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Integrated Geophysical and Archaeological Investigations of Aquinum in Frosinone Italy.

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Archaeological Prospection
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
Published online 12 May 2011 in Wiley Online Library
( DOI: 10.1002/arp.409
Integrated Geophysical and Archaeological
Investigations of Aquinum in Frosinone, Italy
Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage (ITABC‐CNR), Rome, Italy
Dipartimento di Beni Culturali Laboratorio di ‘Topografia antica e Fotogrammetria LabTAF’, Università
degli Studi del Salento, Lecce, Italy
To better understand the location and help in the conservation of buried structures at the ancient site of Aquinum in
central Italy, integrated archaeological and geophysical data were acquired. These datasets included historical and
oblique aerial photographs, which were combined with topographical and archaeological field‐walking survey. These
data showed the general location of the Roman town Aquinum. To verify preliminary interpretations ground‐
penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected in an open area of the town centre. The results show very good
correspondence between the buried architecture and the aerial photograph and field walking data. A number of
unexpected buried buildings were also discovered, which were excavated in 2009 and 2010 and showed remains of a
public thermal bath. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Key words: Oblique aerial photography; field‐walking survey; ground‐penetrating radar
It has long been known that geophysical prospecting
methods are beneficial prior to any excavation work
(Scollar et al., 1990; Gaffney and Gaffney, 2000; Gaffney
et al., 2004; Campana et al., 2009). The probability of
successful excavations rises rapidly when a multimethodological approach is adopted (Cammarano
et al., 1998; Neubauer et al., 2002; Seren et al., 2004;
Kvamme, 2006; Piro et al., 2007; Piro and Gabrielli,
2009). Reported here is a multidimensional investigation performed at the ‘Aquinum’ project, jointly developed by the University of Salento (Department of
Cultural Heritage – Laboratory of Ancient Topography
and Photogrammetry, Lecce), the Municipality of
Castrocielo (Frosinone, Italy), the Province of Frosinone
and the Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural
Heritage (ITABC‐CNR). The purpose of this research
was to verify the town planning of Aquinum and to
obtain information about the location, shape, depth
and size of the hypothesized buried buildings.
* Correspondence to: S. Piro, Institute of Technologies Applied to
Cultural Heritage (ITABC‐CNR), Rome, Italy. E‐mail: salvatore.
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aquinum is a Roman town in the southern Latium
region, which began as a municipium and late Republic
Roman colony strategically located along the Liri Valley
(Figure 1). The Aquinum archaeological site was
previously identified in 1998 through aerial photograph
interpretation that indicated distinctive archaeological
crop marks (Ceraudo, 1999). Ancient Aquinum is
characterized by the presence of an extensive system
of bounding walls and ditches and a regular (but not
orthogonal) road system. On aerial photographs the
road system appeared to be bordered by an unusual
parallelogram arrangement of architectural features of
unknown origin (Figures 2 and 3). These interpretations
were generally confirmed by the topographical and the
field‐walking surveys (Ceraudo, 1999). It was also
possible to observe the remains of some monumental
buildings as the theatre, the capitolium, the amphitheatre
and the ancient walls in these preliminary surveys
(Figure 3).
While these initial surveys allowed a general
interpretation of the site, the central area of the site,
without any information about the possible presence of
public thermal baths and other public buildings, was
considered of high interest as buried architecture there
might reveal information about the complex urbanism
Received 24 February 2011
Accepted 3 April 2011
S. Piro, G. Ceraudo and D. Zamuner
Figure 1. Geographical location of Aquinum (Castrocielo, Frosinone).
of the town and help in understanding other aspects of
this Roman colonial site.
Currently, much of the site contains farmland and a
number of modern buildings. Only the central portion
named San Pietro Vetere, which is the property of the
Castrocielo Municipality (Figure 2), is on terrain free of
buildings, and therefore suitable for geophysical
survey. Bedrock at the site consists of a series of
travertine beds reaching 18 m in thickness overlying a
series of Miocene–Pliocene sand and clay sediments
(Carrara, 1991). About 30–50 cm of soil overlies the
travertine across the site.
This general outline of the town and its precincts
provided a framework for additional aerial photographs in 2007 and 2008 as well as the planning of
field‐walking and geophysical surveys with the aim
of locating archaeological remains in the San Pietro
Vetere area. The main goals of this work consisted of
obtaining information about location, depth and
shapes of buried remains that could be characterized by function. Test excavations were also conducted to verify archaeological stratigraphy and
the nature of buried architecture, and this work is
still in progress.
Aerial survey and oblique aerial photography
Surface survey, photographic and geophysical
data collection and processing
Starting from 2004, the Aquinum site was investigated
using aerial photographs taken from light aircraft,
together with field‐walking and topographical
surveys. The oblique aerial photographs showed
distinctive archaeological crop marks along Liri Valley
and inside the Aquinum site (Figure 3). These photographs indicated the location of the central sector of
the town and to its northeast the theatre. They also
showed the presence of three parallel roads bounded
by the remains of buildings. A form of urban
planning was revealed that appeared to be city blocks
with dimensions of 212 m × 140 m subdivided into
smaller areas of about 70 m × 70 m (Ceraudo, 2004;
Figures 4 and 5).
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The interpretation of the oblique aerial photographs
and field‐walking surveys that were conducted
between 2007 and 2008 were concentrated in the
central portion of the studied area at San Pietro Vetere.
This area was found to contain some isolated buildings,
which are likely domus (aristocratic house) (Figure 6).
There also appeared to be a different distribution of
architecture to the east of the amphitheatre (Ceraudo,
2007), where the photographs showed a high density
of buried buildings.
Field‐walking surveys were conducted immediately
after ploughing and a large quantity of pottery was
observed and mapped. There were also fragments of
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Integrated Ground Remote Sensing and Archaeological Investigations
Figure 2. General archaeological map of Aquinum (Castrocielo, Frosinone) with the location of the theatre and amphitheatre, the large arrow
indicating the studied area of San Pietro Vetere. This figure is available in colour online at
marble, plaster and tessellated paving, indicative of
domus (aristocratic houses). The field‐walking surveys
were followed by ground‐penetrating radar (GPR)
surveys in the San Pietro Vetere area.
Magnetometry maps (Scollar et al., 1990; Clark, 1996;
Gaffney and Gaffney, 2000; Wiseman and El‐Baz, 2007)
provide precise locations of burned or anthropogenic
features over large areas, which can be readily
collected in gradient configuration to facilitate the
detection of shallow and small features (Becker, 1995;
Ciminale et al., 2007; Linford et al., 2007; Aspinall et al.,
2008; Gaffney et al., 2008; Schultze et al., 2008).
Magnetometry datasets can be complimented by the
collection of GPR data, which has a successful history
in discovering Roman villas and towns, usually in
isolated wide‐open areas (Neubauer et al., 2002;
Leckebusch, 2003; Piro et al., 2003; Goodman et al.,
2004; Linford, 2004; Seren et al., 2004; Berard and
Maillol, 2008).
In this study conducted on ploughed‐ground conditions the preliminary magnetic test showed many
small metal features that were probably many
dispersed fragments of archaeological structures and
also metallic slivers of the plough and some modern
metal trash. These results suggested to us suitable
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
locations for extensive GPR survey. The GPR surveys
were performed in October 2008 and between February
and April 2009. A total of 5 ha of GPR data were
collected using a GSSI SIR 3000 system with 500 MHz
bistatic antennae. The use of 500 MHz antennae was
as a compromise between depth penetration to about
1–1.5 m and resolution of features of the order of
20–30 cm in order to define the archaeological features
of interest.
Reflection profiles were analyzed for preliminary
identification of the buried features and for calibration
of the instrument. Reflection data, collected in profiles
with 50 cm spacing, were processed using standard
techniques (Neubauer et al., 2002; Leckebusch, 2003,
2008; Conyers, 2004; Piro et al., 2003, 2007; Goodman
et al., 2004, 2008; Linford, 2004). A total of 2125
profiles were collected in grids across the site,
employing the GSSI cart system equipped with an
odometer. An average of 70 reflection traces were
recorded per metre and stacked at 4 during
collection. Reflections were collected in a time
window of 65 ns (TWTT; two‐way travel time) and
recorded as 8 bit data with 512 samples per trace.
Velocities of 0.07 m ns−1 were estimated using
hyperbolae fitting in GPR‐SLICE v6.0 imaging software
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
S. Piro, G. Ceraudo and D. Zamuner
Figure 3. Archaeological map Aquinum (Castrocielo, Frosinone) based on the aerial photograph interpretation. The arrows indicate the area
investigated, the ancient wall system and some of the main roads that have been observed. This figure is available in colour online at
(Goodman, 2009). An unmigrated reflection profile
(Figure 7a and b) collected in the northern sector of the
area investigated (Figure 8) shows reflections from
causative bodies in the ground at about 13–35 ns
(TWTT). Taking into account the presence on the
surface of many archaeological fragments and the
evidence visible on the aerial oblique photographs
related to this area, we have hypothesized that these
reflections can be due to the presence of wall remains.
Reflection profiles were processed by performing DC
drift correction, trace resampling along the profile (an
averaged trace every 3 cm) and background removal.
Reflection amplitude maps were constructed within
various time (and corrected to depth) windows to show
the size, shape, location and depth of subsurface
archaeological structures (Neubauer et al., 2002;
Conyers, 2004; Gaffney et al., 2004; Goodman et al.,
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
2004, 2008; Leckebusch 2008; Linford, 2004; Piro et al.,
2007; Goodman and Piro, 2009). These images were
created using the spatial averaged squared wave
amplitudes of radar reflections in the horizontal as well
as the vertical. The squared amplitudes were averaged
horizontally every 0.25 m along the reflection profiles
3 ns time windows (with a 10% overlapping of each
slice). The resampled amplitudes were gridded using
the inverse distance algorithm with a search radius of
0.75 m. In addition pseudothree‐dimensional volumes
of the reflections were generated to produce isosurface
images. Interpolation between time‐slices was required
in order to create a continuous and visually smoothed
three‐dimensional volume for the production of three‐
dimensional animation using real time Open GL
graphic displays. All the GPR data were processed in
GPR‐SLICE v6.0 (Goodman, 2009).
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Integrated Ground Remote Sensing and Archaeological Investigations
Figure 4. Oblique aerial photograph of the central portion of the urban plan of Aquinum (Castrocielo, Frossinone). A and B indicate the two sectors
where road systems and ancient buildings were recently observed in aerial photographs.
Figure 5. Oblique aerial photograph of the central portion of the urban plan, north of Latina way, San Pietro Vetere area, Aquinum (Castrocielo,
Frosinone). Two main roads, oriented east–west, bordered by some buried buildings are visible and indicated with white arrows.
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
S. Piro, G. Ceraudo and D. Zamuner
Figure 6. Oblique aerial photograph of the area investigated, San Pietro Vetere, Aquinum (Castrocielo, Frosinone). White arrows indicate traces of
possible parallel roads and buildings.
Results and interpretation of geophysical data
The GPR amplitude maps (Figures 8–10) in the time‐
windows 13–15 ns, 17–19 ns and 30–32 ns (TWTT),
corresponding to the averaged estimated depths of
0.50, 0.65 and 1.0 m respectively, are shown. The
images produced necessitated some edge matching
between grids, which were also georeferenced using
differential GPS coordinates, and then imported into a
geographic information system (GIS) for data
visualization and analysis of subsurface feature dimensions. An analysis of these slices shows that the area
investigated is characterized by the presence of
reflections produced from many buried architectural
Figure 7. Example of resampled and filtered unmigrated profile, San Pietro Vetere area,. Aquinum (Castrocielo, Frosinone). Some shallow
reflections are indicated (white circle and black arrows). This figure is available in colour online at
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Integrated Ground Remote Sensing and Archaeological Investigations
Figure 8. Ground‐penetrating radar slices, in the time window 13–15 ns (TWTT), corresponding to an estimated depth of 0.45–0.5 m. The arrows
indicate some clear reflections, interpreted as: (i) W1–W6, possible wall remains of different lengths (W3 has an average length of 17.0 m and
width of 3.0 m; W4 has an average length of 8.5 m and width of 1.5 m; W6 has an average length of 7.0 m and width of 1.5 m); (ii) R1 and R2,
evidence attributed to the presence of ancient roads (R1 with an average length of 50 m and width of 4.5 m); (iii) isolated circular anomaly C1 with
a diameter of about 11.0 m. AR and black arrows indicate the location of observed ancient roads from aerial photographs. The dashed red line
indicates the location of the GPR profile shown in Figure 7.
features that are probably walls and perhaps segments
of ancient roads. These GPR results closely match the
aerial photograph interpretation and show also that in
the southern part of the area investigated many
buildings and other remains are preserved in the
subsurface. Figure 8 shows features characterized by
many reflections that are probably walls of different
dimensions. Evidence of a portion of the ancient
roads and an isolated circular reflection feature is
also visible.
