close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Joint infection by anaerobic bacteriaA case report and review of the literature.

код для вставкиСкачать
Joint Infection by Anaerobic Bacteria:
A Case Report and Review of the Literature
By IRWINZIMENT, M.B., ALVINDAVIS,
M.D.,
A case of Bacteroides fragilis arthritis
of the knee following intraarticular steroid therapy is described. Details of a literature review revealing 47 cases of arthritis due to nonsporeforming anaerobic
bacteria are presented also. Features
which, when present, suggest the possi-
I
of cases of
joint infection, no organism is found
when the joint fluid is examined by conventional cultural methods. Since adequate
anaerobic cultures may not always be obtained in such cases, it is conceivable that
infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are
often overlooked. Although such joint infections are undoubtedly uncommon, a
number of cases have been described which
clearly illustrate the pathogenicity of
anaerobic bacteria.
We report here the case of a joint infection by an anaerobic organism, Bacteroides
fragilis, together with a literature review.
N A SIGNIFICANT PROPORTION
CASEREPORT
A 63-year-old Mexican-American farm laborer
was admitted to Orange County General Hospital
on December 10, 1964, complaining of a painful
swollen left knee and fever of 1 day duration. For
3 years he had had painless swelling of the left
IRWINZIMENT, M.B.: Full-time St& Physician,
Medical Service, Harbor General Hospital, Torrance, California; and Assistant Professor of Medicine, Department o f Medicine, University of
California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.
ALVINDAVIS,M.D.: Associate Chief, Infectious
Disease Section, Medical Service, Wadrworth Hospital, Veterans Administration Center; and Associate Clinical Professor o f Medicine, Lkpartment
of Medicine, University of California School of
h m n s
AND
AND
SYDNEY M. FINEGOLD,
M.D.
bility of anaerobic joint infection include
foul-smelling pus, gas in a joint, and the
unique morphology of many anaerobes
on gram stain of pus. The sternoclavicular and sacroiliac joints are peculiarly
susceptible to Bacteroides infections.
knee, which had increased in the 4 months prior
to admission and had become uncomfortable. His
physician had aspirated fluid and injected corticosteroids four times during the previous 3 months.
At the time of the last aspiration 1 week before
admission, the fluid was reported to be “normal.”
On admission the temperature was 100.4OF
(mouth). The left knee was warm, swollen, and
tender, with reddening of the overlying skin. Physical examination otherwise was noncontributory.
Radiographic examination of the left knee revealed
only slight changes consistent with degenerative
arthritis; no gas was present in the tissues.
The joint was aspirated, and 30 ml. of a viscous
yellow fluid was obtained, which had a white cell
count of 30,000 per mm.3, with no differential
count reported. The fluid developed a good mucin
clot. Examination of the stained aspirate revealed
a small number of gram-negative rods resembling
Bacteroides. Aerobic culture of the fluid failed to
yield growth, but small, pale-staining, somewhat
pleomorphic gram-negative rods appeared in fluid
thioglycollate medium. The organism was subsequently identified as Bacteroides fragilis.
Other laboratory results included the following:
hematocrit 40 per cent, white cell count 14,900
Medicine, Los Angeles, California.
SYDNEYM. FINEGOLD,
M.D.: Chief, Infectious
Disease Section, Medical Service, Wadsworth Hospital, Veterans Administration Center; and Professor of Medicine, Departnwnt o f Medicine,
University of California School of Medicine, Los
Angeks, California.
Reprint reque& should be addressed to Or.
Finegold at Wadsworth Hospital, Veterans Administration Center, Los Angeles, California 90073.
RHEUMATISM,
VOL. 12, No. 6 (DECEMBER,
1969)
627
628
ZIMENT ET AL.
Table 1.-End
Formic
Substrate
Peptone-yeast
Peptone-yeast-glucose
Peptone-yeast-pyruvate
Products of Fermentation
Acid
Acetic
Acid
Propipnic
Acid
0
0
0
0.67 *
0.44
1.36
0.64
0.38
0.53
Isobutvric
Acid
Trace
Trace
0.03
Butyric
Acid
Isovaleric
Acid
Valeric
Acid
0
0
0.17
0
0
0
0
0.02
0.11
*mEq./per 100 ml. of medium.
