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C. M. Goss
Frederic Joseph Agate, Jr., associate professor of anatomy and special lecturer in anatomy
of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, died on December 3, 1980,
in Torrington, Connecticut, at the age of 70
after a long and courageous bout with cancer.
He was born in New York City on December
23,1909, the son of Mrs. Helen (Woolsey) Agate and the late Frederic J. Agate.
Dr. Agate received his A.B. degree from Columbia College in 1932. His graduate studies
leading to the Ph.D. degree were carried out
in the Department of Anatomy, Columbia
University, primarily under the sponsorship
of Dr. Philip E. Smith, the renowned anatomist
and endocrinologist. For health reasons, he
spent a number of years in Colorado in several
research capacities. Later, he resumed his association with the Department of Anatomy at
Columbia, where he became successively instructor, assistant professor, and associate professor. After retiring in 1976, Dr. Agate continued to contribute in a teaching role as a
special lecturer.
Fritz had a brilliant, complex, and especially
inquisitive mind. He posed a continuous
stream of ideas and thoughts backed by a
wealth of knowledge about a variety of subjects. These qualities were combined with his
joie de vivre, his wit, and his integrity, which
in a way masked the intensity of his enormous
courage as exemplified during his terminal illness.
In his investigative endeavors, Dr. Agate
was involved in a variety of research projects.
Early in his career his talents were directed
to the relation of the endocrine system to the
growth and secretory activity of the mammary
gland in the rhesus monkey. Other endocrinological investigations included studies on the
role of the adrenal cortex and the antigenicity
of steroid-protein conjugates. With members
of the Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Agate was
involved in a series of physiological analyses
of premature and small newborn human infants kept in incubators. These studies concentrated on such parameters as heart rate,
body temperature, atmospheric humidity, and
gaseous metabolism. Dr. Agate’s early studies
concentrated on the evaluation of parsidol
(ethopropazine hydrochloride) in the treatment of paralysis agitans. In his later years he
was involved in a project for testing the flammability of fabrics used in infant and children’s
clothing by the use of various monitors placed
on manikins. This was carried out in conjunction with the Department of Plastic Surgery,
which utilized the information to convince industry and governmental agencies of the importance of flame-retardant fabrics for children’s clothing.
Besides his mother, Helen Woolsey Agate of
Cornwall, Connecticut, Dr. Agate is survived
by a sister, Mrs. Henry Hey1 of Norwick, Vermont; a son, John W. Agate of Fort Myer, Virginia; two daughters, Mrs. K. Marcelle Habibion of Annandale, Virginia, and Mrs. Betty
Silbert of Cornwall, Connecticut; and several
grandchildren, nieces, and nephews. His wife,
Fay Miller Agate, died several years ago.
In a real sense, Dr. Agate’s mind and spirit
live on through his colleagues and many students who were privileged to have known him.
Fritz was true to the lines of one of his favorite
authors, Rudyard Kipling, who wrote:
I keep six honest serving men
(They taught me all I knew).
Their names are What, Why and When
And How and Where and Who.
The best single word that could be used to
describe Irwin Baird is the word impressiveimpressive in stature, intellect, scholarship,
and friendliness. He was born in 1925 in St.
Joseph, Missouri, the son of a public health
officer. He graduated from high school at age
16, having skipped a grade, in part related to
his impressive stature. He then attended college until he was 18, when he enlisted in the
army in 1943. As part of this experience he
participated in the invasion of the Philippines
and the Battle of Luzon in 1944. Due to his
college background and family experiences he
was utilized as a paramedic (in modern terminology).In 1945 he was transferred from the
Philippines and stationed in Tokyo in the
Army of Occupation. There, he again used his
background functioning as a physician’s assistant assigned to a public health physician
on the staff of the Japanese government. He
was separated from the service in 1946 and
returned to the states to complete his formal
education, receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in zoology at the University of Kansas in
1948. That year he met his future wife, Irene,
who had begun graduate work at Lawrence
leading to a Master’s degree in 1949. Irwin also
received his master’s degree in zoology in 1949
working with the herpetologist, Edward H.
Taylor. These studies involved extensive field
work collecting reptiles, which were not always successfully contained in the holding
tanks in the Zoology Department at Lawrence.
Following completion of his master’s degree
in 1949, he and his wife were recruited to the
faculty of the University of Massachusetts
where both of them taught for one year, Irwin
in biology and Irene in language. During that
year the two of them attended a lecture a t
Smith College given by the paleontologist, A1
Romer; upon its completion, Irwin declared his
intent to work with him beginning the following year. He then spent 2 years a t Harvard
University with appointments as a teaching
fellow in comparative anatomy and gross human anatomy, completing his basic course
work and beginning his thesis research on the
comparative anatomy of reptiles.
Baird joined the University of Kansas faculty a t Lawrence as instructor of zoology in
1952, and he assumed a major teaching responsibility in gross human anatomy for medical as well as graduate students. Completing
his doctoral dissertation after moving to Lawrence, he formally received his Ph.D. from
Harvard in 1960. During the years a t Kansas,
Irwin became known for his good humor, excellent pedagogical skills in gross anatomy, as
well as his respect for the 11th edition of Morris’sHuman Anatomy. Dave Hamilton and Bill
Henson, his first graduate students, became
part of the “center for herpetology” that was
housed in the old Journalism Building a t Lawrence. He frequently hunted with graduate
students such as Floyd Foltz, when the two of
them could test recently constructed guns.
Both were expert marksmen and enjoyed hunting prairie dogs that populated the open fields
around Lawrence.
Other adjectives that could be used to describe Irwin would be his warmth and compassion in terms of dealing with others, and
his firmness in matters considered to involve
principle. His critical grammatical eye was
used by many graduate students, beginning a t
Kansas, who sought his help in writing their
doctoral dissertations. Many of my own papers
have received his critical comments on construction, logic, and basic organization, and
every sentence in our jointly authored manual
(Anatomy Px) was dissected in detail.
By 1960 the inevitable move of the medical
school from Lawrence to Kansas City was well
known, and Irwin felt that a change in career
direction was desirable. He, in turn, was recruited to the Department of Anatomy a t the
University of Tennessee by Gordon Robertson
in 1962 as associate professor of anatomy, a
move that renewed a friendship from Harvard
days with Johnny Ladman. At Memphis he
began to extend his histologic studies on the
reptilian auditory system to the ultrastructural level working with Jim Reger, who
headed the central EM facility a t Memphis.
Among other accomplishments, he developed
a method of decalcificationthat many of us are
finding valuable today. As a result of this
change in research direction, a classically
trained comparative anatomist and evolutionary biologist became known for his ultrastructural studies on the auditory receptors of various reptiles.
I was successful in recruiting Irwin to the
Department of Anatomy at Hershey in 1967,
largely by offering him the opportunity to work
in a small medical school set in a rural environment and to develop our teaching program
in gross anatomy. In Hershey, he and his graduate students, Dave Jenkins, Jim White, and
John Chandler, extended his studies on the
comparative cytology of the inner ear of reptiles to include fish, amphibians, and birds. His
research group was among the first to apply
scanning electron microscopy to comparative
studies on the specialized orientation of the
cilia and kinocilia of the hair cells in auditory
receptors of submammalian vertebrates. By
personal preference he did not coauthor papers
published by his graduate students as part of
their doctoral studies. Comparative otologists
would agree that each of his major publications
has become a classic in the field.
Those who knew Irwin respected his competence as a gross anatomist, as a superb
teacher, and his devotion t o his students, both
graduate and medical. While Irwin was a compassionate and warm human being, he was a t
the same time a very private person who enjoyed listening to good music, woodworking,
and spending time with his family. His wife
and three daughters, as well as his colleagues,
regret the loss of this impressive man.
struction in the laboratory, his quiet humor,
and his modesty and conscientious effort. We
have lost a fine and beloved friend.
The Department of Anatomy of the Medical
University of South Carolina was saddened by
the death of Burness A. Barrington, Jr., on
June 18, 1979, at the age of 63. His memory
is dear to all of us who knew him. He is survived by his wife, Julia, two married daughters, three grandchildren, and one unmarried
Barry was born June 12, 1916, a t Hawthorne, Florida. He received most of his training in Zoology a t the University of Florida
where he received his B.S. degree in 1939, his
M.S. degree in 1940, and his Ph.D. in 1948.
During his doctoral studies at the University
of Florida, he was a teaching fellow
(1947-1949). From 1949 to 1962 he was professor and department chairman at Kings College, Bristol, Tennessee.
Dr. Barrington came to the then Medical
College of South Carolina as research associate
in 1962, becoming associate in anatomy in
1966. From 1968 to 1971 he served as assistant
professor of anatomy, becoming associate professor in 1971.
During his appointment a t the Medical
University, Dr. Barrington taught “Core Medical Gross Anatomy,” demonstrated in “Undergraduate Anatomy,” and for the last several
years of his life, taught “Dental Gross” to students in the College of Dental Medicine. During much of this time, he also conducted research in circulatory physiology in the
Vascular Laboratory. In the summer of 1968
he was visiting professor a t the School of Medicine, Universidad de Nuestra Senora del Rosario, Department of Surgery, San Jose Hospital, Bogata, Colombia, where he lectured on
Dr. Barrington held membership in the
Sigma Xi, the Southern Association of Anatomists, South Carolina Academy of Science,
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Pan American Association of Anatomy.
Barry will long be remembered by his students and colleagues for his devotion to in-
The death, due to cancer, on April 26, 1980
of Beatrice B. Garber marks the loss to the
University of Chicago of an incomparable colleague, teacher, and friend. Her friends and
associates knew her as Bea and I will continue
that practice here.
Bea was born in St. Louis (March 18,1926),
the daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Nathan Bilsky.
