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Iron metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis.

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Iron Metabolism in Rheumatoid Arthritis
By F. DOUGLAS
RAYMOND,
MORRISA. BOWIEAND ANN DUGAN
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis were
found to have a rapid plasma clearance
of iron, a low serum iron, and a diminished absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract. These abnormalities
appear to be manifestations of an abnormal iron metabolism which is probably present in all patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Anemia represents the
end result of the more severe degrees
of the abnormality. Chronic blood loss,
hemolysis, increased blood volume, and
bone marrow depression represent secondary complications superimposed on
the underIying abnormality.
Esseva trovate que patientes con arthritis rheumatoidee ha un rapide clearance
de ferro in le plasma. Lor concentration de ferro sera1 es basse. IIles ha un
reducite absorption de ferro ab le vias
gastro-intestinal. Iste anormalitates pare
esser manifestationes de un anormal
metabolismo de ferro le qua1 es probabilemente presente in omne patientes
con arthritis rheumatoidee. Anemia representa le resultato terminal del grados
plus sever de iste anormalitate. Chronic
perdita de sanguine, hemolyse, augmento del volumine de sanguine, e depression del medulla ossee representa complicationes secundari que se superimpone a1 subjacente anormalitate.
A
NEMIA IS RECOGNIZED as a common manifestatim of rheumatoid
arthritis. Short, Bauer, and Reynolds* found approximately 23 per cent
of a large series of patients anemic on the basis of red cell count. The mechanism of production of this anemia has been a subject of investigation, and
there is considerable difference in opinions expressed by various investigators.
The present paper reports the results of the study of iron metabolism in 29
patients with rheumatoid aithritis.
METHODS
Hemoglobin determination was done by the Oxyhemoglobin method standardized by
the iron determination and the 0, capacity.2 The microhematocrit technique was used,3
and Ted blood cell count and white blood cell count were done by an electronic cell
counter.4 Sedimentation rate was done using the Cutler method.5 Osmotic fragility of
the red blood cells was carried out according to the method of Parpart.6 The rheumatoid
factor was meisured by latex particle fixation.7 The electrophoresis of serum protein was
carried out by paper electrophoresis.* Platelet count was done with the phase method.9
Serum iron determinations were done according to the method outlined by Schales.10
Unsaturated isron binding capacity was done by the method of Ventura.11 Direct and
indirect Coombs tests were performed at 37" C. using commercial antiserum.12 Blood
volume determinations were done by Cr51 tagging of red blood cells13 or with Evans blue
dye dihtion technique.14 Total circulating hemoglobin was calculated on the basis of the
patient's venous hemoglobin and the blood volume with a correction factor of .93.14
From the Departments of Medicine and Pathology of the Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn
Mawr, Pennsylvania.
This study was supported by a grant from the John S . Sharpe Research Foundation of
the Bryn Mawr Hospital.
Rcquests for reprints should be addressed to F. Douglas Raymond, Jr., M.D., Aryn
Muw?* Mcdical Building, B y n Mawr, Pennsylvania.
233
ARTHRITIS
AND
RHEUMATISM, VOL.
8,
NO.
2 (APRIL), 1965
234
RAYMOND, BOWIE, DUGAN
Red blood cell survival was determined after autotransfusion with Cr51 tagged red
blood cells.15 Four-day determinations of stercobilinogen were carried out following the
method described by Watson.16 Iron clearance, circulating red cell iron, and iron incorpoiation were studied with radioactive Fe59 uaing the method described by Huff.17
Oral Fe'o was given to 9 of our patients in the study of iron absorption. Twenty-five
, ~ gof. Fe59 as an aqueous solution was used and was given with 6 ounces of fresh orange
juice as a reducing agent. Blood wmples were drawn at 30, 60, and 120 minutes. The patients were fasting, and the absorption was that of the maximum found in the samples
drawn at these times.
Bone marrow examinations of material obtained by sternal puncture were carried out
for determination of cellularity and iron stores. Evaluation of iron stores was graded 0
indicating no staining iron, I t indicating a decreased iron storage, 2+ indicating a normal iron storage, and 3+ indicating increased storage following the method used by Beutler.18
RESULTS
All of the patients studied had been diagnosed as classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis according to the American Rheumatism Association Classification.19 All patients had active disease at the time of study which was manifest by joint symptoms and elevated sedimentation rate and were divided
into 4 groups of disease activity according to a classification based on Lansbury's Criteria19 with some modification (see table 1).No attempt was made
to calculate either an articular or a systemic index. Using the clinical classification described, approximately one-third of our patients had a mild degree of
activity; and the remaining two-thirds had a more marked degree of activity
(see table 2).