Tests for the presence of DNAse were done on
DNAse test medium (BBL ) supplemented with
hemin and yeast extract. Glutamic acid decarboxylation and growth in the presence of Victoria
blue 4R (1:100,000) were studied using the
methods of Suzuki e t aL,i and growth in the
presence of brilliant green ( 1: 140,000) was
studied by the technic of Beerens.* Antibiotic
susceptibility was tested by plate dilution technic
using previously described methods.9
The organism isolated from the described case
was an obligately anaerobic gram-negative bacillus varying in size from coccobacilli to short
filaments, with most of the rods 2-3 microns in
length. There was considerable irregularity of
staining, but no pleomorphism aside from variable
length. Growth in fluid media was diffuse. The
organism was nonmotile and did not produce
spores. Colonies on blood agar were 2 mm. in
diameter, raised, smooth, glistening, entire, and
gray to gray-white in color. There was no
hemolysis or greening of the medium on blood
agar. There was no inhibition of growth in bilecontaining media, and a heavy precipitate was
formed.
DNAse was not demonstrated, there was no
reaction on egg yolk agar, and there was little or
no inhibition in media containing Victoria blue
or brilliant green. Glutamic acid was decarboxylated.
Terminal p H in glucose broth was 5.0 (control,
7.3) with a small amount of gas produced. Other
sugars fermented were sucrose, maltose, lactose,
galactose, and raffinose. Arabinose, xylose, and
rhamnose were not fermented. End products of
fermentation, as determined by gas-liquid chromatography following 3 weeks of incubation, are
shown in Table 1.
BACTERIOLOGICAL
STUDIES
Silicic acid column chromatography of the
glucose-containing
broth revealed 0.32 mEq. of
Routine bacteriologic tests were done by the
succinic acid/ml. of medium (corrected for basal
methods described by Conn.1 The effect of bile
was studied by the technic of Loesche et al.2 Gas medium); no lactic acid was produced.
Propionic acid was not formed from threonine.
chromatography and silicic acid column chroAntibiotic susceptibility studies yielded the rematography were used for studies of threonine
deamination and analysis of end products of fer- sults shown in Table 2.
mentation of glucose and pyruvate, using modificaThese studies indicate that the organism should
tions of the technics of Moore and co-workers.3-6 he classified as Buctemides frugilis.
per mm.3, with 80 per cent polymorphonuclears,
10 per cent bands, 8 per cent lymphocytes, 2 per
cent monocytes. The erythrocyte sedimentation
rate, Wintrobe method (corrected), was 38 mm.
in the first hour. A fasting blood sugar was 91
mg./100 ml., uric acid was 4.8 mg./100 ml., L E
cells were not found, and rheumatoid factor was
not present.
Treatment was started with procaine penicillin,
600,000 U, and streptomycin, 0.5 Gm., every 12
hours ( both intramuscular). Aqueous penicillin,
500,000 U in 5 ml. saline, was instilled into the
affected joint on each of the first 2 days.
The patient remained febrile for the next 7
days, and the knee joint was aspirated daily;
the fluid obtained was similar to that aspirated on
admission. Cultures on 5 successive days yielded
the same Bacteroides organism, On the fourth day
after admission, tetracycline, 500 mg. four times
a day, was substituted for streptomycin. On the
seventh hospital day, the knee was incised and
drained. Synovial biopsy revealed only chronic
inflammation.
Following operation, the knee drained serosanguinous fluid with a slight foul smell for several
days. Procaine penicillin treatment was stopped 5
days postoperatively, and tetracycline was stopped
on the twelfth postoperative day. The patient
became afebrile 1 week after surgery and the
inflammation in the knee gradually subsided over
the next 4 weeks. The patient was discharged
from the hospital with a cylinder cast on the left
leg, which was removed 5 weeks postoperatively.
