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Proceedings of the American Association of Anatomists ninety-third meeting.

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0003-276X/80/1982-0263$21.00G 1980 ALAN R. LISS. INC.
of the
will be held in
APRIL 20,21,22,23, 1981
A preliminary announcement
with details of the meeting will be
mailed to members of the Association
about November sixteen
of the
American Association of Anatomists
Ninety-third Meeting
APRIL 28,29, 30 and MAY 1, 1980
The Association held its ninety-third meeting in Omaha, Nebraska, April 28, 29, 30 and
May 1, 1980, at the invitation of the School of
Medicine of the University of Nebraska. The
chairman of t h e local committee was Dr. W.
K. Metcalf.
Allied Meeting. The Cajal Club held its
thirty-fourth Annual Meeting on April 27
with presentations of eight papers from platform and a symposium titled, “Chemically
Defined Neurons in the Brain.” The Twelfth
Annual Pinckney J . Harman Memorial Lecture was presented by Dr. Fred A. Mettler on
“Brain Death.”
The total registration was 1,191. Of these,
592 were members, 194 non-members, 288
students, 51 spouses, 1 a representative of the
press and 65 exhibitors.
A refresher course, “Current Concepts in
Development,” was presented Sunday evening, April 27, by the Educational Affairs
Committee. The speakers and their topics
were: Dr. Elizabeth D. Hay, Harvard Medical
School, “Embryonic Induction”; Dr. Brian S.
Spooner, Kansas State University, “Morphogenic Movements”; and Dr. Patrick W. Tank,
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences,
“Pattern Formation During Development and
Regeneration.” The session was moderated by
Dr. Mike1 H. Snow, a member of the Educational Affairs Committee.
A public forum, “Impact of the Anatomical
Sciences on Society,” sponsored by the Educational Affairs Committee, was held on Monday afternoon, April 28, at the Eppley Center
for Continuing Education of the University of
Nebraska Medical Center. The speakers and
t h e respective topics included: Dr. Maurice B.
Sterman, Sepulveda Veteran’s Hospital and
UCLA School of Medicine, “Behavioral Manipulations of Brain Abnormalities,” and Dr.
Richard J . Blandau, University of Washing-
ton, “Reproduction in Population Control.”
The Educational Affairs Committee also sponsored a Forum in Applied Anatomy that was
chaired by Dr. Donald P. Jenkins of Georgetown University Schools of Medicine and Dentistry. The participants and their topics were:
Dr. Joseph C. Scott, University of Nebraska
College of Medicine, “The Process of Childbirth”; Dr. John F. Connolly, University of
Nebraska College of Medicine, “Unrecognized
and Hidden Sports Injuries”; Dr. William C.
Maxted, Georgetown University School of
Medicine, “Urinary Diseases: Surgical and
Non-Surgical Intervention”; and Dr. Robert J .
Stanley, Washington University School of
Medicine, “Medical Application of In Vivo
Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Human Body.”
At the general session held on Monday evening, t h e audience was entertained by the
Strategic Air Command Band of t h e SAC
Headquarters in Omaha. The concert was followed by a keynote address presented by Dr.
Charles P. Leblond, Professor of Anatomy of
McGill University, on “Variety in the Renewal
of Cells and Tissue Components.” The Second
Annual R. R. Bensley Memorial Lecture was
presented by Dr. Daniel A. Goodenough, Harvard Medical School, on “Gap Junction Dynamics and Heterogeneity.”
There were 596 papers submitted by members for presentation. Of these, the Program
Committee selected 149 for poster sessions,
leaving 447 scheduled to be presented from
platform. Illness, accidents or lack of travel
funds resulted i n the withdrawal of 16 of t h e
papers submitted, including three scheduled
for presentation by poster. Ninety-four papers
were presented by title only, and there was
one motion picture.
A symposium was held on “The Development and Differentiation of Teratocarcinomas.” Dr. John F. Fallon, University of Wisconsin Medical School, was the chairman. The
other participants and their topics were: Dr.
Leroy C. Stevens, The Jackson Laboratory,
“Teratocarcinomas a n d Parthenogenesis in
Mice”; Dr. Laura B. Grabel, University of
California, San Francisco, “The Use of Teratocarcinoma Stem Cells to Study Differentiation of the Peri-Implantation Mouse Embryo:
From Chromosome to the Cell Surface”; Dr .
Davor Solter, The Wistar Institute of Anatomy
and Biology, “Changes in Cell Surface Molecules During Differentiation of Embryonal
Carcinoma Cells”; and Dr . Sidney Strickland,
The Rockefeller University, “Chemical Induction of Differentiation i n Teratocarcinoma
Cells.” Immediately following the symposium
Dr. Roger Petersen, University of California,
San Francisco, introduced and moderated a
Roundtable Discussion on “Teratocarcinomas
as Models to Study Mammalian Development.”
A second symposium titled “Preimplantation Development in Mammals” was chaired
by Dr. Allen C. Enders, University of California, Davis. The participants and their topics
were: Dr. J. Michael Redford, Cornell University Medical College, “Physiological and
Structural Determinants of the Mode of Fertilization in Mammals”; Dr . Lynn M. Wiley,
University of Virginia School of Medicine,
“Blastocyst Formation in Mouse Embryos:
Morphogenetic Aspects Involving the Cell
Surface and Cytoskeletal Elements”; Dr . Jonathan Van Blerkom, University of Colorado,
Boulder, “Molecular and Cellular Correlates
of Preimplantation Development”; and Dr.
Roger Pedersen, University of California
School of Medicine, San Francisco, “Differentiation and Determination in Early Mouse
Development.” A third symposium, “Hematopoiesis: Structural-Functional Correlates,”
was chaired by Dr. Leon P. Weiss. Participants
and their titles were: Dr. E. A. McCulloch,
University of Toronto, “Stem Cells in Normal
and Abnormal Hematopoiesis”; Dr . Leon P.
Weiss, University of Pennsylvania, “The Organization of Bone Marrow and Erythropoie-
sis”; Dr. Dorothy Bainton, University of California, San Francisco, “Granulocytes, Monocytes
and Macrophages”; and Dr. Jonathan Sprent,
Lhiversity of Pennsylvania, “Lymphocytes.”
Brief summaries of the three symposia are
included herein following the Resume of the
Executive Committee.
April 29, 1980
President’s Room
Holiday Inn
Omaha, Nebraska
President Daniel C. Pease presided.
The following items of business were transacted:
1. Approval of the Minutes of the Previous
Business Meeting. A motion made and seconded to approve the minutes of the previous
Business Meeting held at the Diplomat Hotel
in Hollywood, Florida, April 3 , 1979, and
printed in the Proceedings issue of The Anatomical Record, Vol. 195, No. l, September,
1979, was approved.
2. Report of the Treasurer. The Treasurer
presented the financial statement printed on
pages 366 to 368.
3. Report of the Auditing Committee. Dr.
Ernest D. Prentice read the following report:
“We, the undersigned Auditing Committee,
have on April 26, 1980, examined the books
and records of the American Association of
Anatomists for the year 1979 and have found
them to be correct and in proper order.”
William P. Jollie
Ernest D . Pr entice , Chair man
On motion made and seconded, the reports
of the Treasurer and the Auditing Committee
were approved and accepted.
Financial Statement for the year 1979
Cash balance on hand 1/1/1979.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$ 4,650.27
Interest from Savings Accounts .
Receipts from dues . . . . . . . .
Sustaining associate membe
Annual Meeting receipts:
Sales receipts:
Abstracts ......................
Directories of Departments of Anatomy .....................
Membership lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
“The Modern Anatomist” ................................
“Toxic Substances in Teaching & Research Laboratories”
Funds transferred from Bank Savings Account (excess of
savings account withdrawals over deposits) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
R.R. Bensley Memorial Fund
Receipts -Dividends on 339 shares Union Electric
Company of Missouri-*Includes 1979 earned
dividend ($143.64) in transit to bank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .
Disbursed for Bensley Memorial Lecture, Miami Meeting.
(Fund’s balance end of year $495.04)
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
Total Credit ......................
To Wistar Institute Press (printing and mailing)
$ 5,257.00
1979 Meeting Notices and Materials ......................
1979 Programs, Abstracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 Proceedings and Memorial Reprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1979 Directories of Departments of Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _14,331.00
To Easter Seal Workshop and Delk Addressograph Service
Newsletter printing . . . . . . . .
Newsletter addressing and m
Member list printing and services ........................
Office expense: secretaries, officers, placement service. . . . .
Travel expense: secretaries, representatives, committees ....................
A.A.M.C. Council of Academic Societies dues . . . . . . . . . . . . ...................
American Institute of Biological Sciences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
National Society for Medical Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Committee on Finance, I.A.N.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Costs of Symposia, speakers, Miami Annual Meeting . . . .
3,40 0.0 0
Additional expense, 1979 Miami Annual Meeting (Booth Rental) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Advance to 1980 Local Committee, Omaha Annual Meeting.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E.A.C. Blue Ribbon Commission .......................................
Printing of booklet, “Toxic Substances in Teaching & Research Labs” . . . . . . . .
Investments (interest credited to Savings Accounts) .........................
(Savings balance at end of year $34,094.17)
Total Expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bank balance 12/31/79 in the Commercial National Bank,
Little Rock, Arkansas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Checks in transit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deposit in transit *(R.R. Bensley Fund Dec. 1979 dividend) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Balance .................................
_ _ _ ~
$ 1,793.35
Principal Account as of January 1, 1979:
Cash on hand in Savings Account, First Federal Savings
& Loan Association, Little Rock, Arkansas .......................................
U.S. Bonds (face value) ...........................................................
Stocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total Assets 1/1/1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$ 2,188.57
. ............
U.S. Bond Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$ 44,578.08
Stock Dividends:
Allied Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
American Telephone & Telegraph .........................
Crocker National Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Duquesne Light Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exxon Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Motors Corp .............................
Northern States Power C o . . .......................
Norton Co ...............................................
Union Carbide Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Interest earned in Savings hccount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...........
Earnings 1979 . . . . . . . . . .
Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ 48,051.11
Expenditures: None
Total Assets 12/31/1979 .....
. . . . . ...........
Principal Account as of 12/31/1979:
U.S. Bonds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100 shares Allied Maintenance
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,042.80
111.153 shares A T & T
170 shares Crocker Nati
110 shares Duquesne Light CO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
150 shares Exxon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
100 shares General Motors Corp . . .
15 shares Northern States Power
Co. (preferred) . . , . . , . , . .
100 shares Norton Co . .
88.19 shares Union Ca
Balance in Savings Account a t First Federal Savings
& Loan Association, Little Rock, Arkansas.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$ 48,051.11
$ 48,051.11
NIH GRANT LM 01810 - Nomenclature
The 03 continuation of Grant LM 01810 from the Library of Medicine to support the Nomenclature Committee was awarded to the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences May 1, 1975 and
extended to May 31, 1979. Receipts and Disbursements for the grant are handled in the records of
the University rather than in those of the Association. For this reason, the record is shown
Balance in account January 1, 1979 . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,580.02
Expenditures: Supplies and Services
Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Balance on December 31, 1979 . . . . . . .
The Association has suffered g r e a t loss
through the deaths of the following members:
Edmond Applebaum, J o h n I. Appleby, Oscar
lowing r e p o r t
V. Batson, Baldev R. Bhussry, E m a n u e l M.
On April 5 , 1979, the Association h a d 2,719 Bogdanove, Lester L. Bowles, E d i t h Boyd,
members. This n u m b e r has been increased by Rucker Cleveland, Elizabeth Fekete, Clement
two h o n o r a r y m e m b e r s , 119 n e w m e m b e r s A. Fox, Peter Gruenwald, Louise M. Heim,
a n d four reinstated members; a n d it has been O t t o M. Helff, Kenneth K . Hisaoka, Ernest
reduced by 26 d e a t h s and 19 resignations. Lachman, E l l e n A. Leinonen, O t t o A. MortenEighteen members h a v e been relieved of dues. sen, Roberts R u g h , A u r a E. S e v e r i n g h a u s ,
Forty-six h a v e been dropped from membership Michael J. Snodgrass, Benjamin Spector, Leon
for being two y e a r s i n arrears in the p a y m e n t S. Stone, Raymond C. Truex, Gerhardt von
of their dues.
Bonin. A. R. Vonderahe a n d Donald G. Walk-
4.Report on the Membership of the Association. The Secretary-Treasurer made the fol-
er. With the permission of the President, t h e
Secretary-Treasurer a s k e d everyone t o s t a n d
briefly i n silent t r i b u t e t o o u r deceased colleagues.
5 . Eketion of New Members. The s e c r e t a r y
p r e s e n t e d the following l i s t of persons approved for membership b y the Executive Committee.
Kurt H. Albertine
Hgkan Aldskogius
Tony Antakly
Oladapo A. Ashiru
Richard Symonds Babb
Ronald H. Baisden
Carey Balaban
David E. Barnes
Robert M. Beecher
Paul A. Berberian
Georgia Bishop
David I. Blaustein
David L. Bolender
Rosemary C. Borke
Jerry Lynn Boshell
J . Edward Bruni
Dorothy T. Burk
Kenneth Elburn Byrd
Nell Beatty Cant
Russell George Carey
Robert Earl Cartee
Maria Theresa Caserta
F. P. H. Chan
I-Li Chen
Gregory A. Chibuzo
Madison B. Cole, J r .
James A. Colgan
Francis J . Conway
Shirley S. Craig
Julia R. Currie
Arun Shankar Dabholkar
Nachum Dafny
William Daniel Davenport, Jr .
Dennis Michael DePace
John M. DeSesso I1
Pushpa P. Deshmukh
Arthur R. Diani
James R. Dollar
M. Franklin Dolwick
Cheryl F. Dreyfus
William J . Dyche
James Malcolm East
Abraham B. Eastwood
Kenneth T. Edds
Jaime A. Estavillo
Susan C. Feldman
Frederick A. Feuchter
Edgar E. Garcia-Rill
David R. Garris
David J . Garvey
Stephen Goldberg
Antonio Haddad
Robert M. Herndon
Gloria E. Hoffman
Joanne M. Howard
Donald R. Humphrey
Arthur J . Jackson
Jean Y. Jew
Lawrence W. Kaler
Algernon C. Karim
Daniel R. Kenshalo, J r
Katherine K. Knapp
Frank M. Kneussl
Gary L. Kolesari
Francis T. Lake
James Christian Lamb IV
Carlos A. E. Lemmi
M. Patricia Leuschen
Dina Lewinson
Visaka Limwongse
Helen L. Lipscomb
Jiang-Chuan Liu
Rita P. C. Liu
Leon J. Martino
Dan Eiki Matsumoto
JoAnn McConnell
Thomas H. McNeill
Hans-Joachim Merker
Nabil Migally
Randy Lee Moses
Brian A. Naughton
G. Stephen Nettleton
Daniel A. Neufeld
Drew M. Noden
O n motion m a d e , seconded a n d voted, the
S e c r e t a r y w a s instructed t o c a s t a u n a n i m o u s
ballot ratifying the election of these n e w members.
P r e s i d e n t Pease r e a d Section 2 of Article V
of the Constitution, w h i c h p e r t a i n s t o the
Kathy Sue Overing OShea
Felix T.Oteruelo
Brett A. Oxberry
Elizabeth Solarski Panke
Nicholas J . Pappadopoulos
William D. Peek
Hsiao-Ming Benjamin Peng
Kenna D. Peusner
Gerald J . Pinero
Richard M. Pino
Miklos Rethelyi
Michael Rezak
Robert W. Rhoades
Frances J. R. Richmond
Patricia M. Rodier
Michael Snell Rohr
Taube P. Rothman
David Armand Ruggiero
Frank P. Saul
Dietrich Wilhelm Scheuermann
Upendra Singh
Celia D. Sladek
Catherine M. Sligar
J . Sabina Sobel
Barry Steinberg
Suzanne S. Stensaas
Sherry Lynn Stuesse
Irene Manorama Thomas
T. Alan Tbietmeyer
Joel A. Vilensky
Jerry Vriend
James K. Wamsley
Steven C. Ward
Joseph T. Weber
Helcio J. L. Werneck
James S. White
Michael L. Woodruff
K. Lemone Yielding
Stephen Zamenhof
Barry R. Zirkin
election of H o n o r a r y Members. He reported
that the n a m e s of Professors E d u a r d o De Robertis a n d Joseph M. Yoffey h a d been submitted
by the Committee o n H o n o r a r y Membership
of the Association a n d unanimously approved
by the Executive Committee. Dr. Pease then
called upon Past-President Berta V. Scharrer,
who summarized the curricula vitae of the
two scientists. A motion to approve Professors
De Robertis and Yoffey as Honorary Members
was seconded and unanimously approved.
6. Sites and Times o f Future Meetings. The
President said t h a t t h e 1981 meeting is
planned for New Orleans, Louisiana, April
20-23, a t the invitation of Louisiana State
University. The headquarters will be the New
Orleans Hilton. Other meetings, their times
and sites are as follows: 1982, Indianapolis,
Indiana, April 5- 8, a t the invitation of Indiana
University, with the Hyatt Regency as the
headquarters hotel; 1983, Atlanta, Georgia,
April 3-7, a t the invitation of Emory University; 1984, Seattle, Washington; and 1985,
Toronto, Canada.
7. Report of the Nominating Committee and
Election. The Nominating Committee for
1980, consisting of Roger C. Crafts, Walther
Hild, Jean-Paul Revel, Frank N. Low and
Marilyn L. Zimny, Chairman, had made the
following nominations: for President-Elect,
Elizabeth D. Hay and Douglas E. Kelly; for
Second Vice-president, Malcolm B. Carpenter
and Aaron J. Ladman; and for members of the
Executive Committee for terms expiring in
1984, Lee V. Leak, James B. Longley, W.
Keith O'Steen and Giuseppina Raviola. Ballots were circulated, and 778 were marked
and returned to the Secretary. They were
counted and certified by two other members of
the Association. The results are: PresidentElect, Elizabeth D. Hay; Second Vice-President, Aaron .I.Ladman; and members of the
Executive Committee, Lee V. Leak and W.
Keith O'Steen.
8. Nominating Committee for 1981. It was
announced that the Nominating Committee
for officers and members of the Executive
Committee to serve immediately after the
meeting of 1980 consists of Everett Anderson,
Milton W. Brightman, A. Kent Christensen,
C. Roland Leeson and Robert D Yates, Chairman. Persons to be elected are a PresidentElect, a Second Vice-president and two members of the Executive Committee for terms
expiring in 1985. Ballotting on the nominations will take place following the receipt of
the advanced notice of the 1981 Annual Meeting. Ballots will be tabulated not later than
30 days preceding the Annual Business Meeting.
9. Committees, Representatives and Delegates. President Pease reported that the Executive Committee or the President had made
the following nominations as required by the
(a) Member of the Biological Stain Commission: Arthur LaVelle.
(b) Members on the Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature: Elizabeth M. Ramsey,
Richard S. Snell and Ira R. Telford.
(c) Members of the Committee on Educational Affairs: David G. Whitlock and Roger
A. Gorski.
(d) Archivist-Historian: George E. Erikson.
(e) Committee on the Charles Judson Herrick Award Fund: The Executive Committee
approved two persons for membership on The
Herrick Award Committee and invited The
Committee itself to make the final selection.
The Award Committee also was allowed to
pick its own new Secretary from among its
last four chairmen.
(f) Member of the Committee on the Anatomical Journal Trust Fund: John E. Pauly
and William P. Jollie (ex officio).
(g) Trustees of the R. R. Bensley Memorial
Fund: Hugo R. Seibel and William P. Jollie.
(h) Committee on Honorary Membership in
the Association: H. Stanley Bennett and Daniel C. Pease, Chairman.
(i) Placement Service Director: The position
is open. President Pease said a replacement
for Dr. C. Murphy Combs will be named at
the Interim Meeting of the Executive Committee in the fall. He asked that interested
members volunteer.
On motion made and seconded, it was voted
to approve these selections of the President
and Executive Committee.
10.Annual Dues and Registration Fees. The
1980-81 dues and registration fees were approved in advance a t the 1979 Annual Business Meeting. President Pease stated it has
been recommended that the 1981-82 schedule
also be approved in advance as follows: Annual dues for members living in the United
States and Canada, $25; for members not
residing in the United States or Canada, $12;
and the registration fee, $30. It was further
recommended that the registration fee for nonmembers and students be $33 and $18 respectively, this payment to include a copy of the
abstracts. The registration fee for spouses a t
the Annual Meeting will continue to be $5,
but this payment will not entitle them to a
copy of the abstracts. On motion made and
seconded, it was voted to approve these recommendations.
11.Payment to the Local Committee. It was
voted tht the Local Committee in New Orleans
receive an advance of $2,500. This is the same
amount as the fee charged by Professional
Associates for assisting with the arrangements for the meeting.
12. Contributions and Dues. The following
payments recommended by t h e Executive
Committee were authorized by vote of the
International Anatomical Nomenclature
Committee, $.50 per member;
Association of American Medical Colleges,
Council of Academic Societies, $2,000
National Society for Medical Research,
Interim Meeting of the Educational Affairs
Committee, $2,000;
Final Meeting of the Commission to Study
the Future of the Anatomical Sciences, $3,500.
13. Reports. Dr. Howard A. Matzke, Secretary-Treasurer of t h e C. Judson Herrick
Award Committee, reported to the SecretaryTreasurer that the fund earned $246.16 in
interest for the period March I, 1979, to February 28, 1980. After deducting $150 for the
1980 Award, $3,010.44 remained on deposit in
the Capitol Federal Savings and Loan Association in Topeka, Kansas.
Dr. Roger A. Gorski, Chairman of the Educational Affairs Committee, summarized
their Interim and Annual Meetings as well as
their other activities during the year. Details
of his report will be found in the minutes of
the Executive Committee.
14. N e w Business. President Pease explained that, in response to numerous requests
that the Association establish a new category
of Associate or Student Membership, he had
appointed a sub-committee of the Executive
Committee to prepare a proposed ammendment to the Constitution. The sub-committee,
consisting of Drs. William P. Jollie, Jennifer
H. LaVail and A. Kent Christensen, Chairman, made its report and, after some modifications, t h e Executive Committee recommended unanimously that the following be
substituted for the present Article V of the
constitution (italicized words represent changes
from present document):
and must be proposed in writing to the Executive Committee by two regular members of
the Association. The application for membership shall include the individual's curriculum
vitae, with full bibliographic references. T h e
candidate must have at least one substantive
paper as principal author, or on reliable testimony must have been chiefly responsible for
at least one of several collaborative papers on
anatomical or cognate subjects. Such papers
must have appeared in print before the meeting a t which their names are to be considered.
Those candidates approved by the Executive
Committee must first be elected by a twothirds vote of the members present a t the
Annual Business Meeting of the Association,
and then qualify by paying their dues after
notification of election.
Section 2. Honorary members who have distinguished themselves i n anatomical research
may be elected from other countries besides the
[Jnited States and Canada. Nominations by
the Executive Committee must be unanimous,
and their proposal with reasons for recommendation shall be presented to the Association
at a n Annual Business Meeting, a threefourths vote of members present and voting
being necessary for an election.
Section 3. Predoctoral students and postdoctoral fellows may be nominated for student
membership i n the Association by two regular
members who testify i n writing that the students are actively engaged i n research on anatomical or related topics, or show other evidence of strong commitment to a professional
career i n anatomy. Candidates for student
membership must be endorsed by their advisor
or sponsor, who may be counted as one of the
nominators if he or she is a regular member.
Student members ingood standing may submit
abstracts for presentation at the Annual Meetings and will receive all mailings sent to regular members as well as occasional special
mailings. Student members may not hold office
in the Association or vote at the Annual Business Meetings. An individual may be a student
member for a maximum of five years.
Section 4 will be the same as the present
Section 3 relating to Sustaining Associate
ARTICLE V-Membership
The only other changes recommended by
T h e Association shall consist of regular
members, honorary members, student members the subcommittee are that headings follow
each article of the constitution so that the
and sustaining associate members.
Section 1. Candidates for regular member- various parts will be easier to identify.
President Pease explained that Article VII,
ship must be persons engaged in the investigation of anatomical or cognate sciences, must Section 2 of the Constitution states: "Any
h.old a Ph.D. or equivalent degree or experience, change in the Constitution of the Association
must be presented in writing a t one Annual how abstracts would be reviewed and emphaMeeting in order to receive consideration and sized that it would be done on a trial basis.
be acted upon at the next Annual Meeting, Probably no more than five percent of the
due notice of the proposed change to be sent abstracts are foreseen to be eliminated. Others
to each member a t least one month in advance who addressed themselves to the discussion
of the meeting a t which such action is to be agreed that rules should change with growth
taken. . . . ” Thus the proposal for the consti- and current needs and that it was better to
tutional ammendment approved by the Exec- eliminate two or three poor papers from a
utive Committee was being placed on the table session than to transfer them to an inapproso that it could be voted at the next Annual priate session.
