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Unilateral hermaphroditism in the mouse.

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UNILATERAL HERMAPHRODITISM I N T H E MOUSE
MICHAEL KLEIN
Cancer Research Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
S I X FIGURES
Lateral hermaphroditism has rarely been observed in the
laboratory mouse despite the widespread use of this species
in biological research. Thus, in addition to the gynandromorph described by Danforth ('27), only four other instances
have been reported ( Blotevogel, '32; Fekete, '37 ; Fekete and
Newman, '44 ; Hooker and Strong, '44). While gonadectomizing a group of adult male albino mice related t o strain A, it
was observed that one of the mice had a testis on the right
side and a structure resembling an ovary on the left. The
present communication is concerned with a description of
this animal.
The mouse possessed a well formed penis and scrotum and
was indistinguishable externally from other males. The testis
was located a t autopsy in the abdominal cavity on a level
with the urinary bladder. A well developed epididymis extended from the testis and was joined to a vas deferens which
appeared normal. Although a vesicular gland of average size
was observed on the right side, the corresponding coagulating
gland appeared to be absent.
The gonad and sex accessories on the left side resembled
those present in normal females. An ovary-like structure of
normal size and appearance was observed imbedded in a
mass of f a t caudad to the left kidney. A short, coiled Fallopian tube was located beneath the gonad and was continuous
'This investigation was supported by a grant from the Damon Runyon
Memorial Fund.
a The author is grateful to Virginia Paul and Dorothy Tabor f o r their technical
assistance.
341
342
MICHAEL KLEIN
with a uterine horn of average length and of large diameter
except in the vicinity of the urinary bladder where it was
considerably constricted. Two additional structures which
resembled a vesicular arid a coagulating gland were observed
in this region. The former gland was appreciably sinaller
than the corresponding one on the right side.
The entire genital system was removed intact, mounted on
cork, and fixed in Tcllyesriiczky 's fluid. iZ photograph was
taken of the whole mount (figs. 1, 2 ) which then was divided
into several portions prior to embedding. Tissues were cut
at three to 4 ~1 and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Serial
or semi-serial sections (every 4th ribbon) were prepared as
required.
Microscopic examination of sections from the various organs revealed the following :
I. Testis and inalc sex n c c c s s o r i c s . The testis was well
vascularized. The scminifcrous iuhules contained cells in
various stages of spermatogenesis and included spermatozoa.
Although this organ was found at autopsy in the abdominal
cavity, it is probable from the presence of spermatozoa that
the gonad had been displaced from the scrotum as a result
of the operation. An appreciable amount of interstitial tissue
was observed in the intertubular spaces; the Leydig cells
appeared normal (fig. 3 ) . The tubules of the caput and cauda
epididymes, and the r a s deferens were ~ \ ~developed
l l
and
contained spermatozoa. Although prominent folds wei'e observed in some areas of the vas deferens, in others they were
absent. The epithelium lining the vas deferens was incomplete
in a number of the sections observed. The right vesicular
l
inucosa with numerous folds
gland possessed a ~ 7 e ldeveloped
and projections; it contained a considerable amount of secretion which was cracked and which stained well with cosin. The
epithelium lining the inucosa was composed of high columnar
cells which appeared normal. The left vesicular gland also
contained secretion. However, fewer out pocketings were ohserved from the mucosa of this gland a s compared with the
right vesicular gland. In places, the height of the columnar
HERMAPHRODITISM I N THE MOUSE
343
cells lining the left vesicular gland was much reduced. The
glandular mucosa of the left coagulating gland was folded
extensively and the epithelium appeared in good condition.
A ventral and a dorsal prostate were observed ; both appeared
normal histologically and contained secretion. A membranous
urethra observed in the same region was lined by two to three
rows of stratified squamous cells and the urethral lumen was
distended with a n amorphous eosinophilic mass. Normal
urethral glands (LittrG), and ampullary glands with secretion
were observed.
11. O v a r y and f e m d e sex accessories. The ovary was surrounded by an intact germinal epithelium which appeared
i n good condition. The cortex and medulla were easily distinguishable and were well vascularized. Some of the blood
vessels were congested. Although primary follicles were
scarce, a number of well developed medium-sized and large
ones were observed (fig. 4). Corpora lutea were not present.
