant
Corpus luteuni
803
804
824
’
II
I
PRLGKANCY
I
I
7
DORAGETN
CUBIC
R ES U LTS
CENTIXETRRS
2 4 4 4 2 Ovaries cystic; uterus enlarged
2 4 4 4 2 Blastocyst recorered; ovariey enlarged, hyperemic, luteal tissiio in both; uterus markedly enlarged
2 4 4 4 2 IOvaries cystic, luteal tissue; uterus crilarged
2 4 4 4 2 Blastocyst recooered; ovaries cystic; uterus
enlarged
1
204
G. W. D. HAMLETT
large to those in which thcy liare become small, solid corpora
lutea. 3) With massive doses of pregiiancy urine extract
(animals 822 and 823) tlie follicles sometimes ruptured, giving
rise to small, irregularly shaped corpora. These induced
corpora lutea, a s well as the luteinization described above, led
t o 110 confusion with tlie normal corpus luteum of pregnancy
in the gravid animals. The latter was al~vayseasily distinguishable. This is shown quite well in figure 6.
111 general, while both the pregnancy urine and the pituitary extracts stimulated f olliciilar en1argement? the pit iiitary
was much more cff'ective in causing luteinization. In the
Antuitrin S series it was only the animals wliich received
massive dosage (10 cc. daily) which showed any marked
amount of luteal tissue.
The tubules of the epoophoroii were somewhat enlarged,
although not cystic. No differencc was noted betweeii the
pituitary a i d Antuitrin S series.
Noticeable changes also occurred in the uteri of tlieso two
series. 111 the iiormal untreated armadillo there is a marked
difference in size between a iioii-pregnant uterus and one
which contains a free vesicle, the latter bcing much larger
(see figures in Hamlett, '32).2 111 the present series receiving
gonad stimulating extracts (with the two exceptions noted
above) the uteri were even larger than tlie normal for the free
vesicle stage, irrespective of whether or not the animals were
pregnant. This hypertrophy of both the gravid arid nongravid uterus was brought about chiefly by a thickening of
the endometrium, although it may have been due in part to
a marked engorgement of the uterus with blood. This hyperemia was not restricted t o the uterus but affected also the
tubes and ovaries.
In conclusion, an effect of Aiituitriii S upon the pregnant
armadillo remains to be noted. Two of the pituitary series
showed full-sized corpora of pregnancy, and a blastocyst was
recovered in each case. On tlie other hand, none of the four
The reproduetibe cycle of the armadillo.
143-157.
Zeit. P. wiss. Zool., Bd. 141, S.
Eh'h'ECTS O F ANTUITRTN S A N D PITUITARY
203
antuitrin-injected animals which had ovulated yielded a
vesicle. It is almost certain that the blastocysts mere not
merely overlooked, as it is possible t o find the ovum in over
90 per cent of normal animals showing a corpus luteurn. 1
can only conclude that one effect of Antuitriii S upon the
gravid armadillo i s to cause abortion or resorption of the unimplanted blastocyst, whereas the latter is not affected by the
pituitary extract.
SUMMARY
1. Noii-pregnant and 'free vesicle' stage armadillos received
injections of human urine of pregnancy extract (aiituitrin S )
arid whole pituitary extract.
2. The injections caused enlargmeiil and hyperemia of the
entire reproductive tract.
3. The effects on the ovaries were t o produce cystic follicles
and luteiriized follicles, arid in some cases t o cause follicle
rupture with corpus lutcum formation.
4. Extract of urine of pregnancy (Antuitriii S) apparently
caused abortion or resorption of the uiiiniplanted hlastocyst.
No such effect was fourid with the pituitary extract.
PLATE 1
EXPLAKATION OF FIGTJRES
The photographs are reproduced X 6, and the section in each ease was taken
from the middle of the series so that the figures can be compared directly f o r
relati5e size.
l a n d 2 Left and riglit oiaries from an nntrrated animal jn the early free
vesicle stages. Kotc the large corpus lnteum of pregnancy, C'L, in the right ovary.
3 Right ovarj of armadillo 822, Antuitrin S treated (tablr 1). X a n y luteiiiized
follicles, f., and masses of luteal tissue, lut., formed from ruptured follicles. ad.,
accessory adrenal tissue (cortex) ; epo., epoophoron. The l e f t o m r y WRS simxlar
but eontairicd cgstie follicles in addition t o the luteinized ones.
4 Right o\ary of 798, Antuitrin S treated. Many cystic follicles, little evidence
of 1utemim.tion. L e f t ovnrp similar, but of course lacked the corpus.
5 and 6 Right arid left orltrirs of 823, Antuitrin R. CystiL follicles, luteinizcd
follieles, and a few ruptured follicles, lnt.
7 and 8 Right and left ovaries of 802, pituitary injected (table 2 ) .
206
EFW’ECTS O F AKTUITRIN S A K D PITUITARY
G . W . D. HBMLETT
207
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