Meeting of the Association. The due notice of
President Pease thanked the other officers
the proposed change will be sent to each mem- and committee members who had served durber in advance of the meeting i n New Orleans, ing the year. He thanked Lea & Febiger,
either through the medium of the Anatomical Publishers, for the support of the Henry Gray
News or as part of the Preliminary Notice of Award, and asked that all members note the
the Annual Meeting.
list of the Sustaining Associate Members on
President Pease opened the floor for a free the inside of the back cover of the program.
and open discussion of any matters that mem15. Expression of Appreciation to the Local
bers felt should be considered by the Associa- Committee. The following resolution, prepared
tion. He stated that it was not intended that by Dr. M. Roy Schwarz on behalf of the memsubstantive issues be decided by the small bership of the Association, was read:
percentage of the membership present; rather
Whereas the University of Nebraska’s Deanything of real consequence would be tabled partment of Anatomy has graciously consentand referred to the Executive Committee for ed to being host to the 1980 Meeting of the
its consideration. The results of its delibera- American Association of Anatomists (AAA),
tions then could be brought back to the mem- and
bership either through the medium of the
Whereas the hospitality extended to the
Anatomical News or as an item to be discussed AAA was in keeping with the distinguished
further and voted a t the next Annual Business
history of this school and state, and
Whereas, the weather, the pastoral setting
An objection was raised to the decision by and the relaxed environment created a desirthe Executive Committee that the Program able milieu for scientific interchange and reCommittee select those papers to be presented flection,
from platform or by poster a t the Annual
Be it therefore resolved that the AAA exMeeting. Dr. Pease explained that the Exec- press its appreciation and gratitude to Profesutive Committee had discussed the issue for sor W. K. Metcalf and his colleagues, to the
about two and one-half hours and finally had
University of Nebraska’s Medical Center and
come to the conclusion that, if the quality of to the city of Omaha for their part in making
the meeting was to be improved, some control
this a memorable meeting.
over presentations was needed. Papers will be
There being no further business, the meetselected on a trial basis for the next two years; ing was adjourned at 2:30 p.m.
then a decision will be made whether such
Respectfully submitted,
selection should continue. During the twoJohn E. Pauly
year trial period, the Program Committee will
be given increased flexibility and may allow
increased time for special presentations -e.g.,
a keynote address for a special session. A
President Pease presided a t the General
strong objection raised was that members always have been entitled the privilege of presSession held in the Presidents’ Room of the
Holiday Inn, Monday evening, April 28. The
entation at the Annual Meeting. No one has
President introduced Dr. Charles P. Leblond,
ever had to attend a session or listen to papers
the keynote speaker, who spoke on “Variety
he or she considered of inferior quality. Although some felt that such a profound change in the Renewal of Cells and Tissue Compoi n the rules should be subjected to a vote of nents.”
President Pease also presided at the Annual
the membership, President Pease answered
that the Executive Committee has the respon- Banquet on Wednesday evening, April 30,
sibility of exerting leadership. He explained which was held in the Grand Ballroom of the
Holiday Inn. The members and guests were
led to the banquet room by Scottish bagpipers,
and typical Scottish dances were performed by
a delightful group of young ladies under the
direction of Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Murray.
During the evening the Charles Judson Herrick Award and the Henry Gray Award were
presented Dr. Peter L. Strick, the 1979 winner of the Herrick Award expressed his
thanks; and plaques were distributed to pastpresidents of the Association and the retiring
Dr. Bernice Grafstein, Chairman of the
Charles Judson Herrick Award Committee,
“The Charles Judson Herrick Award is presented by the Association in recognition of a
significant body of work in the area of comparative neurology, carried out by a young
investigator within eight years of the receipt
of the doctoral degree. I am pleased to present
the award this year to Dr. Larry W. Swanson,
Assistant Professor of Neurobiology at the
Washington University School of Medicine.
“Dr. Swanson is a graduate of the Neurobiology Program at Washington University,
having completed his Ph.D. there in the Department of Psychiatry in 1972. Following his
doctoral work, which was concerned with the
central control of drinking behavior, it became
apparent to him that his functional studies
required a broader anatomical base. Beginning with his postdoctoral studies, which he
carried out under the supervision of Dr. W.
Maxwell Cowan at Washington University, he
has been concerned with the application of a
number of current anatomical techniques in
the study of the connections of the limbic
system. The techniques that he has used have
included the labeling of pathways by anterograde and retrograde axonal transport and by
immunocytochemical methods. He is perhaps
best known at present for his detailed studies
of the connection patterns of the rat hippocampus, but he has made important contributions
in establishing the afferent and efferent connection pathways of the locus caeruleus and
the hypothalamus. His broad range of expertise and his remarkable productivity are attested to by nearly 40 papers published in the
eight years since the receipt of his doctoral
“It is a great pleasure for me to present the
Herrick Award to this promising young investigator, and to add his name to the distinguished list of scientists that have been the
winners of this award.”
The Henry Gray Award, established by Lea
& Febiger, was made by Past-President Berta
V. Scharrer. Her tribute t o Dr. William Mont a m e Cobb is as follows:
“The Henry Gray Award of the American
Association of Anatomists, established ten
years ago by Lea & Febiger, Publishers, is
presented each year to an outstanding anatomist in recognition of sustained and meritorious service to the scientific community
through scholarly accomplishments in original investigation, teaching, and writing, in
the field of anatomy.
“Dr. W. Montague Cobb, whom we honor
this evening, most certainly deserves this
award, and it gives me great pleasure indeed
to present it to him. He has made his mark in
more than one area of endeavor, and nowbeing 75 years young-he can look back on a
unique and highly successful career.
“As a n anatomist, he is in the direct line of
the classical representatives of this discipline.
In his view, anatomy embraces ‘everything
from supergalaxies to electrons.’ This universal perception fills him with exultation, and
he does not hesitate to use his anatomical
knowledge in very original and vivid ways,
including the interpretation of human behavior. For example, he suggests that the inverse
ratio between phonation and cerebration in
the course of a n argument can be readily
explained in terms of blood supply.
“William Montague Cobb seems to have
been fortunate in the choice of his parents. As
he stated in one of his retrospective articles,
the family was poor but he never felt deprived.
His father, a printer who, in order to provide
for his family, had to take a variety of jobs
before becoming a n independent businessman,
encouraged his children to make use of the
numerous educational opportunities offered
for free in their native city, Washington, D.C.
There were the fine museums, the zoo, and
the aquarium. Together with his father, Monty enjoyed frequent excursions by streetcar
and walking, a favorite hike being along the
C 8z 0 Canal, where he loved to watch the
slowly moving coal barges drawn by mules.
“Dr. Cobb was born on October 12, 1904,
and attended Dunbar High School, a segregated institution considered the best in the
city. As he tells us, he looks back on those
years with affection. There was a fine cameraderie among the students, and the instruction seems to have been superb. For example,
he was taught French by a n excellent and
very dedicated teacher, whom he remembered
gratefully when he was able to use this knowledge 30 years later during his travels i n
France. The study of Latin was introduced by
translations of nursery rhymes, and the “stella” of “Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star” seems to
have set the course for the high goals of the
impressionable youngster who also became
interested ‘in many other things.’ His love for,
and exceptional command of, the English language were developed during this period.
Those high school years also initiated his
interest and proficiency in athletics, whose
role in his life he considers very important.
Various competitions taught him the meaning
of fair play, endurance, and the importance of
relaxation between moments of tension. It all
started when Montague was permitted to skip
one school year, and, in the sixth grade, being
smaller than his classmates, lost many a fight.
Characteristically, he ordered a book from
which he acquired, all by himself, expertise in
boxing and henceforth had no more trouble.
In later years, at college, he earned championships in boxing, lightweight and welterweight, and varsity letters in track and cross
“The Dunbar faculty saw to it that its students gained entry into good colleges. After
his graduation in 1921 Montague decided on
Amherst, where once more he had the good
fortune of being influenced by some great
teachers, Alexander Meiklejohn and Harold
Plough among them. There were no scholarships then, and he was continuously employed
in one way or another from age 10. He received
an A.B. from Amherst in 1925 and entered
Howard University for the study of medicine.
His M.D. degree was granted in 1929, and
after having completed his internship a t
Freedman’s Hospital in Washington, D.C., in
1930, Dr. Cobb was licensed for the practice
of medicine and surgery.
“As a junior in medical school he met his
future wife, Hilda B. Smith, whom he married
after graduation. An alumna of Mt. Holyoke
College and Howard University, she was a
teacher in the Washington public school system. For 47 years, until her death in 1976, she
gave her husband her unfailing support and
patient tolerance, to which he attributes
‘whatever success any of his efforts may have
had.’ In her total unselfishness, she permitted
her husband to embark on an academic career
rather than the practice of medicine, which
would have provided more worldly goods for
her and their two fine daughters.
“For his graduate education, Dr. Cobb selected the Department of Anatomy of Western
Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, where
he came under the influence of the powerful
and renowned T. Wingate Todd. After two
years of intensive work that set the course for
his future scientific career, he graduated with
a Ph.D. in Anatomy and Physical Anthropology. He then joined the Department of Anatomy of Howard University College of Medicine, with which he remained affiliated for 50
years, 22 of them as departmental chairman.
He was elevated to the rank of Distinguished
Professor of Anatomy in 1969, and became
Professor Emeritus in 1973. Over the years,
he has been in great demand for visiting
professorships and lecture engagements, among
them appointments at Stanford University
(1972), University of Maryland (1973), University of Washington (1978), and University
of Arkansas (1979). He estimates the number
of students he taught at Howard University
alone to be 5,600.
“His success in the teaching of gross anatomy is based, in part, on the use of ‘master
keys,’ a graphic method of his own design that
encourages students to draw, and thus to
simplify the mastery of the huge amount of
information contained in textbooks. In his
lectures, he stresses, among other things, the
importance of man’s adoption, some 2-112 million years ago, of the erect posture, an evolutionary step to which he owes his dominance
on our planet, but also his flat feet, varicose
veins, hernias, and sacroiliac disorders. For
example, Dr. Cobb’s vivid demonstration of
how great a burden to the spine is added by
the wearing of high heels is unforgettable. His
lecture in verse, “Ode to a Zygote: a n Educational Story Poem,” has appeared in print.
“Inspired by the Hamann Museum of Professor Todd in Cleveland, Dr. Cobb built up at
Howard a collection of over 600 documented
human skeletons, and of casts of fossil primates, hominids and men. For his anatomical
research, which includes topics such as ageing
changes i n human bones, the physical anthropology of the American Negro, and comparative dental anatomy, he also made ample use
of collections of human material in other
American institutions.
“Looking back now on his more than 50
years of study of human biology, Dr. Cobb
expresses the hope that the insights gained
should, and can, be put to use in modern
society. Over the years, he has become increasingly concerned with public issues, especially
with the fight for civil rights. He has fought
valiantly and successfully for the cause of
interracial justice and understanding and
against discriminatory practices. His effectiveness as an organizational leader has resulted in many organizational positions. His
record of service in a variety of capacities is
truly staggering.
“Only a few highlights can be mentioned
here. O n e of t h e m is his t e n u r e during
1964-65 as President of the National Medical
Association, the organization representing
Afro-Asian physicians. Another is his election
in 1976 as President of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People,
following many years of service as a member
of its Board of Directors. He has also rendered
distinguished service on many important advisory panels concerned with public healthe.g., the White House Conferences on Health.
He played a major role in the development of
Medicare, and continues to endorse plans for
a National Health Insurance.
“The roughly 650 titles of Dr. Cobb’s publications reflect his broad and multifaceted
interests, ranging from anatomy and physical
anthropology to public health, medical history, gerontology and medical education. He
also carried out a good measure of editorial
duties, especially for the Journal of the National Medical Association, which he developed into a highly respected medical publication.
“All of these productive and demanding efforts in two major directions, concerned with
scientific and public affairs, have not gone
unrecognized. A long list of honors and awards
has been bestowed on Dr. Cobb. Among these
are honorary doctoral degrees from Amherst
College, Morgan State College, Georgetown
University, the Medical College of Wisconsin,
and the University of Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa. He also received
Certificates of Merit from two United States
“Rewards that Dr. Cobb seems to have particularly treasured came in the form of invitations to several journeys, among them a sixweek cruise aboard the Battleship Missouri,
as a n official guest of the Secretary of the
Navy, in 1950; a 3,000-mile conducted tour,
with a delegation of physicians of the National
Medical Association, to the People’s Republic
of China in 1972; and a visit to the Republic
of South Africa, as a member of the NAACP’s
Task Force on Africa, in 1977.
“For relaxation, Dr. Cobb plays the violin,
listens to music, writes poetry, and engages
in water-color painting and moving-picture
photography. He is also an avid reader.
“Montague Cobb is a dignified gentleman
with a fine sense of humor. We salute him as
a distinguished member of our profession, a
great humanitarian, and-in the true sense of
the word-a national figure. The American
Association of Anatomists is privileged and
honored to present to him the Henry Gray
The Executive Committee met a t 7:30 p.m.,
Saturday, April 26, 1980, and again on Sunday, April 27, a t 9:00 a.m.
Present: President Daniel C. Pease; President-Elect Sanford L. Palay; President-Emeritus Berta V. Scharrer; First Vice-president
Helen A. Padykula; Second Vice-president
Allen C. Enders; Program Secretary M. Roy
Schwarz; Councilors Richard P. Bunge, Jennifer H. LaVail, Frank N. Low, Jerome Sutin,
A. Kent Christensen and Jean-Paul Revel;
Secretary-Treasurer Elect William P. Jollie
and Secretary-Treasurer John E. Pauly. Absent were Councilors Donald C. Goodman and
Dennis G. Osmond. Drs. Aaron J. Ladman and
W. Keith OSteen attended as guests; and
others who appeared at various times during
the course of the meeting included Dr. Raymund L. Zwemer, Chairman of the Committee
on Anatomical Nomenclature; Dr. Roger A.
Gorski, Chairman of the Committee on Educational Affairs; Mr. Alan R. Liss, the new
publisher of the Wistar Journals; and Dr.
Liberato J. A. DiDio.
A summary of the minutes of the Interim
Meeting of the Executive Committee, held a t
the Chase Park Plaza Hotel in St. Louis,
Missouri, September 27 and 28, 1979, is as
Following a review of the minutes of the
meeting held in Hollywood, Florida, which
had been printed in the Anatomical Record,
Vol. 195, No. 1, September, 1979, the Secretary-Treasurer summarized the reDort of the
meeting o f the Council of Presidents held a t
the Diplomat Hotel. The members of the
Council had little interest in the establishment of an International Union o f Anatomy
that had been suggested. They thought the
Cajal Club should be approached for money to
increase the corpus of the C. J. Herrick Fund
so t h a t support could be provided for the
activities of the Award Committee. The Council suggested that the Annual Meeting might
be improved by employing a selection process
to papers submitted by the membership, and
by having additional special lectures such as
the one honoring R. R. Bensley. It also recommended that the Executive Committee con-
sider producing an Anglicized version of Nomina Anahmica for distribution to the membership.
The Secretary-Treasurer reported on the
membership and finances of the Association,
and a partial report of the income and expenditures for the 1979 Annual Meeting was
reviewed. As a result of cost overruns for the
last few Annual Meetings, a decision was
made to require future Local Committees to
prepare budgets acceptable to the Program
Secretary by the time the Program Committee
meets. President Pease appointed a committee
consisting of Drs. Schwarz, Pauly and Jollie
to draft a mechanism that would exercise
appropriate control over the Local Committee
and the operation of the Annual Meeting.
The Program Secretary reported on arrangements for the 1980 Annual Meeting in
Omaha. It was decided that in the future
special guests of the Association may be preregistered through the Office of the SecretaryTreasurer. Their registration fees will be deducted from expenses allowed organizers of
symposia or other special features of the Annual Meeting. It was decided that only the
Program Secretary, Secretary-Treasurer or
their designee may approve complimentary
registrations. The Association will continue to
rent poster booths from the American Society
for Cell Biology. Dr. Schwarz reported that it
will not be possible to hold the 1982 meeting
in Seattle, Washington, as previously scheduled; however, a n attempt will be made to
reschedule the meeting in Indianapolis, Indiana.
The Vice-presidents reported on plans for
their symposia, and Dr. Padykula said that
Dr. Leon Weiss of the University of Pennsylvania would organize one for her on the regulation of hematopoiesis. Dr. Weiss’s offer to
apply to the National Institutes of Health for
additional money to support the symposium
was accepted by the Executive Committee
after some deliberation.
Reports were received from the Nominating
Committee, the Educational Affairs Committee, The Ad Hoc Committee on Women in
Anatomy, the Ad Hoc Committee to Consider
Expenses of the Herrick Award Committee
and the Ad Hoc Committee to select a new
Managing Editor for the American Journal of
Anatomy. The report of the Nominating Committee is included in the minutes of the Annual Business Meeting. The Ad Hoc Committee on Women in Anatomy again did not have
a report, although its chairman, Dr. Helen A.
Padykula, recommended its dissolution and
the substitution of a new standing committee.
President Pease accepted the resignation of its
members. A motion then was made to establish a new standing committee concerned with
the status of women and other under-represented groups and to review both the function
and need for the committee after a period of
five years. This motion was seconded and
passed. Dr. Roger A. Gorski reported that the
members of the Educational Affairs Committee had a n Interim Meeting in Chicago to
review EAC sponsored events of the 1979
Annual Meeting and consider plans for the
1980 Meeting. The Committee’s request for
approval of a n attempt to establish a Special
Lecture Program and to formulate a grant
application to the National Science Foundation to support a follow-up program for the
high school students who attend the Annual
Public Forum was approved by the Executive
Committee. The EAC also was encouraged to
work with the Association of Anatomy Chairmen to establish cooperative efforts in matters
of graduate education. Dr. Gorski presented
plans for EAC sponsored events at the Annual
Meeting, which included a refresher course, a
public forum and a forum in applied anatomy.
An Ad Hoc Committee to Consider the Expenses of t h e Herrick Award Committee
chaired by Dr. Richard Bunge recommended
(1) that the new member be selected each year
by the Executive Committee from two names
placed in nomination by members of the Herrick Award Committee; (2) that the Association provide reasonable expenses for the recipient of t h e Herrick Award t o attend the
Annual Meeting, provided that funds are not
available from his or her resources, local department or school; (3) t h a t the rules for
specifying eligibility for nominees be determined by the Herrick Award Committee subject to ratification by the Executive Committee. These suggestions were approved by the
Executive Committee, and it ratified the proposal that, in the future, nominations will be
submitted within eight years from the date of
graduation of the candidate rather than the
more ambiguous six years after the first “definitive” paper on morphology has been pub1 ished.
The Ad Hoc Subcommittee for Selection of
a New Managing Editor for the American
Journal of Anatomy, consisting of the Drs.
William P. Jollie, Daniel C. Pease and Sam L.
Clark, Jr., Chairman, recommended Dr. John
E. Pauly for the position. The appointment
was ratified by the Executive Committee.
Dr. George E. Erikson, the Archivist-Historian reported that the computer containing
the data base for the history of the Association
broke down and had to be replaced during the
summer. As a result progress on the book has
been delayed approximately one full year.
Dr. M. Roy Schwarz, Chairman of the Commission to Study the Future of Anatomy, indicated t h a t a n application for additional
funds will be made to the Josiah Macy, Jr.
Foundation so that the Commission can hold
additional meetings. A draft of the final report
will be prepared by the time of the Annual
Dr. Elizabeth D. Hay, President of the Association of Anatomy Chairmen, reported that
their Executive Committee is interested in
improving the image of anatomy. AAC will
start a newsletter for graduate students and
will sponsor a symposium-workshop followed
by a feception for graduate students at the
Annual Meeting.
As a result of numerous requests and a n
almost unanimous vote of the Association of
Anatomy Chairmen, a motion was made to
initiate the establishment of a class of associate members in the American Association of
Anatomists. This was seconded and passed,
and President Pease appointed Dr. A. Kent
Christensen Chairman of an Ad Hoc Committee to prepare specific recommendations for
consideration a t the spring meeting of the
Executive Committee. The Secretary-’heasurer reported that a booklet titled “Toxic Substances in Teaching and Research Laboratories,” prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee
chaired by Dr. Arthur LaVelle, had been
printed and sent to all members of the Association. Numerous requests for additional copies have been received.
Dr. Warren Cheston, Associate Director of
the Wistar Institute, was a special guest a t
the Interim Meeting of the Executive Committee. He reported that their Board of Managers had recommended they go out of the
publishing business. Wistar plans to sell its
eight journals, and they will be published by
Alan R. Liss, Inc. The Wistar Institute will be
responsible for maintaining quality control of
the journals for a ten-year period. Mr. Edgar
Schewe, the present Director of the Wistar
Press, will exercise this function until his
retirement. During the course of the discussion, the Secretary-Treasurer produced documents attesting to the fact that the Wistar
Institute is obligated to sell the Anatomira1
Record and the Americun Journal o j Anatomy
back to the Association for a nominal sum if
it ever decides to divest itselfof these journals.
After a long discussion, i t was decided that
Dr. Cheston, Mr. Liss, the Secretary-Treasurer and the Secretary-Treasurer-Elect would
meet to discuss the conditions of the sale and
the future of the journals. The SecretaryTreasurer was given the right to negotiate for
the Association and to retain counsel to protect its interests if he considers i t necessary.
There was a long discussion about ways to
improve the Annual Meeting. It was agreed
that the meetings would be more interesting
if there were a greater number of lively discussions. Several members felt t h a t there
should be more symposia and that the format
of certain sessions should be changed. Chairmen of sessions should be allowed to arrange
the sequence and organize the discussion of
papers according to topic. Consideration was
given once again to the possibility of reviewing abstracts in order to select those to be
presented a t the Annual Meeting. After protracted and detailed discussion, the following
motion was made: Starting with the Annual
Meeting in New Orleans, abstracts will be
reviewed following the plan used by the American Society of Cell Biology. At first this will
be regarded as a two-year experiment. The
motion was seconded and finally passed, almost unanimously.
The Executive Committee decided that no
further consideration would be given to hosting the 1985 International Congress of Anatomists. The proposal that the Association
purchase inexpensive reprints of the current
edition of “Nomina Anatomica, Histologica
and Embryologica” was not approved, but Dr.
Raymund L. Zwemer was given permission to
contact the John Fogarty International Center
of the NIH for possible travel funds for his
committee to travel to Mexico City. The selection of a n official representative and alternate
to the Pan American Association of Anatomists was deferred to the next meeting of the
Executive Committee. It was decided to nominate a member of the Association for the
National Medal of Science, and the SecretaryTreasurer was given permission to prepare
plaques for all living past presidents as well
as the current president of the Association.
This concludes the summary of the deliberation of the Executive Committee a t its
Interim Meeting.
The Secretary-Treasurer reported that 778
ballots had been cast in the recent election.
The results were examined by the Executive
Committee and are included in the report of
the Annual Business Meeting.
The Executive Committee examined the financial reports for the General Fund and the
Journal Trust Fund and approved them. Details of the cost of the meeting in Miami were
provided and approved. A report on the membership was made, which included (1) a list of
members who had been advised that they were
two years in arrears in payment of their dues
and who were to be dropped at the close of the
Annual Meeting, (2) members deceased, (3)
members reinstated, (4) members who had
moved during t h e last year and have not
advised the Secretary of their new address,
and ( 5 ) members relieved of dues.
Nominations have been received for 123
new members. One hundred twenty-two of
these met all requirements for membership
and were approved, and one was disapproved.
Report of the President. Dr . Pease suggested
that the Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature address itself more vigorously to Nomina
Histologica and focus its attention on cytology
and cell biology. In a discussion that followed,
doubts were raised about whether cell biologists and others would agree to terms the
Committee might define, and there was no
agreement as to whether terms should relate
as much as possible to morphology or whether
they should also reflect the functional criteria
of cytochemists and other cell biologists. I t
was decided that the members of the Executive Committee should come to the Interim
Meeting with specific suggestions a n d t h e
names of persons who might serve on a subcommittee for histology and cell biology.
Report of the Program Secretary. Dr. M. Roy
Schwarz discussed arrangements for Omaha
and future meetings of the Association, and
the details of his report a r e found i n t h e
minutes of the Annual Business Meeting.
Sites for future meetings have been settled
through 1984; and invitations have been received from institutions in Washington, D.C.;
St. Louis, Missouri; San Juan, Puerto Rico;
Winnipeg, Canada; New York City; Toronto,
Canada; and Kansas City, Missouri, in that
order. After some discussion, the Executive
Committee voted to hold the 1985 meeting in
Toronto, Canada.
A draft of procedures to be followed for the
selection of abstracts and papers for the
1980-81 meeting i n New Orleans, Louisiana,
was distributed. In general the proposal parallels rather closely the procedures already
developed by the American Association of Anatomists for the Morphogenesis Club, history
sessions and the Educational Affairs Committee. It involves the establishment of groups
that have expertise i n the subject areas to be
considered. The evaluation of abstracts for the
program will be made by these committees.
Final arrangements and approval will rest
with the Program Committee. Specific suggestions proposed are as follows: ( 1 ) A list of
subject categories will be developed, and authors will be encouraged to submit papers
under one of these categories. They also will
be notified that their papers may appear either
from platform o r as posters selected by the
President. ( 2 ) Each chairman then will name
a t least two additional people to be on the
Selection Committee. ( 3 ) The deadline for the
receipt of abstracts will have to be advanced
to December I , 1980, to allow sufficient time
to review the abstracts and to transmit them
to the Program Secretary. (4) Once the abstracts have been reviewed and selected by
the selection committees, they will be sent to
the Program Secretary for arrangement into
the program. The Program Committee, is
made up of the President-Elect, the current
President, the Program Secretary, the Secretary-Treasurer and the Chairman of the Local
Committee. I t will be the responsibility of the
Program Secretary to notify the authors of
those abstracts that have not been selected for
presentation. I t was decided that the Program
Secretary and the President-Elect would make
the final decision about specific procedures to
be followed for the meeting in New Orleans.
A motion was made that the selection committees be empowered to eliminate papers
considered unacceptable from the program.
This motion was seconded and passed.
The Program Secretary distributed a n outline for local committees that contained information regarding ( 1 ) structure and function of
the Local Committee; ( 2 ) duties of the Chairman of the Local Committee; (3) responsibilities of those assigned publicity, the banquet,
food and beverage services, the socializer, entertainment, the spouse’s program, audiovisual services, housing, transportation and the
graduate student socializer; (4) a calendar of
responsibilities; (5) a list of administrative
duties of the Program Secretary, the Secretary-Treasurer and President; (6) the resources available, including Professional Associates, a cash advance and financial information
from the Office of the Secretary-Treasurer;
and (7) the procedure for reviewing the facilities a t the headquarters hotel and interfacing
with those responsible for the various programs that will be conducted during the meeting. After a brief review of the outline for the
Local Committee, a motion was made that it
be accepted and established as official policy.
This motion was seconded and passed unanimous 1y.
Reports from Chairmen of Committees
Report of the Educational Affairs Committee. Much of the material covered in the Annual Report of the EAC is summarized in the
report of the Interim Meeting of the Executive
Committee. Dr. Roger A. Gorski, Chairman of
the EAC, reported that there had been no local
interest in the Special Lectures Program in
Omaha; but his committee will offer lectures
once again when the Association meets in
New Orleans. EAC will submit a grant proposal to the National Science Foundation to
support a follow-up program for high school
students who attend the Public Forum. Prior
to submission of the application, it will be
reviewed by a subcommittee of the Executive
Committee. The Educational Affairs Committee was authorized the sum of $2,000 to hold
a n interim meeting in the summer in order to
finalize the application to the National Science
Foundation and to consider further cooperative efforts with the Committee on Graduate
Training of the Association of Anatomy Chairmen.
