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Magnetic and seismic investigations of historic features in the Suchon area Kongju Korea.

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Archaeological Prospection
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
Published online in Wiley InterScience
( DOI: 10.1002/arp.336
Short Report
Magnetic and Seismic Investigations of
Historic Features in the Suchon Area,
National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Egypt
Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, Kongju National University, Kongju, Korea
Integrated geophysical surveys including magnetometer, gradiometer and seismic refraction were
performed in the Suchon area, Kongju, Korea, which revealed three locations of buried architectural
features. The magnetometer survey identified four main anomalies that were further tested using
the gradiometer. Application of the second vertical derivative and the high-pass filtering techniques
to the magnetometer data isolated the deeper sources and enhanced the near-surface features.
Depth was estimated using magnetometer data and seismic refraction analysis.The study identified
three promising areas that are strongly recommended forexcavation, which can be seen in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the study area. They are strongly linked to shallow historical features, i.e. brick tomb structure, pottery collection and stone-mound tomb, that were dominant
during Baekche rule in Suchon area and therefore are believed to be from the Baekche period.
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Key words: magnetic; gradiometer; seismic refraction; second vertical derivative; high-pass
filter; power spectrum; Suchon; South Korea
The study area is located at Suchon in the vicinity
of Kongju city, Korea, about 150 km south of
Seoul (Figure 1). Kongju became the capital of the
Korean Kingdom at the beginning of the Baekche
period (AD 475–538). The historical value of
Kongju brought the city and its region to the
attention of archeologists. Significance of the
Suchon area dates back mainly to the Baekche
period, and the area is, therefore, expected to
contain some of the representative relics of the
* Correspondence to: T. Abdallatif, National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), Egypt.
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Baekche Kingdom. To investigate the historical
features in Suchon using geophysics, a small site
of 2500 m2, situated at about 1.2 km northeast of
Jungan Stream (Figure 1), was surveyed by the
magnetic and seismic methods.
Tombs of the Baekche Kingdom revealed in the
past at Kongju indicate that their structures are
either made from stone and bricks (e.g. Songsanri and Jeoseok-ri Baekche Tombs) or from bricks
only (e.g. Tomb of King Muryeong). A group of
18 tombs, belonging to different periods including Baekche, was discovered in 2003 (CIHC,
2004) and they show the nature of tombs in
ancient Korean culture. The 18 tombs that were
discovered at two localities in the Suchon area
within a range of 3–30 m from the study area
Received 27 March 2008
Accepted 10 July 2008
J. Oh et al.
Figure 1. Location map of Suchon showing the study area in Kongju city, South Korea. [This figure is available in colouronline at]
(CIHC, 2004) revealed a good collection of
pottery and porcelain (Figure 2) from the Eastern
Qin era (Nam Dynasty) in China, reflecting the
previous active relationship between the Baekche
regime and China. The nature and contents of
these discoveries could be key to the interpretation of the geophysical data. We speculated that
it would be a good approach to conduct
geophysical surveys in order to explore possible
extensions of similar archaeological structures
(e.g. tombs) that characterize this era of ancient
Korean history.
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Geophysics was conducted because traditional
excavation would be time consuming and would
possibly cause damage to the existing topography and landscape within the study area.
Geophysical tools, with effective penetration
and non-destructive application, were used in
this study to investigate the cultural and
historical features and artefacts, particularly of
highly magnetic material (e.g. pottery and mud
brick). The geophysical data can define to a high
degree of accuracy the geometric properties of
the cultural relics, and detect with high quality
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Magnetic and Seismic Investigations in the Suchon Area
Figure 2. Thesurveylayoutoftheappliedgeophysicaltoolsat thestudyareain Suchon (lowerpart).Themagnetometersurvey was
conducted by the proton magnetometer (Geometrics G-856), while the gradiometer survey was conducted by the fluxgate
gradiometer FM256 (Geoscan Research, 2004), and the seismic refraction survey was conducted by the Geometrics StrataVisor
NZ2 seismograph.The recent discoveries at a neighbouring excavated site to the north of the study site (upper part) indicate the
existence of magnetic artefacts (i.e. pottery and porcelain) within the area. [This figure is available in colouronline at www.]
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
the parts to be focused on in the excavation
activities (Slater et al., 2000).
The small size of the study area (Figure 1)
allowed us to conduct three geophysical surveys
in a relatively short time. First we collected
magnetometer data, followed by a gradiometer
survey, and finally one seismic refraction line was
collected through the middle of the study area in
order to calibrate the depth of our previous work.
The pottery industry in the Baekche Kingdom
produced different sorts of pottery of high
magnetic content. They are considered, with
other highly magnetized materials, such as mud
brick, to be best detected using the magnetic
method. In spite of the small size of the pottery,
their location and dimensions can be properly
detected using suitable instruments (Abdallatif
et al., 2007).
Seismic methods have limited applications in
archaeoprospection due to many difficulties
associated with the very shallow depth of the
archaeological targets (Vafidis et al., 2003), and
are less frequently used for archaeological
investigations (David, 1995) for the following
reasons: (i) difficulty in delineating small sources
in the shallow section (e.g. archaeological
remains), where these small sources could be
masked; (ii) inconvenient site conditions; and (iii)
difficulty in separating the signal from noise
(Miller et al., 1989). To overcome these difficulties
in the present study, seismic refraction was
conventionally applied with high resolution and
1 m spacing in order to calibrate the depth
parameter with the magnetic work. We used it
only as a subsidiary tool in order to investigate at
which depth there would be no possible
geological structures in the shallow section.
Geologically, the basement rocks around the
study area are composed of Precambrian banded
gneiss and mica schist. Along the Jungan stream,
west of the study area (Figure 1), Quaternary
alluvial deposits are present.
Applied methods and results
Magnetometer survey
A magnetometer survey was conducted over an
area of 50 m 50 m (2500 m2) (Figure 2) using a
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
J. Oh et al.
proton precession magnetometer (G-856; Geometrics, 1984). The survey was carried out using
25 parallel traverses 2 m apart with data points
logged every 2 m. Meanwhile, a ground base
station was installed on a magnetically stable
area for the correction of the temporal variations
of the Earth’s magnetic field. A total magnetic
anomaly map is presented in Figure 3, showing
an obvious magnetic signature in the northern
part, and indicating possible near-surface
sources. Four dominant magnetic anomalies
(A, B, C and D) were identified. The positive
anomalies denoted by A and B reveal magnetic
intensities of 60 nT and 105 nT, and the
negative anomalies denoted by C and D reveal
magnetic intensities of 22 nT and 27 nT.
Second vertical derivatives and high-pass
filtering techniques (Geosoft, 1994) were applied
to the magnetometer data in order to enhance the
characteristics of the shallow sources and to then
facilitate the overall interpretation. The second
vertical derivative technique enhances the nearsurface magnetic sources at the expense of the
deeper ones as it emphasizes short wavelength
(high frequency) anomalies, and isolates them
from the regional magnetic background (Danes
and Oncley, 1962). Its application (Figure 4) to the
magnetometer data led to the ‘sharpening’ of the
magnetic anomalies of the near-surface sources,
showing a dipole polarity (e.g. B, C and D), and
reducing the total magnetic intensities of Figure 2
due to the decrease in the wavelengths (Abbas
et al., 2005). Some additional small anomalies in
the northern part of the study area were
identified that might be dispersed pottery of
shallow origin, emphasizing the possibility of
finding cultural relics at that area. In addition, the
magnetic map (Figure 4) reveals the existence of
scattered dipole magnetic anomalies on the
western margin of the grid, which may indicate
scattered artefacts.
A high-pass filter (see Figure 6) was also
applied to remove the low-frequency anomalies
that might have been caused by the deep
geological sources (Abdallatif and Lee, 2001). It
utilizes the information obtained from the
calculated power spectrum (Figure 5) to select
the best cut-off frequency at which the filter
response is down by a predetermined amount
(Sheriff, 2002). Anomalies correlated to those of
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Magnetic and Seismic Investigations in the Suchon Area
Figure 3. The totalmagnetic anomalymap ofthe studyarea (50 m 50 m) at Suchon obtained from the magnetometer surveyat a
raster of 2.0/2.0 m, four magnetic anomalies (A, B, C and D) have been identified. S1 (20 m 20 m) and S2 (40 m 20 m) are two
focal parts surveyed by the fluxgate gradiometer (FM256) at a raster of 0.5/0.5 m. The gradiometer images S1 and S2 have reemphasized the magnetic anomalies (A, B and D) identified by the magnetometer survey.
Figure 4 were produced at a cut-off frequency of
10 m 1. The high-pass filtered map (Figure 6)
emphasizes the shallow origin of the high
frequency anomalies of Figure 3, and also reflects
typical results with the output of the second
vertical map (Figure 4), particularly with the
dipole polarity noticed at anomalies C and D.
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Gradiometer survey
The fluxgate gradiometer (FM256) was deployed
to measure the vertical magnetic gradient of the
Earth’s magnetic field in order to provide further
details at two selected focal parts (Figure 3: S1
and S2). The remaining part of the study area was
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
J. Oh et al.
Figure 4. The total magnetic anomaly map after the application of the second vertical derivative. The application enhances
the near-surface features and emphasizes the signature of the main dominant anomalies of Figure (3).
inaccessible to the FM256 due to steep topography
and also the presence of a large number of trees.
Measuring the vertical magnetic gradient in
this study is significant and necessary because it
represents the effective component of the geomagnetic field that can reveal shallow magnetic
sources. The technique of measuring the vertical
magnetic gradient using the FM256 is widely
used in the near-surface investigation as an
efficient reconnaissance tool, and it is also used to
reinforce the results of other shallow geophysical
tools including the magnetometer data in this
study. This is mainly owing to the advantages of
the FM256 in accelerating the data acquisition at
high resolution within a short time, and its ability
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
to enhance the very shallow sources at the
expense of deep ones (Abdallatif et al., 2005).
To better emphasize the signature and the
location of the detected sources using the FM256,
the parts S1 (20 m 20 m) and S2 (40 m 20 m)
were divided into four grids each. The grid
dimensions are 10 m 10 m over S1, and 20 m 10 over S2 (Figure 2).
A zero reference point was selected at an area
of uniform local magnetic field for balancing and
zeroing the FM256 to match individual grids and
to ensure high-quality data. The resolution of the
instrument was set to 0.1 nT; in the logging mode
this allows the readings to be stored with a
resolution of 0.05 nT (Geoscan Research, 2004).
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Magnetic and Seismic Investigations in the Suchon Area
Figure 5. Application of the power spectrum to the magnetometer data provides the depth estimates to the near surface
features that reflects, in general, a very shallow depth. The power spectrum transformation is also utilized in the detection
of the cut-off frequency used in the application of the high-pass filtering.
Measurements of the vertical magnetic gradient were conducted through successive zigzag
traverses. The sensor tube was positioned
vertically over each point with an estimated
height above the ground surface of about 0.15 m.
The sample interval and the traverse interval
were both set at 0.5 m to enable the recording of
small anomalies at a high resolution. The data
were processed using the Geoplot software
(Geoscan Research, 2005). Figure 3 shows the
gradiometer data after applying Geoplot processing functions to remove the spikes, grid
discontinuities and traverse stripes; and data
smoothing using the Gaussian low-pass filtering
The gradiometer results in Grid S1 show an
obvious negative anomaly of 3.6 m 2.95 m,
surrounded by a positive band extending to the
lower portion, and revealing a contrast with
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
another elongated negative anomaly (Figure 3).
Focusing on the main negative anomaly evident
in the magnetometer data, it would be reasonable
to conclude that it is related to a possible room
structure or a stone-mound tomb surrounded on
its eastern side by mud bricks (positive anomaly).
Although recognizing the nature of a material
(e.g. stone) is difficult in magnetic data, however,
the polarity of source and the geological background are two main aspects that aid recognition.
The negative polarity indicates sources of low
magnetic susceptibility, which most probably
refer to stone materials of sedimentary origin. To
our knowledge, on the other hand, this area of
Kongju (Suchon) does not include granite rocks,
which is characterized by higher magnetic
susceptibility than metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, and consequently this negative
anomaly (D: Figure 3) is overwhelmingly likely
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
J. Oh et al.
Figure 6. The total magnetic anomaly map after application of the high-pass filtering with cut-off frequency of 10 1 m.
The application enhances the effect of the shallow sources and the signature of the dominant anomalies in Figures 4
and 5 are evident.
to reflect one of the common archaeological
structures of this area (e.g. a room structure or
stone-mound tomb).
The gradiometer results in Grid S2 show more
specific anomalies than those detected by the
magnetometer survey (Figure 3). For example,
anomalies A and B revealed by the magnetometer survey are divided, in the gradiometer
image, into three and two anomalies, respectively. The anomalies revealed in the gradiometer
images indicate an obvious magnetic contrast,
and show small diameters ranging from 1.2 m
at B to 3.0 m at A. We speculate that these small
diameter anomalies may have been produced by
pottery stacked laterally in a stone chamber that
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
was a common construction in the Baekche
period, whereas the largest one (3.0 m in
diameter) may have been produced by a mudbrick chamber of a relatively high magnetic
The pottery and the brick features, which were
the most dominant iron-bearing material in
Baekche Kingdom, possess a sufficient magnetic
contrast to generate detectable magnetic sources
of positive polarity such as anomalies A and B
with different sizes and comparable shapes
(Figure 3). Similar magnetic imaging of small
pottery spreads is evident in a recent study by
Abdallatif et al. (2007). The archaeological discoveries of 2003 (CIHC, 2004) also support this
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
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Magnetic and Seismic Investigations in the Suchon Area
interpretation, where one can see clearly these
remains of Baekche pottery in the top right
picture of Figure 2. It is expected that the pottery
was used for food storage.
Seismic refraction survey
One seismic refraction profile was conducted
with a total length of 56 m, and through seven
shot points the depths were calculated to the
subsurface interfaces beneath the 23-m profile
(Figure 2), and to accordingly calibrate these
depths with the other methods. From the time–
distance relationships of shot gathers (Figure 7),
the subsurface layer velocities and the thicknesses were calculated. Then, the depth section
with P-wave velocities in Figure 8 was constructed based on the ray inversion method
(Brückl, 1987).
Commonly, the seismic velocity can be used to
characterize the subsurface geology, for example,
the velocity of <700 ms 1 represents the weathered soil for engineering purposes in Korea.
Thus, the results of the seismic refraction line
over the study area indicate the dominance of
subsoil sediments up to 8 m in depth (Figure 8),
and no geological structural elements have been
Depth estimation
Estimating the depth to the detected sources is an
important factor in detecting the thickness of soil
to be removed to reach the archaeological
features, and also to speculate about the initial
costs of the next stage of excavation work.
We applied the power spectrum, mentioned
previously, to the magnetometer data (the whole
grid: 50 m 50 m) to obtain a relative range of the
Figure 7. (a) Seven shot gathers from the southwest (shot 1) to the northeast (shot 7) were recorded at 24 geophones
with 1-m spacing along one seismic refraction profile. See Figure 2 for the shot and geophone locations. The 2-kg hammer
source and 100 Hz geophones were used. No additional processing technique is applied for the display purpose. (b) Firstarrival events are interpreted as direct waves (dotted lines), refracted waves (thick lines) and air waves (thin lines). Air waves
are characterized by low-amplitude, high-frequency, and parallel arrivals with a velocity of 340 m s 1, whereas both direct
and refracted waves show larger amplitude and lower frequency.
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
J. Oh et al.
Figure 8. The P-wave velocity structure beneath the geophone array constructed by the inversion of arrival times of both
direct and refracted waves from 7 shot gathers in Figure (7). Contours represent the P-wave velocity in m/s.The upper section
with the velocity of <700 m s 1 is commonly interpreted as the weathered soil.
depth estimate of the sources beneath the soil.
Next, we used the classic half-width rule
(Breiner, 1973) to estimate the depth of the
individual anomalies (A, B, C and D) in a simple
Based on the algorithms given by Spector and
Grant (1970), we applied the Geosoft program
(Geosoft, 1994) to estimate depths from the
magnetometer data. The assumption of Spector
and Grant (1970) supposes that the spectrum
decays exponentially toward the large wavenumbers, at a rate of decay proportional to the
average depth to the top of the source.
Figure 5 shows the plot of the log of power
spectrum versus log of wavenumber, and the
upper part represents the radially averaged
power spectrum curve, and the lower part
represents the corresponding depth estimate.
The curve indicates that small wavenumbers are
associated with the relatively deep sources,
whereas the large wave numbers are associated
with the shallow sources. Hence, the buried
cultural features in the study area are believed to
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
be found at a depth range from 0.88 m to 3.6 m
Using the classic half-width rule with the
magnetometer data provides good depth estimates for the identified magnetic sources of small
sizes. The half-width rule, derived from the
formulae given by Breiner (1973), indicates very
shallow sources with depth ranges from 1.59 m
at anomaly A to 3.47 m at anomaly C.
Figure 9 outlines the potential localities
revealed by the magnetometer and gradiometer
data. It shows that the northern side of the map
implies the most promising part (locality 1) that
indicates very shallow depth ranges from 1.59 m
to 2.0 m. In addition, localities 2 and 3 are also
promising with depth ranges from 2.38 m at
locality 2 to 3.47 m at locality 3.
Discussion and conclusions
The majority of the cultural relics of the ancient
Koreans are not always made of magnetized
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
Magnetic and Seismic Investigations in the Suchon Area
Figure 9. A simple illustration showing the promising localities (1, 2 and 3) and their estimated depths concluded from the
application of the power spectrum and half-width rule to the magnetometer data.
materials. This is evident by some obvious
features in the ancient Korean houses and
temples that contain large amounts of wood
and stone materials. However, pottery production was the most active and dominant
industry during the Baekche period. This pottery
contains a reasonable amount of iron-bearing
minerals that produces the magnetic anomalies
detected by both of the magnetometer and
gradiometer surveys.
The magnetometer and gradiometer surveys
show three major magnetic anomalies with
relatively strong gradients and amplitudes.
These anomalies are also identified on the second
vertical derivative and high-pass filtered maps,
which together made it possible to reproduce the
original magnetic anomalies of Figure 3. The
evident effect of these anomalies in these maps
asserts their shallow origin.
Anomalies A and B are expressed in the
northeastern part of the study area with strong
positive magnetic polarity. They are highly
expected to contain a reasonable amount of iron,
and consequently their origin could be from
Copyright # 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
either pottery or mud brick that are rich in
magnetic minerals. Anomaly A may indicate a
brick tomb structure, whereas anomaly B may
refer to a group of pottery stacked horizontally in
a stone chamber built close to the brick tomb
represented by anomaly A. On the other hand,
anomaly D may indicate a room structure or
stone-mound, and this is due to a very weak
magnetic content comparing to the surroundings
or absence of any magnetic content.
In this case study, the application of the second
vertical derivative and the high-pass filtering
techniques are adequate for the magnetometer
data, while the application of the low-pass
filtering is required for the gradiometer data.
The seismic results indicate the absence of any
subsurface geological structures, and indirectly
supports the existence of the possible cultural
relics previously revealed in the magnetic data.
Although we used a conventional method,
the half-width rule, for estimating the depth to
the buried sources, that method, along with the
power spectrum, enabled us to estimate the
depth to the buried sources and to compare it
Archaeol. Prospect. 15, 227–238 (2008)
DOI: 10.1002/arp
with the apparent depth of the neighbouring
excavated site. Both of the applied depthestimation methods indicate that the detected
anomalies are generally shallow (<4 m), which
facilitates the archaeologists plans and the
proposed excavation work in general.
Delineating the historical features and cultural
relics in Suchon using integrated geophysical
surveys has provided a better understanding of
the near-surface features, supported by the
results of the neighbouring excavated site. We
strongly believe that the results obtained are
promising in this new and important area, and
provide significant help to Korean archaeologists
in extending their excavation work across the
study area.
We are greatful to the Department of Geoenvironmental Sciences, Kongju National University
for providing field instruments and other necessary articles. We much appreciate the financial
support of the Korean Federation of Science and
Technology Societies (KOFST) and Korea
Research Foundation (KRF). We also thank the
Chungnam Institute of History and Culture
(CIHC) for providing us with the necessary pictures of the recent discoveries at Kongju city. We
appreciate the constructive comments and precious discussion of the editors in chief and the
other anonymous reviewers.
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DOI: 10.1002/arp
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