Oocytes were seen in a number of the follicles, the follicular
cells appearing normal. A large antrum and a cumulus
oophorus were observed in some of the larger follicles. The
Fallopian tube appeared normal. Examination of the upper
and mid portions of the left uterine horn disclosed a thin,
folded endometrium with an epithelium composed of tall
columnar cells. Few uterine glands mere encountered, and
these extended for short distances into the mucosa. The
myometrium appeared well developed and the uterine lumen
was filled with a secretion which stained deeply with eosin
(fig. 5 ) . Sections through the caudal, constricted portion
of the left uterine horn revealed a thin endometrium with
high columnar cells and with no folds. Uterine glands were
not observed and the lumen contained secretion as before
(fig. 6).
Since both testis and ovary were discovered in the same
individual, it was considered of interest in the present study
to investigate the effect of this condition on the sex differences
previously reported f o r the adrenal (Howard-lliller, '27) and
for the kidney (Crabtree, '41) in the mouse. The adrenals
344
MICHAEL KLEIN
revealed a microscopic structure similar to that described f o r
intact adult male mice. The zona fasciculata and zona reticularis were not distinguishable and a deeply staining zone of
cells adjacent to the medulla as described for female mice
(Howard-Miller, '27) was not observed. Microscopic examination of the kidneys also revealed a structure similar to that
found in intact male mice. The cells lining the parietal layer
of the capsules of Bowman were cuboidal t o low columnar
with only a n occasional flattened cell appearing.
STJMMARY
An albino male mouse related t o strain A was discovered
a t autopsy to have a testis on the right side and an ovary on
the left. The right sex accessories included those structures
normal to the male except for the absence of a coagulating
gland. On the left side, both female and male sex accessories
were observed. The testis and ovary appeared normal histologically. Based on histologic examination of the adrenals
and kidneys, the hermaphrodite possessed features associated
with intact, untreated males rather than females.
LITERATURE CITED
W. 1932 Hermaphroditismus glandularis s. verus unilateralis bei
BLOTEVOGEL,
der Mans. Zentralbl. Gynakol., Bd. 56 (37), S. 2250-2252.
CRABTREE,
C. E. 1941 The structure of Bowman's capsule as a n index of age
and sex variation in normal mice. Anat. Rec., 79: 395-413.
C. H. 1927 A gynandromorph mouse. Anat. Rec., 3 5 : 32.
DANFORTH,
FEKETE,
E. 1937 A case of lateral hermaphroditism in Mus musculus. Anat.
Rec., 69: 151-152.
FEKETE,
E., AND L. B. NEWMAN 1944 A case of hermaphroditism in the
mouse. Yale J. Biol. and Med., 1 7 : 395-396.
HOOKER,
C. W., AND L. C. STRONG1944 Hermaphroditism i n rodents, with a
description of a case in the mouse. Yale J. Biol. and Med., 16: 341-352.
HOWARD-MILLER,
E. 1927 A transitory zone in the adrenal cortex which shows
age and sex relationships. Am. J. Anat., 40: 251-295.
PLATE
1
H.
Section through seminiferous tubules in tcstis showing various stages of spermatogenesis including spermatozoa.
and E. X 205.
Section through ovary. Organ is well vascularized a n 1 rontains follicles in various stages of development. 73. aurl E.
x 75.
3
4
Cross section through uterus. Note thin folded endometrium and lack of uterine g1:incls. If. and E.
Cross seetion through caudal (constricted) end of same uterus. Note thin, nonfolded endometrium, absence of uterine
glands, and secretion i n lumen. H. and E. x 205.
5
6
205.
Detailed diagram of whole mount: a. vesicular glands; b. ureters; e. urinary bladder; d. coagulating gland; e.
fallopian tube, ovary, and left uterine horn; f . epididymis, testis, and vas deferens; g. ventral prostate; h. preputial
gland. H. and E.
2
x
Ventral view, whole mount of hermaphrodite showing testis on the right side and ovary on the left. Note seniiniferous
tubules bulging from a cut i n the testis. H. and E.
1
EXPLANATION O F FIGURES
PLATE
XICIIAEL KLEIN
HEHYAPHMJDlTlSM 1N THH MOUSE
PLATE 1
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