Report of the Committee on Anutomicul Nomenclature. Dr. Raymund L. Zwemer, Chairman of the Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature, summarized a long and detailed
report on the activities of his committee as
well as the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee. Dr. Zwemer’s group met
during the 1979 Annual Meeting in Hollywood, Florida, and reviewed the report of the
meeting of the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee at SBo Paulo, Brazil,
in July of 1978. The members discussed the
organization of the IANC meetings in connection with the preparation of revisional details
for submission to the World Congress of Anatomists that will meet in Mexico in the summer of 1980. Drs. Ira R. Telford and Alvin F.
Weber attended the IANC Meeting held at the
CIBA Foundation in London, June 25-29; and
several members of CAN attended the IANC
revision meeting held in conjunction with the
International Symposium on the Morphological Sciences in Toledo, Ohio, August 1-5,
1979. During the Annual Meeting of the
American Association of Anatomists in Omaha, changes proposed for the three Nominae
to be presented at the XI International Congress of Anatomy in Mexico in August will be
Report of the Committee for the Herrick
Award. The names of four candidates were
submitted to the Executive Committee for the
vacancy on The Herrick Award Committee,
and it was recommended that the new secre-
tary, who will replace Dr. Matzke, be chosen
from among the recent Chairmen of the Committee. The Executive Committee selected two
of the names submitted and authorized the
Herrick Committee to choose one of them for
its new member. It also agreed that the new
Secretary of the Committee should be one of
its recent Chairmen and authorized the Herrick Committee to make its own selection.
Report of the Committee on the Anatomical
Journal Trust Fund. The balance in the savings account on January 1, 1979, was $2,188.57. Dividends earned during the year
were $2,680.30, interest on U.S. Bonds was
$602.50, and interest on the savings account
into which dividends were periodically deposited was $190.21. Thus, the total earnings in
1979 were $3,473.03.
In 1978 arrangements were made to acquire
additional shares of American Telephone and
Telegraph by automatically reinvesting the
dividends. During 1979 $515.44 in dividends
from AT&T purchased a n additional 9.273
shares; and a t the end of the year, the Association owned 111.153 shares. A similar arrangement was made in 1978 to reinvest dividends received from t h e Union Carbide
Corporation. During 1979 $244.03 in dividends from the Union Carbide Corporation
purchased another 6.528 shares, and at the
end of the year the Association owned a total
of 88.19 shares. Additional shares of American
Telephone and Telegraph and Union Carbide
Corporation are purchased through the automatic reinvestment plans without paying a
broker’s commission and at discounts from
current market prices.
The balance in the savings account at the
end of the year was $4,902.13.
Carmine D. Clemente
Michael D. Gershon
Aaron J. Ladman, Chairman
John E. Pauly (ex officio)
Report of the Committee on Honorary Membership. The Committee on Honorary Membership in the Association consisted of Drs.
Richard J. Blandau, Carmine D. Clemente,
John W. Everett, John C. Finerty, Charles P.
Leblond and Berta V. Scharrer, Chairman.
This year the Committee recommended for
Honorary Membership Professors Eduardo D.
P. De Robertis and Joseph M. Yoffey.
Professor De Robertis was born in Argentina in 1913. In 1939 he received his M.D.
degree and Gold Medal (first in class) from the
Faculty of Medicine, a t the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In subsequent years he
was the recipient of several research fellowships -e.g., from the Rockefeller Foundation
(1940 and 1944), the Guggenheim Foundation
(1946, 1947) and the National Institutes of
Health, U.S.A. (1948). He was a Lecturer in
Physiology a t the University of Texas (19521,
Walker Ames Professor a t the University of
Washington, Seattle (19531, Alexander Forbes
Lecturer (19691, and Visiting Professor a t the
University of Bath, England (1977). His permanent academic position is that of Professor
of Cytology, Histology, and Embryology, and
Director of the Institute of Cell Biology, a t the
University of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Dr. De Robertis has a wide international
reputation as a pioneer in Cell Biology, Neurobiology, Electron Microscopy and Neurochemistry. He is perhaps best known for his
morphological and biochemical contributions
to the elucidation of neural transmission. To
Professor De Robertis and his coworkers we
owe much of our understanding of the fine
structural machinery involved in chemical
synaptic transmission. He recognized and analyzed synaptic vesicles and was the first to
demonstrate their content of different types of
neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine). He localized various enzymes
associated with neural transmission, as well
as cholinergic and adrenergic blocking agents.
More recently, he isolated a proteolipid with
receptor properties from neuron-terminal
membranes and was the first to reconstitute
a cholinergic receptor protein in artificial
membranes. Moreover, he demonstrated that
the outer segment of photoreceptors develops
from a primitive cilium. These research accomplishments have earned Professor De Robertis many awards, not only in his own country but in the United States, Mexico, Belgium
and Spain. He holds honorary degrees of Doctor of Science from Loyola University, Chicago
(1969), and the University of Madrid (197 I),
and has been granted honorary membership
in numerous scientific organizations.
Joseph Mendel Yoffey was born in 1902 in
Manchester, England. After receiving his education at Manchester Grammar School and
The University of Manchester, he graduated
in medicine in 1924. An enthusiasm and aptitude for basic study and research was already apparent, resulting in a B.Sc. degree
(Manchester, 1926), The Leech Research Fellowship (Manchester, 1926-27), the M.D. degree by thesis, with commendation (Manchester, 1928), a Research Scholarship of the
British Medical Association ( 1928-29) and the
M.Sc. degree (Manchester, 1929).
A year of clinical work was spent as a House
Surgeon a t the Manchester Royal Infirmary
(1929-30). Later, he became a Fellow of the
Royal College of Surgeons of England (1932)
and was named Hunterian Professor of that
College in 1933 and again in 1940, the Arris
and Gale Lecturer in 1960, and the Erasmus
Wilson Demonstrator in 1977. He was awarded The Triennial John Hunter Medal of the
Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1967.
However, his first love has always been
anatomical teaching and research. From an
Assistant Lectureship in Anatomy a t the
University of Manchester (1930-32) he enjoyed an appointment as Senior Lecturer in
Anatomy, University College of South Wales,
Cardiff, before becoming Professor of Anatomy
at the University of Bristol in 1940, a department which he continued to lead for the next
27 years.
His career was marked by several important
American appointments, notably a t Harvard
University for two years (1937-39) and as a
Visiting Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle (1958) and a t the University
of California, San Francisco Medical Center
(1967- 68).
A pioneer investigator and acknowledged
world authority on the lymphoid tissues and
bone marrow, Joseph Yoffey has pursued a n
illustrious and influential career devoted to
the service of Anatomy-a career from which,
a t the age of 78 years, he shows no signs of
Influenced by the earlier great microscopists, his first publication in 1929 concerned
the comparative histology and cellular constituents of fish spleen, an article that remains
a basic reference in this field. Soon, however,
he formulated a variety of concepts and questions that were to anticipate much future
work on the lymphoid system. In particular,
he stresses the functional unity of the lymphoid system, the need to study cell populations
quantitatively, the dynamic nature of cell production, turnover and population equilibria,
and the importance of cellular migration
streams between various components of the
lymphoid system. He defended stubbornly the
belief that small lymphocytes retain the potential to be activated and to proliferate, during an era in which these were still widely
regarded as rather dull, functionless end cells.
In the 1940s he became more and more
intrigued with the lymphocytes in mammalian bone marrow. His quantitative studies revealed the magnitude of this lymphocyte population, its dynamic steady state and its
characteristic reactions to perturbation by
various influences, including ionizing irradiation, hypoxia, stress and foreign substances.
He described cells transitional in morphology
between lymphocytes and undifferentiated
blasts which, together with the quantitation
of bone marrow cellular reactions, led him to
postulate a link between such cells and hemopoietic stem cells, consistent with modern
fractionation and morphological studies. Most
important was a fruitful concept, still the
subject of extensive research, that the bone
marrow and lymphoid tissues constitute a
single system, the “lymphomyeloid complex,”
unified by a continuous interchange of cells.
His collaborations with distinguished American
colleagues were most productive. Two years
with the late C. K. Drinker at Harvard University included studies of the role of nasal
lymphatics in the spread of poliomyelitis viruses and other materials, and culminated in
the joint authorship of “Lymphatics, Lymph
and Lymphoid Tissue.” This classical book,
demonstrating an exceptional grasp and lucid
synthesis of the literature, constituted the
authoritative work in the field and has since
been revised twice in collaboration with F. C.
Courtice in Australia. Quantitative studies of
the cell populations of lymph, started with
Drinker, were extended later with W. 0. Reinhardt in San Francisco. When the late N. B.
Everett, our past President, started to apply
radiolabeling techniques to biological problems in the 1950s, Yoffey readily persuaded
him that the lymphoid system was ripe for
such a n approach. Together, in Seattle, they
conducted the first radioautographic studies
of lymphocyte production, forming the basis
for a surge of progress in defining lymphocyte
populations, their life-spans and life histories.
Not least among his accomplishments has
been the ability, through his infectious enthusiasm, unflagging industry, skill in debate,
and personal warmth to stimulate others to
follow in his footsteps. Many former students
and colleagues have not only continued productive work in this burgeoning research field,
but, like himself, have also remained true to
our discipline, holding positions of leadership
in Anatomy in North America and the U.K.
As a genial anatomy teacher to generations of
medical students, he also particularly values
a singular honour-Knight of the Dannebrog,
First Grade-bestowed upon him in recognition of his provision of summer dissection
courses for Danish medical students.
Throughout the years he has remained a
man of broad interests, warm family life, and
28 1
diverse scholarly and musical accomplishments. His activity continues unabated. His
nearly 150 articles and seven books now span
50 years, but it may be noted that two books
and 22 articles have actually been authored
or co-authored since he officially retired! During this period he has also actively fostered
the development of scientific bodies in Israel
and has participated in research conferences
there, while, looking ahead, he will be a major
invited speaker at the International Congress
of Anatomy i n 1980.
After reaching the conventional retirement
age he went as a Visiting Professor to The
Australian National University, Canberra, to
produce a final edition of his major book
(1968-69). Since 1969 he has resided in Jerusalem and held a n active Professorship in
the Department of Anatomy, Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. Professional
honors have continued to show a widespread
recognition of his distinguished contributions
to research and scholarship. In particular, The
University of Manchester, which had granted
him the degree of D.Sc. in 1944, bestowed the
degree of Honorary LL.D upon him in 1973.
The CIBA Foundation held and published a
special Symposium on Haemopoietic Stem
Cells in tribute to him in 1972, his 70th year.
In 1978 he was made a n Honorary Life Member of the Reticuloendothelial Society.
The Executive Committee unanimously endorsed the recommendations of the Committee
on Honorary Membership that Professors De
Robertis and Yoffey be made Honorary Members of the American Association of Anatomists.
Report from the Subcommittee to Consid6.r
a n Amendment to the Constitution. A subcom-
mittee of the Executive Committee consisting
of William P. Jollie, Jennifer H. LaVail and
A. Kent Christensen, Chairman, made its report. After some modifications, it was approved unanimously. The details of this report
are provided i n the minutes of the Annual
Business Meeting.
Report from the Commission to Study the
Future of the Anatomical Sciences. Dr. M. Roy
Schwarz, Chairman of the Committee, stated
that the members had met 13 times in the last
three years and had collectively spent between
4,000 and 5,000 man-hours on the project.
Members of the group had diverse views, but
the final draft represents something as close
to a consensus as possible. The report contains
a definition of anatomy and of a n anatomist,
and sections on predoctoral and postdoctoral
training as well as the continuing development of anatomists. Dr. Schwarz summarized
the specific recommendations regarding the
scientific and educational missions of anatomy. Recommendations also are provided for
manpower, development of anatomists at the
undergraduate and postdoctoral levels, as well
as throughout their careers, for leadership
roles at the level of departmental chairmen
and association activities and for resources
that departments should provide to accomplish these aims.
The report is very broad in scope. It suggests
a continuing and steady output of anatomists,
with emphasis on women and minorities. It
recommends periodic external reviews for departments of anatomy, postdoctoral experiences for all graduates and periodic reviews of
competence of all tenured faculty. Programs
also should be reviewed and discontinued
when no longer useful.
Although nearing completion, the report
still is in the form of a draft. In order to
complete it, one or two more meetings o f the
Commission will be necessary. An application
to the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation for additional support was denied, so the Committee
will need $3,000 to $3,500 from the Association to complete the work. Such a n expenditure was approved by the Executive Committee. Dr. Schwarz said the report would be
completed by the time of the Interim Meeting
of the Executive Committee.
Report of the Archivist-Historian. Dr. George
E. Erikson, Archivist-Historian of the Association, said that the first part of the history
is titled “Anatomy in America: The History of
the American Association of Anatomists and
Its Role in the History of Modern Biology and
Medicine, Volume I, the First Half Century,
1888-1937.” It will consist of a narrative of
about 50 to 75 printed pages covering the
period 1888-1937, followed by a rich reference
appendix of photographs, charts and tables
illustrating and analyzing the composition
and activities of the Association and its membership. This reference appendix will relieve
the narrative of the obligation to catalog and
chronicle, and should make it easier to tell a n
interesting story. Very importantly, the appendix will not be limited to the first halfcentury but will cover the full range of the
history to the date of publication (1981). Readers should expect to find organized information on the meetings, officers, committees,
members, institutions, specialties, etc. Tables,
charts and graphs will analyze changes in the
membership in terms of age, gender, geog-
raphy (of birth, education and employment),
institutions, specialties, honors, membership
in other learned societies, etc.
Dr. Erikson showed members of the Executive Committee samples of the narrative section and major parts of the reference appendix.
He stated that he would place these materials
in one of the poster booths, so that members
of the Association would have an opportunity
to look a t them throughout the course of the
Maintaining a computerized data base is
essential for all phases of this work, but it is
a very expensive and time-consuming effort.
Although the Association has contributed
$10,000 over the last eight years to the work,
this is only a fraction of the cost of secretarial
help, computer programmers and gathering
additional information and materials for the
archives. It has been necessary to prepare
computerized printouts for other societies in
order to generate the funds necessary to maintain the archives for the American Association
of Anatomists. This extra effort has slowed
the production of the book. Dr. Erikson asked
the Executive Committee and the membership
to take an active interest in the project and
help with the completion. He is particularly
interested in recruiting persons willing to
write reviews of specialty areas as they develop during the second half-century of the Association. The book on the stem history is
expected to be completed by the Annual Meeting in New Orleans.
Reports of Representatives
Council of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science. No report was received for 1980.
National Research Council. No report was
received for 1980.
Biological S t a i n Commission. Biological
Stain Commission (BSC) publications, Conn’s
“History of Staining” and “Staining Procedures” should be available in new editions
this year. Other publications of the BSC are
the 9th edition of “Conn’s Biological Stains”
and the journal Stain Technology.
The Commission Laboratory currently tests,
for identification, purity and performance, 57
different stains submitted by various companies. Additional stains are being considered
for certification such as Alcian blue, Coomassie blue, Acridine orange and Lux01 Fast Blue,
to mention a few.
As noted last year (Anat. Rec., 295:133), the
BSC is concerned about the FDA policy of
treating biological stains as “medical devices.”
The FDA Advisory Committee on Devices for
Pathology and Diagnosis (Dr. Robert W. Mowry, President of the BSC, is a member) has
recommended to the FDA that (1)dye powders
should be registered and have certification
(BSC); (2) dye powders not requiring certification need accurate labeling and should be
exempted from “good manufacturing practices” regulation; and ( 3 ) prepackaged dye
solutions should require a label showing exact
composition, some evidence of performance
and indications for storage and shelf life.
These recommendations, if accepted, would
allow for less regulation of biological stains
than a t present.
With respect to dry powder stains, of particular interest to anatomists, the FDA responded to their advisory panels by proposing that
these dyes be placed in Class I, subject to
general rules. Manufacturers would be required to maintain records and a complaint
file covering each dry stain. These stains,
however, would be exempted from the good
manufacturing practices regulation, because
i t is unlikely to improve their safety and
effectiveness. Complete information regarding
the proposed rules are in the Federal Register,
44:52950-59260. The final FDA ruling, which
follows the general response to this proposal,
has not yet been published.
Arthur La Velle
Council of the National Society for Medical
Research. The thirty-third council meeting of
the National Society for Medical Research was
held November 10, 1979, in Chicago, Illinois.
The minutes of the meeting appear in the
1979 Annual Report of the National Society
of Medical Research.
The National Council considered the question of the “Image and Direction of the Future
of NSMR,” with presentations by a group of
panelists representing various constituencies,
followed by a general discussion. The aim of
the forum was to assess the role of NSMR i n
satisfying the needs of the biomedical community and further to consider changes in
design to improve the NSMRs role in these
activities in the future. President Clarence
Dennis, M.D., reiterated the function of the
NSMR, which is (1)to monitor legislation and
regulations, (2) to educate the public on the
use of animals in research, and ( 3 ) to communicate with legislators and regulators in
crisis situations.
Speaking on this question as related to
medical schools, Dr. Scott Swisher, Associate
Dean for Research, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, pointed out
that the trend in research today is to concentrate on the development of animal models of
disease states rather than to attack the human-related research problem more directly.
This arises essentially as a move toward offsetting the rising costs and increased legal
pressures related to activities in human research. However, there is also an increasing
restriction as well as a general opposition i n
the country directed at animal research. Dr.
Swisher concluded that NSMR must play a
significant part in considering the ultimate
problems concerning the general attitude in
the country toward the issues of animal research for the betterment of mankind.
Dr. Russell J. Lindsey, Professor in the
Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Alabama Medical Center, presented
a veterinary opinion which suggested that the
NSMR (1) develop a defensive, positive posture rather than a negative posture for effective leadership; (2) seek to eliminate the reasons for criticism of animal research; ( 3 )
develop mechanisms for effective action at the
grassroots level; and (4) expand its lobbying
For the Pharmaceutical Industry, Dr. Walter A. Freyburger, Manager, Cardiovascular
Diseases Branch, the Upjohn Company, considered the over-regulation in the drug industry as being a primary [actor related to cost
inflation of research and development of new
pharmaceutical products. He indicated the
need to lobby against unreasonable legislation, preferably before it is actually introduced. Also, he pointed out that when regulations for animal research reach perfection,
cost in dollars in work not accomplished and
drugs not discovered becomes untenable to
society. Thus, Dr. Freyburger concluded that
the production of pharmaceutical products for
the future requires the use of animals and
that the NSMR should concern itself with
laws and regulations that interfere with the
use of animals to accomplish such goals.
Dr. Harold L. Chute, President of Chute
Chemical Company in Bangor, Maine, spoke
on the financial support for animal research
interests. He reiterated the need for current
and future functions and services provided by
NSMR and identified the problems of acquiring financial support by NSMR.
In general discussion it became clear there
was agreement that there is a need in this
country for the activities of the National Society for Medical Research and that affirma-
tive and positive financial support must be
developed to enable it to continue its important activities.
Dr . Clarence Dennis, NSMR President, presented the Board of Director’s Report. Four
meetings of the Board of Directors were held
over the past year. One of the concerns was
the new ethics in government law, which
prohibits anyone in government service in a
GS-17 or higher position from dealing with
their former employer for a period of two years
after they leave. NSMR and other societies
appealed to the U S . Attorney General and
the Committee on Government Operations as
well as the Judiciary and Civil Service for
both the House and the Senate in protest of
the new law. Other federal bills with which
the Board of Directors concerned itself included the Health Science Promotion Act of 1979,
which is intended to reorganize the National
Institutes of Health and appoint a commission
to review medical research as well as research
ad mi n i stra t io n and accou n t abi 1i t y.
It was reported that a new exhibit was built
for NSMR identifying Nobel Laureates whose
work would have been impossible without the
use of laboratory animals. The exhibit is assembled a t the National Meetings of various
scientific associations.
The most crucial problem that the NSMR
faces is the solvency of the organization. An
eight-year trend continues in which expenditures exceed income, resulting in no significant financial reserves. This trend is serious,
and unless reversed it is felt that the organization will not be able to continue to operate.
Societies, especially in the areas of basic sciences, believe that they are sufficiently watchful of federal regulations and are lobbying
adequately. There is also some feeling that
NSMRs role i n public education is not particularly worthwhile. Nevertheless, many organizations appear to depend on NSMR for guidance pertaining to matters of animal research,
especially where state and federal regulations
are concerned.
In conclusion, to remain solvent, the Board
adopted a plan to limit expenditures to the
most essential activities of the Society while
attempting to rebuild a financial base. It was
mandated to limit expenditures to the level of
income. The Society intends to continue its
role related to government activities and to
continue communication with national societies in the scientific community.
Charles R. Hackenbrock
Representative to NSMR
Council of Academic Societies of the Association of American Medical Colleges. The Council of Academic Societies continued to grow
during its twelfth year and now represents 67
member societies. At the 1978 annual meeting, the CAS discussed a number of issues in
biomedical research and graduate medical education that were the focus of the Council’s
attention and efforts throughout the year. Dr.
Paul Beeson, Chairman of the Institute of
Medicine’s Committee on Aging and Medical
Education, reviewed the major recommendations of his committee’s final report. Also a t
the annual meeting, the Council sponsored a
legislative workshop for CAS Public Affairs
Representatives, similar in format to one held
in 1976. At the workshop Congressional and
Administration staff discussed in detail the
process by which laws are enacted, funded,
and implemented, and offered advice on how
individual academic societies could more effectively interact with federal policy makers
on issues of importance to their constituents.
An interim CAS meeting held in the spring
of 1979 discussed issues in graduate medical
education. Dr. Jack Myers, Chairman of the
Task Force on Graduate Medical Education,
reviewed with the Council the status of each
of the Task Force’s five working groups and
asked for input from the Council on the Task
Force’s preliminary conclusions and recommendations. Productive workshop sessions focused on specialty distribution, the transition
from undergraduate to graduate medical education, program accreditation, and the proposed revision of the LCGME’s General Requirements. CAS representatives participating
in the workshops reviewed reports and position papers developed in each of these areas
and offered specific comments and suggestions
for modification. The Council also revised its
bylaws to implement a new system for nomination of officers.
The two-year experimental phase of the CAS
services program ended in July, and the Association of American Medical Colleges decided to continue the program for interested CAS
societies. The services program assists societies in their efforts to serve their own constituency by providing legislative tracking services and/or society management services.
The Administrative Board encouraged CAS
societies to name Women Liaison Officers.
This network within the medical schools now
consists of representatives from approximately 115 medical schools and twenty CAS societies.
The American Association of Anatomists mailed on September 14, 1979, to 191 departand other CAS societies are informed of issues ments. Letters to 191 chairmen offering copies
of concern to faculty by the quarterly CAS of current listings were mailed December 1,
Brief, which now reaches approximately 15,- 1979. Information on 46 individuals was
000 members. Special memoranda or CAS mailed December 29, 1979. Eighty-five peralerts are sent to the membership when issues sons were listed by April 8, 1980. Within this
arise requiring immediate attention and ac- group, 57 received their doctorate during the
past three years or are anticipating completThe CAS Administrative Board met quar- ing i t during 1980. Forty-one requests for
terly to conduct the business of the Council copies of the listing had been received by April
and to deliberate on Executive Council agenda 8, 1980. Comparison with the previous three
items of particular importance to faculty. years:
These quarterly meetings also allowed CAS 1976-77
78 listed prior to the Annual Meeting
Board members to interact with the Admin59 requests from chairmen
istrative Boards of the other Councils and to
have informal discussions with representa- 1977-78
72 listed prior to the Annual Meeting
tives of the executive branch. Much of this
report comes from the bulletin of the annual
45 requests from chairmen
93 listed prior to the Annual Meeting
Carmine D. Clemente
40 requests from chairmen
American Institute of Biological Sciences. At
the 1979 Annual Meeting, the Executive Committee decided to maintain affiliation with
AIBS for yet another year in order to determine if the new AIBS Executive Director
would be able to effect substantial changes
that would benefit the members of AAA. Dr.
Richard C. Greulich, our Representative to
the AIBS, again supported continuing the relationship, but his reasons were identical to
those expressed in a similar letter last year.
After some discussion, the Executive Committee decided to discontinue its affiliation with
Other Continuing Functions
Report of the Trustees of the R . R. Bensley
Memorial Fund. The Association owns a total
of 399 shares of the Union Electric Company
of Missouri, currently paying a dividend of
$1.44 per share or a total of $574.56 annually.
This is the amount of money now available
each year to support the Bensley Memorial
Lecture. During 1979 expenditures amounted
to $782.02. At the end of the year the balance
in the account was $495.04.
Lawrence E. Scheving
John E. Pauly
Report of the Placement Seruice. Blank forms
to be filled out by those wishing to be listed
with the Placement Service, as well as information sheets explaining the service were
C. Murphy Combs
Director, Placement Service
Reports of Regional Anatomical Meetings.
The 1979 Meeting of the Midwest Anatomists
Association was held on October 5-7 in St.
Louis, Missouri. St. Louis University School
of Medicine was the host institution. There
were 86 registrants, and 28 papers were presented from the platform during the meeting.
A symposium titled “Supraspinal Motor Systems and Their Influence on Movement Under
Normal and Pathological Conditions” was one
of the features of the meeting. An additional
five papers were presented by the participants
in the symposium.
The officers of the Association for 1980 are
as follows: President, T. V. N. Persaud, Winnipeg, Canada; Past-President, Paul A. Young,
St. Louis, Missouri; President-Elect, Liberato
J. A. DiDio, Toledo, Ohio; and SecretaryTreasurer, James L. Hall, Cincinnati, Ohio.
The 1980 meeting will be held September
26-28 at Winnipeg. The University of Manitoba will be the host institution.
James L. Hall
Midwest Anatomists Association
The 19th Annual Meeting of the Southern
Society of Anatomists was held in Washington, D.C., November 8-10, 1979, under the
auspices of t h e Department of Anatomy,
Georgetown University School of Medicine.
Eighty-six members, 19 graduate students
and eight visitors registered for the meeting;
and 61 papers were presented. The abstracts
will be published in the Anatomical Record.