Subsequent radiograms showed no change from
the initial films. Aspiration of an effusion 2 months
after discharge yielded only 3 ml. of clear sterile
fluid.
629
JOINT INFECTION BY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
Table 2.-Antibiotic
Susceptibility Studies*
25.0
0.78
12.5
25.0
6.2
Penicillin G
Tetracycline
Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin
Lincomycin
Polymyxin B
1.56
Colistin methanesulfonate
1.56
Neomycin
8000.0
Kanamycin
>8000.0
Bacitracin
>l20.0
* Minimal inhibitory concentration is in pg./ml.except for bacitracin, where the concentration is in
units/ml.
Table 3.-Bacteriological
Studies of Joint Infections: Percentage of Cultures
Reported as Negative
Author
Ref.
Year
Inge and Liebolt
Heberling
Altemeier and Largen
Watkins et al.
Chartier et al.
Ward et al.
Willkens et al.
Ortiz and Miller
Baitch
Borella et al.
Argen et al.
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
10
1935
1941
1952
1956
1959
1960
1960
1961
1962
1962
1966
Total
Number of
Joints
Cultured
35
126
45
51
115
24
22
35
37
52
42
Number of
Negative
Cultures
3
19
4
0
19
6
5
11
10
17
0
Percentage
Ne ative
c&lres
9
15
9
0
17
25
23
31
27
33
0
-
-
-
584
94
Avg. 16%
Note: Tuberculous, gonococcal, and brucellosis infections excluded.
DISCUSSION
The case reported is an example of joint
infection after corticosteroid therapy; this
type of complication has been reported following both intraarticular and systemic use
of these agents.lO-13
Table 3 presents a summary of bacteriological findings in representative series of
bacterial joint infections which have been
reported in the more recent English literature; tuberculosis, gonococcal infection, and
brucellosis have been excluded. In every
report Staphylococcus aurem is the most
frequent infecting organism. Streptococci,
pneumococci, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Klebsiella-Aerobacter, Proteus
species, and E . coli account for most of the
remaining infections. In a significant proportion of cases no organism is recovered:
of the 584 cases considered in Table 3,
culture was negative in 94 cases (16 per
cent). Furthermore, S. epidemnidis is almost certainly a contaminant. In no report
did the authors of the papers reviewed discuss the possibility of an anaerobic organism causing the infection, and no specific
mention is made of the use of anaerobic
culture technic. In a number of cases, an
identifiable organism was found on gramstaining the joint fluid, but culture inexplicably remained negative. Some of the
cases in which the joint fluid remained
sterile on culture could be accounted for
by the administration of antibiotic therapy
before arthrocentesis or by cases representing inflammation without infection. Excluding these various explanations for
negative cultures leaves the possibility that
in some of these cases anaerobic microorganisms were responsible for the infection.
In Table 4 are summarized all of the re-
6
6
1
6
2
1
2
1
2
1
26,27,28, 31, 47, 52,
29,30,31, present case
32,33,34,
35,37,38,
40,41,42,
43,46
29
4
Baaemides
fragilis
2
1
3
1
2
3
50, 51
45
1
1
2
24, 36
1
1
25
1
1
44
-
6
34,39,48,49
Fusifom Bacilli B . halosepticurn S
erophonrc Anaerobic Cooci
Plus
( ~ a ~ l gu
b hw ( Ristella (Peptococcus and
Spirochetes
hloseptica)
&
‘sa)
Peptostreptococcus)
-
Ankle
Metatarsophalangeal
Site and type of primary
disease or condition:
2
3
Unknown
1
1
Otorhinopharyngeal infection
21
1
1
Pleuropulmonary infection
1
Septicemia
1
1
7
Appendicitis
Pelvic abscess
1
1
Perirectal abscess
3
2
1
Trauma, including bites
Intraarticular corticosteroids
2
Systemic corticosteroids
1
Aeammaelobulinemia
* In several patients, more than one organism, more than one primary disease, and/or more than one joint were involved.
f Synonyms: Bacteroides finduldfcnmis, B. necroseos, Fasobacterium necrophorus, Actimnnyces necrophorus, Bacillw pyogenes anaerobias.