She did her undergraduate work a t Vassar
College, receiving an A.B. in chemistry in
1946. Bea then became the first woman to be
admitted to the School of Medicine a t Washington University, but eventually decided
against going there and chose a career in basic
biological science instead. This decision was,
in part, a result of her devotion to her future
husband, and to the violin. It was through their
mutual love of playing music that Bea met
Alan Garber, a native of Chicago, and they
were married in 1946.
Bea then came to the University of Chicago
as a graduate student in zoology working with
Professor Paul Weiss in experimental embryology, getting an M.S. in 1948 and a Ph.D. in
1951. Her thesis, “Quantitative Studies on the
Dependence of Cell Morphology and Motility
Upon the Fine Structure of the Medium in
Tissue Cultures,” was the first of her many
studies devoted to increasing our understanding of how the intricate spatial and temporal
organization of complex organisms is derived
from the interactions of cells with each other
and with their environment.
Since she was close to delivery of her first
son, Dale, at the time of her Ph.D. final orals,
she did not immediately continue her work in
developmental biology; instead she was occupied with the development and growth of a
family; a second son, Bruce, was born in 1953.
In 1960 she taught for a year as a member of
the Faculty of Science of the National College
of Education in Evanston, Illinois and in 1961
returned to this university as a research associate with Professor A.A. Moscona in the
Department of Zoology.
It was not easy to reenter the field after a
10-year hiatus, but Bea was persistent and
with Alan’s support made the successful transition. In 1968 Bea took the responsibility for
several undergraduate biology courses and
was appointed assistant professor in the college. In 1971 her appointment was changed to
assistant professor in biology and anatomy and
in 1974 she was made associate professor in
both departments, and in the college and in
the Committee on Developmental Biology.
Throughout her career she maintained an intense interest in undergraduate teaching both
in the lecture room and in her own laboratory;
this dedication was recognized when she was
given the Quantrell Award for Excellence in
Undergraduate Teaching in 1975.
Bea’s research was concerned with the study
of nerve cell recognition factors that may operate in the formation of tissues characteristic
of differentiated brain. To use her own words,
“Since functional neuronal circuitry is based
on finely specified synaptic connections and
projections within the central nervous system,
these basic studies are designed to explore
mechanisms of specificity regulating selective
associations between cells during brain histogenesis.” The work in Bea’s lab had several
dimensions but was all centered on this fundamental problem.
Her interest and enthusiasm extended to
several other systems in which tissue development could be studied in vitro but her final
illness did not permit her to devote the time
and energy she considered necessary for these
problems. In addition to her research and
teaching Bea gave generously of her time and
effort to local and national organizations in her
field, and to NIH study sections, while still
maintaining an active role as a violinist with
the Evanston Symphony Orchestra.
It is impossible to capture, in writing, the
qualities of Bea that endeared her to her associates. She was completely dependable;
everyone, from beginning undergraduates to
university administrators, knew that she
would do what needed to be done; that she
would do it to the best of her ability, with grace,
and without reservation. Bea could also be outspoken and persistent in her pursuit of what
she thought was the correct course to take, but
without the self-serving attitude that so frequently mars academic life.
Dependability was only one aspect of her
collegiality. To an extent rarely found among
her peers, Bea was a true colleague; her generosity with respect to time, effort, and spirit
was well known to her students and collaborators. She believed in the idea of the university as a community and that collegiality was
more than a word; it was a daily practice. Her
collaborations in research with faculty colleagues in several departments were all intensive; she giving of her good-humored best and
expecting the same of her collaborators.
One quality, perhaps, stood out beyond the
others; she was a n enthusiast. Each personal
interaction and each problem was approached
with good-natured, ebullient, high spirits that
communicated her excitement and eagerness
to get on with the search. In the classroom as
in conversations her optimism and enthusiasm
were infectious, convincing us all to go ahead
with trying to solve problems. We will miss
her, but we should consider ourselves fortunate
in having had the opportunity to be her colleagues and friends.
The Beatrice B . Garber Summer Scholar Fund
has been established to encourage promising
undergraduate students by offering summer
research opportunities in the university’s laboratories. The University of Chicago Cancer
Research Foundation will administer this fund
and contributions can be sent to UCCRF at
1025 E . 57th Street, Chicago, Il. 60637.
Isidore was born in Brooklyn, New York on
October 6, 1907. By this timing of birth and
by innate genius, he was one of those men and
women who brought anatomy into the modern
era, and his life bridged the “greats” of the
early century and a modern generation which
can take their achievements for granted. He
obtained his B.A. at Cornell in 1928 and his
Ph.D. at the University of Chicago in 1932. He
was therefore one of the lucky (and brilliant)
students of R. R. Bensley, who, a t this precise
time and late in his own career, spearheaded
two crucial developments: the freezing and
drying of tissues to conserve chemical and
morphological integrity, a technique brought
to maturity by Isidore himself, and the credo
to “separate separable things,” which pioneered the isolation of cellular organelles by
means of the centrifuge. A series of six papers
from this laboratory, entitled, “Studies in Cell
Structure by the Freezing Drying Method,”
ushered in the new anatomy culminating in
the preparation of pure mitochondria by Bensley and Hoerr in 1934. Isidore further contributed to the landmark Volume 10 of Biological Symposia dedicated to Bensley by his
students and others which appeared in 1943.
In the Altman-Gersh procedure, a neglected
40-year-old method was adapted to modern
histology and histochemistry and the apparatus first described in 1932 with successive modifications became a regular fixture in any laboratory influenced by Isidore. With his
Physiological Review of Histochemistry (1941)
and his critique of methodologies (with special
reference to electron microscopy) in his article
on “Fixation and Staining” in Brachet and
Mirsky’s The Cell, Vol. I (1962), it is clear that
Isidore was a cryobiologist well before the invention of that field. The latter article has not
been superseded.
Isidore served in the U.S. Navy from 1943
to 1946 as senior biologist, on leave from the
Johns Hopkins where he had worked on nerve
cells and Nissl substance with Bodian, and on
ionic distribution in cells using his own techniques. In the service, his interests were
shifted to aeroembolism, a problem in which
the distribution of gas bubbles in tissues was
solved by freezing on a grand scale. He returned to Chicago as professor in the Department of Pathology at the University of Illinois
in 1946, in an imaginative appointment by the
then head, Professor Granville A. Bennett.
There he resumed studies interrupted by the
war of the UV absorption of cells begun a t the
Karolinska Institute on a Guggenheim Fellowship with Caspersson in 1939. Shifting to an
old interest in ground substance (pioneered by
Sylvia Bensley in 1934) and using the PAS
reaction newly described, he published in this
field and on the carbohydrate of the Golgi and
of the thyroid follicle. Moving to the University
of Chicago in 1949, he began the application
of cryobiological methods of his own devising
to problems of ultrastructure which were to
occupy him henceforth.
Isidore was a superb biologist, anatomist,
and teacher. His perfectionism, working frequently at technical limits, put strong demands on his associates. His views as a humanist and socialist were outspoken and his
equally strong stands on pacifism, orderly
world government, and antimilitarism were
not tempered either during or after his Navy
period. He was phenomenally well read, scientifically. To complete the literature on the
“bends” in sponge divers, his reasonable instruction to his associate was: “Learn Italian.”
He read omnivorously in other fields and loved
art, music, and the simple pleasure of walking.
That he never joined the ranks of administration can, indeed, be explained by the assumption that he was not invited. But administra-
tion was antithetical to his nature. Isidore was
an experimental scientist, first and always. To
his students he was preeminent.
At the height of a most distinguished career
in 1963, Isidore Gersh accepted an offer by the
University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine. Here in the Laboratories of
Anatomy, Department of Animal Biology, his
famed freeze-dry apparatus histochemical laboratory and electron microscopic facilities were
installed and his work continued with very little interruption.
Graduate students and investigators from
around the world gravitated to the laboratory
of this pioneer in histochemistry. Though several diverse research projects always were underway, Isidore directed with the finesse worthy of a concert maestro. Amidst expected
confusion existed a tranquility rarely found in
a scientific laboratory. In addition to his personal research, Isidore found time to guide,
stimulate, and encourage each member studying in his laboratory, be they technicians,
graduate students, or colleagues.
A gentle, soft-spoken, and kind teacher, he
could captivate anyone with a knowing smile
or uplifted eyebrow. Above all, he had one secret weapon: the 3 P.M. coffee break, when the
busy lab came to an abrupt halt. For 30 minutes, all sat, nursed a cup of coffee, and discussed current literature, or any topic from
sports, to politics, to opera. Here, where all
were equal, lasting friendships were cultivated
and disagreements were arbitrated. Isidore’s
concern for others and a love for his fellow man
was revealed, successes were applauded, failures reviewed and corrected.
The scientific character of the man is revealed best by reading the Preface and Introduction of his now classical work, Submicroscopic Cytochemistry, Volume I, published by
Academic Press, 1973. It certainly should be
mandatory reading for graduate students because it conveys his patient, systematic, studied approach to research problems.
A memorial to Isidore must reiterate his love
for teaching. His enthusiasm, dedication, and
mastery of a subject were obvious. He did not
“lecture,” he “shared his topic with the student. Students came to his lectures prepared;
ready to “share” their knowledge with the professor.
Elevated to emeritus professor in 1976, Isidore kept active in ongoing research and teaching programs, until a serious illness curtailed
his activities.
He died on January 14, 1981, after publish-
ing more than 80 major works. In addition, 68
publications emanated from his laboratories
by predoctoral and postdoctoral students and
investigators under his direction.
Isidore Gersh left us a treasury of published
works, a legacy of investigative courage, and
an example of pure honesty in research.
He is survived by his wife (and frequent
coauthor) Eileen, a son, Frank, and a daughter,
Dr. Charles Mayo Goss died March 16,1981.
An internationally known anatomist, microscopist, editor, medical historian, and Greek
scholar, he will be remembered by many. He
is survived by his wife, the former Josephine
Cowell, and three daughters, Mrs. Henry
Chodkowski of Louisville, Kentucky, Mrs. Luis
J. Vergne of Wilmette, Illinois, and Mrs. B. L.
Slaten of Auburn, Alabama.
Dr. Goss was born in Peoria, Illinois, February 16, 1899. His father was a wholesale
grocer with the James McCoy Company and
his mother, Frances Mayo Goss, was from
Sunny Side, near Peoria, where the family
farm was located. He received his early education at the Franklin School in Peoria and
attended the Bradley Polytechnic Institute,
now Bradley University, for 4 years of academy training and 1 year of college. It was during these years that he intensively studied
Latin, Greek, German, and French, which provided him with a solid classical background
which he so well developed and applied in his
work over the years.
He received his A.B. from Yale in 1921 and
his M.D., cum laude from the same institution
in 1926. At Yale he earned a Goodrich Scholarship of $500 for 2 years and the Parker Prize
as the senior “best suited for the practice of
Medicine.” Dr. Goss, however, never practiced.
While in college, he was a member of Beta
Theta Pi Social Fraternity. As a medical student he was elected to Sigma Xi, the national
scientific research society, and Alpha Omega
Alpha, national Honorary Medical Fraternity.
Dr. Goss was a member of Nu Sigma Nu Medical Fraternity while in medical school and
became its highest honorarv member. He was
responsible foy establishinia Beta Psi chapter
at L.S.U. Medical School in 1951, and served
as the faculty advisor. He continued his illustrious career at his alma mater in 1926 as a n
instructor in anatomy. He then spent nine
years at Columbia University, the last seven
as an assistant professor of anatomy. While at
Columbia, he coedited the eighth and ninth
editions of Bailey’s Textbook of Histology. His
next move was to the University of Alabama,
where he was professor and head of the Department of Anatomy from 1938 to 1947.
Thereafter he moved to the Louisiana State
University Medical Center where he was professor and head of the Department of Anatomy
from 1947 to 1965. Dr. Goss was a Guggenheim
fellow in 1956, and received the Distinguished
Alumnus Award from Bradley University that
same year.
In 1954, I began the most expanding professional experience and most memorable, lasting
friendship of my life. Dr. Goss offered me a
position in his department and I accepted.
Working with this man was awesome and fun.
He was a brilliant anatomist and disciplinarian. Whether colleague or student, if you
worked, the “sky was the limit.” Anatomy was
“king” of the basic sciences. He was editor of
Gray’s Anatomy, editions 25 (19481, 26 (1954),
27 (1959), 28 (19661, and 29 (1973; all published by Lea and Febriger of Philadelphia)
thus educating medical students. He was managing editor of the Anatomical Record for 20
years, 1948-1968, thus serving his colleagues.
He was well read and knowledgeable in the
classics, both prose and poetry, thus relating
to scholars and the humanities.
His love of students was expressed in many
ways. His scientific status and contacts in
Washington resulted in the funding of a program whereby a medical undergraduate could
take the sophomore year over a period of 2
years. This allowed for research time. I can
vividly recall three students, two pathologists,
and a psychiatrist, who benefitted greatly from
this program. In the early sixties Dr. Goss provided the impetus for the organization of the
Aesculapian Society at L.S.U., which even today provides necessary rapport between students and faculty for the benefit of the curriculum.
Doctor Goss’s scientific papers comprise
about 130 titles; these include a number of reviews which reflect the broad scope of his competence. His researches were in histology, embryology, gross anatomy, and the history of
anatomy. The range of the titles shows his progressive involvement in the problems of development and embryonic phykology. In 1938
he was the first to describe the beginning of
contraction in the heart of a living mammalian
embryo (rat). At the seventy-fourth Annual
Meeting of the American Association of Anatomists, 1961, he presented a full-length motion picture film, The Heart in Living Rat Embryos. As late as 1968, Dr. Goss published his
observations on the relationship between embryological development, time of conception,
and gestation of the squirrel monkey. This was
the result of 6 years of work, at L.S.U., with
a breeding colony of squirrel monkeys in which
62 pregnancies were recorded.
His interest in medical history, particularly
that of anatomy, inspired his travels to many
historic medical sites i n Greece and elsewhere.
His translations of Galen’s works are classics.
The titles are as follows: “On Anatomy of Veins
and Arteries by Galen of Pergamon” (Anat.
Rec., 141: 355-366, 1961); “On the Anatomy
of the Uterus” (Anat. Rec., 144: 77-83, 1962);
“On the Anatomy of Muscles for Beginners by
Galen of Pergamon” (Anat. Rec., 145: 477-501,
1963); “On Anatomy of Nerves by Galen of
Pergamon” (Am. J. Anat., 118: 327-336,1966).
In the Pan American arena, Dr. Goss served
in 1953 as a member of a medical administrative team which surveyed the medical schools
of Colombia and made recommendations for
their improvement. This service was requested
by the National University of Bogota through
the Institute of Inter-American Affairs. In
1960, Dr. Goss was involved in teaching the
professor of anatomy and other colleagues who
became the faculty of the new medical school
in San Jose, Costa Rica. He helped design the
anatomy department in the new building and
formulated the anatomy curriculum. In the
spring of 1961 he spent 6 weeks at the University of Costa Rica, teaching the students
and guiding the faculty.
Dr. Goss named me as his choice for the first
visiting professor in anatomy at the University
of Costa Rica, School of Medicine, so I was there
during his stay. We unpacked skeletons and
anatomical models together. We sat on the
black volcanic sand beaches of Puntarenas on
the Pacific Coast and visited hospitals along
the surf-beaten Atlantic Coast of Port Limon.
We drove high into the mountains to Vulcan
Irazu, at a n altitude of 11,000 feet, and hung
out of the windows of the train leaving Turrialba viewing lush landscape dominated by
banana trees, coffee bushes, and cacao plants.
The conversation was always rich and the
friendship deep. This year in March, the Medical School in Costa Rica celebrated its twen-
tieth anniversary. Members of the first class,
whom he taught, still warmly remembered and
asked about him.
His humor was sharp, quick, and dry and his
humanism showed i n many small ways. Upon
receiving my first N.I.H. grant, I ran into his
office, picked him up and began to twirl him
around in the air. He finally screamed, “Marilyn, put me down, I’m the head of the department.” I had ordered a vacuum cleaner and it
was delivered to school, unplanned, C.O.D. I
had no cash on hand to pay for it. He came
down the hall, heard of my plight, reached into
his pocket and produced the necessary money.
He said to me: “I was poor as a student, so now
I carry an adequate amount of money in my
pocket.” One of those students who had availed
himself of the special 2-year program was a
country boy, who had never left the state of
Louisiana. I shall always remember our going
to a scientific meeting on a train. Dr. Goss had
the conductor make up a n upper berth i n the
pullman car; the young man had never seen
this and was ecstatic. During the month of
March, water is not plentiful in Costa Rica.
During his visit in 1961, Dr. Goss stayed in a
pension. One day in the gross anatomy laboratory, he said, “Marilyn, I would like to be
invited to dinner.” I replied, “Fine, come home
with me tonight. I guess the food a t the pension
does get tiring.” Dr. Goss replied, “It’snot the
food, I need a bath. There hasn’t been much
water at the pension.” He was singing in the
shower for nearly 30 minutes that evening,
before we had dinner.
Dr. Goss served on important national and
international scientific bodies, such as: the
Review Panel for Research Grants in Anatomy, of the National Institutes of Health,
1963-1965; the Committee for the Handbook
of Biological Data of the National Research
Council and the American Institute of Biological Sciences, 1949-1952; associate editor of
the Federation Proceedings Translation Project (from Russian publications), 1962-1966.
He was a member of the Executive Committee
of the American Association of Anatomists,
1947-1951, and in 1965 became president of
this organization. In view of the recent concern
about the future of anatomists and anatomy
departments, it is of interest that Dr. Goss expressed this concern as early as 1965 in his
presidential address. He suggested the term
“biomorphology” for the renaming of anatomy
departments. At this time he also instigated
the revision of terminology in histology and
embryology conducted by the International
Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature. In
1968, he was responsible for the initiation of
the Henry Gray Award of the American Association of Anatomists, which has since been
given annually to an anatomist of distinction.
Following his retirement from L.S.U., he
went to George Washington University, D.C.,
where he served as a visiting professor of anatomy for 9 years, until 1975. During this stay
he received the Golden Apple Award of the
Student American Medical Association for
“excellence in teaching in the preclinical sciences” from the 1970 sophomore class. His last
move was to the University of South Alabama
at Mobile, where at age 78 he was appointed
distinguished professor of anatomy.
His friends called him “Chiz” but somehow,
I, who knew him as well, if not better, always
called him Dr. Goss. This was probably due to
my deep, personal respect for the man. He once
told me after a severe period of illness battling
peritonitis, and near death‘s door, that he was
glad he had lived long enough to see me attain
my present position, the last that he had held.
There is no greater professional compliment.
Charles Mayo Goss may have been “strong
medicine” to some but he was a n interested,
caring, scientific father to me.
Emanuel Borokk Kaplan, 86, died, as he
wished, at home, in Teaneck, New Jersey, on
September 20, 1980. He was born in Krementchug in the Urkraine on April 25, 1894.
Dr. Kaplan attended Krementchug College
and then the University of Montpellier in
France, from which he graduated in 1912.
From 1912 to 1914, he was a student at the
Medical School at the University of Paris. After completing his medical studies at Kharkov
Imperial University, he received his M.D. degree in 1916. After that Dr. Kaplan served as
a physician in the Imperial Russian Army. In
1924, he came to the United States. Shortly
after his arrival, Dr. Kaplan began his long
and dedicated tenure with the Hospital for
Joint DiseasesiOrthopedic Institute of New
York. Here he organized one of New York
City’s first teaching hand-surgery services and
Dr. Kaplan’s association with the Department of Anatomy, College of Physicians and
Surgeons, Columbia University extended from
1941 through 1963. At this time he retired
with the rank of associate professor of anatomy.
The numerous clinically oriented publications in Dr. Kaplan’s productive creative career were primarily directed to the morphology
of the extremities and back. In each of his papers, he placed major emphasis on the relevant
gross anatomy of the specific topic discussed.
In this respect, Dr. Kaplan was a composite of
an anatomist, physical anthropologist, and orthopedic surgeon. This can be readily grasped
from a reading of his two outstanding books,
Functional and Surgical Anatomy of the Hand
(1953, 1966) and Surgical Approaches to the
Neck Cervical Spine and Upper Extremity
(1966). The third edition of the former book is
currently being revised by some of his students
and colleagues.
In addition, Dr. Kaplan was a scholar interested in the history of science. This was, in
part, expressed i n his translations of two classical books of historical significance to anatomists. From the French, it was Duchenne’s
Physiology of Motion and from the Latin, it was
Weitbrecht’s Syndesmology.
Aside from the numerous medical societies
to which he belonged, Dr. Kaplan was a member of the American Association of Anatomists,
American Association of Physical Anthropologists, American Anthropological Association,
American Society of Zoologists, American Association for the Advancement of Science (fellow), and the American Association of the History of Science. Some of the many medical
societies of which he was a member were the
American Orthopaedic Association, American
Society for the Surgery of the Hand, honorary
member of the Groupe d’6tude de la Main in
France, and the International Society of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology. In addition he was chairman of the orthopaedic section of the New York Academy of Medicine and
the New York State Medical Society.
Emanuel, as he was affectionately called by
his colleagues, was a mild-mannered, gently
speaking friend, who was a respected teacher,
confidant, and leader. He was ever ready to
help whenever the need arose. To get to know
the real Emanuel was to appreciate the
breadth of knowledge and the depth of his humanity. Emanuel revealed a calm enthusiasm.
This could be seen by observing him as he dissected the hand of a gorilla and the paw of a
bear. In these exercises he demonstrated interest in the marvels of the anatomical config-
uration, the comparative morphological significance, and the possible clinical relevance.
Besides his wife, the former Virginia Smith,
Dr. Kaplan is survived by a daughter, Elizabeth Street, a son, Dr. Robert Kaplan, a sister,
Bronia Isdebsky, and seven grandchildren.
A quotation from the Anatomie Descriptive,
1834 by J. Cruveilhier expresses Dr. Kaplan’s
commitment to anatomy. It is found in the
frontispiece of his book, Functional Surgical
Anatomy of the Hand.
Qu’ ils n’oublient jamais que sans anatomie il
n’y a point
de physiologie, point de chirurgie, point de
Dr. Vernon E. Krahl, retired career research
professor of anatomy at the University of
Maryland School of Medicine, died of a heart
attack October 16,1980. He was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, April 1, 1917.
Dr. Krahl earned his bachelor’s and master’s
degrees, with honors, from the University of
Pittsburgh. He joined the University of Maryland Medical School faculty as a n instructor
in 1944 and was awarded his doctor of philosophy degree in anatomy by that university in
1946. He was appointed full professor in 1960,
and following receipt of a n N.I.H. career grant
in 1962, he became a career research professor.
Owing to ill health, he retired from the University of Maryland in 1976.
Among the numerous professional societies
of which Dr. Krahl was a member are: American Association of Anatomists, American Association of Physical Anthropologists, American Thoracic Society, Society of Experimental
Biology and Medicine, and Royal Microscopical
Society. He was a n affiliate of the American
Medical Association and the Royal Society of
Medicine. He served as president of the Southern Society of Anatomists and the University
of Maryland Biological Society.
Dr. Krahl pursued research in experimental
embryology, thyroid physiology, bone and
muscle mechanics, hyperostosis, cardiovascular structure and function, and the pelvic fascia. He did particularly outstanding research
on the location, innervation, and histology of
the glomus pulmonale, and in pulmonary his-
tology and physiology. The latter included the
effects of reptilian venoms on amphibian and
mammalian lungs, microscopic and motion picture studies of freshly removed lungs of newborn animals during initial expansion of pulmonary alveoli, fate of the fetal alveolar lining,
role of elastic fibers in the etiology of pulmonary emphysema, and origins, activities, and
appetites of pulmonary alveolar phagocytes.
Owing to his major achievement in these
fields, he was named to several presidential
commissions on health. Not the least among
his many contributions were his creative
teaching techniques. He will be remembered
and missed by students and colleagues alike.
Dr. Krahl is survived by four children, Geoffrey Vernon Krahl of Baltimore, Gregory E.
Krahl of Salisbury, Maryland, Dr. Pamela G.
Krahl of Oakland, California, and Karen J.
Krahl, of San Luis Obisbo, California, and by
two grandchildren.
Helmuth Nathan was a surgeon, medical
researcher, painter, sculptor, historian, and
educator. Although he received a touching
tribute on his “retirement” in 1978, he continued, until his death on July 15, 1979, to care
for his patients and to involve his students and
colleagues in many facets of art in medicine
and history of medicine. With good reason he
was referred to as a “renaissance man.”
Helmuth was described as accomplished, excellent, sweet, gentle, distinguished, skillful,
compassionate, and talented. He was devoted
to his patients, his students, his family, and
his friends.
Born in Hamburg, Germany on October 26,
1901, Helmuth completed the gymnasium
(high school) there and then matriculated in
the schools of medicine and philosophy at the
University of Freiburg. In 1922, he entered the
University of Hamburg medical school and received his M.D. in 1925. After interning at the
St. Georg General Hospital in Hamburg, Dr.
Nathan took a year’s postgraduate training at
the University of Freiburg surgical clinic, assisting Professor Erich Lexer and illustrating
a part of the latter’s textbooks.
In 1927, Helmuth Nathan married Irene
and, the following year, returned to Hamburg
for 5 years of postgraduate studies in pathol-
1948-1960, Dr. Pankratz was “the Dean.” I
shall use this title to present this account of
the man and his achievements.
This earnest, modest, and sincere man was
the leader in the establishment of the degree
(M.D.)-granting School of Medicine of the
University of Mississippi at Jackson. The initial planning and building phases of the Medical Center extended from 1951 to 1955. This
project preceded the era of easy availability of
abundant federal funds for constructing and
expanding schools of the health sciences. Such
an extensive project represented a major commitment by a state with limited economic resources. As the result of efforts by the Dean,
political and medical leaders, and the lay citizenry, the question, “Can Mississippi afford
a medical school?” was changed to “Can Mississippi afford not to have a medical school?’
This successful campaign for establishment of
the Medical Center resulted in great part from
the boundless energy and activities of the
Dean. No community or group was too small
or unimportant for him to ignore in his missionary zeal. In the summer-fall of 1955 the
University Medical Center opened for patient
care and training of resident physicians and
junior-year medical students. Instruction for
first- and second-year medical students and
graduate students began in the fall of 1955.
For the bricks and mortar aspects of constructing the Medical Center the Dean had the
usual local and external consultants. The recruiting of faculty was a more personal and
demanding activity in which he exercised a
high level of judgement and skill. A cadre of
basic science faculty was available from the
two-year school located on the university campus at Oxford, although two chairmen wished
to resign and two were near retirement. The
Dean’s immediate problem was the rapid recruitment of faculty for the original six clinical
departments. With astuteness and good fortune he selected six extremely competent and
progressive chairmen who were able to recruit
equally able associates, including resident
physicians. In 1955there were 166 registrants
in the three initial training programs (undergraduate medical, resident physicians, and
graduate students). In 1980, twenty-five years
later, enrollment is 1,500, including students
from three additional schools (nursing, dentistry, and health-related professions), all established since 1955. Therefore, formal inDAVID SCHULTZE PANKRATZ
struction in the health sciences authorized by
the Board of Trustees of the University in 1870
To the faculty of the School of Medicine of has progressed and is contributing to the welthe University of Mississippi during fare of the state. No person was more dedicated
ogy, surgery, and medicine at St. Georg Hospital. His investigations of pyemic infections
and the mechanisms of pyemia led to his being
awarded the hospital’s Deneke Medal in 1932.
By 1933he was a n associate in the department
of surgery, but, with the coming to power of
the Nazis, had to leave St. Georg. He served
at Hamburg’s Jewish Hospital until 1936,
when he, Irene, and their young daughter
came, almost penniless, to New York. He was
appointed a cancer research fellow at Beth Israel Hospital, a clinical assistant a t Mount
Sinai Hospital, and in 1937, having obtained
his New York license, began a private practice.
Helmuth Nathan brought many of his wife’s
family and friends to America and was vicepresident of Self-Help, an organization that
assists emigres.
When the Albert Einstein College of Medicine was opened in 1955, Dr. Nathan became
one of the original members of the faculty and,
in 1960, was appointed professor of surgery. In
1956, with the enthusiastic encouragement of
Dr. Ernst Scharrer, then chairman of the Department of Anatomy, Helmuth initiated a
course, “Art in Medicine”-the history of medicine in relation to the history of art-which,
until his death, remained a very popular elective with the students, who were encouraged
to learn their topographical anatomy by drawing from live models. Their appetite for a r t was
whetted by guest lectures by many prominent
artists whom Helmuth brought to the college.
In conjunction with this course, and along with
his professorship of surgery and anatomy, Helmuth became professor and chairman of the
Department of the History of Medicine, where
he was responsible for many stimulating lectures and discussions.
Many examples of Helmuth’s creativity are
evident around the college-paintings,
sketches, works of sculpture, and a stained
glass window, showing the Ages of Man. Much
else of him remains, including almost 100 scientific articles and more than 200 notebooks
filled with his sketches and watercolors.
Helmuth Nathan’s almost childlike enthusiasm and love of all things beautiful and his
great capacity for friendship enriched all who
knew him.
to this development than was Dean Pankratz.
The opening of the University Medical Center had a significance that may not be fully
understood or appreciated by residents of other
states. As a patient care facility the Medical
Center did not replace an existing system of
health car+it was new and needed. For service patients from the entire state a quantity
and quality of medical care that had not been
available was now a reality. Remember also,
there was no Medicare or Medicaid and very
little third-party public or private coverage. At
the new Medical Center the quality of patient
care met national standards or exceeded those
of much of the Southeast and Midsouth. In addition, there were types of patient care and
training programs that did not exist in medical
centers of some of the adjacent states.
The Dean’s duties and responsibilities did
not decrease when the originally small Medical
Center became operational. During the next
5 years he appointed four new chairmen for
basic science departments. By 1959 all departments had externally funded research programs. By 1960, five basic science departments
had N.1.H.-funded predoctoral training programs. If these results represent laudable
achievements, full credit should be given to
Dean Pankratz for selecting an effective faculty. The statement, “Dr. Pankratz’s flair for
identifying and bringing in aggressive, promising young people was a key element in the
Medical Center’s rapid growth” was made by
John D. Williams, Chancellor Emeritus of the
University of Mississippi, and is most appropriate. These early years a t the Medical Center
were not without waves. In discussing growth
of the Yale Medical School, Dean Vernon Lippard stated that in the 1920s “the School
moved forward by leaps and bounds. A few of
the leaps may have been miscalculated and
some of the bounds landed on people’s toes, but
the ultimate results were good.” Similarly, the
rapid development of the University of Mississippi Medical Center under the leadership
of Dean Pankratz produced not only some sore
toes, but also bruised knees and sore heads.
However, the major objectives were accomplished with minimal trauma.
The Dean’s educational, chiefly administrative, accomplishments have been presented.
Attention will now be given to traditional data
and an account of his somewhat limited (as to
duration) career as an anatomist.
David Pankratz was born on October 14,
1898 in a half-sod house located on the Cheyenne-Arapaho Reservation near Cordell, Oklahoma. He was the son of David H. Pankratz,
a farmer, and Elizabeth Schultze Pankratz, a
schoolteacher, who came to settle the territory
in the “rush” from Kansas. He attended elementary school and 3 years of high school locally. After working in Kansas wheat fields to
earn money to finance further education, he
enrolled in Bethel College (Oklahoma). He received the B.A. degree from that institution in
1925 after spending his senior year a t the
University of Oklahoma. Following summer
courses a t the University of Chicago in 1925,
he entered the University of Kansas, receiving
the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from that university in 1927 and 1929. Both degrees were in
anatomy. In 1928 and 1929 he served as a summer research fellow a t the Wistar Institute of
Anatomy and Biology.
In the fall of 1929 he was appointed an assistant professor of anatomy at the University
of Tennessee College of Medicine a t Memphis.
During summers of one-half of the next 8 years
and during a year’s leave of absence from Tennessee he continued medical studies a t the
University of Chicago, receiving the M.D. degree in 1938.
In the fall of 1939 he came to the University
of Mississippi School of Medicine as professor
of anatomy. He served as Dean of the School
of Medicine from 1946-1960 and as director of
the University Medical Center during
1954-1960, retiring in 1960. During
1961-1972 he took training in, and practiced,
psychiatry, chiefly in the programs of the Center for the Health Sciences of the University
of Tennessee a t Memphis.
After completing his formal training in
anatomy and medicine there was a period of
only 7 years for him to be a full-time anatomist
before being entrapped in the “Dean business.”
In teaching he leaned toward gross anatomy
and neuroanatomy. His romance in science
was with the nervous system and its clinical
psychiatry, and
neurosurgery. His research interests and activities were in studies of cranial nerve components, adrenal gland, and ovary, and development of fetal motor activity. A t the
University of Kansas and a t Wistar his scientific interests and concepts were nurtured
and molded by a school of “embryology of behavior” represented by the teaching and research of Coghill, Tracey, and Hogg.
His “postretirement” activities in psychiatry
have been mentioned earlier. In 1972 the Dean
and Mrs. Pankratz established, for the second
time, their home in Oxford, Mississippi. He
died there approximately 8 years later on October 6, 1980. He is survived by his widow,
Ruth, and a daughter, Mrs. Howard Duvall,
Jr .
Upon his retirement from the University of
Mississippi the Dean was honored by election
to emeritus membership in the American Association of Medical Colleges. In 1952 he received the Distinguished Service Award of the
Medical Alumni Association of the University
of Chicago. In 1980 the University of Mississippi recognized him with its Distinguished
Alumnus Award. Others so honored at that
time included Mark Ethridge and William
In academic life, recognition, even fame,
may be fortuitous in that it represents part of
the trappings of high rank or position. More
significant and meaningful is recognition of
efforts devoted to attaining a commendable
and productive goal. Dean Pankratz’s efforts
as a n administrator and leader gained for him
well-deserved respect and recognition in medical education. Further, these endeavors and
his devotion earned for him the respect, loyalty, and affection of his faculty.
William F. Rienhoff, Jr., M.D., died on January 10,1981, in Baltimore, Maryland, and his
passing marked the end of a distinguished career. He had made major contributions to
American surgery and brought distinction to
his medical school. He was a surgeon gifted
with extraordinary technical ability and an
innovative approach to surgery. He was best
known for his contributions to the development
of thoracic surgery. He was one of the first to
successfully perform a pneumonectomy, and
this procedure was introduced at the Johns
Hopkins Hospital in 1933. In this and other
ways he contributed to opening the field of thoracic surgery to the prominence which it now
enjoys. Doctor Rienhoff was also interested in
developing surgery of the pancreas and portal
hypertension, and he brought his enthusiasms
and his energies to the solution of difficult clinical problems in all of these areas.
Doctor Rienhoff was born in Springfield,
Missouri and attended Culver Military Academy. He was a graduate of Cornell University
and attended the Johns Hopkins University
School of Medicine where he graduated in
1919, Phi Beta Kappa. Doctor Rienhoff took
his surgical training at Johns Hopkins, taking
an internship in medicine and surgery and remaining as surgical resident from 1923 to
1925. He remained on the faculty as assistant
professor of surgery, and rose through the academic ranks until, at the time of his retirement from teaching in the practice of surgery
in 1972, he had been a member of the Hopkins
faculty for more than 50 years.
Doctor Rienhoff was well known in both this
country and abroad. In 1949, he was exchange
professor of surgery at Guy’s Hospital, in London, and delivered the annual Moynihan lecture to the Royal College of Surgeons. In 1952,
he traveled to Manila as honorary professor of
surgery and head of the Department of Surgery
at the University of the Philippines. In 1954,
he traveled throughout Europe where he visited medical centers in Paris, Rome, and Madrid. He was a frequent contributor of scientific
articles to the world literature, and a member
of many distinguished medical organizations.
In 1971, one of his patients established the
endowed William F. Rienhoff, Jr. Lectureship
in Surgery of Johns Hopkins.
Doctor Rienhoff s early interest in lung cancer led him to link environmental factors with
that disease, although he steadfastly felt that
chemical pollutants, exhaust fumes, and gases
were probably more dangerous than cigarettes.
In 1923, Dr. Rienhoff married Francis Kemper Young, daughter of the late Dr. Hugh H.
Young, the first professor and chairman of
urology at Johns Hopkins. Mrs. Rienhoff died
a year and a half ago.
Doctor Rienhoff will be remembered for his
warm but pithy sense of humor. His comments
added spice to many conferences; he was a true
extrovert. He was a close fiend of Dr. Blalock,
and the annual resident’s dinner and Hopkins
reunions were made highly entertaining by
their exchanges and their stories dating back
to earlier times.
He enjoyed a full life. He was a n avid hunter
and he loved his golf at the Elkridge Club. He
was also a member of the Maryland Club and
the Gibson Island Club. During the 1930s his
family summered on Gibson Island and Dr.
Rienhoff commuted daily to Baltimore to manage his practice. In later years he enjoyed winter vacations in Florida, a t their place in Boca
During the years of his active surgical life,
Dr. Rienhoff was a member of the Part Time
Faculty at Johns Hopkins and had an active
surgical practice with Dr. William F. Rienhoff,
111. His three other sons include Francis Colston Rienhoff, of Baltimore, Dr. MacCullum
Rienhoff, of Denver, and Hugh Young Rienhoff, of Naples, Florida. He is also survived by
nine grandchildren and two great-grandchildren.
Doctor Rienhoff considered himself fortunate to have received part of his surgical training under Dr. William s. Halsted, the first director of surgery at Johns Hopkins. He was
also very close to the late Dr. J.M.T. Finney,
who also played a n important role in Baltimore
surgery and in the early development of surgery at Hopkins. He was an active member of
the surgical community in Baltimore, holding
staff privileges at five other hospitals, including the Union Memorial Hospital, University
Hospital, Church and Mercy hospitals, and the
Greater Baltimore Medical Center. He also
joined the faculty at the University of Maryland Medical School during World War 11.
Carmen Russell Salsbury died in Vancouver,
British Columbia on September 19,1979,after
a short illness. He was born July 21, 1898 in
Camden East, a rural community in eastern
Ontario, to parents of sturdy English stock,
Albert Salsbury and his wife Effa Edgar.
Attendance at Newburgh High School was
interrupted by the outbreak of war in 1914 to
which young Salsbury was drawn by strong
feelings of patriotism and loyalty-attributes
which he displayed throughout his lifetime. He
enlisted in the Canadian army after inflating
his age just enough to overcome the rigid regulations in force a t the beginning of the war.
He was sent overseas, served throughout the
war in Europe, and returned to Canada at
war’s end in 1919. Immediately on his reutrn
he applied for, and was granted, admission to
Queen’s University Medical School from which
he graduated with the degrees M.D., C.M. in
1924. At Queen’s he came under the influence
of Dr. D.C. Matheson and his love for clinical
anatomy was established. For 9 years following his graduation he practiced medicine and
did research in applied and clinical anatomy
in the United States; as assistant a t the Drayton Hospital in Drayton, North Dakota, in
Pueblo, Colorado, and at the University of
Oklahoma where, in 1929, he became assistant
professor of anatomy and applied anatomy, and
in 1931 served as professor and head of the
department, until 1933. Still pursuing his special interest in clinical anatomy he went to
Salford Royal Hospital, Salford, England as
house surgeon, where he remained until 1934.
On returning to Canada he joined the Anatomy
Department a t Queen’s University, where he
taught and pursued his clinical anatomical investigations. At the beginning of World War
I1 he again became a member of the Canadian
Army, this time as surgical specialist in the
Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps, in which
post he served until August, 1945.
On leaving the army he established a private
practice in Victoria, British Columbia and also
held an appointment to the Workmen’s Compensation Board of British Columbia. After 18
years with the Board Dr. Salsbury retired, but
retained his post as chief clinical medical officer, on a part-time basis, until 1973. He was
author of Introduction to Pathology (which
went through two editions) and Industrial
First Aid (three editions), as well as a number
of papers on surgical anatomy. He was a member of the British Columbia and Canadian
medical associations, British Columbia Surgical Society, American Industrial Medicine
Association, Canadian Physiological Society,
and the Anatomical Society of Great Britain
and Ireland.
Dr. Salsbury was a retiring man, shy, modest, and gentlemanly in his professional life,
yet he pursued his anatomical interest with
zest and enthusiasm. His lectures on the applied anatomy of the hand were particularly
memorable. He lived a long, varied, and fruitful life.
Dr. Salsbury was predeceased by his wife,
Mary Malakowsky, and is survived by a
daughter, Mrs. Gerald (Sylvia) Haynes of Richmond, British Columbia and two grandchildren. Also surviving are a brother, Edgar, of
Camden East, Ontario, and a sister, Miss Olive
Salsbury of Newburgh, Ontario.
Friends, students, and colleagues of the Department of Anatomy and the Eastern Virginia Medical School collectively and individually feel the loss of Herbert Schapiro, who
died on March 31, 1981 following a brief illness.
Herb Schapiro blended an interdisciplinary
approach in his teaching of anatomy and in his
research activities in gastroenterology which
utilized his broad educational background.
After graduation from New York University
with an undergraduate degree in chemistry,
Herb completed a master’s degree in physiology from the University of Southern California, School of Medicine a t Los Angeles, (1949)
and a doctoral degree from the Department of
Anatomy a t the University of Florida in Gainesvile in 1964. From 1964 to 1973 Herb was
a member of the Department of Anatomy a t
the University of Tennessee in Memphis-initially as an assistant professor and from 1969
as associate professor. Herb’s research interests included many clinical problems relating
to general surgery as reflected by his joint appointment a t the University of Tennessee as
a research assistant in surgery.
Herb Schapirojoined the Faculty of the Eastern Virginia Medical School in 1973 as a full
professor in the Department of Anatomy. As
a senior member of the department, Herb’s input was instrumental in the organization of
this new medical school, His talents were easily recognized by administrators, colleagues,
and students as indicated by his extensive involvement in curriculum, student affairs, admissions, minority recruitment, and faculty
development. In addition, Herb maintained a
vital research program and was acting chairman of the Department of Anatomy from 1976
to 1978. Herb received many professional acknowledgments during his career but none
pleased him more than being the recipient in
1980 of the Teaching Award for Excellence in
Basic Science by the graduating class of medical students. As a mentor to many surgical
residents, he was also a coauthor on several
papers that were awarded recognition at the
Southeastern Surgical Congress and the Virginia Surgical Society.
He held membership in numerous professional societies and associations and was very
active as secretary-treasurer of the Southern
Society of Anatomists from 1976 to 1981 and
as vice-president and president of the Sigma
Xi chapter a t the University of Tennessee from
1967 to 1969.
Herb’s energies and enthusiasm extended
not only within the medical school but into the
Beth El Temple, where he served on its board,
and into the community at large. His friends
and colleagues feel a profound loss at his passing, but a quiet comfort in the way he enriched
the lives of those with whom he interacted.
Herb is survived by his wife, Judith, a daughter, Mona, and a son, Mark.
On December 6, 1980, the productive and
distinguished life of Dr. William M. Shanklin
ended after a prolonged bout with cancer. His
was truly a scientific career with few peersspaning six decades from 1921 as an assistant
chemist with the U.S. government, to his last
publication in 1973. During this period he was
author or coauthor of more than 80 scientific
papers including three after his last retirement
in 1967.
In 1962, Dr. Shanklin retired from his post
as professor and chairman of anatomy a t the
American University of Beirut, where he had
served for 37 years. Having been a n A.D. Williams Visiting Professor of Anatomy a t the
Medical College of Virginia in Richmond, Virginia, in 1953-1954, upon his retirement, Dr.
Shanklin immediately was appointed research
professor of anatomy at the Medical College of
Virginia and in 1965 was appointed professor
of anatomy, the position he held until his mandatory retirement at age 70 in 1967. He was
then made professor emeritis, the position that
he held until his death. He also made academic
contributions to two other universities as visiting professor: the University of Tennessee
Medical School, 1937-1938, and the Johns
Hopkins University School of Medicine,
Dr. Shanklin was born in Fork, Maryland
on October 18, 1896. He received his B.S. degree from Blue Ridge College in 1921, his
Ph.D. from Yale University in 1929, and was
awarded an honorary doctor of science from
Bridgewater College in 1954. His teaching and
research reflect the unique blending of the
classical anatomist and the modern researcher. He was a competent teacher in all
the subdisciplines in anatomy, but his first love
was neuroanatomy-specifically, neuroendocrinology. His research interests also reflect
the breadth and versatility of his many talents.
He published major articles in such diverse
fields as anthropology, immunology, genetics,
and comparative anatomy. His major research
efforts, however, were in the area of neuroendocrinology, where he made several scientific
advances in developing cytochemical procedures which he utilized in publishing over 20
papers dealing with the pituitary gland in humans and animals.
One of Bill’s most striking features was his
exceptionalmental alertness in his later years.
He was fascinated by the many new techniques
and technological advances being introduced
to the anatoinical sciences. He quickly grapsed
their potential and immediately related them
to one of his many areas of interest and expertise. Nor did he overlook the potential danger of speedy and sloppy work in new areas;
he always asked just the right question to reveal an area of weakness in a project. During
his later months when he was either in the
hospital or during a period of recuperation he
would edit a manuscript or review a proposal,
and always the results were the same: clear
decisive criticism, sharp questions, and a n uncanny ability to pick up careless errors which
he pointed out in a gently chiding fashion. His
was truly a remarkable mind.
No less unique were his personal qualities
and contributions. He was a gentle, warm person who inspired the respect of his students
and colleagues. They sensed a deep commitment and sincerity that he brought to the classroom. Bill was one of those rare individuals
who projected an aura of authority and expertise with a warm and gracious manner. A rare
combination. The devotion and respect for the
many thousands of students who came under
his influence is probably exemplified by the
recognition bestowed upon him by the Lebanese government when they awarded him
their highest civilian honor, the Order of the
Cedars, Chevalier Rank. This merit award
reads: “William M. Shanklin, a n American citizen, is hereby granted the Lebanese Order of
the First Degree. Professor of Histology at the
American University of Beirut, he taught and
educated 37 classes of doctors from Lebanon
and the Arab states. He made many contributions in the field of Medicine as evident by
his scientific studies and research articles published in the well-known scientific magazines.”
In addition to the love and personal memories remaining for his lovely wife Gladys and
their two children, they have the satisfaction
of knowing that the intellectual seeds that Bill
planted in four universities, on two continents,
are spreading and bearing fruit that will continue to benefit the world for decades to come.
The death of Sydney Shulman occurred earlier in the year at Kingston-upon-Hull, England. Dr. Shulman, who was 70 years of age,
died of a heart attack. Although he had retired
as a practicing orthopaedic surgeon, Sidney
Shulman was still carrying out research on
musculoskeletal problems and held the position of research associate in the Muscle Research Unit of the University of Hull.
Sydney Shulman was a South African by
birth and a graduate of Cape Town University.
This medical training was, however, carried
out a t Liverpool University of England, where
he was awarded a proxima accessit medal in
pharmacology. After completing the medical
course he stayed at Liverpool in the Anatomy
Department for a few years. He obtained the
Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons of
Edinburgh and held hospital appointments in
Plymouth and Leeds. During the second world
war he served in the Medical Branch of the
Royal Air force.
After the war he took a n appointment at the
Queen Victoria Hospital for a time before
spending a year on the faculty of the Anatomy
Department at Birmingham University. For
much of the rest of his life he practiced as a n
orthopaedic surgeon in several locations
throughout the world including South Africa,
England, Canada, and Australia. In 1977 he
retired from hospital practice and took up a
teaching and research position at the University of Galway, Ireland. Later he moved back
to England to the Muscle Research Unit at the
University of Hull. During the later part of his
life he concentrated on problems involved in
muscle and tendon transplantation as means
of rectifying certain congenital defects. Although he was 70 years of age Sydney Shulman
was still full of enthusiasm for anatomical research and had embarked on new courses such
as computation and computor technology to
improve his skills in handling data.
Sydney Shulman will be greatly missed by
all those who had the priviledge of working
with him.
Doctor David T. Smith, the last surviving
member of the Duke University School of Medicine’s original group of departmental chairmen, died January 20, 1981, following a heart
Doctor Smith was born in Anderson, South
Carolina in 1898. He received a n A.B. degree
from Furman University in 1918 and his M.D.
degree in 1922 from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In 1949 he was
given a n honorary D.Lit. from Furman.
After a year of training in pediatrics at Hopkins, he went to the Rockefeller Institute for
training in pathology and bacteriology. After
contacting tuberculosis there he convalesced
at the New York Hospital for Tuberculosis
where he also served as bacteriologist, pathologist, and director of research.
In 1930 he was appointed professor of microbiology and associate professor of medicine
at Duke. He quickly became a popular teacher
and was honored by the students one year as
the best preclinical teacher. Teaching colleagues frequently sought advice and counseling from him.
His research at Duke was directed at the
diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of
chronic bacteriologic, mycotic, and nutritional
diseases such as blastomycosis, tuberculosis,
brucellosis, and pellagra. He was recognized
particularly for his studies on the diagnosis
and treatment of blastomycosis. In 1948 he
became editor of Zinsser’s Textbook of Bacteriology (its 9th edition) and several editions
later he changed the name to Zinsser’s Microbiology. He was coauthor of Manual of Clinical
Mycology and Fungus Diseases of the Lungs
In 1957 he received the Trudeau medal for
meritorious research in tuberculosis. In 1958
he won a medal for distinguished service from
the Southern Tuberculosis Conference. He was
also recipient of the Bruce Medal of the American College of Physicians. He had membership in the following societies: American Association of Anatomists, American Society of
Pathology and Bacteriology, American Society
of Microbiology, American Society of Immunology, American Thoracic Society, and the
American Association of Physicians. He was
president of the National Tuberculosis Association in 1950. He was a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.
In 1959 he gave up the chairmanship of the
Microbiology Department; in 1960 he was
named James B. Duke Professor of Microbiology and in 1963 he was named chairman of
the Department of Preventive Medicine.
Doctor Smith was a founding member of the
Durham Friends Meeting and he helped found
the Carolina Friends School. Several years after his retirement in 1968 from Duke he and
his wife, Susan Gower Smith, moved to Little
Rock, Arkansas, where their daughter, Dr.
Rosalind Abernathy, and their five grandchildren reside.
In the death of Dr. Frederick Renfroe Weedon on July 15, 1980 American anatomy and
the University of North Carolina have lost a
scholar and a gentlemanj in the best sense of
these overworked and often unmerited designations, who chose Chapel Hill as a place for
retirement only to find himself in a new career.
Born in Tampa, Florida on January 29,1895,
his was a distinguished heritage, and he was
the son of a highly regarded physician who
contributed much to the development and
growth of the west coast of Florida. After the
B.A. and M.A. degrees at the University of
Florida, where his official interest was chemistry, he studied medicine at the University of
Chicago and was awarded the M.D. degree in
1929. His academic experience was unhurried
and was broadened by intervals at Emory
University and a t the Georgia Institute of
Technology, and as well as by employment for
a time by the Seaboard Airline Railroad, for
a year as instructor in chemistry at the University of Florida, and for a year as assistant
chemist at the National Bureau of Standards.
After a n internship at Durand Hospital of the
University of Chicago, he chose a career in
pathology with the goal of following a compelling interest in chemical pathology. His
chief reason for choosing the University of Chicago for the study of medicine was Dr. H. G.
Wells, professor of pathology and the leader in
chemical pathology. In the course of his training and later he was associated with many of
the leading pathologists of America. He closed
his career as a practicing pathologist in Jamestown, New York, where he was pathologist and
director of laboratories.
Upon his arrival in Chapel Hill in September of 1956 for, as he thought, early retirement,
he was extended a n urgent invitation to participate temporarily i n the teaching of anatomy. Because he had never taught anatomy,
the invitation was accepted with obvious trepidation and perhaps with reluctance, but for a
period of ll?h years he served as a dedicated
and effective teacher of histology and embryology. He brought to this responsibility a rare
and intense interest in morphology, and intimate appreciation of the significance of morphology in disease, a broad and detailed familiarity with the historical background of
anatomic knowledge, and a profound respect
for the abilities of his students. He often remarked that his greatest mistake was his not
being a n anatomist from the start of his career.
Throughout his professional life Dr. Weedon
was active in research, often under circumstances that were anything but encouraging.
In this research he was involved with technical
problems of a practical nature and with complex problems of broad scientific significance.
The smaller studies are reported in many papers; the larger studies often entailed complexities, contradictions, and sometimes imponderable ramifications that in many
instances thwarted the incisive analyses he
demanded of himself, but discouraged him only
briefly. His studies included applications of infrared in coloimetry, methods for determining
the concentration of alcohol in blood, improving adjuvants in antibody formation, infections
by fungi, changes evoked in tissues by many
categories of organic compounds,effects of long
exposure to toxic gases, the nature and formation of amyloid, morphologic changes accompanying immunization, differentiation of
early post-morten changes from changes produced by chronic disease, and the structure of
veins. He brought to these studies a rare dedication and enormous effort, and it was evident
to his associates that his was a lifelong love
affair with the microscope. His accomplishments were recognized by fellowships in the
College of American Pathologists, American
Society of Clinical Pathology, American Academy of Forensic Medicine, and the American
College of Physicians.
Doctor Weedon was not only an accomplished physician-scientist, he was the embodiment of the adult human being and of the
educated man. His wide and intimate familiarity with American and English literature,
philosophy, history, and the theater often led
new acquaintances to presume that one or another of these areas was his professional field.
Despite his sincere modesty, a conversation
with him was an enlightening and stimulating
experience, and he was not always successful
in concealing his broad learning when he lectured on subjects that are usually considered
to be narrow. As one example, a question in
class concerning the derivation of the term
cloaca prompted a detailed and unforgettable
decription of the sewer system of ancient
Rome. He was a staunch supporter and participant in the activities of a local group interested in the history of medicine, activities
that he held to be a most important leavening
and enrichment of the endless “facts” of medicine and the sciences. To some extent his
learning was reflected in his tolerant awareness of the foibles and failings of man, and he
accepted these weaknesses in high place and
in the street as simply an attribute of the species. Some of this tolerance was also the product of an extraordinary sense of humor that
never descended to mere repartee.
The passing of this urbane scholar and
gentleman is a real loss to all who had the good
fortune to know him. That loss carries with it
a sense that it is also an aspect of the passing
of an age of the gentle, dedicated scholar of
broad vision who could not be a t home in a
more strident, egoistic period in the sciences.
Roy Griffin Williams suffered a massive
heart attack a t his home in Media, Pennsylvania on January 15,1981 and died in a nearby
hospital a few hours later. Time ended for him
suddenly near the university where he had
spent nearly all of his professional life. Born
in La Plata, a small town in Missouri, on June
4, 1899, he spent most of his formative years
in that state and throughout his life retained
an affection for it and for the rural atmosphere
in which his life began. His early education
was in the public schools of La Plata from
which he went on to the University of Missouri.
Receiving his A.B. in 1920 he entered the
university’s medical school where he completed the two preclinical years. At the end of
his first year, he was granted the A.M. degree
and appointed an instructor in anatomy for his
second year. He thus had his first experience
with teaching, an occupation that would become a major part of his professional life.
Transferring to Harvard Medical School in
1922 with an Austin Teaching Fellowship, he
received the M.D. degree in 1924 and completed his medical training with a year’s internship a t New Haven hospital. While at Harvard, he married Marion Tufts of Marblehead.
They had two children: Eugene, now professor
of geology a t Pennsylvania State University,
and Lucille Williams Flynn, who now lives at
Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Following his internship, Dr. Williams was
granted a National Research Council (NRC)
Fellowship which he elected to take a t the
University of Georgia, working and teaching
under the direction of Dr. Eliot Clark in the
Department of Anatomy. When Dr. Clark was
appointed professor of anatomy a t the Univer-
sity of Pennsylvania in 1926, Dr. Williams
went with him as a n instructor. Rising through
the several academic ranks to that of professor,
he was appointed to the Joseph Leidy chair in
1961, which he occupied until his retirement
in 1967.
Doctor Williams was a serious scientist. Intrigued by Kapper’s theory of neurobiotaxis,
which was receiving considerable attention
when he was granted his NRC Fellowship, his
first studies focused on the developing nervous
system of the chick. Following his move to the
University of Pennsylvania, he studied the
anatomy of nerve endings associated with sensations of temperature and touch that were
being explored by Dr. Bazett and several other
members of the Department of Physiology. At
about this time, Dr. Clark and one of his students developed the technique for making microscopic studies of the growth and activities
of normal and transplanted tissues in transparent chambers inserted in the rabbit’s ear.
Most of Dr. Williams’s later work employed
this technique. Among other studies, he examined the formation and emptying of thyroid
follicles, grafts of the adrenal cortex, testis,
and spleen, and the growth of cartilage and
bone. During this period of his most active research, he was also active in related areas. He
revised the chapter on the genitourinary system for the 24th edition of Gray’s Anatomy,
was a member of the Anatomical Board of the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (now the Humanity Gifts Registry), which has the responsibility for equitable distribution of available
anatomical material to the several Pennsylvania medical schools, and became president
of the board in 1944.
Although active in research, Dr. Williams
perhaps found his greatest satisfaction in
teaching. His first experience with teaching
while a n NRC Fellow had convinced him that
he wanted a career in academic medicine.
Much of his considerable energy was devoted
to teaching and he will be remembered by the
hundreds of medical students who benefitted
from his instruction for his ability to make the
study of gross anatomy challenging and interesting. He not only possessed a thorough
knowledge of the subject, but over the years
he developed ways of presenting it that relieved the tedium so often expressed by firstyear students. In 1961, he was presented the
Lindback Foundation award for excellence in
teaching. But the recognition he probably appreciated most was given to him by the class
of 1944 at their twentieth reunion when they
established the Roy G. .Williams award for undergraduate research in the basic medical sciences. At the dinner celebrating this event, a
testimonial to Dr. Williams was read which
said in part:
In working across the anatomy table, you
established a very personal relationship with
each of us. We loved your scolding and our
greatest pleasure was to answer correctly a
challenging question. Such scolding nourished but never broke a spirit. Perhaps our
knowledge of the deep pterygoid fossa has
faded but the awareness of a n intense challenge to learn persists. Somehow, in teaching
Anatomy, you have made us feel that the entire field of Medicine, in fact of Learning itself, is fun, a game, sometimes even a n obsession. You have been our teacher, and in the
sense of the spirit of learning and the instillation of its discipline, you remain our
teacher. We are your students, the products
of your fine career. We want you to know that
it is a trademark we bear with pride.
Outside the laboratory and classroom, the
slow march of time was never a problem for
Dr. Williams. The list of his hobbies is varied
and long. He was a n omniverous reader, frequently in depth on any subject that piqued
his interest. In his early years, he developed
an interest in the Civil War which he maintained throughout his life, with a sizable collection of books on the subject and a n impressive knowledge of it. He also read widely on
many aspects of the history of medicine, such
as the treatment of gunshot wounds and the
development of the science of Anatomy. During
the depression years of the early thirties, he
began making furniture, outfitted a workshop
in his basement, and produced a number of
good pieces. In his later years, his shop interest
expanded to include metal working and he was
experimenting with this at the time of his
death. In these later years, he also developed
an interest in cooking. Always competent with
camp griddle and coffee pot, after retirement
he extended this interest into more rarefied
areas of the culinary art and was becoming
something of a gourmet cook.
With all these activities, Dr. Williams continued through most of his life to enjoy the outof-doors experiences he had begun in Missouri.
His reading on the Civil War had given him
an interest in guns and he made a sizable collection of them, both old and new. Some of the
more modern of these he used in bird hunting
and for many years he provided his own and
his friends’ tables with upland and shore birds.
Though not as active as a fisherman, he practiced the sport from time to time both in saltwater and in freshwater lakes and streams,
not only in Pennsylvania, but in more remote
places such as Cape Breton and the Lake
Champlain area of Vermont.
The wide variety in the hobbies that appealed to him speak eloquently of what was
Dr. Williams’s most outstanding quality-nthusiasm for new experiences, a zest for living.
“There are people in the world who sweeten
life,” Edward Martin once wrote, people who
expand the lives of those around them. Roy
Williams was one of these. His enthusiasms
were contagious, his energy invigorating.
Wherever the Elysian Fields may be, I hope
they are well populated with upland and shore
birds, perhaps even provided with a meandering trout stream in which big brook trout feed.
I like to think of Roy returning from a day
spent following such a stream to discuss the
activities of peripheral vessels with William
Harvey, advances in the treatment of gunshot
wounds with Ambroise Pare, or the modern
knowledge of the adrenal cortex with Thomas
Addison. Meanwhile, on this sphere, he will be
awarded the surest kind of immortality, memories of him in the minds of his many students
and friends.
Doctor John L. Worden, professor emeritus
of biology at St. Bonaventure University and
coordinator of Emergency Medical Services for
Cattaraugus County, New York, died April 17,
1979 in Olean General Hospital following a
brief illness.
Born in South Bend, Indiana on December
11,1907, he was a son of John L. Worden, Sr.
and Sadie Dinan Worden. On December 28,
1933 in St. Paul, Minnesota he was married
to the former Leone Borer, who survives. Doctor Worden’s father was an instructor in science and professor of fine arts as well as chairman of the Department of Fine Arts at Notre
Dame University.
Dr. Worden attended Notre Dame Preparatory School from 1913 to 1920 and graduated
from South Bend High School. He earned a
B.S. in biology and chemistry from the University of Notre Dame in 1928, a n M.S. in biology and education from St. Bonaventure Col-
lege in 1935, and a Ph.D. in physiology from
St. Bonaventure University i n 1957.
He taught at St. Thomas College, St. Paul,
Minnesota, as assistant professor in biology
from 1929 to 1933 and at St. Bonaventure College (later a university) from 1936 to 1973. In
1973 he was named professor emeritus of biology.
During World War I1 h e was director of the
Engineering Science and Management War
Training program at St. Bonaventure for the
United States Office of Education. Later at St.
Bonaventure, he supervised the building and
development of a tissue culture laboratory
while directing research projects sponsored by
the Wesex Research Foundation. He was a
charter member of the Tissue Culture Association and published, along with his many
graduate students, effects of ionized air on cell
After his retirement from regular teaching
assignments in 1973 he developed the local
Emergency Medical Services training program
and was a founding member of the National
Association of E.M.T.
During his long service i n teaching and
administration, which lasted almost 50 years,
he taught thousands of students basic courses
in histology and embryology, and later, when
a graduate program at the Ph.D. level was established at St. Bonaventure, he guided several students in cellular physiology. He published 40 research papers and several
laboratory manuals.
His colleagues at St. Bonaventure remember
him not only as the efficient, smiling, very
professional-looking, dedicated teacher i n his
white lab c o a t w h o also somehow managed
to keep all the department’s equipment in
working order and in the proper places-but
they and his many friends in the Olean community remember him as that debonair, silverhaired gentleman in white tie and opera cape
on festive occasions.
In addition to his wife, Leone, Dr. Worden
is survived by three sons, John L., Lorenz M.,
Robert L., one daughter, Margaret S., and a
sister, Maryanne Worden Harvey, of Grosse
Pointe Farms, Michigan.
1904- 1980
Chester Loomis Yntema died November 29,
1980, following a short illness. He was an ac-
tive research scientist for over 50 years and to
the very end was in daily contact with his laboratory.
Born in Holland, Michigan, September 1,
1904, Chester L. Yntema attended Hope College for his bachelor’s degree (1926) and received a doctoral degree (1930) from Yale
University in Zoology. At Yale he worked with
Dr. Ross Harrison, and later spent a postdoctoral year (1938) at Munich.
His first publication appeared in 1930, while
his last two research articles will have been
published posthumously in 1980 and 1981.
Although officially retired in 1974, he continued to pursue his research interests supported
by grants from the National Institute of
Health, and he voluntarily contributed to the
teaching of microanatomy and to the medical
student admissions process at our campus.
He held academic positions at the University
of Pennsylvania (1930- 1934),Cornell University Medical School (1934- 1946), Syracuse
University (1946-1950), and State University
of New York, Upstate Medical Center (19501980).Upon his retirement in 1974, the SUNY
chancellor informed Dr. Yntema that the
Board of Trustees of SUNY had designated
him professor emeritus, a title which is an
earned one in the SUNY system.
Dr. Yntema’s research activities were concerned chiefly with vertebrate morphogenesis.
His experiments were carried out on embryos
of amphibians, reptiles, and birds. Early work
in his laboratory focused on induction of the
inner ear, limb regeneration, and development
of the autonomic nervous system; his studies
on the nerual crest origin of a number of autonomic ganglia are considered classical (some
were in collaboration with Warner Hammond).
More recently his research was devoted primarily to the embryology of turtles and to the
influence of incubation temperature on the determination of turtle gender. The international
interest in this latter research was gratifying
to him as well as the fact that this basic research could make a small contribution to
easing the world’s food supply problem. His
results identified potentially significant reasons for the failure of efforts in several regions
of the world to farm turtles as a food source.
Although it may have varied a day or two
over the past 20 years, June 10th was the
magic day. Chester knew the female snapper
turtles, Chelydru, were about to make their
annual migration to lay eggs in Upstate New
York, and he could renew his supply of turtle
eggs for the work of the following year. For the
remainder of June there was always a flurry
of activity in Chester’s laboratory-btaining,
cleaning, and sorting the hundreds of turtle
eggs. When he was satisfied that the eggs were
tucked into glass bowls and in the capable
hands of his technicians, he migrated on his
annual return to Wood‘s Hole to spend summer
mornings in the library and afternoons in the
backyard of his summer home.
Doctor Y, as he was fondly called, also participated energetically in campus activities
other than research and teaching. Besides
serving as acting departmental chairman for
a lengthy period, he was dean of the School of
Graduate Studies for 3 years and was a longtime contributor to the medical student admissions process. In a letter to him on the occasion of his retirement in 1974, our campus
president stated the following: “As for me, I
believe that your lasting impact on this institution and its development relates more to
your total academic statesmanship than to anything else. By that I mean the high standards
you have always maintained and the gentle
wisdom you bring to bear in sorting out complex institutional affairs or charting directions
from time to time.”
Chester was a very private, independent person, whose life revolved around his wife Betty,
his home, and his academic interests. However, he was never too busy to make time to
help a faculty member or a student-up to a
point, for he firmly believed learning by doing
was the ethic that made one all he could be.
He is missed.
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