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Hadrian's Wall National Mapping Programme В Эa World Heritage Site from the air.

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Archaeological Prospection
Archaeol. Prospect. 10, 159–161 (2003)
Published online 29 November 2002 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/arp.192
Short Report
Hadrian’s Wall National Mapping
Programme—a World Heritage Site
from the Air†
ANTONIA KERSHAW*
English Heritage, 37 Tanner Row, York YO1 6WP, UK
ABSTRACT
A survey of Hadrian’s Wall is to be undertaken by English Heritage Aerial Survey as part of the
National Mapping Programme (NMP). All archaeological features visible on aerial photographs as
earthworks or cropmarks will be recorded and mapped. The proposed project area is a broad
band along the Roman frontier works and up to 10 km wide, within which sites of all periods will
be recorded. This will allow the World Heritage Site to be better understood and managed in its
landscape context. Copyright  2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Key words: Hadrian’s Wall; World Heritage Site; National Mapping Programme; aerial survey;
cropmarks
Introduction
Hadrian’s Wall is the most recognized monument
built by the Romans in Britain. It is internationally
celebrated as a World Heritage Site. The wall was
built by the order of the Emperor Hadrian, who
came to Britain in AD 122. It took the Roman
army 6 years to build the Wall, which runs
for 173 km, from coast to coast across northern
Britain, and served as a defence against barbarian
tribes (Breeze and Dobson, 1976, p. 30).
A survey of Hadrian’s Wall and its setting is
to be undertaken by English Heritage’s Aerial
Survey section as part of the National Mapping
Programme (NMP). The aim of the National Mapping Programme is to enhance our understanding
*
Correspondence to: Antonia Kershaw, English Heritage,
37 Tanner Row, York YO1 6WP, UK.
E-mail: Antonia.kershaw@english-heritage.org.uk
† Paper presented at the 4th International Conference on
Archaeological Prospection, Vienna, September 2001.
Copyright  2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
of past human settlement, by providing primary
information and syntheses for all archaeological sites and landscapes, visible on aerial photographs, as cropmarks (Plate 1) and earthworks,
from the neolithic period to the twentieth century
(Bewley, 2002, p. 15).
The proposed project area is a broad band along
the Roman frontier works and up to 10 km wide,
within which sites of all periods will be recorded
(Plate 2). This will allow the World Heritage
Site to be better understood and managed in its
landscape context. The project will aim to address
certain research questions including:
(i) a greater understanding of the Wall in its
setting, using all easily accessible aerial photographs and relevant field surveys (Plate 3);
(ii) the extent and character of land use in the
area of the Wall prior to the erection of
the Wall;
(iii) identification of sites with value for relative
dating because of their relationship with
Received 20 April 2002
Accepted 21 July 2002
160
A. Kershaw
Figure 1. On this vertical photograph from 1959, remains of the wall can be seen as earthworks and soilmarks just west of the
city of Newcastle. Where the Wall passes through urban areas it is hoped that early vertical photography will reveal remains
of the Wall that have since been built over. Copyright: 58/RAF/2685 (F22) Frame 0153 23 January 1959. Copyright  Crown
copyright 1959/MOD. Reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Copyright  2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 10, 159–161 (2003)
la
nd
Plate 1. To the west of Carlisle most of the archaeological remains are only visible as cropmarks in the driest summers. The
project will pull together results of aerial reconnaissance over the past 30 years, producing a picture of military and domestic
settlement over time in the Solway Plain. Copyright: NY 3258/84 NMR 12744/29 7 August 1995  Crown copyright. NMR.
Sc
ot
NORTH
SEA
Urban
Forest
Agreed
Setting
of the
WHS
Sc
ot
la
nd
NORTH
SEA
NORTH
SEA
Urban
Forest
Agreed
Setting
of the
WHS
Plate 2. Map of northern Britain showing the location of Hadrian’s Wall National Mapping Programme project area. Copyright:
March 2002  English Heritage. NMR.
Copyright  2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 10, (2003)
Plate 3. The project will evaluate new methodologies, combining aerial survey with existing ground surveys and testing out
the value of satellite imagery and LIDAR data to assist archaeological survey. Here a rectified photograph has been combined
with a field survey drawing. Copyright: NY 7166/91 NMR 12397/01 18 February 1993  Crown copyright. NMR.
Plate 4. Looking east along the Wall, halfway between Newcastle and Carlisle, the Wall itself can be seen running along the
edge of a natural outcrop, and the obvious earthwork to the right of this is the vallum, an integral part of the frontier works.
Copyright: NY7266/29 NMR 17073/28 02 February 1998  Crown copyright. NMR.
Copyright  2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 10, (2003)
Aerial Survey of Hadrian’s Wall
frontier works—additionally morphological
characteristics may be used to try to broadly
date sites;
(iv) examine the influence of the Wall in
later periods—the Wall remained a dominant feature in the landscape (Plate 4)
into the medieval period and often provided the focus for later settlement of varying character;
(v) present a comprehensive picture of the Wall
and its setting using photographs from all
periods, from the 1930s through to the
present day—this will enable the recording
of elements of the Wall that have been
destroyed by development or ploughing but
which were visible on early photographs
(Figure 1).
161
features visible on aerial photographs for the
project area, as well as an accompanying text
record in English Heritage’s monuments data
base. A further aim is to involve local communities in the work through liaison and the
presentation of displays and lectures illustrating
results of the work in local areas.
References
Breeze DJ, Dobson B. 1976. Hadrian’s Wall. Penguin
Books: London.
Bewley RH. 2002. Aerial survey: learning from
a hundred years of experience? In Aerial
Archaeology. Developing Future Practice, Bewley RH,
Raczkowski W (eds). Nato Science Series. Series 1:
Life and Behavioural Sciences, Vol. 337. IOS Press:
Amsterdam; 11–18.
The objective of the project is to produce a digital graphical representation of all archaeological
Copyright  2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 10, 159–161 (2003)
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