Knee
Toints involved:
Shoulder
Sternoclavicular
Acromioclavicular
Elbow
Wrist
Metacarpophalangeal
Vertebral articulations
Sacroiliac
Hip
Total Cases Reported
References
Sphnero hosus
neerop%orust
Bacteroides,
Type
Unspecified
Bacteroides
nelaninogenicus
( B. nig,escenr)
Table 4.4ummary of Reported Cases of Joint Infections Due to Anaerobic Bacteria*
P
r
8
JOINT INFECTION BY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
631
ports of joint infections by nonsporulating clearly distinguish between arthralgia and
anaerobic bacteria that could be found in purulent arthritis.
an extensive search of the literature; the
There was no direct evidence as to the
table includes the present case. Single source of the infection in the patient whose
organism infections with Clostridium and case we are reporting, but it seems likely
Actinomyces have not been considered, that the organism was introduced during
since their pathogenicity is more clearly injection of corticosteroids into the joint.
e s t a b l i ~ h e d . ~ Reports
~ # ~ 3 of joint infection Other authors have documented anaerobic
with anaerobic c ~ r y n e b a c t e r i ahave
~ ~ also infection of joints following either intrabeen excluded, since these organisms are articular4’ or ~ y s t e m i c l l *use
~ ~ of corticommon contaminants, and although ar- costeroids.
thritis in mice has been produced experiAlthough anaerobic infection of joints is
mentally55 the pathogenicity of coryne- an uncommon event, the possibility should
bacteria in man has not been clearly be considered when the patient develops
established.
pyoarthrosis during the course of a severe
In a total of 48 patients (including the upper respiratory infection, or when his
present case report) there is acceptable immunological defense mechanisms are imdocumentation of anaerobic joint infections; paired by severe disease or by cortiin 33 cases the documentation is very clear; costeroid therapy. The peculiar susceptibilbut in 15 cases clinical and/or bacterio- ity of the sternoclavicular joint to infection
logic details are inadequate for full evalua- with gram-negative anaerobic bacilli ( Tation. No attempt has been made to include ble 4 ) is unexplained. In Lemierre’s experithe sacroiliac joint is also very
other cases when documentation is totally
inadequate, such as those mentioned by the liable to infection with S. necrophorus. An
early French workers who showed great important clue may be provided if the joint
familiarity with the pathogenicity of the fluid is foul-smelling or contains gas, or if
nonsporulating anaerobic b a ~ t e r i a . ~ ~In. ~ 7gram-staining the fluid shows suggestive
many of the 48 patients multiple joint in- organisms: Bacteroides are pale, irregularly
fections occurred during the course of a staining, pleomorphic gram-negative rods;
septicemia. The organism most commonly fusobacteria are gram-negative rods with
isolated was Sphaerophorus necrophorus. tapered ends; anaerobic cocci are often
In 6 cases there was multiple organism in- smaller than aerobic cocci, and may be
volvement, either with mixed aerobic and comparatively minute. Very careful examianaerobic bacteria ( 5 cases), or with more nation of smears, under subdued light, may
be necessary to detect the pale-staining
than one anaerobic species (1 case).
Most often the anaerobes reached the gram-negative rods. Gas may, less often, be
involved joint as a result of hematogenous produced by aerobic organisms, however,
seeding from a remote site, as was noted and the purulent discharge of anaerobic
infections is not always foul-smelling. The
by Hall6 in 18985s and by Rist in lWl57;
clinical course of the arthritis due to
clinical details of these authors’ cases are
anaerobic bacteria has no features which
insufficient to allow full evaluation, how- distinguish it from that caused by other
ever. The most common site of primary in- pyogenic organisms.
fection is the upper respiratory tract.