Twenty-two of our patients had venous hemoglcbin determinations below
12 Gm./100 ml. Of the remaining 7 patients, only 1 was higher than 13 Gm./
100 ml. We observed a correlation between the degree of rheumatoid activity
and the level of hemoglobin concentration. Of the 10 patients who had Grade
I and Grade I1 activity, 5 (50 per cent) had a venous hemogloibin concentration above 12 Gm./100 ml. Of the 19 patients with Grades I11 and IV activity, 2 (12 per cent) had venous hemoglobin concentration above 12
Gm./100 ml.
The red blood cell of the anemic patients tended to be hypochromic and
normocytic. Seventeen patients (58 per cent) had a mean corpuscular henioglobin of 27 p g . or less (see table 3). The analysis of the mean corpuscula~
volume of the anemic patients showed that about 80 per cent fell within the
range of 78 to 100 micra3.
The leucocyte count fell within the normal range in all except 5 patients.
One of these, J. K., suffering from Still's disease, had a count of 42,550/mm3.
Platelet counts were either determined or estimated to be normal in all patients; serum bilirubin determinations were done in all but 3 patients and were
all within the normal range. Only 1 patient, M. W., had a definitely elevated
blood urea nitrogen which was 37 mg. per 100 ml. Both direct and indirect
Coomb's tests were done on 18 of the patients, and both tests were found
normal in all subjects. Stool examination for occult blood was done on 15 patients. In these, only 2 showed significant amount of occult blood ( + 2 ) .
235
lRON METABOLISM AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
Table 1.-Gradation
of
Rheumatoid Activity
All had a diagnosis of classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis.
All had joint symptoms.
All had elevated sedimentation rate.
Grade I
1. A.M. stiffness with or without jelling
Grade 11
1. A.M. stiffness
2. Diminished hand grips and inflammation of small joints of hands
3. Inflammation of one joint only if hands not involved
Grade I l l
1. A.M. stiffness
2. Decreased hand grips and inflammation of small joints Qf hands
3. Involvement of one or two other joints provided severity not marked
as determined by large and repeated effusion and muscle wasting
4. No fever
Grade IV
1. A.M. stiffness
2. Decreased hand grips and inflammation of small joints of hands
3. More than two other joints involved OT if only two are involved,
there is marked involvement including large effusion
4. Fever
Table 2
Rheumatoid Activity
Number of Patients
% of Patients
Grade I
Grade I1
Grade I11
Grade IV
2
8
1
18
7
28
4
63
The analysis of the plasma volume data indicated that 20 of 29 patients fell
within the normal range. Four patients had an increase in excess of 10 per cent
of normal, and 6 patients had a reduction of more than 10 per cent. In only 1
patient the increased plasma volume appeared to have a bearing on the reduced hemoglobin concentration (8.2 Gm. per 100 ml). Measurement of the
total circulating hemoglobin indicated that 19 out of 29 patients had a significant reduction of the total circulating hemoglobin (less than 75 per cent).
Red cell survival by tho Cr”l method was carried out in all patients. In 1
patient the test was found unsatisfactory. Of the remaining 28 patients tested,
all but 2 had a normal survival. Both of these patients had splenomegaly and a
significant increase in the hemolytic index. This was considered as evidence
of a hemolytic component contributing to the anemia.
Bone marrow smears and sections were obtained for evaluation of iron
stores and evidence of erythroblastic activity. Twenty cf the 25 patients
studied had normal or increased iron stores; all 25 patients had either a normal
or increased erythroblastic activity.
Nine of the patients were given Fe5Qorally as ferrous sulfate for determina-
J. E.
H. M.
L. N.
T. D.
E. C.
H. A.
W. B.
M. W.
L. hil.
E. Cr.
c. w.
M. R.
-4.
P.
A. K.
B. J.
H. P.
R. S.
B. M. G.
E. D.
M. Wer.
E. S. T.
0.R.
S . M. A.
S . R.
J. G.
B. B.
J. K.
L.B.
M. B.
Patient
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
Grade of
Clinical
Activity
8.8
13.5
12.3
11.9
8.9
12.8
11.5
12.8
12.3
10.8
8.2
10.0
10.1
7.0
10.7
10.6
10.4
6.4
10.0
10.4
11.7
9.1
10.6
10.0
12.1
11.1
12.3
11.0
10.3
Hemoglobin
(Gm./100 ml.)
21
31
32
28
27
32
24
30
32
27
23
30
25
16
31
25
22
26
26
30
31
21
24
28
25
29
27
24
32
Mean
Corpuscular
Hemoglobin
109
79
101
116
90
94
100
91
99
93
125
97
108
104
83
107
91
105
106
86
82
106
127
102
78
85
104
120
83
Plasma Volume
(% Expected)
--
3+
0
212+
2+
2+
0
3+
3+
0
2+
2+
2+
2+
2+
3+
2f
3+
2+
0
2+
3+
2+
0
2+
lron
Bone Marrow
Cellularity
0.2
1.3
0.2
0.9
1.6
0.1
0.2
0.2
3.5
Oral Iron
Absorption
(0.3-1.5 70)
20
51
59
68
37
69
40
62
76
60
20
32
31
21
51
51
20
28
59
50
62
26
46
86
33
72
40
14
54
Serum
Iron
54
54
42
25
53
55
53
59
33
20
31
38
18
119
51
69
68
34
41
36
26
44
Plasma Fe 51
Clearance Tl/z
32.3
42.3
37.6
35.5
28.2
40.1
36.8
30.7
34.4
36.9
28.8
34.6
33.2
25.1
35.3
35.5
34.4
21.2
33.0
33.4
37.5
31.2
33.0
32.2
38.9
34.9
40.5
36.8
33.1
51.R.
_ ~ _ _ _
J. E.
H. M.
L. N.
T. D.
E. C.
H. A.
W. B.
M. W.
L. M.
E. Cr.
c. w.
H. P.
R. s.
B. hl. G.
E. U.
M. Wer.
E. S. T.
0.R.
S. h4. A.
S. R.
J. G.
B. B.
J. K.
L. B.
M. B.
A. P.
A. K.
B. J.
Hematocrit
Patient
(XZ)
0.3
1.6
2.4
0.3
2.1
0.7
0.4
0.9
0.1
1.5
1.1
4.9
O.s
3.1
1.0
1.6
0.5
0.7
4.0
0.6
1.2
0.9
0.9
0.2
0.4
1.3
1.6
0.1
2.8
Retic. Count
97
95
94
94
94
93
93
73
95
96
90
93
91
91
94
94
95
94
93
94
91
91
94
92
94
93
97
97
(92-96oJo)
24 hru.
--_
2.0
2.3
1.7
2.7
2.3
3.0
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.4
2.1
2.3
2.0
2.6
2.1
1.7
2.3
75
72
58
71
75
63
73
70
71
74
75
74
76
73
76
79
71
7s
78
77
76
82
(1.94-2.46%)
loss/day
2.4
1.8
2.6
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.3
1.7
72
77
71
71
73
78
(71-77cJo)
10 days
_-____
C F RBC Survival
59
33
47
52
34
59
59
232
13
43
125
195
11
82
61
115
27
41
75
48
36
29
73
46
88
45
mpm,/day
(70-162)
13
15
32
59
7
15
60
57
4
26
26
22
11
14
14
11
7.2
9
15
16
10
14
20
18
21
14
Hemolytic
Index
(11-24)
Stereohilinogen
129
322
257
156
47
320
101
220
221
184
257
239
211
175
312
322
633
175
477
276
147
175
184
46
Unsat. Fe
Binding Cap.
neg., x2
neg., x4
neg., x2
neg., x4
neg., x4
4 day l+
neg., x 3
neg., x4
4 day I+
neg., x4
neg., x3, I f , tr.
1-t,2+
neg., 4+, 1+, tr.
neg., x2, I+, 2+
Occult Blood
Stool Spec. ( 4 )
238
RAYMOND, BOWIE, DUGAN
tion of iron absorption. Of these patients, 3 fell in the normal range (0.3 to
1.5 per cent) for the dose given. One patient was in the range above normal
and 5 were below the normal range. The venous hemoglobin level of all patients in whom the oral absorption of iron was studied was below 12 Gm./100
ml., except for one who had a level of 12.3 Gm./100 ml.
Red blood cell iron incorporation was measured in 22 patients using radioactive Fe6ginjected intravenously. Only 2 patients appeared to have reduced
incorporation. One of these was the patient with Still's disease, and the other
(M. B.) was one of the patients with evidence of hemolysis. Incorporation of
Fe59following oral FejQingestion was likewise very poor in this latter patient
as well as in the second patient (B. B.) who had evidence of a hemolytic
process.
All of the patients had repeatedly IQWserum iron levels. These determinations were done fasting at approximately 9 a.m. in order to minimize the
diurnal variation. Twenty-seven (93 per cent) of the patients had serum iron
determinations below 70 &lo0 ml. and 12 (41 per cent) of the subjects were
below 40 @100 ml. W e found some correlation between the clinical activity
of the patients and the serum iron levels. Of the group of patients with Grades
I and 11 activity, only 2 patients (20 per cent) had serum iron levels below 40
&lo0 ml. Of the patients with Grades 111 and IV activity, 9 patients (47 per
cent) had serum Fe5glevels below 40 Pg/lOO ml.
Unsaturated iron binding capacity was done on 25 patients. Ninety-two
per cent of these had levels which were either normal or decreased. Analysis
of electrophoretic patterns indicated that the patients had depressed albumin
and elevated alpha2 and gamma globulin fractions. The beta globulin fraction
was normal. It is in this fraction that siderophilin
is found. Our data indicated
no evidence of an abnormality of iron transport.
Plasma iron clearance was carried out on 21 patients. The T% of normal individuals in our laboratory is 70 to 120 minutes. In all but 1patient the plasma
clearance was less than 70 minutes. The 1 normal clearance occurred in a patient (R. s.) who had a normal hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean c o ~ u s c u l a r
hemoglobin, and serum iron.
There appeared to be some correlation between the speed of clearance and
the serum iron levels. Twelve patients (57 per cent of the patients studied)
had T1/2 plasma iron clearance of less than 45 minutes. Of this group, 8 patients had serum iron lei els below 40 rg/100 ml. All the patients in this group
were females. The 4 remaining patients had serum iron values of 60, 51, 51,
and 42 mg. per 100 rnl. On the other hand, of the group of 9 patients whose
clearance was greater than 45 minutes, only 1 had a serum iron level of less
than 40 @lo0 ml.
Five of the patients were given 700 mg. of saccharated iron intravenously following their initial studies. First follow-up was done after six weeks on 2 of
the patients, on 2 after 12 weeks, and the fifth patient was restudied 20
weeks following the intravenous administration of iron. Three of the 5 patients
had a significant increase in their hemoglo~binand hematocrit on their first
follow-up study. An additional patient had some evidence of improvement but
IRON METABOLISM AND RHEUMATOlD ARTHRITIS
239
the follow-up was not adequate. The remaining patient had a steady rise in his
values over an eight month period. The follow-up serum iron determinations,
however, did not reflect the improvement seen in the hemoglobin and hematocrit and remained generally below normal. In 4 of the 5 cases, the mean
corpuscular hemoglobin increased slightly.
Over a period of several years, 5 of our patients who were being followed
showed a gradual lessening of their rheumatoid activity. In none of these
was it thought that a total remission had occurred but 3 of these patients went
from Grade IV to Grade I, 1 patient went from Grade I11 to Grade I, and 1
patient went from Grade 11 to Grade I. In the 4 patients going from Grades
I11 or IV to Grade I, there was a significant rise in both hemoglobin and hematocrit. In the 1 patienit going from Grade I1 to Grade I, this rise could not be
seen. In none of the 5 patients was there a significant change in the serum
iron concentrations. All continued to run abnormally low serum iron levels
despite the fact that 4 out of 5 had ceased to be anemic based on a hemoglobin of 12 Gm.
DISCUSSION
In 1943 Robinson2" first suggested that the anemia of rheumatoid arthritis
might be the result of an increased plasma volume. Dixon,21 in 1955, using
Evans blue dye concluded that increased plasma volume was probably the
important mechanism. Weinstein22fcund some increase in blood volume using
Cr51 tagged red blood cells but was reluctant to attribute the anemia to this
mechanism. Jef€ery,23in 1952, studied 50 patients with rheumatoid arthritis
and found plasma volume to be normal using Evans blue dye dilution method.
W e have found no evidence that increased plasma volume is an important
factor in the etiology of the anemia. Only 4 of our patients had an increased
plasma volume and the rest were either normal or had somewhat diminished
volume.
The possibility that the anemia of rheumatoid arthritis is the result of a
reduction in the red cell survival has been postulated by several workers.
W e i n s t e i P found a reduction in red cell survival using Cr51 tagged red celIs
but felt that the magnitude of the destruction was nolt great enough to account
for the anemia. Ebaugh, et al.24 reported normal survival times as well as
normal fecal urobilinogen output of rheumatoid patients. Normal fecal urobilinogen studies have been reported also by Jeffrey2"and by F r e i r e i ~ h Red
.~~
blood cell survival and hemolytic index were normal in our patients, ruling
out hemolytic anemia as an important factor except in 2 patients in whom an
hemolytic component was definitely found.
There was no evidence that diminished red blood cell production resulting
from bone marrow depression played an important role in the production of
the anemia in these patients.
Chronic blood loss has been considered as a major factor of the anemia of
these patients. Douthwaite and L i n t o t P showed by gastroscopic study that
aspirin caused localized hyperemia and erosions of normal gastric mucosa.
LangeZ7reported a high incidence of occult blood in the stools of normal
240
RAYMOND, BOWIE, DUGAN
100,
2 4 HOUR5
I:
U
Y
80
U
U
F
2?
4 V E R R Q E LOSS PfR DAY = 2 14%
V
HE?IOLYTICL N D W = 21.9. NoICMnL
H E M O ( l f O t 3 l N TURUOVER
-
II
- 24
115.4 O R Y S . N O R U R L 9 5 -173 D A V S
Fig. 1.-Survival of Cr51 tagged red cells per individual case.
.
-.
*
.
:
L
.
n
e
.
K
m
I
DRYS
Fig. 2.-Red cells ntilization of intravenous ferrous citrate per cent dose of Feb9
citrate in red cells.
people taking aspirin by mouth. Stubbi?sxreported the presence of occult blood
in 70 per cent of 180 people after aspirin. On the other hand, Scott, et al.2g
studied 96 patients for the presence of fecal occult blood using Chromium
tagged recl blood cells. Sixty-one G f these patients had rheumatoid arthritis
and the studies were carried out during oral administration of salicylates.
While 70 per cent of their patients showed some evidence of blood loss after
aspirin administration, the average loss was quite small. In only 6 of 64 patients studied did they ccnsider that anemia had resulted from this cause. All
of our patients were taking salicylates at the time of study; and based on
Scott's work, we must assume that some blood loss occurred. Our tests for
occult blood, however, indicated that this was not a serious loss in any patient.
Qur studies do not indicate that iron deficiency anemia is a prime factor
in the anemia of our patients. Patients with iron deficiency anemia tend to
have increased iron absorption and either oral or intralTenous iron will completely correct the deficiency. Ross,~"in 1950, gave iron by mouth to rheumatoid patients and found no appreciable effect on the anemia after 1 month,
IRON METABOLISM AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
241
Jefirey,23in 1952, found that only a small percentage of his patients responded
to oral iron and felt that this represented incidental iron deficiency associated
with their underlying disease. Our studies on 9 patients with oral radioactive Fefi9indicated a somewhat diminished ability to absorb iron through the
gastrointestinal tract. This data is the opposite to what is seen in iron deficiency
anemia where oral Fe”Qstudies show an increased gastrointestinal absorption.22
Plasma iron clearance in iron deficiency anemia is increased but only mildly
as compared with normals.lx In our patients, plasma iron clearance was very
rapid in the majority of patients. Patients with iron deficiency have absent
iron storeslXwhile the majority of our patients had normal or increased stores
as determined by bone marrow microscopic examination. In iron deficiency
anemia, there IS an increased iron binding capacitylR while rheumatoid patients have a normal or decreased iron binding capacity. Bone marrow examination was either normal or showed erythroid hyperplasia in the great malority of our patients.
It may well be that same patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are anemic
have some increase in their blood volume, some iron deficiency, a hemolytic
process, or a diminished red cell production on the basis of bone marrow depression. Any of these factors may occur in these patients complicating their
underlying disease state. W e do not believe, however, that these factors
either singly or in combination are primarily responsible for the anemia of
rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis appear to have abnormal iron metabolism as a manifestation of their disease. It is reflected in a
rapid plasma clearance of iron and a low serum iron. This abnormal iron
metabolism is probably present in all patients with the disease and is further
evidence that rheumatoid arthritis is a widespread mesenchymal disorder.
The exact nature of the metabolic abnormality cannot be deduced from our
study. Iron incorporation studies, iron transport, iron stores, and bone marrow
production all appear to be normal. The apparent defect in iron absorption
through the gastrointestinal tract may well be a reflection of the basic
metabolic abnormality. Intravenous saccharated iron brought about some improvement in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in our patients but no
improvement in the serum iron levels. In the amounts given, correction of an
iron deficiency, per se, should have been complete and we believe that there
is no evidence that intravenous iron influenced that underlying defect.
The degree of abnormality of iron metabolism can be related to the estimation of the clinical activity of the disease. Our patients with marked activity
of their rheumatoid arthritis tended to have a lower serum iron than those
with a mild clinical activity. Those with the lowest serum iron levels had the
most rapid clearance rates. Our studies indicate that even though clinical
activity may diminish, serum iron levels remain depressed reflecting the continued presence of an abnormal iron metabolism. Low serum iron levels were
found in our patients despite a return of the hemoglobin and hematocrit to
normal levels and a marked improvelment in clinical symptoms so that the
patients had little more than morning stiffness, occasional joint aches, and
elevated sedimentation rate.
242
RAYMOND, BOWIE, DUCAN
SUMMARY
The anemia that occurs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis appears to be
primarily the result of an abnormal iron metabolism. All patients who have
the disease for any length of time probably have this metabolic abnormality.
Anemia represents the end result of the more severe degrees of the abnormality
and occurs in only a minority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
The abnormality in iron metabolism is manifest by a rapid iron clearance,
a low serum iron and perhaps by a diminished ability of the intestinlal wall to
absorb iron.
Chronic blood loss, hemolysis, increased blood volume, or bone marrow
depression may contribute to a reduction of the relative hemoglobin value of
circulating blood in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are anemic. There
is no evidence, however, that these are primary factors in the majority of such
patients, and when present represent secondary complications superimposed
on the underlying abnormality.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We acknowledge the assistance of- Max M. Strumia, M.D., for advice and help in this
paper.
REFERENCES
1. Short, C. L., Bauer, W., and Reynolds,
W. E.: Rheumatoid Arthritis. Cambridge, Harvard University Press,
1957, p. 349.
2. Drabkin, D.: The standardization of
hemoglobin measurement. Am. J.
Med. Sci. 217:710; 1949.
3. Strumia, M. M., Sample, A. B., and
Hart, E. D.: An improved micro
heniatocrit method. Am. J. Clin. Path.
249, 1954.
4. Coulter, W. H.: Coulter Electronics,
Chicago: High Speed Automatic
Blood Cell Counter and Cell Size
Analyzer, presented to National Electronics Conference, Chicago, 1956.
5. Cutler, J. W.: A standardized technique
for sedimentation rate. J. Lab. Clin.
Med. 26:542, 1940.
6. Parpart, A. K., Lorenz, P. B., Parpart,
E. R., Gregg, J. R., and Chase, A.
M.: The osmotic resistance of human red cells. J, Clin. Invest. 2G:G36,
1947.
7 . Singer, J. M., Plotz, C. M.: The latex
fixation test. Am. J. Med. 21:888,
1956.
8. Gudaitis, A. V.: Plasma protein fractionation by paper electrophoresis. J.
Kentucky Med. Assn. 57:807, 1959.
9. Brecker, G., and Cronkite, E. P.:
Morphology and enumeration of human blood plateIets. J. Appl. Physiol.
3:365, 1950.
10. Schales, 0.: Standard methods of clinical chemistry. Personal Communication.
11. Ventura, S.: Determination of the unsaturated iron-binding capacity of serum. J. Clin. Path. 5:271, 1952.
12. Coombs, R. A., Mourant, A. E., and
Race, R. R.: A new test for the detection of weak and incomplete rh
agglutinins. Brit. J. Exp. Path. 36:
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IRON METABOLISM AND RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
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in patients having various hematopoietic disorders. J. Clin. Invest. 29:
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marrow iron, and other methods in
the clinical evaluation of iron stores.
Ann. Intern. Med. 48:60, 1958.
19. Hollander, J. L., and Collaborators:
Arthritis and Allied Conditions, 6th
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rheumatism by means of phenoltetrabromphthalein sodium sulphonate. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 3:207, 1943.
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Dis. 13:365, 1954.
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30. Ross, D. N.: Oral and intravenous iron
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F. Douglas Raymond, Jr., M.D., Assistant Attending Physician,
Service of Arthritis, Department of Medicine, Bryn Mawr
H,ospital, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania; Instructor in Medicine,
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania.
Mofris A. Bowie, M.D., Attending Physician, Service of Arthritis, Department of Medicine, Bryn Mawi Hospital, B y n
Mawr, Pennsylvania; Assistant Professor of Physical Medicine
and Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medicine, University
of Pennsylvania; Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of Pennsylsania School of Medicine, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania .
Ann Dugan, B .S., Research Assistant, John S. S h r p e Research
Foundation of the Bryn M a w Hospital, Bryn Mawr, Pa.
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