At an estimated depth of 0.65 m in the southern part
of the area studied (Figure 11) the amplitude slice
shows the presence of buried buildings not detected
on aerial photographs. For this reason archaeologists
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
focused their attention on this area with the first
excavation tests made during 2009 and 2010, in two
limited sectors (A1–A2, Figure 11). The first area
excavated, A1 (Figure 11), investigated of 100 m2, is
characterized by the presence, at a depth of 0.35 m,
of a wall (made in ‘opus reticolatum’), oriented east–
west and visible for a length of about 9 m. The
second area excavated, A2 (Figure 11), located north
of A1, investigated about 400 m2. In this area, where
the GPR maps showed anomalies attributed to wall
remains, archaeologists have found part of a buried
building interpreted as a public thermal bath
(Figure 12). The central room (B, Figure 12) has a
trapezoidal plan and a total floor area of 20 m2,
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
S. Piro, G. Ceraudo and D. Zamuner
Figure 9. Ground‐penetrating radar slices in the time window 17–19 ns ( TWTT ), corresponding to an estimated depth of 0.60–0.67 m. The
arrows indicate some clear reflections. For detailed information see Figure 8. This figure is available in colour online at wileyonlinelibrary.
oriented north–south. This feature is identified as a
warm room heated with hot air circulating below
the floor and behind the walls (Caldarium). Other
heated rooms inside the thermal building were found
to the south (E, Figure 12), with average dimensions
of 6 m × 6 m, and to the west (D, Figure 12, partially
excavated); to the north there is a small room (A)
with an area of about 6 m2. The eastern area is
characterized by the presence of a tessellated paving,
which has been interpreted as the undressing
room (‘Apodyterium’) (Figure 12). Figure 13 shows
the overlapping GPR slice in the southern part of
the area investigated and the survey of the discovered structures after the archaeological excavation.
This area shows the main rooms of this public
thermal building.
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The results obtained at the San Pietro Vetere site in
Aquinum confirm the presence of a portion of the
plan of ancient buildings identified and generally
characterized from aerial photographs and by field‐
walking surveys. The location, depth, shape and size of
buried buildings was determined using GPR data,
which were then integrated with aerial photography
and archaeological field surveys.
Particular attention was focused on the southern
sector of the area studied, which is characterized by the
presence of a public thermal bath building, which was
unknown before this research. This new discovery has
encouraged archaeologists to reconsider their preliminary interpretation about this portion of the urban plan
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Integrated Ground Remote Sensing and Archaeological Investigations
Figure 10. Ground‐penetrating radar slices in the time window 30–32 ns (TWTT), corresponding to an estimated depth of 1.00–1.10 m. The arrows
indicate some clear reflections. For detailed information see Figure 8. This figure is available in colour online at
Figure 11. Ground‐penetrating radar slices at an estimated depth of 0.65 m. The arrows indicate some clear reflections. The excavated test areas A1 and
A2 are indicated with a dashed circle. This figure is available in colour online at
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
S. Piro, G. Ceraudo and D. Zamuner
Figure 12. Plan of the excavated area with an outline of the rooms discovered. The warm room (Caldarium) and the dressing room (Apodyterium)
are indicated.
of Aquinum where they have initially hypothesized only
the presence of isolated domus (aristocratic house).
Archaeological excavations are in progress with the
expectation that interpretation of the structures
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
discovered in relation with the urban plan of the site
studied will be progressively enhanced. The Aquinum
project is still in progress and new geophysical and
archaeological surveys have been planned with the
Archaeol. Prospect. 18, 127–138 (2011)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Integrated Ground Remote Sensing and Archaeological Investigations
Figure 13. (Top) Southern portion of the San Pietro Vetere area. Details of the archaeological survey overlain by a portion of GPR slice at an
estimated depth of 0.65 m. Photograph of the discovered rooms after the first excavation, summer 2009.
aim to integrate all information using GIS of the
study area.
We would like to thank Daniele Verrecchia (ITABC‐
CNR) for his valuable assistance during the geophysical
and topographical surveys. This work has been
financed by the Municipality of Castrocielo and by the
Province of Frosinone, Italy. We thank C. Gaffney and
L.B. Conyers, as Editors of Archaeological Prospection, for
their suggestions to improve the quality of this paper. We thank also the anonymous reviewers for their
comments and corrections.
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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