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Factors controlling the arterial supply of the testis under experimental conditions.

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FACTORS CONTROLLING T H E ARTERIAL SUPPLY
O F THE TESTIS UNDER EXPERINENTAL
CONDITIONS
Y. JORANSON, V. E. EMMEL, A N D H. J. PILKA
Department of Anatomy, University of lllimis College of Medicine
OFE TEXT FIGURE AND THREE PLATES
(SIX FIGURFS)
The presence of well-defined anastomoses between the three
arteries of the testis at the cauda epididymidis has been repeatedly demonstrated by morphological studies. The testicular atrophy, however, that has followed experimental and
clinical ligation of the internal spermatic vessels indicates
the need of an investigation of factors controlling the sufficiency of these arterial anastomoses.
I n 1889, Jarisch gave a complete account of the arterial
supply of the human testis, which was considered authoritative and quoted for many years in anatomical texts. He
established the fact that the testis receives its arterial supply
from three sources-the internal spermatic, the deferential,
and the external spermatic arteries, the main supply coming
from the internal spermatic (compare fig. 1). He observed
that the internal spermatic artery, upon entering the spermatic cord, divides into two or three tortuous branches. The
upper of these usually supplies the head of the epididymis,
while the others enter the mediastinum to supply the testis.
Another branch, arising either from the arteria capitis epididymidis o r directly from the internal spermatic, supplies
the body of the epididymis, and then at the tail of the epididymis enters into anastomosis with the deferential and the
external spermatic arteries. Jarisch maintained that the
deferential artery is not given off from the hypogastric
artery, but from the root of the obliterated umbilical artery,
157
THE A N A T O M I C A L RECORD. VOL. 41, N O . 2
JANUA4RY, 1929
158
T. JOEANSON, V. E. EMMEL, A S D H. J. PILRA
and follows a tortuous course to supply the iluctns deferens
and t.he tail of the epididymis. He described tlie ext.erna.1
spermatic artery as a branch of the inferior epigastric, supplying the c.overings of the testis and tlie spermatic cord.
Capurro ('01) studied the arterial anastomoses of the
testis in the dog by injecting ge1at.h into the internal spermat ic nrt,ery through the aorta. He demonstrated by suhst?quent. dissection that the deferential art,ery c.ommnnicai.es
with the epididymal branches of the int.ernal spermatic
t Iirongh terminal rami and through the iiitermediat.ion of a
ricli arterial network, and that this anastomosis is united
witli t.he t.crmirla1 rami of the externa.1 spermat.ic artery. He
showed, furt.her, t,hat the scrotal arteries of one side com:tnn&cate across the midline with those of the other side, and
lliat, ail anastomosis exists betweeii the scrotal. artcries and
the terminal rami of t.he external spermatic.
Somewlist later ( '09), t.hese observat.ions upoii the art,erial
\\~crc!vwifieil lny I'icqiic and Worms, who injected .tlic iiit.erria1 spermat.ic art.ery dircctlp at its eribrance
int.o tlic spermatic cord. They found t.hat t,he mode of commiuiicat.ion between the three arteries of the 1estis at the
c.iiiida cyiditiym.itlis is subject to f rwpmit variation.
A s contrasted wit.li the art.eria.1 supply, the venous circulation of the tcst~isa.nd epididymis was not worked out unt.il
1.898, when Hal)erc?r pointcd out t,liat tho hlood is rctnr.iicd
i)y four possible routes. According to his investigation, the
I)lood from tlie txistis passes into the ant.erior and posterior
parts of the pampiniform plexus; that from the upper tvotliirds of tlic epididym.is roac1i.e~the nnteri.or pi~mpiiiifor*m
~)lexirsby way of the cipi.d.idyma1veins, while that from tlie
tail of the epididymis is carried by the deferential vein into
t Ire \ w i o ~ i splexus about t.l:ie scnijnal vesicles. The blood from
1 tw (wvcrings of tl.ic testis m d spermatic cord is i~c~turi~cd
by
tlic ixtimml spcrmat.ic vein into the inferior cpigastric vein.