Whenever the possibiIity of an anaerobic
Lemierre58 and Pham31 found that articular infection of a joint arises, cultures of both
lesions commonly occur in Sphaerophorus joint fluid and blood should be made on
septicemia, but these authors do not always appropriate media under anaerobic condi-
832
ZIMENT ET AL.
tions and the cultures kept for up to 3
weeks to allow for slow-growing anaerobesSSnAlthough the organism from our
patient was recovered in fluid thioglycollate medium, this medium by itself is not
adequate for initial isolation of most
anaerobes. Many B. fragilis stains are relatively nonfastidious, but other anaerobes
often require the use of special media and
either anaerobic jars or, preferably, anaerobic roll-tube or chamber culture technics.
This approach will help establish the true
incidence of purulent arthritis due to
anaerobic bacteria, and will help ensure appropriate therapy of these infections.
Therapy of purulent arthritis due to
anaerobes is generally similar to that required in other types of purulent arthritis
and should include management of any
underlying disease, appropriate drainage
(open drainage may be required, as in the
case we report), temporary immobilization
of the joint, and antibacterial therapy.
Penicillin G is the therapy of choice for all
anaerobic infections except those due to B.
fragilis and those Sphaerophorw strains
which are resistant to this agent. Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are very eff ective drugs for anaerobic infections of all
types, although some of the microaerophilic
or anaerobic cocci are resistant to tetracycline. Lincomycin is quite effective, with
a spectrum similar to that of penicillin G.
Erythromycin will occasionally be useful,
particularly in infections due to anaerobic
cocci and in certain B. fragilis infections.
Intraarticular therapy should ordinarily not
be necessary.
SUMMARYAND CONCLUSIONS
A case of Bactermdes fragilis infection of a knee joint following intraarticular steroid
therapy is described. A review of the literature revealed 47 cases of arthritis caused by nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria, and details of these cases are presented. The factors predisposing to joint infections include poor host resistance, underlying joint disease, and steroid
administration. Although the anaerobic joint infections do not present any characteristic features
apart from a foul discharge, the peculiar susceptibility of the sternoclavicular and sacroiliac
joint to Bacteroides infection is noted. The presence of gas in a joint and the unique morphology
of many anaerobes on gram stain may also be important clues. The possibility of unrecognized
anaerobic infection resulting in no growth on routine culture of the fluid from an infected
joint is discussed, and the value of anaerobic culture in such cases is stressed.
SUMMARIOIN INTERLINGUA
Es describite un caso de infection con Bacteroides fragilis de un articulation genicular post therapia a steroide intra-articular. Un revista del litteratura ha revelate 47
casos de arthritis causate per non-sporipare bacterios anaerobie, e detalios de iste
casos es presentate. Le factores que predispone a1 disveloppamento de infectiones
articular include ( 1) basse resistentia del hospite, ( 2 ) un subjacente morbo articular,
e (3) le administration de steroide. Ben que le anaerobie infectiones articular non
presenta ulle aspectos characteristic con le exception de un discarga putride, le susceptibilitate peculiar del articulationes sternoclavicular e sacroiliac a infection per
Bacteroides es notate. Le presentia de gas in un articulation e le morphologia distinctive de multe organismos anaerobie in le tincturation de Gram etiam pote esser importante indicios. Es commentate le possibilitate de un nonrecognoscite infection
anaerobie que resulta in nulle crescentia in culturas routinari del fluido ab un articulation inficite.Le valor de culturation anaerobie in tal casos es sublineate.
REFERENCES
1. Conn, H. J.: Manual of Microbiological
Methods. Society of American Bacteriologists Committee on Bacteriological Technic. New York,
McCraw-Hill, 1957.
2. Loesche, W. J., Socransky, S. S., and Gibbons, R. J.: Bw6eroides oralis, proposed new
species isolated from oral cavity of man. J. Bact.
88: 1329, 1964.
JOINT INFECTION BY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
3. Moore, W. E. C., Cato, E. P., and Holdeman, L. V.: Fermentation patterns of some
Clostridiurn species. Int. J. Syst. Bact. 16:383,
1966.
4. Holdeman, L. V., Cato, E. P., and Moore,
W. E. C.: Amended description of Ramibacterium
ahctolyticum Prevot and Taffanel with proposal
of a neotype strain. Int. J. Syst. Bact. 17:323,
1967.