The 1980 meeting will be hosted by the Department of Anatomy, Medical College of
Georgia. The officers of the Society for the
year 1980 are as follows: President, Dale E.
Bockman, Medical College of Georgia; PastPresident, B. Raj Bhussry, Georgetown University School of Medicine; President-Elect,
Richard J. Weymouth, University of South
Carolina School of Medicine; and SecretaryTreasurer, Herbert Schapiro, Eastern Virginia School of Medicine. The 1981 meeting will
be held in Columbia, South Carolina, a t the
University of South Carolina School of Medicine. On November 1, 1979, the Southern
Society of Anatomy had 323 active, 67 associate, three honorary, four foreign and 14
emeritus members, for a total of 411.
Herbert Schapiro
Southern Society of Anatomists
Report of the Activities of the Association of
Anatomy Chairmen. Dr. Lloyd Guth, President of the Association of Anatomy Chairmen,
said that the Association has three major
interests; namely, the image of anatomy, federal funding of research grants and the recurring problem with cadavers. The Executive
Committee of the AAC believes that by improving the image of anatomy, the better students will apply to graduate programs within
the discipline. Accordingly, it decided to sponsor a symposium-workshop for graduate students, followed by a socializer at the Annual
Meeting of AAA. Approximately 50% to 60%
of approved grants were funded in neurology.
Reduced federal funding will abolish contracts, and no additional training grants will
be approved. Although the abolition of training grants mortgages the future, a t least individual research grants should continue a t
about the same level of funding for another
year. Dr. Guth said that most of the recent
problems with cadavers have resulted from
using them in automobile crash experiments.
A committee of the AAC has proposed guidelines that should eliminate the problem.
Appointments of Committees and Councils
Drs. Elizabeth M. Ramsey and Richard
Snell were reappointed to another term on the
Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature. Dr.
Ira R. Telford, who has been asked to serve as
the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Nomina
Histologica of the International Anatomical
Nomenclature Committee, was appointed to
replace for Dr. Thomas Hunt. Dr. Zwemer
informed the Executive Committee that he
intends to resign a s Chairman of CAN in
1981. A suggestion was made to have a workshop on nomenclature a t the next Annual
Meeting in hopes of identifying persons interested in this area. The matter was deferred to
the Interim Meeting of the Executive Committee.
Dr. Liberato J. A. DiDio, a former President
of the Pan American Association of Anatomy,
told the Executive Committee that 205 members of AAA also are members of the PAAA.
Unfortunately, only three of them attended
the meeting in Sbo Paulo. Dues to the PAAA
have not been collected in recent years, and it
is important for the United States to be represented in this international organization.
Dr. DiDio said he was willing to collect the
dues and re-establish a more formal relationship with PAAA. He recommended that the
American Association of Anatomists appoint
an official representative with a n alternate.
After some discussion, the Executive Committee voted to name Dr. Marilyn L. Zimny as
the Official Representative of the American
Association of Anatomists to the Pan American Association of Anatomists with Dr. Liberato J. DiDio as the alternate.
The Executive Committee accepted the resignation of Dr. C. Murphy Combs as the Director of the Placement Service. Rather than
appoint someone to the position immediately,
it was decided to ask for volunteers a t the
Annual Business Meeting. In addition, a call
for volunteers will be placed in theAnatomica1
News, and the new director will be selected a t
the Interim Meeting of the Executive Committee from among those who volunteer. Two
other possibilities €or handling the Placement
Service were considered. One would be to
share the responsibility with the Association
of Anatomy Chairmen, and the second would
be to assign the job to the Secretary-Treasurer
of AAA. The latter would be feasible only if
the jobs of Secretary and Treasurer were separated. If the Secretary handled the correspondence and prepared the forms for display,
it might be possible for someone from the
Local Committee to man the Placement Service Room a t the Annual Meeting each year.
Appointments to other committees and
councils were discussed by the officers and
members of the Executive Committee, and the
persons recommended are listed in the Report
of the Annual Business Meeting. The details
During the entire 20-year period of the
contract, Alan R. Liss, Inc., will support the
editorial offices of both anatomical journals.
Rather than attempting to negotiate a higher
Other Business
percentage of royalties during the second tenThe Secretary-Treasurer reviewed the ne- year period, the Executive Committee agreed
gotiations with the Wistar Institute Press and that it would be better to ask for greater
Alan R. Liss, Inc., regarding ownership of The support for the editorial offices. A motion was
American Journal of Anatomy and The Ana- made to approve in principle the tentative
tomical Record. After two meetings in Wash- agreement. This was seconded and passed
ington with Dr . Warren Cheston and Mr . Alan unanimously. After the attorneys for the WisR. Liss, a tentative agreement was reached. tar Institute and Alan R. Liss, Inc., have
Liss will purchase six and publish all eight of prepared contracts for signatures, the Secrethe Wistar journals, starting with the Janu- tary-Treasurer is authorized to consult a n
a r y 1980 issues. The Wistar Institute will attorney to protect the interests of the Assoreceive royalties over a ten-year period. It will ciation if he thinks it necessary.
Anatomists and Slow Viruses. The Office of
transfer the titles of the two anatomical journals to the Association prior to December 31, the Secretary-Treasurer was contacted by one
1989, but Liss will continue to publish The of the members regarding the possible danger
American Journal of Anatomy and The Ana- of slow viruses to anatomists handling cadavtomical Record for the Association for a period ers and tissues that might be contaminated
of at least another ten years-that is, through with slow viruses such as those that cause
December 31, 1999.
Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and other dementia
Wistar recognizes that i t does not have clear and neurological disorders. The problem was
title to the anatomical journals; therefore it referred to President-Elect Sanford Palay, who
intends to share earned royalties with the in turn contacted Professor E. E. Manuelidis
Association for the period January 1, 1980, of Yale University and Dr. Clarence Gibbs of
through December 31, 1989. In order to get the National Institute of Neurological and
both the Wistar Institute and the Association Communicative Disorders and Stroke. Profesto agree to a 20-year contract rather than a sor Manuelidis has been working with the
ten-year one, Alan R. Liss, Inc., will match Creutzfeld-Jakob agent for several years and
the contributions from the Wistar Institute has succeeded in transmitting the disease to
during the first ten years. Wistar will pay the guinea pigs; Dr. Gibbs has had extended exAssociation $5,000 per year from the monies perience with the agents of Creutzfeld-Jakob
it has been guaranteed, and this amount will disease, kuru and scrapie.
be matched by Liss to equal $10,000 per year.
D r . Palay reported t h a t t h e agents of
It is anticipated that profits in the future will Creutzfeld- Jakob disease, kuru and scrapie
be greater than in the past, so the royalties are all closely related if not identical; and the
Wistar will receive probably will be much diseases that go by these names are naturally
greater than their guarantee; this extra mon- occurring syndromes, the first two occurring
ey also will be shared with the Association in man and the third in sheep and goats. All
and subsequently will be matched by Liss. So, are associated with motor disorders and dealthough the agreement guarantees a mini- mentia. The agent produces the disease only
mum of $10,000 per year, it is quite possible after a prolonged incubation period of months
that $20,000 or more will be generated an- or years; and except for kuru, the natural
nually for the treasury, even though the As- mode of transmission is unknown. Kuru is a
special case. It was discovered by Gajdusek
sociation will not own the journals.
During the second ten-year period of the that the disease was transmitted by the canagreement, when the Association once again nibalistic funeral ritual from the deceased
will own the two journals, Alan R. Liss, Inc., family member to the healthy relatives, eswill continue its payments to the Association pecially the children, over whose heads the
and assume Wistar’s payments. Thus, if sales intracranial contents of the deceased were
during the second ten-year period are exactly smeared. When these practices were stopped,
the same as those anticipated for 1980, the the disease no longer appeared among chilAssociation will continue receiving up to dren, and the age of onset has been growing
$20,000 per year in royalties. If the circulation progressively later among those affected.
of the journals increases andior inflation conThese agents produce a disease of high pathtinues, even more money will be realized.
ogenicity but low contagion. There is no eviof payments and contributions that were authorized are also given in that report.
dence that Creutzfeld-Jakob disease is transmitted in the course of ordinary contact with
infected material or patients. Some years ago
there was a report of a patient who developed
the condition after receiving a corneal transplant from a donor who had died with Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. More recently there was a
report of the appearance of the disease in two
patients who developed it after having had
electrodes implanted in their brains, but these
electrodes had been used in the brains of other
patients suffering from Creutzfeld-Jakob disease. There is a report of a neurosurgeon who
contracted the disease after cutting himself
with a scalpel during a biopsy procedure on a
patient with it. In all of these cases the inoculation with the infectious agent occurred, as
in kuru, by direct introduction into the eye or
the brain or through the skin. But there is no
evidence that relatives or caretakers of patients with Creutzfeld-Jakob disease are any
more likely to contract it than the ordinary
population. In addition, 300 children born to
mothers having kuru have been followed now
for 20 years, and none has developed the
disease. Furthermore, there is no evidence
that neurosurgeons or neuropathologists, supposedly at high risk, have a higher incidence
of the disease than the general population. No
anatomists are known to have had the disease.
Both Professor Manuelidis and Dr. Gibbs emphasized that the infectious agent is extremely
resistant to ordinary methods of disinfection.
Ordinary autoclaving for 15 minutes will not
inactivate it. It is resistant to 10% formalin
(4% formaldehyde) and glutaraldehyde and
paraformaldehyde mixtures as used in electron microscopy. However, i t can be inactivated by immersion in l(M0 phenol or in full
strength Clorox (sodium hypochloride) for 30
minutes or in potassium permanganate diluted 1:250 up to 1:1,000. Furthermore, it can be
inactivated by autoclaving in distilled water
at 15 pounds of pressure for 60 minutes. The
resistance of the agent to ordinary disinfectants means that somewhat more stringent
precautions should be used by students and
staff who are working with biological tissues,
both animal and human. Both Drs. Manuelidis
and Gibbs recommended that gloves always
be worn during dissection and handling of
tissues. After use, instruments should be sterilized by autoclaving a t elevated pressure for
no less than 60 minutes. Tools or glassware
that can tolerate it may be soaked in undiluted
laundry bleach or potassium permanganate.
Ln case of accidental cuts, the usual sanitary
precautions should be taken, and new gloves
should be put on. Probably the most important
precautions that can be taken by anatomists
concern the sources of cadavers and organs for
dissection and study. Neither cadavers nor
tissues should be accepted from patients who
have had progressive demyelinating diseases
with dementia or who may be suspected of
having had these diseases. A clear diagnosis
of Creutzfeld- Jakob disease should definitely
exclude the subject. But other demyelinating
diseases, the cause of which is still not known,
should also be cause for refusal of the material-i.e., diseases such as multiple sclerosis
and amyotrophic sclerosis. Clearly, patients
with any of these diseases should not be considered as donors of organs for transplantation
into other human beings.
Establishment of Service Awards. A suggestion was received from a member that the
Association consider establishing an award
based on service to the Association. Discussion
of the matter was deferred to the Interim
Meeting of the Executive Committee.
Plans for International Congresses of Anatomy. A suggestion was made that there should
be a committee charged with the responsibility of planning the International Congress of
Anatomy, which occurs every five years. Each
national anatomical association should have
such a committee, one member of which
should be appointed a n official representative
to an international planning committee. Dr.
John E. Pauly was asked to serve as the
official representative of the American Association of Anatomists to any such international committee that might be formed in Mexico
The Interim Meeting of the Executive Committee was scheduled for Monday and Tuesday, September 29 and 30, 1980, in Boston,
There being no further business, the meeting adjourned at 4 5 0 p.m.
Respectfully submitted,
John E . Pauly
S u m m a r y of Symposium I
Chairman: John F. Fallon
Leroy C. Stevens, The Jackson Laboratory.
Teratocarcinomas a n d parthenogenesis i n
Laura B. Grabel, University of California, San
Francisco. T h e use o f teratocarcinoma stem
cells to study differentiation of the peri-implantation mouse embryo: From chromosome
to the cell surface.
Davor Solter, The Wistar Institute of Anatomy
and Biology. Changes in cell surface molecules during differentiation of embryonal
carcinoma cells.
Sidney Strickland, The Rockefeller University. Chemical induction o f differentiation i n
teratocarcinoma cells.
Teratocarcinomas as Models to Study
Mammalian Development
Roundtable Discussion
Introduction and Moderator:
Roger Pedersen
University of California, San Francisco
The Morphogenesis Club participated in the
Annual Meeting with three separate programs: a group of 14 papers selected for platform presentation; 16 presentations selected
for a poster session; and the third Morphogenesis Club Symposium, “The Development
and Differentiation of Teratocarcinomas.” The
purpose of the symposium was to describe the
teratocarcinoma system and present some of
the most recent work using it. The symposium
provided the background for a roundtable discussion by the panel and audience.
The first speaker, Dr. Leroy Stevens, considered the origins of teratocarcinomas in the
testis and ovaries of mice and by transplantation of genital ridges or embryos to ectopic
sites. He described the morphology of early
teratocarcinomas, comparing them with the
pre- and post-implantation embryo.
Testicular teratomas are tumors composed
of many kinds of differentiated tissues. They
are extremely rare in experimental animals,
except for inbred strain 129 mice and lines
derived from it. They originate during the
12th day of gestation from primordial germ
cells that begin to develop as a result of a
process akin to parthenogenesis. Several
genes and environmental factors influence
susceptibility to teratocarcinogenesis. Teratomas are usually benign, but occasionally they
are malignant; and transplantable teratocarcinomas have been established from them.
The stem cells of teratomas have been injected
into normal blastocysts; and they have participated in normal development and have contributed to the formation of all kinds of cells
and tissues, including functional sperm.
Ovarian teratomas are also rare in experimental animals, except for inbred strain LT
mice. These tumors originate from ovarian
oocytes that are parthenogenetically activated. The eggs cleave and form normal-looking
blastocysts, but then they become disorganized and form teratomas rather than mice.
When groups of strain LT virgin females are
autopsied, a large proportion of them are
found to be pregnant. After ovulation, the
eggs cleave parthenogenetically in the oviduct. Normal-looking embryos implant in the
uterus, but they die shortly thereafter. When
a parthenogenetic eight-cell embryo is aggregated with a normal eight-cell embryo and
transferred to the uterus of a pseudopregnant
female, i t develops into a chimeric mouse
composed of cells from both the parthenogenetic and normal embryo. This means that
even though parthenogenetic embryos do not
survive in utero, they are capable of participating in normal development when combined
with normal embryonic cells.
Dr. Laura Grabel described the development of clonal teratocarcinoma cells in culture
and discussed the timing of X-chromosome
inactivation under these conditions. She also
presented evidence that the aggregation of
teratocarcinoma cells into embryoid bodies is
mediated by mannose-specific lectins on the
cell surface.
To use the teratocarcinoma system to its
fullest potential and apply the techniques of
modern biochemistry and molecular biology,
tissue culture cell lines with the capacity to
differentiate in vitro were isolated. One such
teratocarcinoma stem cell line, PSA, proliferates if plated on a feeder layer. When the
layer is removed, tight aggregates of cells may
be pipetted off the dish; and these differentiate
to form embryoid bodies. Subsequent differentiation parallels that observed with isolated
inner cell masses.
Female stem cell lines were isolated and
shown to contain two active Xs by analysis of
X-linked versus autosomal enzymes. With differentiation in suspension, the gene dosage of
X-linked enzymes decreased to the level of
autosomal enzymes, suggesting inactivation
of an X.
A carbohydrate-binding component on the
surface of the stem cell was described using
a n erythrocyte rosette assay. The lectin recognized mannose-rich glycoconjugates, which
also interfered with cell-cell contacts. Preliminary evidence suggested that the carbohydrate specificity changed with differentiation
of stem cells into endoderm. Experiments are
in progress to purify a soluble hemagglutinin
with properties similar to the rosette-mediating factor.
Dr. Strickland described methods that he
developed for improving synchrony of cell differentiation in cultured teratocarcinomas. Using low concentrations of retinoic acid, he
induced teratocarcinoma stem cells to differentiate into parietal endoderm by several morphological and biochemical criteria.
Embryonal carcinoma cells, the stem cells
of teratocarcinomas, usually undergo extensive differentiation in vivo and in vitro to a
wide variety of cell types. There exist, however, several embryonal carcinoma cell lines
that have almost completely lost the capacity
to differentiate, so that the cells are propagated primarily as the stem cells. Using one such
cell line, F9, it was found that retinoic acid a t
concentrations as low as
M induces multiple phenotypic changes in the cultures in
vitro. These changes include morphological
alteration at the resolution of the light microscope, elevated levels of plasminogen activator
production, sensitivity to cyclic AMP compounds and increased synthesis of collagenlike proteins. The nature of these changes, as
well as their independence of the continued
presence of retinoic acid, are consistent with
the proposition that retinoic acid induces differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into
The structure-activity relationship of various derivatives of retinoic acid, the kinetics
of the cellular response, and the nature of the
type of endoderm formed were described.
These experiments demonstrated that the carboxylic acid group of retinoic acid is essential
for activity, whereas the structure can be
modified in the cyclohexenyl ring system with
retention of effectiveness. The time course of
the response of the cells showed that the
amount of differentiation is proportional to
the duration of treatment, and suggested that
the retinoid facilitates formation of endoderm
a t each division. Finally, even well-differentiated cultures do not produce alpha-fetoprotein, indicating that the endoderm formed is
similar to parietal, but not visceral, endoderm.
The consequence of in vivo retinoic acid treatment on the tumorigenesis of F9 embryonal
carcinoma cells in 129/J mice was described.
The presence of retinoic acid in the diet a t 100
mgikg significantly retarded tumor growth
and lengthened the survival time of the mice.
Both histological analysis and aswys for biochemical markers of endoderm in the tumor
suggest that the retinoid is inducing differentiation of the embryonal carcinoma cells in
Dr. Solter described a monoclonal antibody
derived by fusion of mouse myeloma cells with
spleen cells from a mouse immunized with F9
teratocarcinoma cells. This antibody, which
reacts with embryonal carcinoma cells of
mouse and human origin and with some preimplantation stage mouse embryos, defines an
embryonic stage-specific antigen. This stagespecific antigen (SSEA-1) is first detected on
blastomeres of %cell stage embryos. Trophectodermal cells are transitorily positive; however, each cell in the inner cell mass eventually expresses this antigen. SSEA-1 is present
on embryonic ectoderm and endoderm of the
egg cylinder, cells of the neural tube, genital
ridge and tubules of mesonephros. In adult
animals the antigen is found in kidney tubules, some areas of the brain and in the
epithelium of uterus and epididymis.
Treatment of embryonal carcinoma cells F9
with retinoic acid results in the appearance of
epithelioid cells resembling endoderm that
synthesize basement membrane protein and
plasminogen activator. Concomitant with the
appearance of these properties of differentiated cells, the epithelial cells cease to express
SSEA-1. The evidence indicates that the phenotypic changes that accompany retinoic acid
treatment of embryonal carcinoma cells are
irreversible and a consequence of the differentiation of the cells into endoderm.
Murine teratocarcinomas were located in
mice by external gamma-ray scintigraphy
with an iodine-131-labeled monoclonal antibody (anti-SSEA-1)specific to the tumors. The
specificity of the method was increased by
subtracting the radiation produced by an iodine-123-labeled indifferent monoclonal antibody of the same immunoglobulin class as the
tumor-specific antibody.
Dr. Pedersen summarized the points the
speakers made and led the roundtable discussion, in which the speakers and other participants considered the strengths and weaknesses of teratocarcinomas as models for early
embryo development. Teratocarcinomas were
considered particularly valuable for questions
requiring larger amounts of material than
would be available from embryos. Early stages
of differentiation would be amenable to study
with teratocarcinomas, but late stages (after
mesoderm differentiation) would not, owing to
the extensive disorganization of the teratocarcinomas a t later stages of growth. Possible
future applications of teratocarcinomas for introducing novel genotypes into mice were also
After the symposium there was a brief meeting of the Morphogenesis Club. During the
meeting Drs. Timothy Fitzharris, Meredith
Runner, Mike1 Snow and Lynn Wiley were
elected to serve on the Governing Board for
two years, replacing Drs. Mitchell Eddy, John
Fallon, Stephen Meier and Melvin Moss. Drs.
David Beebe, Roger Markwald and Judson
Sheridan make up the rest of the Board, with
a year of their terms remaining. At a subsequent meeting of the Governing Board, Dr.
Markwald was elected Chairman for the
1980-1981 meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Summary of Symposium II
Chairman: Allen C. Enders
J. Michael Bedford, Cornell University Medical College. Physiological and structural determinants of the mode of fertilization i n
Lynn M. Wiley, The University of Virginia
School of Medicine. Blastocyst formation i n
mouse embryos: Morphogenic aspects inuoluing the cell surface and cytoskeletal elements.
Jonathan Van Blerkom, University of Colorado, Boulder. Molecular and cellular correlates of preimplantation development.
Roger Pedersen, University of California
School of Medicine, San Francisco. Differentiation and determination i n early mouse
The purpose of this symposium was to explore developing information concerning the
stages from fertilization to implantation in
mammals. In approaching this aim, the speakers provided information on comparative aspects of fertilization, the possible mechanisms
leading to formation of the cavity of the blastocyst in the mouse, the time sequence and
appearance of specific proteins in mouse preovulatory and cleavage stages, and experimental evidence for differentiation and commit-
ment during early development of the mouse.
Dr. Bedford suggested that, despite a great
many observations, there was little precise
information concerning the mechanism of
zona penetration and the nature of the fusion
between the egg and the sperm that occurs
during incorporation of the latter into the
zygote. He suggested that comparison of marsupials with eutherians reveals differences in
the nature of the zona pellucida and the way
in which it is penetrated by sperm. The differences could explain the mechanism of penetration, and also the reason for the method of
incorporation of sperm into the egg observed
in eutherian mammals. He argued that the
zona pellucida of the marsupial was a relatively inconsequential barrier to sperm penetration as compared to that of eutherian mammals, and that, in the latter, changes in sperm
structure have resulted in the production of a
sperm with a rigid head region (after the
acrosomal response) suited for mechanical
penetration of the zona pellucida. In addition,
he suggested that, because of the mechanical
stabilization of the head, only a limited area
of fusion remained; namely, the equatorial
zone. This restricted fusion surface necessitates the method of incorporation whereby
much of the sperm is phagocytized by the
ovum a t the time of fertilization after the
initial adhesion.
Dr. Lynn Wiley presented arguments for
polarized organelle deployment in relationship to a n initial formation of the blastocyst
cavity in the mouse. She reported the migration of lipid droplets and mitochondria to the
central area of the morula, the development
of junctions in association with microfilaments
and a decrease in total volume in the early
blastocyst stage as opposed to increase in
volume subsequently. She pointed out that
both poisons of microtubular development and
of microfilaments inhibited not only compaction, as reported by Ducihella and Anderson,
but also formation of the blastocyst cavity. She
suggested that the lipid droplets that migrated
to the borders of the cell were then in good
position to be used as an energy substrate by
the mitochondria and that the disappearance
of this lipid could account for a t least some of
the loss of volume occurring with cavity formation. She interpreted these observations,
plus those of Vorbrodt et a1 that sodium potassium dependent ATPase is first detectable
in embryos after compaction, with a theory in
which the initial polarization of organelles is
due, at least in part, to the arrangement of
microtubules, that these structures are heav-
ily involved in the first formation of a cavity,
that the microfilaments support the adhesion
of cells during compaction and early cavity
formation, and only after this, when the blastocysts begin to swell, does the ATPase sodium
pump system take over. Unfortunately, no
time remained after this interesting presentation to discuss whether similar migrations
of organelles occurred in other species or
whether alternative interpretations should be
Dr. Van Blerkom presented evidence using
the two-dimensional gel technique for the appearance of new proteins a t various times
during development of the mouse. Of particular interest were his observations that the
preovulatory, fertilization and early cleavage
stages are stages of rapid development of
stage-specific proteins and that surprisingly
many of these proteins appear in a chronological sequence independent of the usual nuclear
events. Of the many correlates of these observations, some of the interesting ones are that
the appearance of a new protein in cleavage
does not necessarily mean that the protein is
derived from the new genome rather than
having been initiated by messenger from the
egg per se, and the partial independence of
control of either translational or post-translational changes from the nuclear events of
fertilization and cleavage. It also means that
it would be possible t o select certain proteins
that are time specific with which to study
directly the mechanisms by which the generation of their appearance is regulated.
Dr. Roger Pedersen not only described differentiation i n the mouse embryo but also summarized some of the work being done with
microsurgical and immunosurgical techniques
to separate inner cell mass cells and trophectoderm cells i n the mouse. He used these
methods to show whether the cells have
reached positions in which the subsequent
history is assured and some aspects of morphological differentiation are also committed
(unable to change their differentiation). He
showed that one could take cells that were on
the exterior of the inner cell mass-i.e., presumptive endoderm position-and nevertheless
get ectoderm-type derivatives from them. Consequently, cytodifferentiation occurred prior
to commitment to the respective fates of the
cell lines. He then showed two other methods
of investigating the positional effects i n the
early embryo on cytodifferentiation. One
method was the creation of giant chimeras by
the fusion of several groups of blastomeres
brought about by the removal of the zona
pellucida, and the use of these chimeras as
recipients of donor &cell and morulae stage
embryos. The results indicated that when the
zonae peilucidae were retained on &cell or
morulae stages, they developed into normal
blastocysts within the cavity of the chimeras.
When the zona pellucidae were removed, the
donor 8-cell or morulae stage embryos tended
to adhere to the mural trophoblast and failed
to undergo cavity formation. Another method
for exploring positional effects was to use
markers of individual cells -for example, by
the injection of horseradish peroxidase into
single blastomeres.
These four presentations illustrate not only
the application of modern techniques to the
study of preimplantation development but also
the rapidity with which new information is
changing our understanding of this interesting stage in development of mammals.
Symposium 111
Chairman: Leon P. Weiss
Ernest A. McCulloch, University of Toronto.
Stem cells i n normal and abnormal hematopoiesis.
Leon P. Weiss, University of Pennsylvania.
T h e organization of bone marrow and erythropoiesis.
Dorothy F. Bainton, University of California,
San Francisco. Granulocytes, monocytes and
mac rophages.
Jonathan Sprent, University of Pennsylvania.
Professor McCulloch described the hematopoietic stem cell in normal and certain pathological states, including the leukemias and
polycythemia. The primary defining characteristic of stem cells, proliferation, and certain
secondary characteristics, such as multipotentiality in differentiation, were discussed. The
monoclonal expansion of a given cell line was
illustrated by polycythemia Vera and other
pathological proliferative syndromes. The kinetics of hematopoiesis were considered.
Among the techniques t h a t Professor McCulloch discussed were spleen colony assay
and tissue cultures.
Professor Weiss presented information, derived from electron microscopic study of mu-
rine bone marrow in mutant and experiment a l l y perturbed animals (i.e., bleeding,
hypertransfusion), on the cells associated with
normal and heightened hematopoiesis and on
the vascular and hematopoietic cells in the
course of the delivery of blood cells to the
circulation. The hematopoietic-associated-cells
(HAC) are macrophages, lymphocytes and
branched stromal cells. The endothelial and
adventitial reticular cells making up the walls
of the vascular sinuses appear active both in
hematopoiesis and in the delivery of blood
cells to the circulation.
Professor Sprent reviewed the factors associated with the maturation of B lymphocytes
to plasma cells as a function of changes in cell
surface receptors. He characterized the recirculating lymphocyte pool and life-span of lym-
phocytes. The major part of the presentation
was devoted to the nature of the cell surface
receptors in T lymphocytes and the different
classes of lymphocytes and their functions.
Professor Bainton delineated the morphological events in the maturation of granulocytes and of macrophages. She discussed the
cytochemical changes associated with granule
formation, identified the several classes of
granules within granulocytes, and pointed out
that each of the white cell types, including
lymphocytes, contained granules. The changes
associated with the transformation of monocytes to macrophages, the kinetics of white
blood cell development and release, and the
functions of granulocytes and macrophages
were presented.
Edmund Applebaum was born on February
1, 1899, in New York City, son of Hanna
Harris Applebaum and Joseph Applebaum, a
German-born merchant and realtor.
Following military service, Edmund Applebaum attended the New York College of Dentistry and was graduated D.D.S. in 1922. In
1926, after some years of full-time dental
practice, he joined the faculty of the School of
Dental and Oral Surgery, Columbia University, as an Assistant in Oral Histology under
Profesor Charles Bodecker. In 1928 he became Instructor and in 1935 Assistant Professor in Oral Histology.
In 1945 the basic science departments of the
School of Dental and Oral Surgery and the
College of Physicians and Surgeons were
merged, and in 1950 Edmund Applebaum became Associate Professor of Anatomy. Upon
his retirement he was appointed Special Lecturer in Anatomy. In this capacity he remained active, both in teaching and in research, until the day of his death, November
15, 1975.
In a real way Ed Applebaum was a living
bridge between the earlier days of proprietary
dental education and present-day dentistry.
Ed had a ceaseless yearning for knowledge.
He was a man of the book, although he continued to take great pride in being “a histologist who could also cast a perfect inlay.” For
most of his career, until just a few years before
his retirement, he continued to practise dentistry part-time.
Ed Applebaum was one of the first true
dental scientists. With Charles Bodecker, he
maintained that dental enamel possessed an
organic matrix. While this fact is now fully
accepted, a t that time i t was a subject of open
derision by the profession. He was a pioneer
in the field of microradiography, which became
his favorite research tool and enabled him to
perform his early, critical studies on dental
caries and mottled enamel. Of his later work,
his histologic studies of the craniofacial complex in human embryos and fetuses, and his
work on the aging of dentin (with George
Philippas) were of particular interest.
While many of Ed‘s 68 scientific contributions, published between 1929 and 1972, have
withstood the test of time, he will be remembered by most as a teacher of two full generations of literally thousands of dentists. Those
of us who were privileged to know Ed Applebaum during some time of his long academic
and professional career remember him as a
gentle, humorous and profoundly intellectual
He is survived by his wife Dorothy and a
son, Dr. Joseph Applebaum.
The productive and distinguished life of
Oscar Vivian Batson ended on November 11,
1979, after a short cardiovascular illness.
On June 30, 1963, Oscar Vivian Batson,
M.A., M.D., Sc.D. (hon.) retired as Chairman
of the Department of Anatomy in the Graduate School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, because of age. He was immediately
reappointed Professor and in 1965 was made
Professor Emeritus. Dr. Batson was, first and
foremost, a teacher. To a vast knowledge of
comparative and human anatomy, plus diverse clinical experience, he added a pungent
wit, a flair for dramatics and a n unfailing
clarity of exposition. His lectures were always
adorned with pithy axioms and colorful anecdotes.
Dr. Batson was born in Sedalia, Missouri,
on November 10, 1894. He attended the Sedalia public schools and was valedictorian of
his high school class. At the University of
Missouri he received his A.B. degree in 1916
and his M.A. in 1918. His M.D. was granted
by St. Louis University in 1920. In 1952 the
University of Missouri conferred upon him the
honorary degree of Doctor of Science. In 1964
St. Louis University conferred an honorary
LL.D. degree. He began his teaching in Anatomy before he received his A.B. degree, for in
1915-17 he was student assistant in Anatomy
at Missouri. In 1919-1920 he was instructor
in Pathology at St. Louis University, and in
1920-1921 he was instructor in Anatomy a t University. The scientific exhibit and presenthe University of Wisconsin. In 1921 he joined tation of research data were honored by the
the Department of Anatomy a t the University American Medical Association in 1942 by the
of Cincinnati with the rank of Assistant Pro- Bronze Medal and in 1953 by the Gold Medal.
fessor, 1921-1924 Associate Professor, 1924-1927; In 1941 the American Roentgen Ray Society
and Professor, 1927-1928. Concurrently, awarded him the Silver Medal.
1923-1926, he was Professor of Anatomy in
Many honors and offices came to Dr . Batson:
the Ohio College of Dental Surgery. It was the Key of the American Academy of Ophwhile Dr. Batson was in Cincinnati that I thalmology and Otolaryngology; the Second
became associated with him, a n association Vice-presidency of the American Association
that continued until his death. In 1928, Dr. of Anatomists 1956-1958; member, Board of
Batson was called to the Graduate School of Editors of the American Journal of RoentgenMedicine of the University of Pennsylvania as ology; Secretary, then Chairman, of the SecProfessor of Anatomy. In years of service as tion on Otolaryngology, College of Physicians
Professor he was the senior member of the of Philadelphia; Sigma Xi; Alpha Kappa Kapmedical faculties. In 1935, he was appointed pa; Alpha Omega Alpha (hon.). In 1975 Dr.
Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology in the Batson was the recipient of the Henry Gray
School of Medicine, University of Pennsylva- Award bestowed by the American Association
nia. In 1933, he was certified by the American of Anatomists.
He was a member of the American AssociBoard of Otolaryngology.
Dr. Batson was “an anatomist’s anatomist.” ation of Anatomists, American Academy of
In the tradition of the earlier great anato- Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology, Fellow
mists, he taught a thorough grounding in the of the American Medical Association and Colmorphology of the cadaver, plus the clinical lege of Physicians of Philadelphia, Philadelimplications of variable form and function. phia County Medical Society, Physiological
This approach brought the dead body “to life” Society of Philadelphia, Dentall Clinic Club of
in the sense that the dynamics of the living, Philadelphia, Surgical Society (hon.) Kansas
functional body was focal in his teaching. In City, Philadelphia Roentgen Ray Society (hon.
line with this viewpoint, Dr. Batson was one life member) and the American Association
of the pioneers in the emphasis that Anatomy for the Advancement of Science.
Dr. Batson’s hospital affiliations were as
and Radiology be helpmates. As early as 1916
in his teaching he illustrated joint form and follows: Chief, Otolaryngology, Philadelphia
function with the x-ray plate and later with General Hospital, Summer Trimester for ten
years; sometime Assistant Chief of Otolarynthe fluoroscopic screen.
Dr. Batson has contributed much to the gology, Episcopal Hospital of Philadelphia,
development of methodology in Anatomy: the and Hospital of the University of Pennsylvarestoration of mummified tissues, differential nia.
He published forty papers and contributed
staining of bone, the study of skin capillaries,
the direction of flow in cardiac vessels and chapters in four books.
He is credited as being the first to recognize
various injection techniques. He was the first
investigator in the Western Hemisphere to the vertebral veins as the central feature of
use latex rubber emulsions for the demonstra- what he called the vertebral vein system and
tion of blood vessels. He was active in dem- the first to put a functional interpretation on
onstrating vascular patterns with corrosion this group of veins. This work is quoted worldspecimens and is responsible for developing a wide in monographs and textbooks, many of
which refer to the vascular networks as Batwidely used corrosion mass.
He was most widely known for his studies son’s veins.
For the last several years, using the x-ray
of the veins of the skull and vertebral column
and has pointed out the significance of these image amplifier, he was recording the function
veins in the spread of cancer in the body. His of these veins on cine film.
Dr. Batson was a linguist, speaking German
early work on these vessels was summarized
in the Caldwell Lecture in 1956, “The Verte- and French fluently, and was able to learn
bral Vein System,” for which he received the new languages rapidly, as he did Spanish,
Caldwell Memorial Medal of the American when a group of South American physicians
Roentgen Ray Society. In 1962 he gave the were due at the graduate school.
In 1918 Dr. Batson married Eleanor H.
Chamberlain Lecture at Temple University
and in 1963, the Kaplan Lecture a t New York Neuman, who survives him. The happy mar-
riage was blessed with two sons, James GUStav, who died a t the age of 22, and Andrew
Peter, who received his M.D. degree at the
University of Pennsylvania in 1953. He is now
a retired Air Force Colonel, practicing Ophthalmology in New Hampshire.
Our personal feelings of grief at his loss are
tempered with the knowledge that Oscar Batson has left his colleagues an intellectual and
philosophical legacy that will extend through
our lifetimes and beyond.
On Sunday, February 17, 1980, Baldev Raj
Bhussry, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Anatomy, Georgetown University
Schools of Medicine and Dentistry, died suddenly. He was 52 years old. To his students,
colleagues and members of the American Association of Anatomists, the death of Raj
Bhussry was more than the departure of a
teacher and colleague-it was the loss of a
beloved friend. He had the rare capacity to
transform brief acquaintances into lasting
friendships because of his personal warmth
and his love for people. Raj Bhussry was a
person with whom you shared your joys, your
sadness, your concerns and your dreams. He
was a man of gentility and strength, of passion
and understanding, of humility and humanity.
While he was among us, he found fulfillment
as one who was as beloved as he loved.
As a man, he loved his friends
As a doctor, he loved his profession
As a scholar, he loved his University
As a teacher, he loved his students
As a husband, he loved his wife
As a son, he loved his parents
Dr. Bhussry was born in Sialkot, Pakistan, on
February 8,1928. He attended Murray College
and De-Montmorency College of Dentistry in
Pakistan and was graduated from Sir C.E.M.
Dental College and Hospital in India in 1949.
He held a n appointment a t the University of
Bombay, India, as an Instructor in Operative
Dentistry before continuing his education as
a Fulbright Scholar a t the Eastman Dental
Center of the University of Rochester. He
completed a Pedodontic Internship and went
on to earn his Masters Degree in Dentistry in
1953. In 1956 he received his Doctor of Philosophy in Anatomy from the University of
Dr. Bhussry began his academic career a t
the University of Rochester as a n Instructor
in the Departments of Anatomy and Dental
Research. He continued this dual professional
interest when he accepted an appointment the
following year as Assistant Professor of Anatomy and Director of Dental Research training
a t Georgetown University Schools of Medicine
and Dentistry. He became Assistant Professor
in 1960, and in 1963, a t the age of 35, he was
appointed Chairman of the Department of
Anatomy; he held this position until his death.
During his years a t Georgetown, he also
served the faculty, students and administration as an active member of numerous academic committees.
Dr. Bhussry was the recipient of a USPHS
Research Career Development Award in 1958.
He was dedicated to dental investigation and
research and will be remembered for his series
of publications on the physical and chemical
properties of enamel, his interest in the modification of the dental pulp during development and aging, his presentation to the World
Health Organization on the “Influence of Toxic
Doses of Fluoride on the Development of
Teeth” and his chapter in Orban’s Textbook of
Oral Histology and Embryology, “Development and Growth of Teeth.”
Dr. Bhussry made significant contributions
to other aspects of the anatomical and dental
professions. He was an active member of the
International Association for Dental Research, serving as Secretary-Tkeasurer from
1962 to 1964, as Councillor in 1965-1966 and
as President during 1966-1967; a member of
the DHEW Dental Education Review Committee from 1968 to 1972; a member of the
Joint Committee of NIDR and AADS on Dental Research Manpower; a member and Secretary of the District of Columbia Anatomical
Board; a member from 1968 to 1972 of the
Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Anatomists; a consultant
since 1974 to the DHEW Health Manpower
Branch, Region IX, San Francisco; and a consultant to the American Association of Dental
Schools since 1975. In addition, he was a
member of the Southern Association of Anatomists, of which he served as President-Elect
in 1977-1978 and as President in 1978-1979.
Throughout his career, Dr. Bhussry had
nurtured his dual love for the teaching of
Anatomy and for dental research. In recent
years, however, when he found that he missed
the patient contact which he had relinquished
earlier, he became Board Certified and began
practicing in the Gorman Clinic, using the
derived income to benefit his department’s
academic activities. This new activity directed
his interest toward yet another area of research centered on the use of computerized
tomography in disorders of the temporo-mandibular joint.
Dr. Bhussry was an educator whose interest
in and relationship to his students was epitomized by Gene Porcelli, a Georgetown dental
student, whose tribute, written for the Dental
Times of Georgetown is excerpted:
his many friends) died in Richmond, Virginia,
on October 23, 1979.
Dr. Bogdanove was born in New York City
on February 20, 1925. After graduation from
City College, he was educated (he would object
to the word “trained”) in pharmacology a t
Wayne University, physiology at the University of Iowa (M.S., 1950) and anatomy ibidem
(Ph.D., 1953). He rose from Instructor to Associate Professor of Anatomy at Albany Medical College (1953-1961) and from Associate
Professor to Professor (Neuroanatomy, Neurophysiology, Endocrine Physiology) at IndiTo say that Dr. Bhussry was well liked is an ana University, Bloomington (1961-1971). He
understatement. He was loved by all who knew was Professor of Physiology and chief of Enhim. At the root of this was his own genuine love docrine Physiology a t t h e Medical College of
and concern for others. HP was loyal to his Virginia, Richmond, from 1971 to the time of
Department, yet the problems of the students his death. H e is survived by his wife, who is
were of primary importance to him. His door
was always open to the students. You could be known as a scientist under her maiden name,
frank with him and he in turn would be equally J a n e t Nolin, and by six children.
Dr. Bogdanove’s interest in neuroendocrias candid in his reply. These are rare qualities
nology dates to 1950 and prompted his choice
in an educator, but ones that could hopefully be
of a topic for his Ph.D. work. His subsequent
He loved his adopted family here at George- meticulous studies culminated in the unequitown. This man, with his ever-present smile, will vocal demonstration, by ingenious experinot be soon forgotten. I consider myself very ments involving grafting of thyroid and ovarlucky for having had the privilege of knowing i a n tissue into t h e hypophysis, that t h e
pituitary itself is a site of feedback control by
Dr. Bhussry loved to play golf and tennis, target gland hormones. His later work cenh e loved to dance, but above all he loved his tered on studies of the kinetics of gonadotropin
wife Rose Mary. They had been married since secretion, and included the startling discovery
November 22, 1956; they shared life together t h a t pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone
in the fullest sense, and she remained his was regulated not only quantitatively but also
“princess” throughout their union. His parents qualitatively by sex hormones.
Dr. Bogdanove, who liberally mixed whimsy
Hans Raj and Vidya Bhussry, to whom he was
devoted, and a brother Virender all live in into the language of science, was a soughtIndia; another brother, Bal Raj, lives in Chi- after contributor to symposia, including the
prestigious Laurentian Hormone Conference.
In remembering the best of Raj Bhussry, we For twelve years, h e was a member of the
will miss his twinkling eyes, his ready smile, Editorial Board of Endocrinology, and wrote
his buoyant spirit and his zest for living. But his incisive critiques undaunted by the realiour lives have been eternally enriched because zation that his inimitably personal style made
he touched us. And we are consoled with the mockery of the cloak of anonymity that is
memories of his warmth and friendship. Be- supposed to protect reviewers. He worked in
cause these are the measures of Raj Bhussry, the same capacity for The Anatomical Record
the man, we feel cheated of his presence, but and Endocrinology Research Communications,
and served a four-year term on the Endocriwe are enriched by the legacy of his life.
nology Study Section of the National InstiANTHONY
V. BOCCABELLA tutes of Health.
A man of great physical strength, Manny
was nevertheless a lifelong hypochrondriac. In
recent years, however, he had to cope with
very real and severe coronary heart disease.
There is tragic irony in the fact that he died
in a freak traffic accident while riding a biThe eminent neuroendocrinologist Emanuel cycle to speed his rehabilitation. Manny was
M. Bogdanove, Ph.D. (“Manny” or “Bog” to sometimes blunt, but was always understand-
ing and compassionate. He was a n immensely him a plaque upon his retirement for his many
hard worker, even when he no longer had the years of dedicated work in Anatomy.
Dr. Bowles played second violin in the South
physical resources of the 25 -year-old student
he was when I first met him. He was uncom- Bend Symphony. Because of physical limitapromisingly honest, as a scientist and as a tions due to polio, his creative efforts centered
human being. His unique style, evident in his on such hobbies as ceramics and woodcarving.
approach to life, his conversation and his writ- His carvings ranged from the head of a school
ings, was so exuberant that it often strained janitor to clock cases.
Dr. Bowles was a mild-mannered man with
conventions. An excellent example is provided
by the enormously funny, unorthodox autobio- a n even temper. He was loved and admired
graphical sketch he wrote for volume I1 of by children, never being too busy to repair a
Pioneers in Neuroendocrinology; being con- toy or answer a question. He had the ability
sidered a pioneer by his peers was as much of to absorb hurtful attacks and go on. He has
a lark to Manny as it was a source of pride. been described as being made of velvet-covManny was teacher and “father confessor” ered steel and as a gentleman’s gentleman.
to a large number of graduate students. Like He was a member of the Society of Friends
his older friends, they all appreciated his (Quaker) and served as clerk of Augusta
knowledge, enormous kindness, and utter de- Friends Meeting for many years. Survivors
cency. We are all lucky to have been his include his wife, Miriam Elleman Bowles; one
son, Dr. James T. Bowles; one daughter, Mrs.
Morgan Whaley; and three grandchildren.
Lester Bowles left a legacy of strength and
attitude as an Anatomist, a physician, and a
human being that is a great lesson to all of
O n November 25, 1977, Dr. Lester L.
Bowles died of heart failure in Talmadge
Memorial Hospital of the Medical College of
Georgia, where he had taught medical students for 33 years.
On July 11, 1977, the world, anatomists,
He was born near Sharpesville, Indiana, particularly developmental anthropometrists,
February 1, 1907. He earned a n A.B. from and her many devoted friends lost a unique
Franklin College in 1934 and an M.D. from personality, a great intellect, and a scholar in
the Indiana School of Medicine in 1938. He the classical sense, in t h e death of Edith
joined the Medical College of Georgia as a Boyd. Those of us who were privileged to
Research Associate in Microscopic Anatomy know her feel an unfillable void in the absence
in 1938, was promoted through the ranks, and of this great scientist who was so generous of
became Chairman of the Department in 1950. heart, spirit and mind.
Upon his retirement in 1972 he became ProFor its first ninety years, Colorado was
fessor Emeritus of Anatomy.
“blessed” by the white plague, tuberculosis, i n
Dr. Bowles carried on research in the area that a large proportion of its immigrants were
of corneal vascularization and nutrition with seeking its curative climate and provided i t
Dr. W. Knowlton Hall and the late Dr. V. P. with a large number of highly educated, inSydenstricker, as well as in other areas. He telligent, and productive citizens. One of these
took a residency in Psychiatry, became a n was George A. Boyd, M.D., who immigrated
Assistant in Psychiatry in 1952, and coun- to Colorado Springs with his family in 1905
seled veterans after his other duties were where he soon recovered from his near-terfinished.
minal illness. He went back into practice and
He was very popular with the students, promptly gained the respect and love of the
receiving the Best Teacher Award in 1964. citizens of Colorado Springs and of the state
The 1953 yearbook was inscribed “To Dr. medical community. Edith, the third of four
Bowles, whose Hooper rating is tops with all; daughters, had been born November 5, 1895,
whose programming is never dull; and who in Edgerton, Kansas, ten years before the
eminently deserves his reputation as the stu- family’s hegira. Edith and her sisters early
dents’ friend . . . we fondly dedicate the 1953 developed the habit of independent thought
Aesculapian.” The graduate students awarded and unconventional attitudes from both of
their highly individualistic parents. In 1913
she entered Colorado College, a nationally
respected private institution. After graduating in 1917, she followed in the footsteps of
another Colorado woman, Dr. Florence Sabin,
and entered t h e Johns Hopkins Medical
School, from which she recceived her M.D. in
1921. She interned at St. Luke’s Hospital in
San Francisco, and took two years of resident
training in pediatrics a t Stanford, finishing in
1924. She then accepted a fellowship i n pediatrics a t the Mayo Clinic, 1924-1925. She
stayed on i n Minnesota for 16 years, first for
two years as an Instructor i n Pediatrics a t the
University, then as a n Assistant Professor a t
the Institute of Child Welfare of the University, 1927-1935, and finally as Assistant Professor i n Anatomy and at the Institute of Child
Welfare at t h e University of Minnesota,
1935-1941. From the beginning of her time
on the faculty there she became acquainted
with Dr. Richard Scammon, whose interests
in human development became hers and determined the rest of her professional career.
Soon she developed a new method for determining body surface area. After Dr. Scammon’s retirement a conflict in view and personality developed between Edith and some of
the new staff to the extent that she resigned
in 1941, took her accumulated savings, and
bought a small nineteen-bed hospital i n
Whitefish, a small town in northwestern Montana. She administered the hospital and, after
passing her Montana State Board Examinations, practiced there until 1946. In 1946, on
the basis of her publications on anthropometry
and recommendation by Dr. Scammon, she
was invited by Dr. Alfred Washburn, the Director, to join the Child Research Council as
Assistant Professor of Physical Growth a t the
University of Colorado School of Medicine.
There she developed the statistical methods
for handling the data on physical measurements of the growth of the participants in a
unique longitudinal study of the development
of individuals from conception onward. She
was made Associate Professor in 1948, Professor in 1952, and Emeritus Professor in 1959.
She returned, however, as Visiting Clinical
Professor of Pediatrics on a part-time basis,
until 1969.
In 1954 Dr. Scammon died, his opus magnum on the history of study of human growth
unpublished. Thereafter Edith undertook revision and completion of Dr. Scammon’s work,
which occupied her for the ensuing 21 years.
This work was supported in part by money
from Dr. Scammon and in part by funds from
other sources, particularly the Commonwealth
Fund. The approximately 1,650-page manuscript was completed in 1976 and is now in
the rather lengthy process of publication,
thanks to the efforts of Dr. Bihm Sen Savara.
This exhaustive study is in the tradition of
the German Handbuch and includes material
from the beginnings of the recorded work
from, e.g., Egypt, China, Classical Greece,
etc., up to the beginning of the fifth decade of
the present century when, it was judged, the
modern era in the field began. It is a prime
example of a type of scholarship that has
become all but extinct in modern times.
Dr. Boyd devoted her entire attention and
considerable talents to her work, but was a t
the same time the soul of generosity who
found time to help those who needed it in
professional matters and to extend a warm
hand of friendship to others. For eighteen
months after my wife and I came to the faculty
of the Medical School in early 1948, we were
without a car. During that first summer Edith
drove us on long trips into the mountains to
some of her favorite places, which she shared
with us with great joy. Aside from such occasional diversions, however, she worked with
uncompromising standards, not only a t the
Child Research Council, but a t home on evenings and weekends. Her total concentration
on what she was doing is exemplified by an
incident that occurred in 1949 or 1950. At that
time the course in gross anatomy was modified
by making the first week introductory by
dissection of stillborn late fetuses. Edith eagerly participated as director of that segment.
She and Ernst Scharrer were in the laboratory
a t a blackboard planning one of the lectures,
in illustration of which Dr. Scharrer, an excellent artist, had drawn the classic diagram
of the body in anterior view, with the extremities at right angles to the body axis, with
palms and soles facing forward, and with
boundaries of the dermatomes drawn in. When
they came to discussion of the sacral dermatomes, Edith studied the drawing for several
moments and then said judiciously, “Ernst,
why don’t you let your genitalia hang down
farther?” For a moment she was entirely confused when he burst into laughter and said,
“Edith, someone might hear us!”
Our profession and the world are lesser
places with the passing of this woman of iron
will, unconforming thought, outspokenness,
unflagging energy, yet withal, who was sweet
and generous.
Nancy Rucker Cleveland was born in Lexington, Kentucky, in 1905. After attending the
public schools of that city, she entered Transylvania College, graduating in 1927. Subsequently she entered the Vanderbilt University
School of Medicine in 1928. For reasons of
health she withdrew from the study of medicine after completing the first year and enrolled as a graduate student in the Department of Anatomy. She attained the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy in 1934.
In the early 1930s Dr. Cleveland developed
a new differential stain for the cells of the
anterior hypophysis. She and I used this technique in our joint studies on cyclic cellular
changes (cytological and quantitative) found
to occur in the anterior lobes of several species
(dog, rat and sow) during the various phases
of the estrous cycle, and in the rabbit during
estrus and pseudopregnancy ; these changes
were correlated with the ovarian cycle. Later
in the 1930s Dr. Cleveland, with the cooperation of Dr. John C. Burch, Professor of Gynecology a t Vanderbilt, undertook comprehensive cytological studies on the endometrium,
using both human and monkey tissue. She
was particularly concerned with changes in
the pattern of nuclear chromatin during the
different periods of the menstrual cycle in
women, and in monkeys, after experimentally
induced changes; other topics considered were
changes in vascular and connective tissue and
in hormone-withdrawal bleeding.
In 1941 she embarked on a career in editorial work, accepting a post as an assistant to
the editors of Endocrinology and the Journal
of Clinical Endocrinology. She remained in
this position until 1944, when, desiring to
return to laboratory investigation, she accepted a position in the research division of ParkeDavis and Company, a post which she left in
a few months to resume editorial work. She
moved to Cincinnati and became a free-lance
editor of manuscripts for two large medical
publishers. Shortly thereafter she became an
instructor a t the Institutum Divi Thomas,
again in an editorial capacity; this affiliation
continued for several years.
In 1949 Dr. Cleveland married an attorney,
Mr. Ralph P. Rich, and moved to Covington,
Kentucky. She continued editorial work for
some time, but in 1959 she enlisted as a
volunteer cytologist for the Northern Kentucky Cancer Clinic of the Booth Memorial Hospital of Covington, a service she continued to
give until 1967. In 1968 she became a Research Assistant in the Cytology Laboratory
of the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine, serving as a “home-screener”; material
was delivered to her home for study and diagnosis and returned to the laboratory. This
arrangement was continued until 1973, when
Dr. Cleveland underwent bilateral cataract
While in Covington, she began a hobby of
great interest to her, genealogical research on
her old Kentucky family. In 1976 the material
that she had collected formed the basis for a
book, a copy of which is in the library of the
Kentucky Historical Society. Dr. Cleveland
was a member of this society as well as the
Gallatin County Historical Society.
On the retirement of her husband in 1966,
she moved to Warsaw, Kentucky. Mr. Rich
died in 1977. Within a few months she was
again engaged in volunteer activity, microfilming older records of the Carroll County
Memorial Hospital of Carrollton, Kentucky.
This work involved a daily round-trip of 40
miles, made by jeep. At the time of her death
in Lexington on October 22, 1979, this project
was almost completed.
Dr. Cleveland had a friendly, outgoing personality and a quiet sense of humor; these
traits, combined with a keen intelligence, a n
ever-present spirit of cooperation and a sense
of responsibility, made her a popular and respected member of the department. The death
of Dr. Cleveland is indeed a saddening loss to
her friends and former associates.
Elizabeth Fekete died suddenly on October
14, 1979, just prior to her 86th birthday, a t
Bar Harbor, Maine, where she had made her
home for almost fifty years. She was born and
educated in Hungary, came to the United
States in 1927 and soon thereafter enrolled in
classes in Histology, Neuroanatomy, and Pathology a t the University of Michigan, where
she received a Master’s Degree in 1929. Dur-
ing this period she began work in the laboratory of Dr. Clarence Cook Little, then President of the University of Michigan. There she
became acquainted with the laboratory mouse
and started t o accumulate t h e extensive
knowledge of its structure and pathology for
which she became noted.
When Dr. Little left Michigan and established the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor,
Maine, in 1929, Elizabeth joined him as one
member of his small group of research associates. One of her early duties included setting
up a histotechnical service and establishing
an orderly system of recording complete data
for each tissue processed. A skilled technician,
she recognized that mouse and human tissues
demanded different treatment and painstakingly devised and modified fixatives and stains
to meet the specific requirements of mouse
tissue. She also helped to establish a transplantable tumor bank, diagnosing and collecting useful and unusual tumor types, overseeing their serial transplantation and their
maintenance through regular checks on
growth rate, host specificity, differentiation,
and bacterial contamination. This tumor
bank, with some additions and subtractions,
was maintained essentially as established until 1978, when the most valuable tumors were
frozen and donated to the National Cancer
Institute for propagation and distribution.
She was a member of the team that published an important paper in 1933 describing
experiments in foster-nursing between mice
of high and low mammary tumor strains, thus
demonstrating t h a t an extrachromosomal
agent influences the incidence of mammary
cancer in mice. She made the first successful
transfer of a fertilized ovum from a mouse of
one inbred strain to the uterus of a mouse of
a different strain. This procedure, later widely
used, has enabled investigators to evaluate
the roles of heredity and environment in cancer causation, to develop new mouse strains,
and to study the influences of uterine environment on embryonic development.
Much of her subsequent research was centered on, but not restricted to, studies of strain
differences in mammary gland and ovarian
structure and changes in these organs brought
about by altering hormonal influences in a
variety of ways. She is perhaps best known for
her chapter, “Histology,” in the first (1941)
edition of The Biology of the Laboratory
Mouse, which remains a classic with its clear,
accurate, and well-illustrated descriptions of
mouse organ structure. This material was
reproduced and expanded with her collaboration in the chapter, “Anatomy,” in the second
(1966) edition.
In 1951, the University of Maine awarded
her an honorary D.Sc. degree in recognition
of her contributions to biomedical research
In 1954, she and Dr. Little were specially
honored as the two staff members associated
with the Laboratory during all of its twentyfive years. In 1956 she retired from active
research but maintained an interest in the
Laboratory’s programs, i n biomedical research in general, and in the careers of her
former associates. At the time of Elizabeth
Fekete’s retirement, Dr. Little paid tribute to
her devotion and loyalty, noting that, “By
faith, industry, and skill she has built a strong
and enduring scientific reputation for accurate
observation and logical and creative interpretation.” She was again honored at the Laboratory’s fiftieth anniversary ceremonies held
in the summer of 1979, when she received
messages and tributes from many former associates.
During her 27 years of active research,
Elizabeth sponsored many students and visiting investigators, trained research assistants and technicians, and collaborated with
colleagues who by 1956 represented many
fields of interest. She was a friend to all,
generous of her time, and, even after retirement, willing and eager to share her expertise.
She was devoted to Mount Desert Island and
spent many pleasant hours swimming in its
lakes, climbing its mountains, and in her later
years walking the carriage paths of Acadia
National Park. Nothing pleased her more than
being able to show a new staff member, assistant, or visiting scientist her favorite spots.
Final tribute was paid at a memorial service
held at The Jackson Laboratory on October
19, 1979, when it was announced that a room
in the Laboratory will be named for her.
Professor Clement A. Fox died peacefully in
his sleep during the night of June 9,1979, just
a few weeks after his 71st birthday. He is
survived by his charming wife Alice and their
six children.
With Professor Fox’s death neuroanatomy
in the United States has lost one of its most
enthusiastic figures and one of its most respected contributors. A product of the Michi-
gan School of comparative neurology and a
devoted student of Dr. Elizabeth Crosby,
“Clem,” as he was known to his many friends,
was one of the few of his generation to go
beyond purely descriptive cytoarchitectonic
studies to the more analytic and experimental
studies using a number of techniques from his
own variant of the Golgi method to EM degeneration studies.
After graduating from Marquette University (B.S., 19311, Clem went on to do graduate
work a t the University of Michigan (M.A.,
1936; Ph.D., 19381, where he began his lifelong association with Dr. Crosby and his enduring commitment to his chosen field. On
completing his Ph.D., he took up his appointment a t Marquette as a n Instructor in Anatomy. Four years later, in 1942, he moved to
what was at that time the mecca for neuroanatomists, the Institute of Neurology a t Northwestern University. A year later he moved to
Temple University as an Associate Professor,
but the following year found him back in
Marquette, where he remained for the next
twenty years, advancing through the ranks
(Assistant Professor, 1944-1947; Associate
Professor, 1947-1950; Professor, 1950-1965).
From 1958 to 1965 he served as Associate
Chairman of the department, until being invited to assume the chairmanship a t Wayne
State University, a position which he held for
a decade.
A shy and somewhat retiring man, Clem
seldom sought the limelight. Despite this, because of his widely recognized integrity and
his good-natured manner, he was much sought
after to serve on various national committees.
Among others, he was a member of the Neurology Study Section for NINCDS (as it was
then known, from 1959 to 19631, Chairman of
the Neuroanatomy Section of the American
Academy of Neurology (1963-19651, VicePresident (1949-1952) and President ( 1952-1954)
of the Cajal Club, and Chairman of the Neurological Science Research Training Committee B (1969-1970). From 1966 to 1973 he was
a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal o f Comparative Neurology, which dedicated
its July 1976 (vol. 168, number 1)issue to him
on the occasion of his retirement from the
chairmanship at Wayne State.
Important though these activities were,
Clem’s enduring contribution, and that for
which he should wish to be remembered, were
his original scientific works. These cover a
period of more than 40 years, from his first
tentative report on the septum of the cat,
which appeared in the University Hospital
Bulletin in 1937, to his last contribution, a
definitive review (with his colleague J.A. Rafols) of the primate basal ganglia, in a volume
(The Forebrain) edited by his mentor, Dr.
Crosby. Among the 69 abstracts and fulllength papers t h a t he contributed, several
merit special comment. First there was the
subject of his Ph.D. thesis, a detailed cytoarchitectonic analysis of the septum and related
basal forebrain structures in the cat, which
appeared in 1940 and is still widely referenced. This was followed by three experimental studies on mammillary peduncle (1941),
the anterior commissure (1943), and the stria
terminalis and precommissural fornix (1943),
in which he demonstrated his mastery of the
retrograde cell degeneration and Marchi
methods. His period a t Northwestern resulted
in one of the first electrophysiological studies
of the central olfactory pathways (with McKinley and Magoun, in 1944), and during the
same period he published several short notes
(with W.F. Windle) on certain structural concomitants of experimental concussion. Toward
the end of World War I1 he began a study of
the anterior commissure in the monkey, which
was finally published (with R.R. Fisher and
S.J. DeSalva) in 1948.
Dissatisfied with existing variants of the
Golgi method for the impregnation of such
areas as the basal ganglia and thalamus in
primates, he began a series of experiments on
the Golgi method itself, which led to his development of a zinc chromate method, which
although i t has not been widely used, in
Clem’s hands yielded some of the most beautiful Golgi preparations. Indeed his collections
of Golgi preparations of the monkey brain was
almost unique and was generously made
available to virtually anyone interested in
studying well-impregnated neurons in the
diencephalon, basal forebrain and brainstem.
During this period he also developed a close
association with a Spanish-speaking colleague, Dr. M. Ubeda-Purkiss, with whom he
produced a much needed translation of Cajal’s
last monograph: “Neuron Theory or Reticular
Theory,” which, to his evident pleasure (and
pride) was published in 1954 by the Consejo
Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas Instituto “Ramon y Cajal” (the modern publishers
of Cajal’s great “Histologie du Systeme Nerveux de I’Homme et des Vertebres”).
The first fruits of his collection of Golgi
impregnated monkey brains was a series of
publications on the organization of the cere-
bellar cortex published (with several associ- from studying the brain and discussing his
ates, including J.W. Barnard, K.A. Sieges- work with a fairly small number of colleagues
mund and C.R. Dutta) in the decade between and associates was enough. In public he was
1954 and 1964. He often said that few things shy and retiring, and few who saw him only
had given him more pleasure than to be able at scientific meetings could imagine how
to contribute the chapter on the cerebellar warm and outgoing he could be in more inticortex to the textbook produced by his former mate gatherings. His devotion to his wife was
colleagues a t Michigan (Crosby, Humphrey exemplary; the pleasure he took in his chiland Lauer--1962); without wishing to detract dren and their various activities (from their
from the rest of the book, it is probably fair to academic successes to their achievements on
say that, in the judgment of many, this was, the football field) was unbounded; his loyalty
and is, its best and most generally useful to his friends and students was unsurpassed.
chapter. Realizing that in order to clarify the To have known him was a n honor, to have
synaptic relationships in the cerebellar cortex been included within his circle of friends, a
it would be necessary to extend these studies rare privilege.
to the electron microscopic level, he quickly
learned how to fix adequately CNS material
for thin sectioning, and so laid the foundation
for the work that would continue to occupy his
attention for the next 15 years. Stated quite
simply, this was an attempt to analyze the
morphology of a number of the most complex
Peter Gruenwald, Emeritus Professor of Paand poorly understood regions of the brain, thology a t The Hahnemann Medical College
beginning with a classification of the neuronal and Hospital of Philadelphia, died on July 18,
types present (based on the careful study of 1979, after a two-year bout with cancer.
Dr. Gruenwald was born on March 12,1912,
the relevant Golgi preparations) and then
studying its fine structures, first in normal in Schoenwald, Czechoslovakia. He attended
brains and subsequently in brains in which the “Gymnasium” of Vienna, Austria, from
appropriate lesions had been placed some days 1922 until graduation in 1930. The M.D. degree was awarded from the University of Vior weeks before.
This approach resulted in a large number of enna in 1936, after which he immediately
important publications, too numerous to dis- pursued an academic career.
From 1936 to 1938, he served his alma
cuss in detail. It will suffice simply to list the
regions studied to indicate how productive mater as Demonstrator and Instructor of Histhese years were. In 1965 his studies of the tology and Embryology. During this period he
globus pallidus were published, in 1967 his also began his training in Pathology, only to
definitive work on the cerebellar cortex; be- have it cut short by the dictates of the Third
tween 1971 and 1979 a lengthy series of pa- Reich. Peter escaped Vienna in 1938, along
pers on the corpus striatum; in 1974 the sub- with numerous other scientists, to the United
stantia nigra; in 1976 the supraoptic nucleus States. The Cook County Hospital offered him
of the hypothalamus and the centromedian a haven and a one-year appointment as a
and paravescicular nuclei of the thalamus; in research fellow. It was here that his interest
the same year the substantia gelatinosa, the in placental development was stimulated.
Between 1939 and 1954, he held the followsubthalamic nucleus and the basilar pontine
gray. No higher praise can be accorded these ing ranks: Instructor of Anatomy at the Chistudies than to say that whenever these re- cago Medical School (1939-1942); Assistant
gions of the brain are re-investigated, some Professor of Histology and Embryology a t the
reference will always have to be made to “the now defunct Middlesex University of Waltham, Massachusetts (1942-1944); Fellow in
critical studies of Fox and his colleagues.’’
There is one last element in Clem Fox’s life Pathology a t Mount Sinai Hospital, New York
that must be mentioned, and that is his hu- (1944- 1945); Assistant Professor of Pathology
manity. Few scholars who contributed so much a t t h e Long Island College of Medicine
have received so little general recognition. (1945-1951); and Assistant Professor of ObAnd few have sought i t less. Clem was, a t stetrics and Gynecology, S.U.N.Y. (1951-1954).
heart, a simple man, almost totally lacking in During this period he published a total of 86
the usual ambitions and pettiness of the acad- papers dealing with pathological findings and
emician. For him, the pleasure he derived basic developmental anatomy.
In 1955 he was offered the post of Pathologist and Director of Laboratories a t the Margaret Nague Maternity Hospital in Jersey
City, New Jersey. There his interest in the
placenta and perinatal pathology intensified,
and he sought the research atmosphere he
loved in academia.
Johns Hopkins University recognized his
multiple talents in research and brought him
to their Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in 1958. In 1961, the Department of
Pathology offered him an Assistant Professorship, and in 1964 he became Associate Professor of Pathology. From 1955 to 1964 he published 45 papers dealing with placental
pathology and fetal pathology.
His works, now accepted by major institutions nationally and internationally, brought
him to Philadelphia i n 1969 as Associate Professor of Pathology at the University of Pennsylvania, and Pathologist for the Veterans
Administration Hospital of Philadelphia. During this period he came to the attention of the
Department of Pathology a t The Hahnemann
Medical College and Hospital. The opportunities of research, curriculum planning, and
teaching enticed him to accept a n academic
appointment as Associate Professor of Pathology in 1970. Here he developed an active
research program in which he published a
total of 15 papers dealing with problems of
placental pathology, fetal malnutrition, comparative anatomy of primate placenta, and
problems of respiratory distress syndrome.
During his career this prolific, sensitive, dedicated scientist published a total of 170 papers.
He was Board Certified i n Pathological
Anatomy, and licensed in New York and New
Jersey. Dr. Gruenwald was a member of the
following scientific societies: American Association of Anatomists, American Society of
Human Genetics, New York Academy of Science (Fellow), Teratology Society, and A.A.A.S.
He is survived by his wife, Eva (Glas) and
a son Thomas.
Louise M. Heim was born August 15, 1918,
in New York City and died December 28, 1978,
a t the age of 60, following a n extended illness.
At the time of her death, Dr. Heim was Professor and Chairperson of the Division of Life
Sciences a t the County College of Morris,
Randolph, New Jersey.
After earning her Bachelor of Science degree in 1940 at the College of Mount Saint
Vincent in New York City, Dr. Heim became
a research assistant to Dr. John MacLeod a t
the Cornell University Medical College, who
was then studying the respiratory system of
human spermatozoa. Later she received a
Master of Science degree from New York University, and in 1953 the Ph.D. degree from
Adelphi University.
In September 1952, Dr. Heim joined the
faculty of the Biology Department of Adelphi
University. Prior to that time, she had served
as a part-time instructor in the department
while she was completing her doctoral work
in experimental (physiological) psychology.
While a t Adelphi, Dr. Heim developed a keen
interest in neuroanatomy and physiology, and
it was i n this area that she did her most
significant work. Early in her career, she and
her students were active in the investigation
of stress physiology and the blood-brain barrier. In 1962 Dr. Heim received an NSF Faculty Fellowship and spent a sabbatical year in
the Department of Physiology, at the University of California, Berkeley. While there she
collaborated with Dr. Paola S. Timiras in the
study of brain development as influenced by
the hypoxic environment of high altitude and
by hormones, particularly estradiol. She returned to the Biology Department of Adelphi
in September 1963, resuming her teaching
responsibilities, but continued her research a t
Berkeley during several succeeding summers.
Dr. Heim, a city person most of her life, loved
California and thought the area around the
White Mountain Research Station (Big Pine,
California) to be most beautiful. In 1964, she
left Adelphi to continue her studies of the
influence of estradiol on brain development at
New York Medical College in New York City
and later, in 1966, moved to the Bureau of
Biological Research, Rutgers University, which
was then directed by Dr. James H. Leathem.
While Dr. Heim was an active researcher
and published extensively, her first love was
teaching. It was her achievements in the classroom that gave her the greatest satisfaction.
Teaching was her life; i t was her reason for
i addition
being, and she was very good a t it. J
to being a very knowledgeable and skillful
lecturer, Dr. Heim was a continuous source of
encouragement for her students and supported
them in every way she could. Throughout her
career she served on many student-oriented
committees and was frequently asked to serve
as a class advisor. In recognition of her teach-
this time that this writer, also a student with
Dr. Harrison, became acquainted with Otto;
the start of a long and lasting friendship.
In 1925, Otto accepted an appointment as
Instructor in Biology a t the University of
Cincinnati. He moved to the University of
Iowa as a n Instructor in 1926 and became a n
Assistant Professor in 1927. He accepted an
appointment as Associate Professor of Biology
a t New York University in 1929 and was
active in teaching and research until his retirement in 1963. He initiated and organized
a special course in Histology and Anatomy for
Premedical Students in 1931 and continued
this program a t N.Y.U. until his retirement.
Thus, he had a profound influence on a large
number of students who entered the various
fields of medicine a t N.Y.U. and a t other
medical schools.
He also stimulated a research interest in
his students. A number of undergraduate students did research projects with him, and
many of these entered graduate school, either
a t New York University or at other institutions. An examination of Otto’s list of publications shows that while he was sole author
of 71 papers, he also did 12 research papers in
collaboration with others; and he also sponsored 32 publications by graduate students.
He was the recipient of a number of research
awards. For example, he received a fellowship
from the Rockefeller Foundation to enable him
to do research with Professor Hans Spemann
in Cambridge, England, and in Freiburg, Germany, in 1935-1936. He also had a n appointment as a research associate at the American
Museum of Natural History in New York from
1923 to 1943.
His research was chiefly on the embryology
and histogenesis of amphibian metamorphoDr. Otto M. Helff of Delray Beach, Florida, sis, although he covered a considerate range
passed away on Thursday, February 14, 1980. of topics. His papers tended to be concise, but
He was a retired Professor of Biology a t New the information was well documented and well
York University, where he taught premedical presented.
students over a period of 32 years.
He was a member of a number of scientific
Otto was born in West Hoboken, New Jer- societies, including the A.A.A.S., American
sey, on December 4, 1897. He did his college Association of Anatomists, American Society
studies a t the University of New Hampshire, of Bacteriologists, American Physiological Sowhere he received his B.S. degree in 1921. He ciety, Association for the Study of Internal
continued his studies a t the University of Secretions, American Society of Zoologists,
Chicago, where he received an M.S. in 1922. National Society for Medical Research, Sigma
He was awarded a teaching scholarship in Xi, and the Society for Experimental Biology
Zoology at Yale University in 1922 and re- and Medicine.
ceived his Ph.D. in Zoology in 1925. His reAfter retiring from New York University,
search a t Yale was sponsored by Ross G. Otto continued some research a t his home in
Harrison, Professor and Chairman of the de- New York. He was particularly interested in
partment, and by w. w. Swingle. It was a t the effects of extracts from metamorphosing
ing ability, advocacy and wise counsel over
the years, the students at the County College
of Morris created a full-tuition scholarship in
her name, which is awarded annually.
In 1967 Dr. Heim was lured from her research into a full-time teaching position a t
Middlesex County College in Middlesex, New
Jersey, by Dr. James F. Gilsenan, then Dean
of Instruction. When Dr . Gilsenan became
Dean of Instruction a t the new County College
of Morris in Randolph, New Jersey, in 1968,
he appointed Dr. Heim the Chairperson of the
Biology Department and gave her the opportunity to develop i t as she saw fit. Because of
her commitment to excellence in teaching and
her belief in the concept of the community
college, the Biology Department grew and
prospered into one of the finest in the State of
New Jersey. The programs and standards she
established are of the highest quality. In 1977
the Biology Department and the Department
of Health and Physical Education were
brought together as the Division of Life Sciences, and Dr. Heim was appointed Chairperson, a position she held until her death.
As a fitting tribute to her devoted service
and many contributions to the College as
scholar, teacher, leader and friend, the Board
of Trustees of the College named the Anatomy
and Physiology Laboratory the “Louise M.
Heim Laboratory of Anatomy and Physiology”
in her memory. The young faculty she assembled, inspired and guided were deeply saddened by her loss and are making every effort
to carry on in her tradition,
tadpoles on a tumerous strain of white mice.
He obtained some excellent results but was
unable to complete the project due to lack of
funds and laboratory space a t the time. Consequently, the project was not completed and
was never reported.
He is survived by his widow Stella, of Delray
Beach; by three daughters: Mrs. Wayne Lewison, Mrs. John Pieone and Mrs. Joseph Eliot;
by 11 grandchildren; and one great-grandchild.
1924- 1978
The NIH research community was sorely
grieved by the passing of K. Kenneth Hisaoka,
a scientist-administrator respected as a skillful and concerned manager. Dr. Hisaoka died
of cancer on May 26, 1978, a t the age of 53.
As Extramural Activities Program Director
for the National Institute of Neurological and
Communicative Disorders and Stroke, Dr.
Hisaoka was the Institute’s principal staff
officer for extramural policy.
According to his colleagues and co-workers,
his successful management was due in part to
his open-door policy. As one co-worker said,
“He cared about the human aspect. He encouraged all of us to use our potential, and to
get training whenever possible.”
Dr . Hisaoka’s scientific interests lay primarily in experimental and comparative embryology. Born in Vancouver, British Columbia, he obtained his early biology training a t
the University of Alberta, receiving his baccalaureate degree in 1949. Subsequently, he
undertook master’s level training a t the University of Western Ontario. In 1953, he received his Ph.D. in biology from Rutgers University, where he studied under the late James
Leatham. Following his degree, he accepted
an appointment as Instructor in Biology a t
Loyola University, Chicago.
During the period from 1953 to 1964, Dr.
Hisaoka advanced through the assistant professorship to the rank of associate professor.
He was a distinguished teacher, fondly remembered by all of his students. His research
during that period continued to focus on developmental biology, especially that relating
to chemically induced abnormality in teleosts.
From this area of expertise, he also contributed several elegant but straightforward laboratory exercises to the American Cancer So-
ciety’s volume ofBiology Experiments for High
School Students (1964).
Dr. Hisaoka’s work with NINCDS was the
culmination of a 14-year NIH career t h a t
began in 1963 when he became an NIH Grants
Associate. He was appointed to the National
Institute of Dental Research the following
While with NIDR, where he became deputy
associate director for the Institute’s Extramural Program, he received the PHS award
for sustained high-quality performance. Dr.
Hisaoka then was chosen to head the NINCDS’s
newly reorganized extramural program.
In addition to his scientific interest, Dr.
Hisaoka was a Judo expert, whose fifth-degree
Kodokan black belt earned him membership
in the United States Judo Federation. He also
was chairman of the Board of Examiners of
the Capitol Black Belt Association of Washington, D.C.
Dr. Hisaoka is survived by his wife Frances
and by his children, Robert and Joan, from his
marriage to the late Renko Kuzuhara (who
died in 19711, his stepdaughters Robin and
Harolyn, and stepson Michael, all of the home
in Potomac, Maryland.
In the words of his close associates in the
community of Judo, which is not only a sport
but also a deeply-held commitment to humanity, “Ken was a quiet and introspective person,
but a strong and supportive friend to all who
were fortunate enough to have met him. His
life was a n example of the Judo motto, “Sei
Ryoku Zen’yo; Jita Kyoei-Maximum efficiency with minimum effort; mutual welfare and
benefit .”
His colleagues a t NIH and I remember him
i n this way.
Carl-Herman Hjortsjo, Professor of Anatomy at the University of Lund, Sweden, died
on July 3, 1978, in the University Hospital of
a rapidly progressing liver disease. Born December 8, 1914, in Malmo, he was the son of
Dr. Herold Hirschlaff, general practitioner,
and Ester Sandstedt, nurse.
At high school in Helsingborg, Hjortsjo
showed scientific interests and was elected
chairman of the biological club. In 1933 he
entered the Medical School of the University
of Lund, and from the beginning he was fascinated by the rich world of anatomy. As he
pursued his medical courses he also performed
anatomical work, and i n 1936 he was appointed Assistant in Anatomy a t the Anatomical
Institute. When he graduated in 1942 he had
published several papers on anatomy, and i n
1945 he wrote his doctoral thesis on the early
morphogenesis of the lung epithelium of the
cat. In his thesis he described new methods,
which he had developed himself, for orientation of sections in embryological reconstruction.
In 1945 he was appointed Assistant Professor of Anatomy. Three years later, a t the age
of only 33 years, he succeeded Professor Gaston Backman, the prominent anthropologist,
in the chair of anatomy a t the University of
Lund. Hjortsjo wholeheartedly devoted the
rest of his life to the task of research and
teaching in anatomy.
He was elected Dean of the Medical Faculty
in Lund in 1956 and served with great energy
and success in this capacity until 1964.
In his early career Hjortsjo was influenced
by his predecessor, Backman, and he published his first paper on anthropology, a study
of the skulls of Sirlono Indians, in 1941. His
last article in this field, on the remains of the
dethroned and imprisoned Swedish King Erik
XIV, appeared in 1978. Within this time span
of almost 40 years Hjortsjo covered an enormous range of anthropological science, from
physical to historical anthropology. His foremost contribution to the physical side was
his improvement and further development of
the Tres Indices for the measurements of skull
dimensions originally described by another
predecessor in the chair of anatomy in Lund,
C. M. Fiirst. Other widely known works of
Hjortsjo on anthropology concern the disinterments of Swedish royalty and other notables
of Swedish history. In 1965 Hjortsjo was commissioned by the Vatican authorities to conduct the opening of the grave in St. Peters
Church in Rome of the Swedish Queen Christina, and subsequently he wrote several detailed reports on the findings, together with
remarks on the cultural and historical connections.
In addition to his achievements in embryology and anthropology, Hjortsjo devoted many
years of work to clinical anatomy. In 1948 he
published his monograph “Die Anatomie der
intrahepatischen Gallengange beim Menschen,” now considered a classical description of
the topography of the bile ducts and vessels
within the liver. The current nomenclature of
hepatic anatomy is influenced to a great ex-
tent by this work, and Hjortsjo in the following
years delivered repeated contributions to the
normal variations of ducts and vessels of the
liver, using contrast-visualization and stereoscopic roentgenogrpahy. In a paper i n 1955
Hjortsjo reviewed the stepwise analysis of the
mechanics of the temporomandibular joint
that had occurred in the preceding years in
his institute. In this article his scientific and
educational skill is abundantly demonstrated.
By means of combined clinical and roentgenographic examinations, the complicated movements of the temporomandibular joint are
excellently elucidated. Also in the field of joint
mechanics, Hjortsjo continued throughout his
active years to publish new aspects and suggestions for clinicians.
The brilliant educational activities of Hjortsjo
are exposed in his textbooks of anatomy, one
of which was published in English in 1974
under the title Introductory Anatomy.
Hjortsjo was appreciated by his co-workers,
by his many friends a t home and abroad and
by his students. He was elected a member of
several academic societies in Sweden, among
others, the Royal Physiographic Society, the
Royal Humanistic Society and the Society of
Science, History and Antiquities. He was a
member of the American Association of Anatomists and of many learned societies in Europe. He was elected honorary member of
three student unions in Lund. He received the
honorary degree of Doctor of Dentistry in
An enthusiastic Rotarian, holding the local
Rotary presidency in 1970-1971, Hjortsjo established a fund, named after him, for International aid and exchange of ideas.
Hjortsjo is survived by two sons and two
daughters, and by his wife Lena, whom he
loved so tenderly.
The Department of Anatomical Sciences,
the College of Medicine and the Health Sciences Center of the University of Oklahoma
have suffered a grievous loss in the death of
Ernest Lachman, M.D., Regents Professor
Emeritus of Anatomical and Radiological Sciences.
Dr. Lachman was born in Glogau, Germany,
in 1901, and earned a n M.D. degree a t the
University of Breslau, Germany, in 1925. He
did his internship and residency at the Rudolf
Virchow Hospitai, Berlin, and became Assis-
tant Chief in Radiology in 1930. He left Germany in 1933 and spent one year in anatomical and clinical studies a t the Royal College
of Physicians and Surgeons, Edinburgh, Scotland. He came to the United States in 1934,
when he was appointed Assistant Professor of
Anatomy, University of Oklahoma School of
Medicine. He was promoted to Associate Professor of Anatomy in 1939, and to Professor
and Chairman of the Anatomy Department in
1945, as well as Consultant Professor of Radiology. He held the Chair for 23 years, until
1968, when he became Regents Professor of
Anatomy and Radiology. He was honored as
Regents Professor Emeritus of Anatomical
and Radiological Sciences and Senior Scholar
a t the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in 1971, and Adjunct Professor
Emeritus and Medical Director- Advisor of Radiography in 1979. He died a t his home in
Oklahoma City on September 21, 1979.
Dr. Lachman was a member of the American Association of Anatomists, American College of Radiology, American Medical Association, American Association of Physical
Anthropologists, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, and Oklahoma County
and State Medical Association (Life Member).
He was an honorary member of both Phi Beta
Pi and Alpha Omega Alpha, and a member of
the Oklahoma Hall of Fame.
Dr. Lachman never retired from teaching or
from writing. He gave a lecture on Introduction to Radiology to the first-year medical
students (his 45th class) just one week before
his death. His teaching provided more than
medical knowledge, because he introduced
philosophy and humanity into his didactic
instruction, and he lived by the standards he
professed. He was loved and respected by a
multitude of students. In July of 1978 he
received a telegram in appreciation of his
merits, recognizing him as the “Most Outstanding Professor Encountered in Their Medical Careers” from the members of the Class
of 1953 when they held their 25th reunion in
Las Vegas, Nevada.
Dr. Lachman published over 130 scientific
and educational articles. He was Co-Editor of
Biological Abstracts, Consultant Editor for
The New Physician, Section Editor of Morris’
Human Anatomy, 11th and 12th editions, Corresponding Editor of the Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association, member of
the Editorial Board of the Bulletin of the
Oklahoma County Medical Society, co-author
of Principles in Human Anatomy and Diplo-
mate of the American Board of Radiology. He
was the Author of Case Studies in Anatomy
and was working on the third edition a t the
time of his death. Dr. Lachman enjoyed medical education and writing throughout his life
and turned down many attractive opportunities to enter the private practice of radiology.
Dr. Lachman was survived by his wife,
Anna; sadly, she died three days after his
death. All those who had the privilege of being
his students, his many colleagues and his
friends witness that he was a great educator
and an exceptional human being.
Dr. Ellen A. Leinonen passed away on June
16,1979, following a stroke and cardiac bypass
surgery. She had been a n Assistant Professor
of Anatomy in the University of Michigan
Medical School since 1971.
Ellen Leinonen was born in 1912 in the
town of Pelkie, Michigan. Like many others
in that region of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula,
Ellen was of Finnish descent. She entered the
University of Michigan in 1949, and graduated as a premedical student in 1956. She
remained a t the University of Michigan, and
received a masters degree from the Department of Anatomy in 1962. Throughout her
college years she had worked part-time as a
dental hygienist, and she also taught oral
anatomy as a demonstrator and subsequently
as an instructor in the Department of Dental
Hygiene of the Dental School. That department later gave her a scholarship to spend
1962-1964 working toward a Ph.D. degree in
anatomy at Ohio State University. Returning
to the University of Michigan, she was made
a n Assistant Professor of Dental Hygiene in
1965. While fulfilling her teaching duties in
the department, she continued research for a
Ph.D. in anatomy, which was awarded by Ohio
State University in 1967. In 1971 she was
appointed an Assistant Professor in the Department of Anatomy of the University of
Michigan Medical School, while a t the same
time retaining her appointment in Dental
Hygiene. Over the last few years she did
extensive teaching in the Department of Anatomy, both in histology for dental students in
the fall term, and in the histology course for
medical students in the winter term.
Dr. Leinonen’s thesis research dealt with
cytological aspects of acute leukemia, which
yielded three publications appearing in 1971-1973.
In those years she also initiated a textbook of
anatomy and physiology for dental hygienists,
which was to have been published by Harper
& Row. This writing was pursued in her spare
time a t home. At the time of her death, the
drafts of all but two chapters had been completed. The rights to this manuscript were
willed to Suomi College, a Finnish Lutheran
college in Hancock, Michigan, the town where
Ellen had attended high school.
Ellen Leinonen was a very quiet, retiring
individual, and as a consequence was not
particularly well known, even to her colleagues within the department. She is survived by two sisters, both living in New Jersey.
Professor Emeritus Otto A. Mortensen suffered a heart attack in his home in Menlo
Park, California, and died a t Stanford University Hospital on October 18, 1979. He was
born June 14, 1902, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
He received a Bachelor of Science degree from
the University of Wisconsin in 1927, a Master
of Science the following year, and the M.D.
from the University of Wisconsin Medical
School in 1929 as a member of the third fouryear class. After interning a t the Research
Hospital in Kansas City, Missouri, Dr. Mortensen returned to Wisconsin in 1930 as Instructor in Anatomy. He advanced steadily
through the academic ranks, becoming an
Assistant Professor in 1931, Associate Professor in 1937, and Professor in 1946. He was
appointed Chairman of Anatomy in 1950 and
served in that capacity until 1967 when, in
keeping with University policy, he resigned
his administrative responsibilities. Dr . Mortensen also served as Assistant Dean of the
Medical School from 1949 to 1952 and as
Associate Dean from 1952 to 1967. Not until
he reached emeritus status in 1972, did Dr.
Mortensen leave the University of Wisconsin.
He then moved to California and continued to
teach human gross anatomy as a Visiting
Professor a t Stanford University Medical
School until his death.
Professor Mortensen was fond of calling
attention to the fact that, with only two exceptions, he had spent his entire academic
career a t the University of Wisconsin until
his “retirement” to California. One of the
exceptions was his internship year in Kansas
and the other was in 1957-1958 when he
spent a year as Consultant in Medical Education a t San Marcos University in Lima,
Professor Mortensen was a superb teacher,
who was completely devoted to his students,
whom he served not only as instructor but
also as counselor and friend. He was a warm
and compassionate man, and his students,
both graduate and medical, responded with
enthusiasm. His importance to his students
was recognized repeatedly with teaching
awards. In further recognition of his influence
on their careers, in 1972 the medical class of
1963 established the Otto A. Mortensen Lectureship in Anatomy.
Professor Mortensen’s influence on medical
education extended well beyond Madison.
From 1958 to 1962 he served on the National
Board of Medical Examiners for Anatomy,
from 1961 to 1965 he was a Consultant for the
National Institutes of Health Career Awards
Committee, and from 1965 to 1969 he was a
Consultant for the NIH Anatomical Sciences
Training Committee. As Director of the Departmental Graduate Training Program, he
expressed his interest in training teachers of
anatomy, many of whom are now dispersed
throughout the country.
As a professional anatomist he had a lifelong interest in the autonomic nervous system, and in the sensory and motor innervation
of skeletal muscle. He made important observations on the selective firing of single motor
Among Dr . Mortensen’s many talents was
his ability to bring individuals and groups
together to work harmoniously toward common goals. His style was quiet, effective, almost unnoticed. As a chairman of a basic
science department, he was trusted and respected by his many clinical friends. During
difficult times for the Medical School, his good
sense and calm advice helped to keep the
school intact. For many years he served on the
Board of Directors of Madison General Hospital, was President of its Medical and Surgical Foundation, and played zn important role
in its nurse training program. In this capacity
he made many friends among Madison physicians, for whom he was a trusted representative of the Medical School. At the state level
he served for twelve years on the Governor’s
Educational Advisory Committee and later on
the Educational Approval Board. At the national level, in addition to his service for NIH,
his talents were recognized by his peers in
electing him in 1960, Vice-president of the New York University (1939- 1949) before joinAmerican Association of Anatomists. He gave ing the Department of Radiology, Columbia
generously of his time to his home village, University in 1949. Dr. Rugh remained a t
Shorewood Hills, serving several years a s Columbia until his retirement in 1971. During
Trustee and as President.
a most active career, he carried out much of
Dr. Mortensen was a member of Phi Beta his research a t the Marine Biological LaboKappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Alpha Omega ratory, where he maintained a summer home.
Alpha. His many talents were widely known, His intense interest in this summer retreat
but he did not seek praise and avoided ac- was revealed in the construction, together
claim. Still, among his most cherished honors with Mrs. Rugh, of a handsome stone wall,
was the Distinguished Service Award pre- which he told friends took “80 tons of stone
sented to him in 1967 by the State of Wiscon- and two summers of dedication”.
sin Medical Society.
One of the landmarks of Dr. Rugh’s publiProfessor Mortensen will be remembered by cations was the widely read book on human
his many colleagues and friends, but especial- development titled From Conception to Birth:
ly by the thousands of physicians he taught, The Drama of Life’s Beginnings. This book,
encouraged, and stimulated. Some years ago, coauthored with Dr. Landrum Shettles in
when asked to describe himself, he said, “I am 1971, was written for the general audience,
a born and bred Wisconsin Badger” and “an particularly expectant parents, with the inolder and more experienced student.” Late in tention of improving the quality of human life
the summer before he died “Mort” told some by presenting to the public some of the knowlof us that he was very happy. This Badger edge of prenatal development uncovered by
liked living in California, and he added that scientific inquiry. In addition, Dr. Rugh wrote
he was dissecting or teaching in the gross five standard teaching and reference books on
anatomy lab nearly every day, “which is what vertebrate development. These included ManI really love to do.”
ual of Vertebrate Embryology, later called
Scholar, teacher, counselor, administrator, Guide to Vertebrate Development (six reviand friend-in all these roles he excelled. He sions, 1948- 19711, Burgess, Minneapolis; T h e
will be missed, not only by his wife Lila and Frog: I t s Reproduction a n d Development
his children, Margaret, Charles and Peter, but (1948-1959), McGraw-Hill, New York; Experby all of us who had the good fortune to know imental Embryology: Techniques and Procehim and to learn from him.
dures (19621, Burgess, Minneapolis; Vertebrate
DAVIDB. SLAUTTERBACKEmbryology: T h e Dynamics of Development
(1964), Harcourt, Brace, New York; and, T h e
Mouse: Its Reproduction a n d Development
(19681, Burgess, Minneapolis. In all, Dr.
Rugh’s numerous investigations were pubRoberts Rugh, Professor of Radiology at the lished in over 200 articles in the field of
College of Physicians & Surgeons, was born experimental biology, especially experimental
on April 16, 1903, and died suddenly on No- embryology. After his retirement from Columvember 10, 1978. After retiring from Colum- bia University, he continued an active career
bia University, he became a consultant with by publishing 17 papers on the effects of ionthe Bureau of Radiological Health, a division izing radiation, microwaves and ultrasound.
of the Department of Health, Education and In addition, he was involved with the producWelfare in Bethesda, Maryland.
tion of several motion picture films concerning
The son of Dr. and Mrs. Arthur Rugh, as a human fetal transfusion, normal delivery, ceschild Dr. Roberts Rugh spent ten years in arian sections and abortion techniques.
China, where his father was a Professor a t
Dr. Rugh received awards from the AmeriYenching University in Peiping (Peking). He can Philosophical Society, Marine Biological
received his Bachelor of Arts (1926) and Mas- Laboratory and the Association of Military
ter of Arts (1927) degrees from Oberlin Col- Surgeons (Major Livingston Seaman Prize).
lege, Ohio, and his Doctor of Philosophy (1935) He was a member of the American Association
degree from Columbia University. He taught of Anatomists, American Society of Zoologists,
a t Lawrence College, Appleton, Wisconsin American Society for Cell Biology, Society of
(1928-19291, the Marine Biological Labora- Experimental Biology and Medicine, Tissue
tory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts (19301, Culture Association, Cancer Research Society,
Hunter College, New York (1929-19391, and Radiation Research Society, Congenital An-
omalies Association of Japan, and the British
Institute of Radiology, among others. Dr.
Rugh was a Trustee of the Marine Biological
Laboratory at Woods Hole.
Dr. Rugh is survived by his wife Harriette
Sheldon Rugh; a daughter, Elizabeth R.
Downs, of Baltimore; a son, William A. Rugh,
Public Affairs Officer of the United States
Embassy in Cairo, Egypt; and six grandchildren.
Dr. Aura Edward Severinghaus, Associate
Dean Emeritus and Professor of Anatomy of
the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, died on April 7, 1979, a t
the age of 84. He was born on May 5 , 1894, in
Jeffersonville, Indiana, a son of Charles Edwin
Severinghaus, a Methodist minister, and Henrietta (Mock) Severinghaus.
After attending the University of Wisconsin, he transferred to Columbia University,
where he received his Bachelor of Science
degree in 1916. Following service with the
Army Medical Corps in World War I, he returned to Columbia, where he completed his
studies for his Master of Arts degree in 1919.
Then he spent five years at Peking Union
Medical College in China, where he was successively Instructor, Assistant Professor and
Dean of the premedical school.
In 1926 he returned to become a n Instructor
in Anatomy a t Columbia, and in 1927 he
received his Ph.D. degree. From then until
1942 he was active in the Department of
Anatomy as a teacher and a research scientist
in the field o f cytology and physiology of the
endocrine glands. During that time he contributed to several editions of Bailey’s Textbook of Histology. His research was primarily
directed to describing the structural changes
in the cells of the pituitary and thyroid glands
associated with experimental alterations in
their functional activity.
In 1942 Dr. Severinghaus began a term as
Associate Dean of the Medical School and as
Chairman of the Committee on Admissions,
which was to continue until his retirement in
1963. In this post he seemed to find his greatest satisfactions, for he was close to almost
every medical student, from the student’s first
preadmission interview through the four student years, to the choice of internship and
specialty. In 1974, when he was 80 years old,
the college conferred on him its highest honor,
the Distinguished Service Award, “in recognition of his years of dedication to his students, with whom he shared his warmth, his
patience and his wise counsel.”
In 1942 the Chinese Government awarded
him the Medal of Honored Merit for his work
in China during the early 1920s. He and his
wife, Sara, who died in 1973, worked closely
with the Chinese people. They developed a
relationship that lasted all their lives and led
to many later contributions by Dr. Severinghaus to medical education i n the Chinese
universities. He helped mainland China, and
later Taiwan, through his work with the
American Bureau for Medical Aid to China.
He prepared photomicrographs and microfilms
and gave them to 14 medical schools on the
Chinese mainland that had been forced to flee
their campuses and abandon their libraries
before the invading Japanese. Later, after
World War 11, his work in rehabilitating the
Chinese medical libraries, which had been
removed to Taiwan, brought him one of the
highest civilian honors given by the Republic
of China, the Order of the Brilliant StardGrand Cordon, with a personal citation from
Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.
After he retired from Columbia in 1963, he
continued to work on various projects, including a survey of the neurology curriculums in
most of the medical schools of the United
States. He also served as a n officer and director of National Medical Fellowships, an organization assisting black medical students.
Dr. Severinghaus is survived by two brothers, Leslie and John.
Dr. Michael Snodgrass, an Associate Professor a t the Medical College of Virginia, died on
November 14, 1979, in Toledo, Ohio. He was
Born and raised in Portland, Oregon, Mike
completed his Bachelor’s Degree in Biology a t
Cascade College. He then trained in the anatomical sciences with Dr. Theodore Snook a t
the University of North Dakota, where he
earned his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees. In 1969,
he began work a t Oak Ridge National Laboratories, first in a postdoctoral position and
later as a member of the staff in the Division
of Biology. Then he accepted a faculty position
with the Medical College of Virginia, which
fulfilled his ambition to become a complete
He enjoyed teaching and the company of
students. His lectures were carefully prepared
and clearly delivered. He spent a great deal of
time and trouble in individual bench-side
teaching. His influence and help came in
friendly and unobtrusive ways. He had a gift
for explaining difficult problems in simple
terms. His ability to see a problem dissected
down to its essentials was impressive. His
views were always expressed clearly and unequivocally.
Mike enjoyed the trust and confidence of his
colleagues. His unfailing good humor won him
many friends. To others, he was friendly, loyal
and generous. He had an unassuming presence, and an endearing personality. Quick and
light of movement, he had a n irrepressible
sense of fun in which it was impossible not to
become involved. His mildness of manner and
courtesy concealed a determination and tenacity of purpose; throughout his life, he showed
an enormous capacity for work, never counting the hours spent. His enthusiasm and organizational ability led to a high standard of
teaching and research in the institutions with
which he was associated.
Along with many and diverse duties, he had
a highly productive research program. He was
the author of many research publications dealing with the functional interpretation of the
immune system. He was fascinated by the
dynamic relationship of the macrophage and
Mike was a stimulating person with whom
to work. No amount of indifference or apathy
dampened his spirit or enthusiasm. He perceived key points of problems presented to
him and found a constructive approach to
their solution. He was a perfectionist, but had
a wise understanding of the limitations of his
field. He was quick to appreciate the importance of new developments and kept abreast
of innovations in his field. He had the inner
drive so necessary for a successful research
worker and became a renowned figure in the
field of immune responses. He traveled widely
by invitation and lectured on tumorigenesis
and the reticuloendothelial system. The high
regard in which he was held is commemorated
by the dedication of the cover picture in the
Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society. He
has been listed in several biographical dictionaries, including American Men of Science and
Who’s Who i n America. He was a member of
numemus organizations including the A.A.A.S.,
American Association of Anatomists, American Society of Cell Biology, Reticuloendothelial Society and Sigma Xi.
He had many interests outside the discipline
of anatomy and the rigors of electron microscopy. Most of them date back to his youth in
the wilderness of Oregon, which gave him a
great love of the outdoors, a n abiding interest
in wild flowers, hunting, hiking and a unique
appreciation for the symbiotic relationships in
nature. He was a great believer in keeping fit
and busy. He managed to combine his teaching
and research duties with his interests in
swimming, basketball, baseball, ,-if
carpentry, renovating antique cars, gardening, music and care of animals.
With other graduate students, I learned
much of his sterling character, normally concealed from the casual observer. He was always concerned about the welfare of others,
placing i t before his own. He was reserved
and very much a family man. His children
were a source of joy, and their learning gave
him particular pleasure. His home in Varina,
Virginia, was a place of happiness.
His life was lived with dignity and grace.
We will miss him as a scientist, teacher, and
hunting partner, as well as a friend. To us,
his legacy of love and kindness will not cease
with his departure.
He is survived by his wife, Celie; a son,
Ronnie; and daughters, Genelle, Erin, Holly
and Beth.
Leon Stansfield Stone, Ph.D., Bronson Professor of Comparative Anatomy Emeritus,
Yale University School of Medicine, died January 27, 1980, a t St. Francis Hospital and
Medical Center in Hartford, Connecticut, just
eighteen days before his eighty-seventh birthday. Another heart attack just before New
Year’s and eventual failure of vital organs
overcame his courageous will to survive. Born
in Newton, New Jersey, on Valentine’s Day,
February 14,1893, he had lived in New Haven
and Hamden, Connecticut, for more than sixty
years before he and his wife, Ruth Hoagland
Stone, moved to their daughter’s home in West
Hartford. They had been married in 1918.
Ruth survives him as do their daughter, Mary
Jane Stone Hansen (Mrs. Carl V. Hansen),
four grandchildren and one great-granddaughter .
Dr. Stone’s higher educational career led the eye within the same animal or to transhim to a Ph.B. at Lafayette College in 1916 plant the eye to a related individual. Each
and then on to Yale University, where he time there seemed to be a return of vision but,
began graduate studies in experimental em- not satisfied with apparent visual recovery,
bryology under the direction of the famous Dr . Stone devised ingenious testing methods
Professor Ross G. Harrison at Osborn Zoolog- and then recorded the response to visual stimical Laboratory. During this troubled war time uli on movie film. Thus he demonstrated by
(1917-1919) he served in the U S . Army Med- rotating the eye on implantation or transplanical Corps and a s Instructor in the Army tation that there is a pattern of retinal projecMedical School. With war past, he began his tion to the optic centers of the brain which
teaching career in the Yale University School governs the spatial response of the individual
of Medicine as a n Assistant Instructor i n to visual stimuli.
In the course of studying embryonic develAnatomy (1919-1921) while completing his
opment, Dr. Stone became an expert in cinegraduate studies and thesis.
Upon receiving his Ph.D. in 1921, Dr. Stone matography and produced a classic time-lapse
was appointed successively in the Department film of the continuity of development of the
of Anatomy as Instructor (1921-1924), Assis- amphibian egg. It emphatically demonstrated
tant Professor (1925-19281, Associate Profes- the dynamic forces unfolding and molding the
sor (1928-1940) and as Bronson Professor of developing embryo. This new skill and techComparative Anatomy (1940-1961) until he nique he used in the study of the eye of the
retired from active teaching. During this 42- newt and in his later studies of the eye develyear teaching period, Dr. Stone won and held opment in the pouch fetus of the opossum.
Dr. Stone’s accomplishments led to many
the respect of medical students and graduate
students, many of whom have become distin- opportunities and awards. In 1929-1930 he
guished physicians and scientists. They have was able to study in Germany as the holder of
written to the family of the strong influence a Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship. He was
he had in shaping their careers by his example a long-time member of the American Associof scientific integrity, imagination, technical ation of Anatomists, Fellow of the A.A.A.S.,
skill and productive scholarship, which was member of Sigma Xi, Yale Medical Society,
balanced by his personal interest in those he American Society for Cell Biology, Society for
taught. They treasure, also, the memories of Experimental Biology and Medicine, and the
the subtle but robust sense of humor with Association for Research in Ophthalmology.
which he spiced his lectures and his personal The significance of his pioneering studies of
contacts with students and colleagues. Even the eye was widely recognized by his colafter his retirement in 1961, he continued his leagues in clinical ophthalmology. In 1940 he
research and lucid reports of his studies until received the Award of the American Medical
ravages of diabetic retinopathy deprived him Association for Researches in Ophthalmology.
In 1947 he was inducted as a member of the
of the visual capacity to proceed further.