Ti1 1909, Hill made a special stu.dp of t.he arraiigenicnt of
f I I \~csscIs
~
hepoiid the n.ictli:ist.inum in the hnrnaii testis, c m I,loyirig injcction, c~li~aring,
and cwrrosion mei.hodr;: oni' 1 ~ ~ s -
THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY 0% THE TESTIS
159
ent conception of this arrangement is based almost entirely
upon his work. It is an outstanding fact that, aside from
the description of the tunica vasculosa by Astley Cooper and
the incomplete descriptions of the arteries and veins in the
parenchyma of the testis by Jarisch and Haberer, no real
contribution on the finer distribution of the vessels had been
made prior to that of Hill.
The first experimental approach to the problem of arterial
anastomoses of the testis was made by hstley Cooper, in
1845, who studied the effect of ligation of the internal spermatic artery and vein, and observed that it was follom-ed by
sloughing and gangrene of the testis. hliflet ( '79) concluded
that obliteration of the internal spermatic artery was followed by hemorrhagic infarction of tlie testis, and that ligation of the internal spermatic veins alone was sufficient to
cause degeneration of the testicular parenchyma. He regarded the internal spermatic artery as an end artery. The
opposite view, that obliteration of the internal spermatic vessels causes neither sloughing nor atrophy, was later held by
Kocher ( ' 8 7 ) , Trevcs ( '91), and Bennett ( '93).
I n 1895, Griffiths revived the older view and observed that
obliteration of the internal spermatic artery led to a dimiiiution in the size of the testis with degenerative changes in the
seminal tubules, and 'that ligation of the pampinif orm plexus
led to swelling of the testis with final atrophy of the parenchyma. Sloughing and complete atrophy followed interruption of both tlie internal spermatic arteq- and the pampiiliform plexus.
After a marked disagreement among investigators on the
fate of the testis after ligation of its blood vessels, Kangensteen finally, in 1927, arrived at conclusions similar to those
of Griffiths. EIc maintaiiiecl that statements to tlie cffect that
ligation of the internal spermatic artery and pampinif orrn
plexus is without deleterious effect on the testis will not. bear
investigation.
Clinical observations upon the question of ligR t'ion n-ere
made by Mignon in 1903 and independently by Bevaii the
160
P. JORANSON, V. E. EMMEL, A N D H. J. PILKA
following year. Both maintained that all the vessels in the
spermatic cord, with the exception of those accompanying the
ductus deferens, could be sacrificed without producing any
visible nutritional disturbance in the testis. This view found
its practical application in orchidopexy for incomplete descent, and section of these vessels was advocated by them as
N measure to aid low fixation of the testis in the scrotum.
Mixter ('24), in a report on the results of operations for
uiidesceiided testis, noted that it was necessary to section
the internal spermatic vessels in fifteen out of 107 cases, and
that atrophy of the testis followed ligation in all but two
cases. Occasionally, atrophy occurred when the vessels were
not divided, and this result he attributed to the accidental
injury of the vessels during operation.
Though it is generally assumed that sufficient blood for
nutrition reaches the testis through the arterial anastomoses
after ligation of the internal spermatic vessels, it appears
that no satisfactory explanation has ever been given for the
occurrence of atrophy of the testis following ligation of these
vessels.
In the course of some preliminary experiments in ligation,
we were greatly impressed with the observation that, while
the testis atrophied, the epididymis remained normal after
interruption of the internal spermatic vessels. This fact had
previously been observed by Miflet ( '79) and Wangensteeii
( W ) . In seeking an explanation for this difference, our attention was drawn to the fact that the portion of the tunica
albuginea which C O V ~ P S the epididymis is thinner and less
resistant than the part which covers the testis. This suggested to us the idea that the congestion in the testis which
follows ligation of the vessels may be due to the unyielding
nature of its fibrous investment.
Tn addition, our attention was attracted to a characteristic
reaction associated with ligation of the internal spermatic
vessels, namely, the sudden appearance of firmness (or socalled ' stone-hardness') in the testis-an increased tension
which is remarkably constant in different individuals. It
THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY O F T H E TESTIS
161
became our objective to duplicate this stone-hardness experimentally and to test under this condition the degree of penetration of injection media. Incidentally, the methods employed made it possible to display the arrangement and
caliber of the arterial anastomoses at the cauda epididpmidis.
METHOD O F INVESTIGATION
The fundamental feature in the experiments uiidertaken
consisted in the production of different degrees of tension in
the testis through saline perfusioiis and the subsequent injection of the organ with solutions of celloidin and Berlin
blue. The injections were controlled and the specimens prepared for study in accordance with the methods of Morison
( '23). I n order to obtain complete penetration of the arterial
system of the testis, it was found necessary to use a solution
of celloidin lower in viscosity than that used in renal work,
and this necessity was apparently due to the unusual length
and tortuosity of the internal spermatic artery. A solution,
colored with alkanin, of the strength given in the followiiig
formula, insures complete penetration and possesses a viscosity high enough to prevent capillary penetration :
Parlodion,
Camphor,
Acetone,
1.23 gram
0.80 gram
100.00 cc.
The present study consists of three series of experiments
confined exclusively to dogs. I n all cases the posterior
abdominal wall was exposed under ether anaesthesia through
a low midline incision in the anterior abdominal wall. The
aortic segment corresponding to the origin of the internal
spermatic artery was used as the site of injection, since its
thick wall is well adapted to withstand the bulging and distortion that invariably occurs in thinner vessels under high
pressure. The lumbar arteries arising from the segment
were ligated to prevent the celloidin from reaching the
deferential and cremasteric arteries by other routes than the
anastomotic channels. After the animal was killed and submerged in water, the vascular system of the testis was washed
free of blood by perfusing with physiological salt solution.
162
Y. JORANSON, V. E. EMMEL, AND H.
J. PILKA
Witli a view to maintaining normal tension in the first
series of eight dogs, the time of the saline perfusion was
limited to four minutes, and the testes were gently and continuously massaged during the perfusion to assist the flow
through the venous system. Normal tension, as employed in
this series, was the tension evident upon palpatioii of a
normal living testis. To duplicate the ‘stone-hardness’ found
in the living testis after ligation of the internal spermatic
wssels, the perfusion in the second series of eight dog) s was
continued for a period of about twenty minutes. This tension
was taken as the standard of increased tension and deterrniiied by palpation.
The time consumed in preparing the animal for perfusion
varied from thirty to forty-five minutes and the pressure
necessary to start the saline circulation ranged from 80 t o
120 mm. of mercury. It was found that this initial pressure
was directly proportional to the time spent in the preparation
of the animal.
I n the preceding two series of animals, celloidin was employed as the injection medium and introduced with a pressure of 500 mm. of mercury for twenty-four hours. The
tissues surrounding the testis were then dissected away, and
the spermatic cord and testis were removed en masse. The
testes from the first five dogs in these two series were p l a c d
in 75 per cent hydrochloric acid for twenty-four hours, and
those of the last three dogs of these series were preserved
for minute dissection with binocular magnifiers.
I n a third series of four dogs, normal tension was maintained in the first two and increased tension in the other two
animals. A 2 per cent solution of Berlin blue in distilled
water mas employed for injection and introduced with a pressure of 120 mm. of mercury for twenty minutes. All the
testes in the dogs of this last series were subjected to minute
dis seet ion.
THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY O F THE TESTIS
163
OBSERVATJOKS
First series of testes : celloidim imjections; normal tensiorz
I n limiting the saline perfusion to four minutes, normal
tension was maintained in both testes in six dogs and in the
left testis only, in two dogs; the right testis in the latter two
animals was excluded from the series, inasmuch as the tension
increased above the normal. The distribution of the celloidin
during the course of the injection was carefully noted. It
passed from the isolated aortic segment into the peritoneal
branches of the internal spermatic artery, and also into the
small arteries of the renal capsule by way of anastomosing
channels; in three specimens of the series the injection extended into and filled the renal artery. The celloidin also
advanced downward in the internal spermatic artery, and as
it was filling the vessels of the testicular capsule, it ascended
simultaneously in the deferential and cremasteric arteries.
Subsequent dissection showed that the celloidin passed from
the deferential into the hypogastric artery with its branches,
and from the cremasteric into the inferior epigastric and the
external iliac, passing upward from the latter to meet the
injection mass from the deferential, and downward to enter
the femoral artery and its branches.
The arterial anastomoses in the testis of the dog and their
general relation are indicated diagrammatically in figure 1.
The casts produced by corrosion show that the celloidin
extended into the finest radicles of the arterial system of the
testis and the epididymis (figs. 3 and 4). The tortuous course
of the internal spermatic artery in the distal part of the cord
and the division of this artery at the mediastinum into rami
penetrating the lobules are well defined in the figure. The
capsular artery, arising at the hilus, proceeds downward and
then forward to almost completely encircle the testis, anastomosing at its termination with rami of the internal spermatic
at the upper pole. Some of the rami of the internal spermatic
artery given off at the mediastinum were broken off from the
cast in the process of corrosion, but the preserved branches
can be seen penetrating the lobular spaces t o join the rami
164
Y. JORAR’SON, V. E. EMMEL, A N D H. J. PILICA
from the capsular artery. The origin of the epididymal
artery is not shown in the figure, but it arose usually from
tlie internal spermatic artery above its convoluted portion.
Fig. 1 Diagram of the three arteries of the testis in the dog, showing tlie
mode of distribution and termination of these vessels. The diagram is based
upon a study of tho eelloidin casts derived from this experiment. 1, internal
spermatic artery; 2, epididpmal artery; 3, mediastinal rami penetrating the
lobules ; 4, terminal part of epididymnl artery anastornosing with deferential
artery; 5 and 6, deferential artery; 7, anastomosis between capsular and deferential arteries; 8, external spermatic artery; 9, rami from capsular arterv penetrating lobules and anastornosing with mediastinal rami; 10, capsular artery.
Only the terminal portion of the deferential artery has been
preserved, together with some of its minute twigs going to
supply the ductus deferens. The capsular artery gives off
THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY O F THE TESTIS
165
a branch (deep anastomosing ramus) that proceeds posterolaterally to unite with the terminal loop of the deferential,
tapering toward its termination. This ramus and the capsular
artery subtend an angle in which is lodged a fine vascular
network, from which the surrounding tissue has only in part
been corroded. This retif orm structure coiinects the eremasteric artery with the internal spermatic system, and only
the stump of the terminal ramus of the cremasteric remains
intact in the figure. The spermaticocremasteric anastomosis
was difficult to preserve in most specimens, owing to the
delicacy of structure and lack of tissue support. The spermaticodeferential and spermaticocremasteric anastomoses
showed considerable variation in the casts of this series, but
the variations conformed in a general way to the three types
distinguished by Picque and Worms.
Upon dissection under the binocular magnifiers, it was
demonstrated that the three arteries in the spermatic cord
give off numerous small rami, which freely anastomose with
each other. I n two specimens the celloidin passed from the
cremasteric artery through connecting channels to the anterior and posterior scrota1 arteries. The external pudendal
and the perineal arteries supply, respectively, the anterior
and posterior parts of the scrotum, and a communication
exists in this cutaneous plane across the raph6showing that
the arterial anastomosis about the testis is an extensive
system.
S e c o d series of testes :celloidin injections; increased tension
I n permitting the saline perfusion to continue for twenty
minutes, the standard of increased tension was attained in
both testes in three dogs and in the right testes only, in
five dogs. The hardening occurred slowly and gradually upon
the introduction of the saline ; massage with compression of
the testis produced no softening after the tension once began
to increase. No satisfactory explanation can be offered for
the failure of the left testes in five dogs to harden. The
manometric pressure during the saline perfusion of the latter
166
S. JOEANSON, .
'
1
E. EMRIEL, AND H.
$.PILKA
was increased to 300 mm. of mercury without obtaining the
experimental standard of increased tension. The tension
increased, however, in these testes to values lying between
t hc normal and the standard of increased tension, and snbseyuent penetration of the celloidin was in inverse proportion
to the amount of tension. I n the eleven testes which reached
the standard of increased tension, the epididymis remained in
each instance considerably softer than the testicular portion.
The celloidin casts of the series were incomplete and reproduced only the larger rami of the intracapsular arterial network. The pronounced effect of increased tension upon the
penetration of the celloidin, in contrast to that under normal
tension, is shown in figure 2. The epididymal artery, arising
from the upper convoluted portion of the internal spermatic,
is seen to divide irnmediately above the epididymis into its
terminal branches. An ascending ramus from the capsular
artery ( 3 , fig. 2) has been displaced downward to show the
absence of the finer arterial network within the capsule. On
the other hand, the penetration in the epididymis, though incomplete in this particular case, was under the same conditions surprisingly complete under increased tension in several
hpecimens of this group. Six casts demonstrate the presence
of a fine arterial network between the terminal rami of the
cyididymal artery.
The deferential artery was completely injected in six testes
of the group, the injection was incomplete in three, and in the
remaining two the celloidin failed altogether to reach the
artery. The crcmasteric artery, however, was completely injected in ten of the testes.
With reference to the cause of this gradual increase in tension in the eleven testes of the group, it is quite possible that
this is due to an extravasation and infiltration of the salt
solution into the tissues. Hill ('09) observed, while perfusing
the human testis with a pressure of 60 t o 80 mm. of mercury,
that the gland became firm, and this phenomenon he believed
to be due to the passage of fluid between the endothelial cells
of the capillaries into adjacent tissues. The occurrence of an
THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF THE TESTIS
167
extravasation with a pressure below the normal systolic blood
pressure was ascribed by him t o the rapid death of the
endothelial cells.
Third series of testes : Bed iw-blue injections
The penetration of the solution of Berlin blue in the test.is
and in the epididymis under normal and increased tension
was similar to that of the celloidin under the same conditions.
Under normal tension the dye permeated both testis and epididymis uniformly (fig. 6). I n the orga-n injected under increased tension, as shown in figure 7, the Berlin blue penetrated the testis to a depth of only 1 mm., while in the
epididymis, under the same conditions, the injection was complete. The passage of the Berlin blue through the anastomotic
channels in the spermatic cord and at the tail of the epididymis was similar to that of the celloidin.
UIBCUSSION
The outstanding result of this investigation is the difference in the degree of penetration of celloidin and Berlin blue
in the testis and in the epididymis under increased tension.
During increased tension in these organs, as produced by
saline perfusions, the penetration of the injection within the
capsule of the testis was very slight, whereas in the epididymis the injection was quite complete. During the saline
perfusions the testis usually became tenser than the epididymi s.
It is a notable fact, as originally shown by Miflet and
Wangensteen, that, after experimental ligation of the internal
spermatic vessels, the testis atrophies while the epididymis
remains normal. We have conducted a series of ligations in
which the observations of these investigators were confirmed.
I n the course of our experiments it was further established
that the tension after ligation was uniformly greater in the
testis than in the epididymis.
The present results demonstrate that pressure disturbances
occur within the testis after prolonged saline perfusions and
168
Y. JOKANSON, V. E. EMMEL, A N D H. J. PILIiA
that comparable disturbances occur in the testis after liga t’1011
of the internal spermatic vessels, I n our experimental injections this disturbance was measured by the penetration of
either celloidin or Berlin blue; in experimental ligation it is
determined by the degree of atrophy. The extent to which the
degree of penetration in experimental injections is equivalent
to the degree of atrophy following ligation remains a problem
for further investigation.
‘l’lic pronounced difference in the behavior of the testis and
of tlie epididyrnis toward injections under increased tension
and toward experimental ligation of the internal spermatic
vessels appears to be due to the fact that the portion of the
tunica albuginea overlying tlie testis is thicker and more unyielding than that covering the epididymis (fig. 5 ) . If pressure within the capsule after ligation of the internal spermatic vessels is a factor in the production of atrophy in the
testis, it is possible that either an anterior longitudinal incision through the tunica albuginea or a bisection of the testis
with an orchidorrhaphy would prevent atrophy. The results
of a series of experiments now being conducted with a view
to testing this hypothesis will be given in a subsequent report.
SUMMARY
The ‘stone-hardness’ following interruption of the internal
spermatic vessels in the living testis has been duplicated in
the dead testis by prolonged perfusions of physiologic salt
solution.
The testis invariably became tenser than the epididymis
when both organs were perfused with salt solution f o r twenty
minutes through the internal spermatic artery.
After both organs were thus subjected to increased tension
in the same circuit, the penetration of celloidin and Berlin
blue was complete in the epididymis, but very incomplete in
the testis.
Testicular penetration of the injections was inversely proportional to variations in testicular tension.
THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY O F T H E TESTIS
169
The difference in behavior of the testis and the epididymis
toward experimental injections corresponds to the results
obtained in experimental ligation of the internal spermatic
vessels.
It is suggested that this difference in behavior of the testis
and the epididymis is due to the difference in structure of the
enveloping capsule, which is thin and yielding over the epididymis, but thick and resistant over the testis.
This hypothesis is being tested by a series of experimental
ligations, each of which is supplemented by an anterior longitudinal incision through the tunica albuginea or a bisection
of the testis with an orchidorrhaphy.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BENNETT,
W. 1893 On varicocele: a practical treatise. Brit. Y. J., vol. 1,
p. 501.
BEVAX,A. D. 1903 Surgical treatment of undescended testicle. J. A. 16. A.,
V O ~ . 41, pp. 718-723.
CAPURRO, M. A. 1901-1902 Sulla circolazionc sanguigna normale et d i eompenso
del testicolo. Anat. Anz., Bd. 20, S. 577-598.
COOPER,ASTLEY Quoted by Grillitha, loexit.
GRIFFITHS, J. 1895 Effects upon the testes of ligature of the spermatic artery,
spermatic veins, and of both nrtcry :ind veins. J. Anat. an d Phyaiol.,
VOI. 30, pp. 81-93.
HABERXR,
H. 1898 Ueber die Venen des mcnsrhlichen Hodens. Arch. f . Anat.
und Entwicklungsgesch., S. 4 1 3 4 4 1 .
HILL,E. C. 1909 Vaseulurization of the human testis. Am. Jour. Anat., rol.
9, pp. 463-474.
JARISCH,
A. 1888-1889 Ueber dio Schhgadern des nienschliehen Hodens.
N~turwissensc.linftlicli-meilizinischerVerein, Rerichte, Jalirg. 18.
KOCHER,
T. 1887 Die mannliche Geschlechtsorganc. Deutsche Ztschr. f. Chir.,
Bd. 50, S. 569-590.
KUNTZ,A. 1919-1920 Innervation of the gonads in the dog. Anat. Bee.,
V O ~ . 17, pp. 203-220.
MIFLET,
J. 1879 Ueber die patliologische Veranderungen des Hodens welche
durch Storungen der lokalen Blutzirkulation veranlasst werden. Arch.
f. klin. Chir., Bd. 24, S. 399.
MIGNON,M. A. 1902 Traitment de l’ectopie testicuhire par la section de tous
les vaisseaux du cordon spermatique. Bull. et M6m. Soc. de Chir.
de Paris, T. 28, p. 752.
MIXTEE, C. G. 1924 Undescended testicle ; operative treatment and end-results.
Surg. Gynec. a n d Obst., vol. 39, pp. 275-282.
MORISON,D. Y. 1923 Methods of demonstrating circulation; technical details
a n d difficulties of eelloidin injection methods. J. A. M. A., vol. 81,
pp. 178-182.
170
Y. JORANSON, V. E. EMUIMEL, AND H. J. PILKA
PELLANDA,
C. 1903 La circulation artCrielle du testiculc. Intcmltt. Nonatsclir.
f. Anat. u. Phgsiol., Leipzig, Bd. 20, S. 240-266.
PWQUE,
R., ET WQRMS,11. 1909 Lcs voies anastomiques de la circiilation
artkrielle testiculo-epididymaire. J. de 1’Anat. et Physiol., T. 45, pp.
51-64.
S(’€lMlDT, 1;. E. 1924 Diseascs of male genitalh. Abt’s Pediatrics, vo1. 4,
pp. 1161-1206. W. B. Saunders Co., Phila.
TBEVES,F. 1891 Manual of operative surgery.
WAX;ENSTEEN, 0. H. 1927 Uiidescended testis. Arch. Surg., vol. 11, pp. 663731.
PLATES
171
Photogrsplis of two celloidin easts of tlie arterial system of tlie right testis
in the dog. Tlie testis in figure 2 was allowed t o liardcn, while the m e in
figure 3 was permitted t o remain 1iorm;il in tension during the perfusion with
salt solution. 1, internal speritiatie artery; 2, epidid~malartery; 3, mediastinal
rnmi penetrating tlic lobules ; 4, epitlidymis; 5, deferential artery; 6, terminal
part o f dcferential artery entering tlic tail of epididymis ; 7, ramus from capsular
artery aiiastoinosiiig with defcreiitial a r t e r y ; 8, torminal stump of creniasterio
artery; 9, rami from capsular artery penetrating the lobules; 10, capsular artery;
11, vascular network of sperniaticocremasteric anastomosis.
EXPLANATION OF FIGURES
PLATE 1
173
T H E ANATOMICAL RECOBD, VOL.
41, NO. 2
4 Photograph of the riglit testis of :I dog injected with cclloidin under normal
tension and subjected to only partial corrosion. a, internal spermatic artery ;
2, and c, pampiniform plexus surrounding ronrolutions of internal spermatic
artery; c, deferential artery; d , lobulc of the epididymis.
5 Photograph of a transverse seetion through the superior extremity of the
testis of a dog, showing the difference in thickness of the tunica albuginea
investing the testis proper and tho epidid>niis. t.u.epid., tunica albuginea of
epididymis : t.u.testis, tuniea albuginea of testis.
EXPLAXATIOX OF FIGURES
PLATE 2
Y. JORANSON, V. E. EJ6MIILL, -4ND H. J . P I l X A
THE ARTERIAL SUPI’IAY O F THE TESTIS
PLATE 2
I’llot.ogl.:rplis of two .test.cs o f the left side i n n dog injceted with n.11 aqueous
solution of Berlin blue. T h e t.estis in figure 0 was inject.ed under normal tension,
wliilc tlit: oiie in figure 7 W:IM in,ject,r:d uiirler incren.sed tension. T h o tesks a r c
ilividrd i n the sngittnl phiie, slightly I:ttc~xl t o the midlino of the organ, to
sliow the cstent o f penet.r:it:ion of the dye in thc testis proper :ind in the epitl idpmis. Tli e (hrkcr col o I’ in tl I e pli otog14:i pl i i ntli c : t~es p i i c t rat ioii :I II d tli c? wli it c
color, an :i.hssnce of penetr:itioli. a, r:i.put epic1id;vmidis: b , mteriol. xurfnrv: of
t.lie testis ;
infwior rstrrniity o f the tclstis.
(a.
176
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factors, experimentov, testis, supply, conditions, controlling, arterial
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