5. Bruno, C. F., and Moore, W. E. C.: Fate
of lactic acid in rumen ingesta. J. Dairy Sci. 45:
109, 1962.
6. Moore, W. E. C., and Cato, E. P.: Validity
of Propionibactaium mnes (Gilchrist) Douglas
and Gunter Comb. Nov. J. Bact. 85:870, 1963.
7. Suzuki, S., Ushijima, T., and Ichinose, H.:
Differentiation of Bacteroides from Sphaerophow
and Fusobacterium. Jap. J. Microbiol. 10:193,
1966.
8. Beerens, H.: Milieux klectifs pour l'isolement de quelques espbces de bactbries anaerobies
a gram nbgatif. (Selective media for the isolation
of some species of gram-negative anaerobes). AM.
Inst. Pasteur Lille 9:86, 1957.
9. Finegold, S. M., Harada, N. E., and Miller,
L. G.: Lincomycin: activity against anaerobes
and effect on normal human fecal flora. In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy-1965.
Ann
Arbor, Amer. SOC.Microbiol., 1966, p. 659.
10. Argen, R. J., Wilson, C. H., Jr., and Wood,
P.: Suppurative arthritis: clinical features of 42
cases. Arch. Intern. Med. 117:661, 1966.
11. Balboni, V. G.: Other Forms of Infectious
Arthritis. In: Hollander, J. L. (Ed. ) : Arthritis and
Allied Conditions, 7th Ed. Philadelphia, Lea &
Febiger, 1966, Chapter 63.
12. Hoaglund, F. T., and Lord, G. P.: Hemophilus influenme septic arthritis in adults: two
case reports with review of previous cases. Arch.
Intern. Med. 119:648, 1967.
13. Kellgren, J. H., Ball, J., Fairbrother, R. W.,
and Barnes, K. L.: Suppurative arthritis complicating rheumatoid arthritis. Brit. Med. J. 1:1193,
1958.
14. Inge, G. A. L., and Liebolt, F. L.: The
treatment of acute suppurative arthritis: report of
thirty-six cases treated by operation. Surg. Gynec.
Obstet. 60:86, 1935.
15. Heberling, J. A.: A review of two hundred
and one cases of suppurative arthritis. J. Bone
Joint Surg. 23:917, 1941.
16. Altemeier, W. A,, and Largen, T.: Antibiotic and chemotherapeutic agents in infections
of the skeletal system. J.A.M.A. 150:1462, 1952.
17. Watkins, M. B., Samilson, R. L., and Winters, D. M.: Acute suppurative arthritis. J. Bone
633
Joint Surg. 38A:1313, 1956.
18. Chartier, Y., Martin, W. J., and Kelly, P. J.:
Bacterial arthritis: experiences in the treatment of
77 patients. Ann. Intern. Med. 50:1462, 1959.
19. Ward, J., Cohen, A. S., and Bauer, W.: The
diagnosis and therapy of acute suppurative arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 3:522, 1960.
20. Willkens, R. F., Healy, L. A., and Decker,
J. L.: Acute infectious arthritis in the aged and
chronically ill. Arch. Intern. Med. 106:354, 1960.
21. Ortiz, A. C., and Miller, W. E.: Treatment
of a septic joint. Southern Med. J. 54:594, 1961.
22. Baitch, A.: Recent observations of acute
suppurative arthritis. Clin. Orthop. 22: 157, 1962.
23. Borella, L., Goobar, J. E., Summitt, R. L.,
and Clark, G. M.: Septic arthritis in childhood.
J. Pediat. 62:742, 1962.
24. Silberschmidt, W.: Ueber den Befund von
spiessformigen Bacillen ( Bac. fusifonne Vincent)
und von Spirillen in einen Oberschenkelabscess
beim Menschen. (On the finding of spear-shaped
bacilli (Bac. fusiforme Vincent) and on spirilli in
a thigh abscess in a human). Zbl. Bakt. 30:159,
1901.
