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The storage and handling of wall charts.

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Resumen por el autor, Jacob Reighard.
Cepartamento de Zoologia, Universidad de Michigan.
El almacenarniento y iiianejo de cuadros murales.
En vex de 10s listones de madera que se usan ordinariamcnte,
el autor emplea listones de madera L‘basswood’’teiiidos con
creosota. Las dimensiones de estos listones son de pulgada
de espesor por $ de pulgada de anchura. Se clavan estos listones
a 10s cuadros empleando clavos de alambre de 3 pulgada de
dihmetro, y debajo de las cabezas de dichos clavos se perforan
cuadrados de hierro galvanizado del num; 28. Los listones
ocupan la superficie anterior de cada cuadro y 10s clavos se
clavan en 10s lados libres. Cada list611 superior lleva un gancho
Hodge atornillado en el centro del list6n. Cuando se hace
girar a1 gancho de mod0 que venga a coincidir con el plano de
la kmina, sirve para colgar esta 6ltima de una barra de hierro
colocada en el cuarto en donde se guarden las l&minas. De
este mod0 &as se conservan sin arrugas, y puesto que 10s listones
ocupan muy poco espacio, pueden colgarse todas ellas de un
inodo semejante a1 de las hojas de un libro suspendido por el
lomo. Las l&minas se arreglan en orden de materias por medio
de nhmeros, como si se tratase de un catdogo de materias, y
cualquiera de ellas puede fhcilmente sacarse y volverla a su
sitio. Cuando se necesita usar una de las lriminas se hace girar
el gancho 90 grados, y entonces puede colgarse de un bastidor,
alambre o cualquier otro soporte en la clase. Algunos de 10s
mecanismos descritos han venido ushndose hace largo tiempo ;
otros son nuevos. Sirven para coleccionar l&minas de todos
10s tamaiios en un espacio mininio y para poderlas guardar cn
orden y emplearlas invirtiendo el menor tiempo posible. El
presente trabajo indica donde pueden obtenerse 10s materiales
empleados y su coste.
Translation by Jose F Nonidez
Cornell University Mcdical College, N Y
AC-TIIOR 5 . 4 B 9 2 R . \ C T 07 T H I S P A P E R I Y B U E D
B T T H E B l B L I O G R l P H l C C E R \ ' I C C , K 4 Y - 10
Dc parfrircril
of %r~ology. I'nivcrszty
01 AJ?ch igan
The ruaker usually supplies charts with wood rods tacked and
glued to the ends. I n use they are hung from hooks on the wall
of the lecture rooin by means of two metal rings tacked to the
upper rod. When stored they are rolled and tied about with
tapes. In the Zoology Laboratory of the University of Michigan
n e have tried probably every known device for the storage of
rolled charts. They may be piled on racks such as once were
used at Harvard TJniversity. To make these, pieces of round
iron, some 30 inches long or more, are bent for a couple of inches
a t the ends, flattened and drilled a t the middle, and screned
horizontally to wooden uprights to as to project on both sides
like large coat hooks and form two ladder-like sets of supports.
On two such uprights, properly spaced, one inay store inany
charts and classify them roughly. The uprights may be h i l t
on a base with casters beneath it and the whole contrivance
dieeled from place to place. Labels may be written on discs
of cardboard tacked to the ends of the chart rollers. As the
charts accumulate and are piled several deep on each support,
it is impossible to keep them in order arid much time is wasted
in locating and reading the small labels. I n spite of the most
ingenious labeling it is often necessary to unroll the charts t o
find those that are suitable, and this entails not only loss of
time, but damage to the chart+.
T o find the charts more readily, we have tried supporting them
on pairs of large iron hooks screwed into vertical wood strips
nailed to the walls of the lecture rooin. The charts then lie in
one plane like the rungs of numerous ladders set against the wall.
They may be classified and Ial~elsput beneath the groups. Bur
as the collection grows it takes much wall space. It may become necessary to climb to reach the uppermost charts and they
have still to be unrolled.
I n place of supporting the rolled charts on metal rods, one
may use deep wood fraiiies divided into compartments like the
boxes in a post office. These may be arranged to hold the charts
in vertical or horizontal position, but we have found this plan
as cumbersome and wasteful of time as the other.
Home-made charts accumulate in every laboratory and are
apt to be of various sizes and of material that deteriorates if
kept rolled and frequently unrolled. To avoid the labor of attaching them to rollers, one is tempted to let them lie flat, and
we have piled them thus in large cases with numerous close-set
shelves on which they may be roughly classified. It is not easy
to label such charts so as t o find readily what is wanted, and in
pulling one from a pile for examination it is likely to be torn or
damaged by rubbing. T o return it to its proper place the whole
pile must be taken out. Naturally one puts the chart back on
top of its pile or on top of some other pile and the whole collection is thrown into confusion. In addition to this, if some charts
are kept flat and others rolled, there are two places to look and
time is wasted in the search.
I n hanging the charts for use the two rings at the top must be
put over hooks on the wall of the lecture room. To accommodate the unequal spacing of the suspension rings of different
charts, the hooks must be movable. One may suspend picture
hooks from a molding or wire and slip them along until the suspension rings of the chart will go over them and one must climb
a ladder to do it. One may dispense with the ladder by using a
wooden frame filled with wire netting and arranged to be raised
and lowered by ropes and pulleys. The picture hooks may be
stuck into the lowered netting at suitable intervals, the chart
rings slipped over them, and the whole thing hoisted, or one may
cover the hoistable frames with cotton cloth and pin or clip his
charts to that.