Dr. Stone’s initial interest in experimental Oxford Opthalmology Society and received
embryology led to a number of astute and the award of the Doyne Memorial Medal from
significant observations. One of these was that Oxford University, an honor rarely accorded
the migrating neural crest cells (those at the to a non-British scientist. He gave the Doyne
lips of the closing neural tube) in the sala- Memorial Lecture a t Oxford University twice,
mander participate in the formation of cranial in 1947 and 1959. He was elected a Fellow of
ganglia and such diverse structures as carti- the International Institute of Embryology a t
lages of the jaw and skull. Studies of the the University of Utrecht, The Netherlands,
organs of special senses and the regenerative and lectured there and at the University of
capacity of amphibian tissues that were under Amsterdam. He gave many invited lectures a t
active investigation by Professor Harrison and different times to several components of the
his students stimulated Dr. Stone to test the University of London and the University of
powers of regeneration of the iris, the lens Edinburgh, Cambridge University, Royal Coland the retina in several amphibian species. lege of Surgeons, London, the Universities of
He found that the regenerative capacity var- Bologna and Naples and the Naples Zoological
ied in the different species but that it was Station, the University of Copenhagen, the
possible for the iris, the lens and the retina to University of Lund, and the Hebrew Univerbe repaired and replaced. This success led him sity in Jerusalem. Dr. Stone was called upon
to cut the optic nerve and then to reimplant to report the results of his studies for many
Sigma Xi chapters and other medical, biological and ophthalmological organizations in the
United States. He was an honorary lecturer
a t the University of Chicago, Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, New York University, Ohio
State University, Princeton, and Western Reserve University. Acclaimed and honored
abroad, he was not without honor, respect and
affection in his own country and his own
One of the most prized honors came to him
from his alma mater, Lafayette College. In
1966, he received the honorary degree of Doctor of Science with a citation that included the
following: “Following graduate studies at Yale
you have yourself become a teaching great. In
classrooms for undergraduates as well as medical students you earned the distinguished
Bronson professorship and, after reaching senior years, the gratifying recognition of being
called to serve on as ‘Honorary Lecturer.’ In
your laboratories you pursued researches in
vision and through nearly one hundred papers
have won international renown in the field of
retinal and lens regeneration and eye transplantation. Your delicate delving into microscopic realms has directly benefited many;
infecting others through your teaching, your
dedication radiates through countless apprentices. . . . ”
Any recounting of Leon Stone’s life would
be woefully incomplete if i t omitted his curiosity and participatory inquisitiveness about
everything from wine-making (delicious) to
weaving (beautiful and artistic); to loom making and old furniture refinishing; to movies of
auctions and Old Home Days in Sanbornton,
New Hampshire, where he restored an old
farmhouse to beauty; to historical and contemporary study of the Shakers of Canterbury,
New Hampshire, and their skill in weaving
and other activities of the hands. No one could
excell him in good fellowship with all kinds of
persons, for he was a man for all seasons and
of many dimensions. He was a man of whom
all could say “He was a good man to know.”
He will be long remembered by his neighbors
in Sanbornton where he spent most of his
summers working on scientific papers and on
hobbies and crafts of many types.
The members of the family, in addition to
Ruth Hoagland Stone who will carry his memory throughout their lives, are Professor and
Mrs. (Mary Jane Stone) Carl V. Hansen of
Trinity College, Hartford, and their children,
Professor Thomas Hansen of Wellesley College; Mrs. Victoria Hansen Wentworth and
daughter Sarah of Newington; Matthew Hansen and Ruth Hansen, of West Hartford.
On February 6, 1980, Temple University,
Hahnemann Medical College, and the American Association of Anatomists suffered the
loss of a distinguished colleague and a warm,
sincere friend with the death of Ray Truex. At
the time of his death he was Professor Emeritus of Anatomy a t Temple University School
of Medicine and Visiting Professor of Anatomy
a t Hahnemann.
Ray was born in Norfolk, Nebraska, on
December 11, 1911. He received his Bachelor
of Arts degree from Nebraska Wesleyan University in 1934, and was the recipient of Nebraska Wesleyan’s Alumni Medal of Honor
Award in 1970. He was a student of Albert
Kuntz a t St. Louis University, where he
earned a Master of Science degree in 1936. In
1939, Ray received his Doctor of Philosophy
degree i n anatomy from the University of
Minnesota under the direction of A. T. Rasmussen.
Ray Truex served on the faculties of three
departments of anatomy during his career. He
rose to the rank of Associate Professor of
Anatomy during his eleven years (1938- 1948)
on the faculty a t the College of Physicians
and Surgeons of Columbia University. In 1948
Ray moved to The Hahnemann Medical College, where he served with distinction as Professor and Chairman of Anatomy until 1961.
In order to devote more time to research, Ray
gave up t h e chair and accepted a faculty
position a t Temple University School of Medicine, where he served for 17 years as a Career
Award Professor. During that time he helped
to develop the anatomy graduate program and
curriculum. Ray retired in December 1978
and looked forward to a n active academic
retirement, which unfortunately was cut short
by the illness which led to his death. Ray was
totally dedicated to all three of the institutions
he served. Because of his dedication, his vast
contributions to the anatomy programs at
Hahnemann and Temple, and the strong bonds
of friendship and cooperation that prevailed
throughout Ray’s activities, it seemed appropriate that his colleagues from both of these
institutions join hands in paying this tribute
to him.
Ray Truex was a devoted and loving husband, father and grandfather to his family. In
another sense, Ray was also a devoted and
loving husband, father and grandfather to his
profession of anatomy.
As a “husband” to his profession, Ray managed many households, for he was a born
leader. He served as a member of the Executive Committee (1959-1961) and President
(1970-1971) of the American Association of
Anatomists. He was a member of the Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature of the
Association. He was President of the Cajal
Club (1965-1966) and President of the Neuroanatomy Section of the American Academy
of Neurology (1967-1969). During his thirteen
years as chairman a t Hahnemann Medical
College, Ray developed the Anatomy Department to national prominence through his dynamic nature, seemingly unlimited capacity
for work, and effective leadership.
Ray served on the Basic Science Council of
the American Heart Association, and on the
Board of Governors (1969-1979) and Research
Grants Committee (1972-1975) of the Southeastern Pennsylvania Chapter of the American Heart Association. He was a member of
the Neurology Study Section B (1962-1966) of
the National Institutes of Health and Regional
Director (1963-1968) of the N.I.H. Visiting
Neuroanatomy Professor Program. He contributed to the National Board of Medical
Examiners for seven years. Throughout his
career, people looked to Ray for leadership,
and he did not fail them. He was not a person
who sought these positions -they found him.
As a “father” to his profession, Ray was a
doting parent to teaching, research and service. He authored three textbooks. His Detailed
Atlas of the Head and Neck included, among
other things, his love for demonstrating the
medial and lateral brain dissections. His Hum a n Cross Section of Anatomy presaged the
importance of cross-sectional anatomy to the
CAT-scan. His Human Neuroanatomy (Strong
and Elwyn, with M. B. Carpenter) was a
companion to many of us and taught neuroanatomy to students throughout the world.
He fathered research on the cardiac conduction system, coronary circulation, and the
autonomic nervous system that grew to international prominence. His reconstructions of
the human SA and AV nodes and his injection
and cast studies of the coronary vasculature
enhanced our three-dimensional visualization
of the conduction and circulatory systems of
the heart. His vast comparative anatomic
studies and functional correlations laid the
groundwork for a better appreciation of the
development and mechanics of the conduction
system. Ray earned several awards, among
which were the National Research Award in
1943 of the Chicago Dental Society and the
AMA-Hektoen Bronze medal for Research i n
Ray fathered and nurtured programs that
paid tribute to his fellow anatomists. He took
a special interest in young scientists who were
just starting their careers, and he encouraged
them and followed their progress. As a dedicated and enthusiastic professional, he taught
his students with a vitality, expertise and love
that would suggest he was teaching his own
Ray was a “grandfather” to many of his
colleagues. He spoiled us, promoted us as
teachers and researchers, and proposed us as
scientists who could contribute to the service
of our profession. He often saw our potential
before we did; he would call our attention to
our abilities, and then guide us to higher
pursuits. Like the proverbial grandfather, he
was quick to praise and slow to criticize. His
dedication to us, and to the institutions and
organizations he served was endless.
Ray Truex was a n “anatomist’s anatomist.”
To the junior anatomist he was an inspiration
and a model. To the senior anatomist he was
a standard of achievement. To the emeritus
anatomist he was the spark of rejuvenation,
and to all he was an absolute joy. We fondly
recall his infectious smile, the frequent hearty
laughter, and the entertaining stories. He
knew how to live, and he lived as he knew.
We have had the pleasure of being Ray’s
colleagues and friends. We are still his students, for he has left us the priceless treasure
of his example. We thank his wife Betty, his
daughter Mary, his son Dr. Ray, Jr., and his
grandchildren for sharing Ray with us-his
professional family.
Dr. Gerhardt von Bonin, 89, Professor
Emeritus of Anatomy, University of Illinois
College of Medicine, died September 17, 1979,
a t Mill Valley, California, following an illness
of five days. Born in Warendorf, Germany,
July 17, 1890, Dr. von Bonin attended Breslau
University from 1908 to 1911 and received the
M.D. degree from Freiburg University in
1915. His research interests started early. Before he received his M.D. degree he published
reports on investigations related to the paranasal structures, pituitary tumors and the
mechanics of joints.
Prior to coming to the University of Illinois
in 1930 to begin the major segment of his
research and teaching career, Dr. von Bonin
had had a variety of academic experiences. He
maintained contact with the Anatomical Institute at Freiburg while serving as a physician and surgeon in base military hospitals
during World War I. At this time and for two
years after the war, while he was a t Heidelburg University, his publications dealt with
vascular and joint problems resulting from
gunshot wounds.
Dr. von Bonin left Germany in 1921 to
accept an appointment to teach anatomy a t
the Tung Chi Medical School in Shanghai,
China. He later opened a private practice a t
Chefoo (now Yent’ai). He worked in the laboratory of Sir Arthur Keith a t Peking Union
Medical College during 1927-1929. In 1929-1930,
while waiting to come to the United States,
he was an anatomical “prosektor” in Leiden,
The Netherlands.
Sir Arthur Keith’s influence on him was
lasting, and while in China his research centered on physical anthropology. His numerous
publications a t that time included Asymetry of
the Chinese Brain, Mongolian Traits, Rassenhygiene Chinas, Studien zitm Homo rhodesiensis, as well as a number of papers on skeletal
and joint functions.
After he became associated with the University of Illinois, Dr. von Bonin’s major interest turned to the nervous system, although
his interest in anthropology continued. With
colleagues Percival Bailey, Warren McCulloch
and others, a long list of publications related
to the structure and function of the cerebral
cortex was produced. These were comparative
observations dealing with numerous mammals but focused primarily on the rhesus monkey, the chimpanzee and man.
Gerhardt von Bonin’s research goals were
to “map” the primate cerebral cortex into
meaningful structural and functional subdivisions -cytoarchitectural classifications and
interpretations. With his associates he did
much to classify the complexities of the cortex.
He was a pioneer in this approach; and many
of his findings on the internal organization of
particular areas, their interconnections with
other cortical areas and their suspected func-
tional roles have stood the test of time. Subsequent investigations have established the
validity of his observations and the soundness
of his interpretations. As was pointed out a t
a recent meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, his cortical descriptions, done with the
use of simple Nissl stains, stand true even
under the scrutiny of the modern elegant
technique of single unit recording.
Dr. von Bonin was a vibrant, refreshing and
independent individual with a perceptive
mind and ready wit. Among his close associates he was known for his brisk reparteesometimes charmingly tart. His interests were
broad, encompassing, among other things,
drama, music, literature, politics and a free
In listening to people who work on the brain,
one is impressed by the fact that the name of
von Bonin is held in high regard. That he was
a distinguished investigator is strikingly apparent. In his field his name is internationally
Gerhardt von Bonin made a lasting impact
on students who were attracted to him and
who were privileged to work with him. Their
stimulation by his enthusiasm for research
was reflected in the active, free-thinking discussions he generated and the obvious respect
they held for him.
Dr. von Bonin was active in many professional organizations, was Managing Editor of
the Journal of Comparative Neurology and a
member of the examining board of Neurosurgery. After becoming Emeritus Professor at
the University of Illinois, he was a lecturer at
the University of California and a consultant
a t Mt. Zion Hospital in San Francisco.
Dr. von Bonin is survived by his wife, Lillian, a son, Stephen, and three grandchildren.
Death came this year to one of our members,
Dr. Alphonse Vonderahe, a man dedicated to
both the a r t and the science of healing. He
was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1896 and
died there in November 1979. His was a lifetime of service to the community and its
universities, and it expanded, through his
teaching and research, to the world. A teacher,
scientist, physician and philosopher, his influence has been imprinted on the lives of innumerable students, patients, colleagues and
Dr. Vonderahe received his A.B. degree
from Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio in
1916, his B.Sc. degree from the University of
Cincinnati in 1919 and his M.D. degree from
the Cincinnati College of Medicine in 1921.
He served his neurology and psychiatry internships and residencies at the Cincinnati
General Hospital and the Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. In addition to several
clinical appointments in neurology and psychiatry, he also served as t h e neuropathologist
for Cincinnati General Hospital from 1926 to
1948. He joined the Department of Anatomy
i n 1924, retiring as Professor Emeritus in
1969, but he continued teaching a graduate
course in neuroanatomy for residents until
He was a member of numerous societies,
among which were the American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association,
American Association of Anatomists, American Neurologic Association, American Academy of Neurology, American Electroencephalographic Society (founding member), Central
Society for Encephalography, American Association of Neuropathologists, American Society for Biologic Psychiatry and Sigma Xi.
Dr. Vonderahe, over the years, also held numerous positions of leadership, serving as Vice
Chairman of the American Medical Association, 1941; Director of the Board of Psychiatry
and Neurology, 1942-1950, and Vice President in 1949; Vice President of the American
Neurologic Association, 1955; U.S. Public
Health Study Section, Division of Neurologic
Diseases a n d Blindness, 1955-1960, a n d
Chairman in 1956; Board of Trustees, American Academy Neurology; Board of Directors,
Brain Research Foundation; and for many
years a n associate editor of Neurology.
Early in his career, under the influence of
his “teacher and chief,” Dr. E. Malone, he
authored numerous papers concerned with the
anatomy and pathology of the hypothalamus
in such clinical problems as diabetes mellitus,
peptic ulcer and heat stroke. He also was the
first to describe a n anomalous commissure,
aberrant dorsal supraoptic decussation, of t h e
third ventricle. Through his training and longtime friendship with Dr. J. W. Papez, h e came
to appreciate and formulate a concept of the
brain as it functioned in emotional states.
This was typified by a publication in 1943
titled “The Anatomic Basis for Emotion” published in the Ohio State Medical Journal. With
the advent and development of electroencephalography came another natural avenue for
practice and research. With a clinical interest
i n epilepsy a n d convulsive disorders, h e
teamed with Father Joseph Peters of Xavier
University, and together they published numerous basic papers on the EEG of the adult
and developing amphibian and avian brains
and their response to convulsant and anticonvulsant drugs. His interest in EEG led to the
founding of one of the first EEG laboratories
in Cincinnati at the Good Samaritan Hospital.
He served as its director for many years, and
this laboratory, as well as a fund he established to aid patients i n financial need, have
been named the Alphonse Vonderahe EEG
Laboratory and Fund i n his honor.
His role as a teacher was one most enjoyable
to him. In the Department of Anatomy he
expounded on the marvels of the organization
of the nervous system to students at all levels
and, in fact, to anyone who would listen h e
championed the cause of Anatomy. His approach to neuroanatomy was basic, causal,
with a desire never to interfere with the students’ learning, and with a n eye to relevancy
such that he called his course in neuroanatomy “Introduction to Neurology.” This course
was a composite of his extensive knowledge of
the nervous system from salamanders to man
and his deep insight into its workings, flavored by his experiences as a clinician.
Dr. Vonderahe was a religious man, and t h e
Insignis Award h e received from St. Xavier
High School summarized his accomplishments
best: “to a n alumnus who has, in the words of
St. Francis Xavier, ‘signalized himself by service to Christ through service to humanity.’ ” A
devoted husband and father, he is survived by
his wife of 52 years, Ida; a son, Thomas; and
three grandchildren.
No list of honors, societies, service or publications can capture t h e true nature of this
man. Only those who knew him can appreciate
the warmth, the humanness and t h e godliness
of his life. His undaunted positiveness, integrity, grace, consumate modesty, unselfish commitment and zest for life are the legacy h e
leaves with us.
As a teacher he professed the wonders of
the nervous system.
As a physician he empathized and healed.
As a scientist he strived for truth and understanding.
As a husband and father he supported and
As a person h e exemplified the good that is
i n man.
The sudden death of Donald Gregory Walker on June 9, 1979, was a grievous loss to
anatomical science, as well as to his family
and friends. Professor of Anatomy a t the Johns
Hopkins University School of Medicine since
1966, Walker was an exceptionally gifted scientist and teacher, who had in the last few
years reached the peak of academic achievement. His scientific work was characterized
by imaginative theory and rigorous experiment, by constant seeking out and mastery of
relevant methods, and by tireless effort. His
dedication to his laboratory was coupled with
devotion to his wife, Shirley, and their six
children, Vikki, Gregory, Christopher, Donna,
Brenda and Benjamin.
Donald Walker was born in East Rochester,
New York, on February 17, 1925, but moved
to Los Angeles a t an early age and attended
primary school there. He then was enrolled in
the Black-Foxe Military Academy, and subsequently obtained the bachelor’s, master’s,
and doctor’s degrees from the University of
California at Berkeley. There he came under
the influence of Herbert Evans and his group,
and began the studies on bone development
which were to engage his attention for the
next three decades.
Studies on the effects o f hypophysectomy
and thyroidectomy on skeletal development
were followed by a n interlude in which in
collaboration with Z.T. Wirtschafter, the effects of lathyrism on elastic tissues were explored. They jointly prepared a n excellent
monograph, The Genesis of the Rat Skeleton,
published by Charles C Thomas in 1957.
Convinced that further advance in knowledge of bone deposition and bone absorption
could come only from biochemical approaches,
Walker devoted sufficient time to master those
biochemical techniques that appeared to be
most relevant for the purpose. This was done
by working for short periods in the laboratories of Oliver Lowry, Arnold Seligman, and
Jerome Gross.
All this was essentially prologue, because
Walker would apply some part of each of these
techniques and influences to his unique, lasting contribution to mankind-demonstration
of a previously unsuspected mechanism of
control of bone absorption, and of the cause
and development of a cure for congenital osteopetrosis. Osteopetrosis, or marble bone disease, is an inherited disorder of skeletal development in which the rate of bone resorption
fails to keep pace with the rate of bone formation. Human osteopetrosis is a rare disease
which, until Walker’s work, was without a
rational basis for treatment.
We do not know how Walker became interested in osteopetrosis but suspect that, in
addition to the challenge of clinical application, he was intrigued by the opportunities it
provided to study the dynamics of bone formation and resorption. His decision to study
mouse mutants with the disease sprang from
his belief in the importance of the choice of a n
appropriate animal model for elucidating fundamental pathological processes. The existence of two osteopetrotic mouse mutations
(grey-lethal and microphthalmic) a t the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor pointed the
The remainder of Walker’s career was spent
in elucidating the basic cellular cause of osteopetrosis in these two mutant mouse strains
and in developing a method by which they
could be cured. His initial publications, beginning in 1966, showed that bone matrix formation was significantly elevated in these two
mutants and that each also exhibited hyperplasia of the parafollicular cell population of
the thyroid gland. These observations suggested that osteopetrosis was an endocrinopathy. In a n attempt to examine the endocrine
contributions more closely, he used parabiosis,
a favorite surgical procedure of endocrinologists, to establish a cross-circulation between
mutant mouse and normal littermate. In 1966,
much to his surprise and delight, parabiotic
union of either osteopetrotic mutant mouse
strain with a normal littermate for four weeks
caused the excessive skeletal mass to disappear from the mutant and was without effect
on the normal parabiont. Soon thereafter
Walker discovered that temporary parabiosis
for two weeks was sufficient to effect a cure,
a condition not quite achieved a t the end of
parabiosis, but one that developed over the
ensuing two weeks. These observations suggested that the cure was mediated by circulating cells. Next he demonstrated that osteopetrosis in the mutant mice could be cured
within the same time span as parabiosis, by
infusion of bone marrow or spleen cells from
a normal mouse into a sublethally irradiated
osteopetrotic littermate. The corrective influence of both parabiosis and cell infusions was
then shown to be mediated by a new population of competent osteoclasts. Furthermore,
when spleen cells from osteopetrotic mice were
infused into young, lethally irradiated normal
littermates, non-functional osteoclasts were
produced and osteopetrosis developed. Walker’s laboratory investigations at the time of
his death were focused on determination of
the mononuclear cells responsible for the cure
of the disease, the nature of the relationship
between anemia and osteoclast function in
osteopetrosis, the cellular origin of the osteoclast, and the nature of the local control of
osteoclast function.
Walker’s research thus culminated in the
elucidation of the basic defect in congenital
osteopetrosis in mice and in the demonstration
that the disease could be cured by transfer of
normal spleen or bone marrow cells. This
provided, for the first time, a rational basis for
the treatment and cure of juvenile human
osteopetrosis, a concept of genetically competent vs. incompetent osteoclasts, and a demonstration of the hematogenous invasion of
bone by osteoclast precursor cells. Just a
month prior to his death Walker participated
in the presentation and discussion of the first
fully documented treatment of an infant girl
with congenital osteopetrosis, cured of the
disease by direct application of the results of
his studies of osteopetrotic mice.
Walker’s ingenuity and skill as a researcher
were matched by his pursuit of teaching excellence. Here he combined a well-organized,
probing mind, a background rich in art, music
and literature, and a dry sense of humorexpert in the use of the pun. Over the years
he developed a repertoire of short presentations that conveyed the basic elements of a
preceding lecture by appropriating well-know
examples from literature, art, music or sports.
One of his earliest examples and a favorite of
his students is included below. It portrays the
cellular events a t the epiphyseal plate as a
charge of chondrocytes.
The Ill-fated Courtship of Chondroblissima
William Sharpspicule
Chondroblissima, Queen of the Epiphyseal Islands, reigned with a gelatinous hand. Life on
the island was uncomplicated. The natives enjoyed a high rate of proliferation and an abundance of substrate. Their needs and pleasures
were simple and easily satisfied. Chondroblissima adored her many flocks of cute basophilic
chondroblasts but the glycogen-filled chondrocytes, the sturdy Knights of Epiphysea, were her
fountainhead of pride and joy. Waves of intense
admiration polymerized through the metachromatic matrix as they marched by in review, so
smartly, file after file, lacuna upon lacuna. Chondroblissima loathed tension and did all possible
to rid her shores of friction. However, she was
not aloof to pressures from abroad and had always been able to absorb these pressures successfully. But her wit was no match against that
of King Sclerous who had arrived with his capillary fleet a t her perichondral ports. Ostensibly
to woo Chondroblissima, the evil king from the
Land of Bone actually came to press the islanders
into his ill service. His monumental vanity called
for the erection of a calcified monstrosity, an
exostosis, that he hoped would remain to honor
him long after his departure. But when the
chondrocytes resisted he imprisoned them in
their lacunae and cut off their supply of substrates. For a while they subsisted on hidden
stores of glycogen but when these were exhausted, starvation and death awaited them. The
hardier and more ingenious among them, the
hypertrophic chondrocytes, by means of makeshift tools, broke through the lacunar wall and
escaped. Quickly they consolidated themselves
into chondroclastic units and then dashed headlong across the metaphyseal straits into the
Land of Bone. Much has been written, romantically and critically, about the attack by the
“600,” the so-called, Charge of the Chondrocyte
Brigade, but whatever the pros and cons from a
tactical standpoint, “The Charge” stands in the
annals of cytodifferentiation as the epitome of
protoplasmic valor. The osteoblasts deployed
along the trabeculae gazed in amazement as the
Brigade dashed down the diaphyseal corridors
into the Valley of Death. One by one they fell,
until, alas, annihilation of the gallant Knights
of Epiphysea was complete. In the aftermath, as
he surveyed the bloody field of battle, old Sclerous saw much that pleased his voracious hydroxyapatite.
Donald Walker epitomized the best in the
artistry and science of Anatomy-referred to
by Berta Scharrer recently as the “beautiful
science.” For this he will be remembered by
his fellow anatomists and medical scientists.
Those of us who knew him more intimately
will remember him for his sense of humor, his
insatiable and infectious curiosity, his enthusiasm, his warmth and generosity, and his
dedication as a teacher. All of his associates
were impressed by his mastery of the entire
range of the anatomical sciences, from gross
anatomy to cell biology, and by his skill in
transmitting to students the ability to deal
with multilevel concepts of vertebrate biology.
We were not surprised when he was voted the
outstanding preclinical teacher by his students in 1974, and was presented the Barry
Wood Award in Recognition of Outstanding
Preclinical Teaching. The previous year he
had received the Nicolas Andry Award of the
Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons, in
the field of clinical orthopedics and related
Walker’s outstanding contribution to clinical science is neatly summarized in a publication in Science, 1975, vol. 190, p. 785: “The
reciprocal transplantation of bone marrow and
spleen cells in mice of osteopetrotic stocks has
revealed that the hematopoietic tissues produce migratory cells essential to hard tissue
removal. If these cells originate from a genetically defective source such as the spleen of
grey-lethal or microphthalmic mutants, the
result is osteopetrosis. However, if the mutant’s original source of these cells is replaced
(through irradiation and transplantation) or
supplemented (through establishment of crosscirculation) by a source provided by a normal
littermate, bone resorption will be restored
and signs of osteopetrosis will disappear.”
OFFICERS- 1980-1981
President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SANFORDL.PALAY
President-Elect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ELIZABETH
President-Emeritus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DANIEL
First Vice-president . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Second Vice-President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AARON
Programsecretary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. ROY SCHWAHTZ
Secretary-Deasurer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WILLIAM
Executive Committee
For term expiring 1981 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FRANK
For termexpiring 1982. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DONALDC.
For termexpiring 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. KENTCHRISTENSEN,
For termexpiring 1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LEEV. LEAK,
Representative to the Council of A.A.A.S.
Representative to the National Research Council
Member of the Biological Stain Commission
Representative to Council of National Society for Medical Research
Representatives to A.A.M.C. Council of Academic Societies
Committee on Anatomical Nomenclature
Committee on Educational Affairs
Committee on Charles Judson Herrick Award Fund
Committee on Journal Dust Fund
(ex officio)
Committee on Nominations for 1981
D. YATES,Chairman
Committee on Women and Otherrepresented Groups in Anatomy
Committee on Honorary Membership in the Association
Committee for the R.R. Bensley Memorial Lecture
A. FISCHMAN, Chairman
Pustees of the R.R. Bensley Memorial Fund
Sustaining Associate Members
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