25. Wyss, 0.:Ueber einen neuen anaeroben
pathogenen Bacillus. Beitrag zur Aetiologie der
akuten Osteomyelitis. (On a new anaerobic pathogenic bacillus. Contribution to the etiology of
acute osteomyelitis). Mitt. Grenzgeb. Med. Chir.
13:199, 1904.
28. Bogdan, A.: Eine bisher unbekannte Infektionskrankheit bei Venvundeten. ( A hitherto
unknown infectious disease in wounded ). Med.
Klin. 12:383, 1916.
27. Buday, K.: Endemisch auftretende Leberabszesse bei Verwundeten verursacht durch einen
anaeroben Bacillus. ( Endemic appearing liver
abscess in wounded caused by an anaerobic bacillus). Zbl. Bakt. 77:453, 1916.
28. Gusnar, K. von, and Globig, H.: Uber eine
besondere Form der Sepsis. (On a special type of
sepsis). Deutsch. Z. Chir. 221:263, 1929.
29. Cunningham, J. S.: Human infection with
Actinomyces necrophorus: bacteriologic and
pathologic report of two cases terminating fatally.
Arch. Path. 9:843, 1930.
30. Teissier, P., Reilly, J., Rivalier, E., and
Stbfanesco, V.: Les septichmies primitives dues au
Bacillus fundulifonnis. Etude clinique, bacthriologique et exphrimentale. ( Primary septicemias due
to Bacillus funuulifonnis. Clinical, bacteriologic,
and experimental study). Ann. Med. 30:97, 1931.
31. Pham Huu Chi: Les septicemies dues au
Bacillus funduliformis. (The septicemias due to
Bacillus fundulifurmis). Thbse, Facult6 de Mhdecine de Paris, 1935, 297 pp.
634
32. Lemierre, A., and Moreau, R.: Un cas de
septico-pyohemie post-angineuse Q Bacillus funduliformis termin6 par la gu6rison. (A case of
post-anginal sepsis-pyemia due to BaciUus funduliformis ending in cure). Bull. SOC. Med. Hop.
Paris 52:912, 1936.
33. Lemierre, A., Reilly, J., Meyer-Heine, and
Hamburger, 3.: Un cas de septico-pyohemie postangineuse Q Bacillus fundulifomis B evolution
rapidement mortelle. Ligature de la veine jugulaire
interne. Minime abcBs amygdalien et thrombophlebite peri-amygdalienne, ( A case of postanginal sepsis-pyemia due to Bacillus fundulifmmis
with rapidly fatal course. Ligation of the internal
jugular vein. Small tonsillar abscess and peritonsillar thrombophlebitis). Bull. SOC. Med. Hop.
Paris 52:919, 1936.
34. Lemierre, A., Gregoire, R., Laporte, A., and
Couvelaire, R.: Les aspects chirurgicaux des infections a Bacillus funduliformis. ( Surgical aspects
of infections due to Bacillus funduliformis) . Bull.
Acad. Nat. Med. (Paris). 119:352, 1938.
35. Chandler, F. A., and Breaks, V. M.:
Osteomyelitis of femoral head and neck caused by
Bacterium necrophorum (Bacillus funduliformis).
J.A.M.A. 116:2390, 1941.
36. Williams, R. H.: Fusospirochetosis. Recovery of the causative organisms from the blood,
with report of two cases. Arch. Intern. Med. 68:
80, 1941.
37. Reid, J. G., Snider, G. E., Toone, E. C.,
and Howe, J. S.: Anaerobic septicemia. Report of
six cases with clinical, bacteriologic and pathologic
studies. Amer. J. Med. Sci. 209:296, 1945.
38. Smith, W. E., and Ropes, M. W.: Bacteroides infections. An analysis based on a review
of the literature and a study of twenty cases. New
Eng. J. Med. 232:31, 1945.
39. Meleney, F. L.: Clinical Aspects and Treatment of Surgical Infections. Philadelphia, W. B.
Saunders, 1949.
40. Harden, H., and Hornbostel, H.: Infektion
mit Bact. necroseos beim Menschen. (Infection
with Bact. necroseos in man). Zbl. Bakt. 156:582,
1951.