After trying most of the plans outlined, we sought a means
of keeping all charts in a minimum space in one collection with-
out rolling them and so that they could be classified and examined and each removed and returned without disturbing the
rest. We sought also the easiest way of hanging them for use.
The result combines the unpublished devices of friends with some
of my own. The universities in which I have seen some of these
devices in use are indicated in parenthesis. I do not know that
any other consistent scheme has been described in print.
We now store all our charts together by hanging them from a
piece of $-inch iron pipe supported from the ceiling by a wire
and stayed by wire to the side wall (Wisconsin). They are in a
small room reserved for the purpose. The charts hang flat, one
against another, like the leaves of a book. Because the wooden
rods take too much room, we have removed them and have substituted thin strips of basswood (fig. 4, chart at right.) A thousand of these t x 2 inches by 40 inches, cut at a planing mill,
now costs $18.00. Probably any good soft wood would answer,
but hardwood warps so that the strips do not stay flat. The
strips are stained brown by dipping in creosote. They are
tacked to the face of the chart along its ends by means of 3inch wire tacks or clout-nails set from 4 to 6 inches apart and
clinched on the free face of the strips. T o keep the heads of
the nails from tearing through the charts we have put under
each a piece of 28-gauge galvanized iron. This is 3 inch square,
perforated at the center, and has the corners turned with pliers
to as to form small points that penetrate the chart and go a little way into the wood. We find it better not to use glue, and
none of our charts attached to the strips by tacks in the manner
described has yet come loose from its supports. A piece of
sheet iron 2 x 2 feet now costs fifty cents, and from it about
1000 squares can be made in the laboratory.
For suspending the charts we use the hook devised by Prof. C.
F. Hodge. It is screwed into the upper strip at such a point as
t o make the chart hang level. When the hook is turned into the
plane of the chart it serves t o suspend it from its support in the
chart room as a suit of clothes is hung from a rail (fig. 1). When
the chart is to be used, the hook is turned through 90 degrees
and may then be slipped over a picture molding, wire, or other
- .
. .
. .
. .. .
Fig. 1 Showing charts hung from an iron pipe in the chart room. The pipe is suspendcd from the ceiling and
stayed t o the wall by wire. Each chart is hung by a single Hodge hook.
support in the lecture room. To hoist it into place and get it
down again, we use a light wood pole ci+ feet long, also Professor Hodgc's device.
one end the pole is provided with a
ferrule through which is driven the sharpened end of a piece of
+-inch round-iron. This is bent as shown in figure 3 and has
its free end slotted t o form a pair of claws like those on a tackhammer. The hump on the suspension hook fits between the
Fig. 3 The Hodge hook. See text
Fig. 3 Pole for putting u p aiid taking down charts. For description, see t,ext
claws on the pole and permits the chart to be handled without
waste of time. In each lecture room a short suspension rod is
provided. To this the charts are transferred aft,er use and from
it, an assistant collect,s t.hem from time to time and returns them
t o the chart, room. The Hodge hooks were obtained from the
Wire Goods Co., Worcest,er, hlassachusett's, and cost, before the
war, $1.35 per gross. The iron clam may be made by any blacksmith.
For displaying charts in the lecture room we have used a modified form of a device made for displaying buggy robes, and used
for charts at the University of Wisconsin. As used by us, this
device consists of eighteen wood arms, each supported by an
iron rod, and arranged to swing like the arm of a derrick (fig. 4).
The arms are pivoted to steel sectors which turn on the central
upright axis. By turning the sectors all the arms may be thrown
either to right or left. Each arm supports two charts back to
back. Any one of these may be brought into view by turning
the arms as one turns the leaves of a book held vertically. The
device may be attached to the wall, as ours is, or carried on a
movable base resting on the floor. It may be obtained from
John Best, Galva, Illinois, and cost (in 1915) $19.00.
The whole arrangement has proved very satisfactory. The
charts are designated by the numbers of the Concilium Bibliographicuni gummed to the upper wood strip (fig. 4). They are
arranged on the rail in systematic order, and any one may be
located, removed, inspected, and returned to its place without
dificulty. To subdivide them, index labels are hung a t intervals (fig. 1). These are wood strips suspended from the rail
by Hodge hooks. They project beyond the charts at one end
and each bears a t that end a square of chart cloth with an appropriate label and at the opposite end a thin bag of sand to balance it. Charts of any ordinary size may be accommodated.
Very large maps may have to be kept rolled in a separate place,
but they may be represented in the chart collection by appropriate dummies on which are written references to their location
and to which may be attached photographs of them. Our collection consists now of 310 charts varying in size from 2 x 2 feet
to 5Q x 3 feet and made of various materials. These occupy
in storage a space 11 feet long, but the same space will probably
accommodate nearly twice as many arid still permit anyone to
be examined in situ. If longer hooks were used the charts could
be hung alternately high and low from parallel supports so that
the wood strips would not be opposite. The same space would
then accommodate many more,
Xs our collection grows we shall make a card catalogue of the
charts in which each chart will be represented by m a l l photographs (Pennsylvania). By attaching conciliuin numbers to the
duplicate photographs and arranging them according to the conciliuni system, cross references will be niade to inany of the charts.
Thus the chart shown a t the right in figure 4 would be repiesented in the catalogue by several photographic cards, each of
which would hear an identical number to show the location of
the charts in the collection. These cards nould bear also distinctive concilium numbers by mhich they would be placed in
the catalogue under crustacea, embryology, a r i d under one or
inore anatomical designations.
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wall, handling, charts, storage
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