41. McVay, L. V., Jr., and Sprunt, D. H.:
Bacteroides infections. Ann. Intern. Med. 36:56,
1952.
42. Fisher, A. M., and McKusick, V. A.: Bacteroides infections: some clinical and therapeutic
features. Trans. Amer. Clin. Climat. Ass. 64:133,
1952.
43. Alston, J. M.: Necrobacillosis in Great
Britain. Brit. Med. J. 2:1524, 1955.
ZIMENT ET AL.
44. Tardieux, P., Prevot, A. R., and Rozansky,
R.: Contribution B l’etude des spherophoroses:
pouvoir pathoghe de Spherophorus gulosus. (Contribution to the study of spheropheroses: pathogenic potential of Spherophorus gulosus). Ann.
Inst. Pasteur (Paris) 88: 124, 1955.
45. Heinrich, S., and Pulverer, G.: Uber den
Nachweis des Bacteroides melaninogenicus in
Krankheitprozessen bei Mensch und Tier. (On the
demonstration of Bacteroides melaninogenicus in
diseases of man and animals). Z. Hyg. Infektionskr. 146:331, 1960.
46. Tynes, B. S., and Frommeyer, W. B., Jr.:
Bacteroides septicemia. Cultural, clinical, and
therapeutic features in a series of twenty-five patients. Ann. Intern. Med. 56:12, 1962.
47. Jansson, E., Wager, O., Miettinen, M., and
Ignatius, S. : Bacteroides Markaisen Niveltulehduksen Aiheuttajana. (Bacteroides as a cause of
purulent inflammation of joints). Duodecim 81:
587, 1965.
48. Kelly, P. J., Martin, W. J., and Coventry,
M. B.: Bacterial arthritis of the hip in the adult.
J. Bone Joint Surg. 47A:1005, 1965.
49. Smith, W. S., and Ward, R. M.: Septic
arthritis of the hip complicating perforation of
abdominal organs. J.A.M.A. 195:1148, 1966.
50. Ament, M. E., and Gaal, S. A.: Bacteroides
arthritis. Amer. J. Dis. Child. 114:427, 1967.
51. Sanders, D. Y., and Stevenson, J.: Bacteroides infections in children. J. Pediat. 72:673,
1968.
52. Fulginiti, V. A., Scribner, R., Groth, C. G.,
Putnam, C. W., Brettschneider, L., Gilbert, S.,
Porter, K. A., and Starzl, T. E.: Infections in recipients of liver homografts. New Eng. J. Med.
279:619, 1968.
53. Luck, J. V.: Bone and Joint Diseases. Springfield, Ill., Charles C Thomas, 1950, Chapter 3.
54. Prevot, A. R., and Tardieux, P.: Recherches
sur le pouvoir pathogene des esphces anakrobies
strictes du genre Corynebacterium. ( Researches
on the pathogenic potential of strictly anaerobic
species of the genus Corynebacterium ) . Ann. Inst.
Pasteur (Paris) 84:879, 1953.
55. Zaki, M. M.: The ability of Corynebacterircm
oois to produce suppurative osteomyelitis and arthritis in white mice. J. Comp. Path. 76:121, 1960.
56. Hall&, J.: Recherches sur la bacteriologie
d u canal genital de la femme B l’etat normal et
pathologique. (Researches on the bacteriology of
the normal and abnormal female genital tract.)
Thhse, Facultk de M6decine de Paris, 1898, 103
PP.
JOINT INFECTION BY ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
57. Rist, E.: Etudes Bacteriologiques sur les
infections d'origine otique. ( Bacteriologic studies
on infections of otic origin.) ThBse, Facult6 de
MBdecine de Paris, 1898, 175 pp.
635
58. Lemierre, A.: On certain septicaemias due
to anaerobic organisms. Lancet 1:701, 1936.
59. Finegold, S. M.: Infections due to anaerobes.
Med. Times 96:174, 1968.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
10
Размер файла
606 Кб
Теги
report, literatury, joint, anaerobic, case, infectious, review, bacterial
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа