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Proceedings of the twenty-fifth annual meeting of the american society of zo├╢logists.

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PROCEEDINGS O F T H E TWENTY-PIFTH ANNUSL
MEETING O F T H E AMERICAN SOCIETY
OF ZOOLOGISTS
NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, DECEMBER 28, 29, 30, 1927
The 1927 meeting of the American Society of Zoologists
was held at the Vanderbilt University School of .Medicine,
Nashville, Tennessee, December 28th, 29th, and 30th. The
local arrangements for the meeting were admirably carried
out, and the meeting was a most successful one.
The sessions for formal paper reading were unusually well
attended, the attendance frequently running up t o one hundred or more. The success of last year's informal laboratory
program was repeated this year. The laboratories in which
demonstratio-ns and exhibits were open f o r inspection were
crowded, and the comments were enthusiastic.
The Secretary was the only officer or member of the Executive Committee present. The following letter from the President, Dr. S. J. Holmes, who was incapacitated by illness, was
read at the opening session:
To the American. Society of Zob'logists:
I keenly regret that, on account of a recent illness, coming a t a
most inopportune time, I am rendered incapable of attending the
meetings of the American Society of Zoologists a t Nashville. But
while expressing my disappointment over my enforced absence, I
wish also t o express my high appreciation of the honor which the
Society has conferred upon me in making me its president during
the present year. With best wishes for a highly profitable meeting,
Respectfully,
S. J. HOLMES.
321
322
AMERICAN SOCIETY O F Z O ~ L O G I S T S
TNTRODUCED P A P E R S
By consent of the Society, the following papers were iiitro duced :
IfORPHOLOGY A N D
ASEXUAL STAGE
O F EUGLYPHA ALVEOLATA
PHILIP M. JONES
Johns Hopkins Srhool of Hygiene nnd Public Health
Rend
Euglgpha alveolata has been cultured in a semipnre culture of I<nop’s solution
and bacteria for five years.
1 have been able to confirm Schweiakoff’s work on the division of the nucleus,
except in certain details.
The substance around the nucleus which secretes the shell plates may be mitochondria. The staining reaction, movements during cell division, and reorganization of this substanre, the formation and movements of the protoplasm in both
the mother and daughter cells during such formation, and the amoeba stage and
its activities have all been studied.
THE CALCIUM-ALKALI
RATIO IN CULTUREMEDIA FOR PLANARIA
DOROTOCEPHALA
MARGARET R. MURRAY
National Eesearch Fellow, UnivPrsity of Chicago
(Introduced by C. M. Child)
Read
The object of this paper is to show that, for maintaining the normal form and
functions of at least certain cells of the flatworm Planaria dorotocephala, a
higher proportion of Ca t o K i n the medium is required than is contained in
the usual ‘balanced salt solutions’ for vertebrate tissues. The amount of the
calcium salt must be at least twice by weight the amount of the potassium salt,
and may be as high as forty times without unfavorable effect. The amount of
sodium may be diminished to a fraction of the amount of calcium, so long as
the necessary osmotic pressure is maintained. An insufficient amount of calcium
in the medium produces, in this form, general paralysis and inhibition of the
normal wound contraction, which functions must be dependent upon the external
epithelium and the muscle cells which lie just below it. Correlated with these
findings is the fact that the springs in which the animals are found contain a n
exceedingly high proportion of calcium t o the other salts; sodium and potassium
are present in negligible amounts, calcium as 53 parts per million.
323
PROCEEDINGS
THE
POSSIBLE
BIOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE O F T H E INCREASED
X-RAYED
TYROSINASE
ACTIVITY O F
ROBERT T. HANCE
University of Pittsburgh
Read
The organic pigment, melanin, wherever found in the animal or plant kingdoms,
is produced through the interaction of tyrosine and tyrosinase. When potatoes
and mushrooms that contain a large supply of free tyrosinase are x-rayed, the
enzyme exhibits a power of producing melanin i n reaction with tyrosine t h a t is
increased in direct proportion to the length of the exposure. As the enzyme is
a n oxidase its increased activity suggested a change in its powers of oxidation.
Subsequent exposure of potato mush t o the air f o r short periods was also found
t o increase the oxidizing powers of tyrosinase in proportion t o the length of the
exposure. Lastly, the possibility t h a t these changes i n the oxidizing power of
tyrosinase by x-ray might be reflected i n the metabolism of exposed living material was borne out when it was shown t h a t respiration of x-rayed mushrooms,
potatoes, and mice was increased approximately 30 per cent following exposure.
These three lines of evidence strongly suggest t h a t x-rays stimulate the oxidative
processes of biological material.
SIODELS ILLUSTRATING T H E DEGREE OF DEVELOPMENT
OF SKELETON,
MUSCLES,
FORE
L I M B OF T H E ALBINOR A T AT APPROXIMATELY T H E
TIME IN FETAL
LIFE W H E N MUSCULARMOVEMENTS
BEGIN, BUT BEFORE MOTE
MENTS I N TRUNKOR LIMBSCAN BE EXCITED'
AND NERVES O F T H E
HOMER BLINCOE
Emory Uniacwity and The Wista?' Instittcte of Anotoniy
(Introduced by G. E. Coghill)
B y demonstratton
Following the work of Sweiison on the behavior of the fetal rat, it seemed
of value to investigate the state of debelopment of the anatomical structures
having t o do with movements. The serial sections of a 12-mm. embryo albino rat
of the approximate age when movements become evident (prwiously testcd and
having been found negative as to movements) were studied, giving especial
attention to the fore-limb region. Using thc low power of the inicroscope, muscle
groups were shown to be well differentiated from the premuscle masses and
attached t o the skeletal elements nearly as f a r as the paw. The nerve trunks are
remarkably developed and show the usual relationships t o the muscles and
skcleton.
To visualize these anatomical features grossly, three wax reconstructions of the
fore limb, after the methods used by Lewis in studying the development of the
arm in man, were made, and these afford the unaided cyc a three-dimensional
'This paper was listed in the program a s l l l a , but owing t o an error the
abstract was not included.
324
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
view of the aforementioned features. The muscle groups with their attachments,
the skeleton, the nerves and their derivation from the brachial plexus, and the
relationships of each to each are plainly shown.
This study also contemplates the investigation of the cytological aspect of
the developing muscles and the nature of the nerve-muscle connection. The
possible bearing of these observations upon the question of self-differentiation
of tissues is considered.
AN
UNFERTILIZED
TUBALOVUM
FROM THE
MONKEY,MACAWS RHESUS
EDGAR ALLEN
University o f Missouri School of Medicine
B y title
This is the fourth unfertilized primate ovum to be recovered from the uterine
tube. Observations and measurements were made while fresh in Ringer’s solution.
The ovum was free from follicle cells and enclosed in a zona pellueida 1 5 p
thick. An average diameter (including the zona) was 1 7 8 . 5 ~while
~
the ovum
proper (excluding the zona) was 1 0 4 ~ . Measurements of other tuba1 ova from
monkeys are given in table 6, Carnegie Pub. no. 380.
As these measurements indicate, the zona fitted the ovum loosely, leaving a
space of about 20 p between it and the ovum. The yellow yolk mass with polar
body attached moved easily and could be rotated within this zona. As the ovum
rolled, a clear polar cap covering about one-third of its surface became visible,
then it rolled back with the polar cap on top.
The ovum was observed during fixation with Bouin’s fluid diluted with Ringer’s
solution. As the fixative diffused about the ovum the zona collapsed k~one-half
its former thickness and ruptured, emitting a clear fluid which set upon contact
with the fixative. An attempt was made to prepare the ovum as a whole mount,
but gradual dehydration proved too severe a treatment, causing the fragmentation
of the ovum. An empty half zona was all that could be identified. It appeared
to be pitted (perhaps perforated).
AN
METANEPXROS
I N RELATION
TO
VASCULAR
SYSTEM
ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE
THE
ALICE L. BROWN
Cornell University Medical College and Memorial Hospital
(Introduced by Prof. C. R. Stockard)
B y title
The material used in this study was secured from thirty-eight cesarean operations on mice, in collnboration with Dr. Halsey J. Bagg. One hundred and fortysix embryos were obtained, 120 of which have been sectioned serially and the
kidney regions studied in detail. These embryos range in age from nine days to
term. A study of kidney anomalies classified these embryos as to the amount of
PROCEEDINGS
325
blastema present into five groups: I ) embryos minus right or left kidney; 11)
embryos minus both kidneys; 111) embryos with an arrested blastema and a
retarded blastema; I V ) unusual cases; V) control embryos and those which
appear t o have a normal kidney development. The ureter retardation positions
fall into six groups: 0) those with no trace of a beginning; I) those in which
a start was made, but never grew out; 11) those in which the ureter grew out to
the umbilical-iliac artery; 111) those in which the ureter grew out to the level
a t which the miillerian ducts are fusing; I V ) those which grew out to the pelvis
brim, and, V) those which made posterior contact with the blastema and grew
out t o the position of the normal kidney pelvis.
Serial section study and reconstruction models of eleven different embryos a t
critical stages within the nine- t o fourteen-day period prove the dominant factors
in these anomalies t o be: An aberrant vascular system failing to produce a normal balance in development, and this in time causes an abnormal posterior
twisting of the body during the ten- t o twelve-day period of development. This
posterior twisting produces a crowding of the metanephric blastema and prevents
the ureter bud from growing into i t ; and the stretching on the other side either
prevents the bud from reaching the blastema or causes it t o reach only the most
posterior part of the blastema, or separates the blastema into two parts. The
kidney anomalies are, therefore, directly due to a failure of the metanephric
blastema and ureter bud t o make a mutual union, and thus produce a functional
kidney in whole or part. This twisting of the body produces a great distention
of blood vessels, which normally brings about certain differentiations of mesenchyme a t this stage of development; abnormally, it produces a minus right or left
umbilical artery before the fifteen- t o sixteen-day stage, a t which time one
normally degenerates. Absorbing embryos observed in the thirteen-to-fourteenday stages are thus accounted for.
Microscopical observations and models demonstrate that these factors account
for all observed anomalies found in later stages of development embryos, i.e., a
minus right or left kidney or minus both kidneys, or an arrested condition and
retarded condition. Both the blastema and ureter bud are responsible for the
defect, but evidence is in favor of the greater responsibility being on the
blastema.
THE
INFLUENCE
OF
WHOLEPITUITARY
AND POSTERIOR
PITUITARY
ON
MATURITYOF PINK-EYED YELLOW RATS=
THE
DEVELOPMENT AND
G . P. THOMPSON, F. E. CHIDESTER; AND A. G . EATON
West Virginia University
By title
1. Young pink-eyed, yellow rats of pure stock, receiving dosages of 0.15 gram
and 0.30 gram of desiccated whole pituitary by mouth, grew a t abbut the same
rate as the controls for the first five weeks, but gained much more rapidly than
the controls for the remainder of the experimental period. The two different
dosages gave practically the same results.
2Approved for publication by N. J. Giddings, acting director of the West Virginia Experiment Station, as Scientific Paper no. 42.
Subsidized by the Purnell Fund, the Merrill-Soule Co., the G. W. Carnrick Go.,
and the Eli Lilly Co.
326
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF Z O ~ L O G I S T S
2 . Incrclascd growth in rats fed on desiccated whole pituitary is much more
marked in male than in female rats.
3. Contrary to some beliefs, no cases of viciousness or gigantism developed.
4. A n apparently adequate basic diet consisting of ‘Klim’ and whole wheat
may have accounted f o r the superior ‘self-control’ evinced by these animals.
Other invrstigators have noted extreme nervousness in rats on pituitary cxperiments.
5. Desiccated posterior pituitary fed by mouth in dosages of 0.15 gram and
0.30 gram had very little influence on growth.
TIIE
ADRENALCORTEX AND MEDULLAON THE GROWTHAND
MATURITYO F YOUNG (WHITE LEGHORN)
CHICKS4
INFLUENCE OF
A. G . EATON, W. M. INSKO, G . P. THOMPSON, AND F. E. CHIDESTER‘
West Vtrgznaa Universzty
B y title
1. Chicks fed dcsiccated suprarenal medulla grew almost the same as the controls for the first three weeks. A f t r r t h a t time, their growth was less rapid than
the controls.
2. Chicks fed desiccated suprarenal cortex grew much more slowly a t first than
the controls. But, by the end of the first eight weeks, they began t o grow more
rapidly, and, toward the end of the experiment, almost equaled the controls in
weight.
3. I f the woights of the testes are any indication of maturity, males receiving
desiccated suprarenal eortcx wcre more mature than either of the other lots, and
those receiving desiccated medulla wrre less mature than those of the other lots.
The average weight of the testes of the lot receiving desiccated suprarenal cortex
xvas 0.2171 gram; the average of those receiving medulla was 0.1342 gram,
while that of thc controls was 0.2000 gram.
THE INFLUEhT(’E
OF
ADRENALCORTEX AND MEDULLAON THE GROWTHAND
MATURITYOP AGOUTIRATS“
F. E. PIiIDESlER;
A. G . EATON, AND G . P. THOMPSON
West Bzrginza Universztiy
By title
1. Growth of young rats is retarded by 0.5 gram of either desiccated suprarenal
medulla or coitcx and is retarded, especially at first, by desiccated suprarenal
cortex.
2. Young female rats fed 0.5 gram of desiccated suprarenal cortex (as shown by
earlier litters) reach sexual niaturity sooner than controls or those fed on 0.5
gram desiecatcd suprarenal medulla daily.
4Approved f o r publication by N. J. Giddings, acting
Virginia Experiment Station, a s Scientific Paper no. 41.
‘Subsidized by the Purnell Fund, the Merill-Soule Co.,
Tick Co.
‘Approved f o r publication by N. J. Giddings, acting
Virginia Exprrimcnt Station, as Scientific Paper no. 40.
‘Subsidized bp the Purnell Fund, the Merrill-Soule Co.,
rick Co.
director of the West
and the G. W. Carndirector of the West
and the G. W. Carn-
327
PROCEEDINGS
No males were tested independently with females known to be mature, and we
cannot, therefore, draw any conclusions regarding their age at sexual maturity.
AGGLUTINATION
PIIENOMENA
IN
AGINGGERM C E L L S
A. J. GOLDFARB
C o l l ~ g eof the C i t y of New P o r k
B y title
Lillie's studies on agglutination have been carried further with respect t o aging
eggs and aging sperm. It has been demonstrated t h a t aging eggs increase the
quantity of agglutinin. The rate of increase depends upon the physiological
condition a t the time of shedding. On the other hand, aging sperm likewise
increases the agglutinin reaction. This increase occurs later in the aging cycle
than in eggs, but this increase in agglutination time is not due t o the formation
of a n X substance either by the eggs or the sperm, b u t by a change in permeability which makes the sperm more reactive t o a given quantity of agglutinin.
'rIlE POSSIBLE EIOLOGICAL SIGNIE'ICANCE OF T H E I N C R E A S E D
ACTIVITYO F
X-RAYED
TYROSINASE
ROBERT T. H A N C E
Unaversity of Pittsbiirgh
B?J title
The organic pigment, melanin, whcrever found in the animal or plant kingdoms,
is produced through the interaction of tyrosine and tyrosinase. When potatoes
and mushrooms t h a t contain a large supply of free tyrosinase are x-rayed, the
enzyme exhibits a power of producing melanin in reaction with tyrosine t h a t is
increased in direct proportion to the length of the exposure. As the enzyme is a n
oxidase, its increased activity suggested a change in its powers of oxidation.
Subsequent exposure of potato mush to the air f o r short periods was also found
to increase the oxidizing powers of tyrosinase in proportion to the length of
exposure. Lastly, the possibility t h a t these changes in the oxidizing power of
tprosinase by x-ray might b e reflected in t h e metabolism of exposed living material was borne out when it was shown t h a t respiration of x-rayed mushrooms,
potatoes, and mice was increased approximately 30 per cent following exposure.
These three lines of evinence strongly suggcst t h a t x-rays stimulate the oxidatil-e
proces.;es of biological niaterial.
THE REACTION
O F I~O~VOZYGOUK
AND HETEEOZTGOUS
-4DULT
THE INFTLTENCE
OF X BATS
CHARACTERS UNDER
ROBERT T. HANCE
Universzt y of Pit t s b u r g l ~
B y title
To test the physiological strength of adult charactcrs determined by one nr
two genes, pure-bred and hybrid agouti (wild gray color) mice were given the
smallest exposure to x-rays that would be likely to inhibit pigment production in
328
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
the hair. Exposures of 30 KV., 22 ma., 26-em. target distance for five minutes
were used. The agouti of the heterozygous mice was replaced by white, while
that of the homozygous animals was replaced by hair distinctly darker than the
original. It is believed that the determiner of the heterozygous agouti, being
physiologically weaker, was destroyed, while those of the pure agouti were
stimulated to greater pigment production.
GESTATIONIN
A
MONKEY(MACACUS
RHESUS)
CARL 6. H A R T N A N
Departnwnt of Embryology, Carnegie Institution of W a s h i n g t o n
B y title
For the first time it is possible to state accurately the length of gestation in
any primate other than man. Six lunar months practically to a day intervened
between mating and parturition in a female rhesus monkey of our colony. The
animal was mated seven times ; sir infertile matings avoiding the theoretically
fertile period of the interval, namely, nine to twelve days after the beginning of
menstruation. The fertile mating occurred a day or two before the leucocyte
count of the vagina had reached zero. After the low leucocyte count has been
reached, the mating is sterile, which is further presumptive evidence for the short
viability of the discharged ovum.
From the fourteenth day after mating and continuing twenty-three days without
cessation small amounts of blood were found in the vagina. This probably constitutes the placental sign of Long and Evans ( r a t ) and is due presumably to
leakage from the placenta. This phenomenon is regarded as a n early sign of
pregnancy and should be looked for in man.
PROGRA4M
Fifty-one papers were scheduled t o be read, exclusive of
joint programs. Forty-two of these were read, the remaining
nine being read by title. Forty-four other papers were scheduled by title. Thirty-one papers were scheduled by demonfitration o r exhibit, nearly all of which were presented. I n
the following summary the papers are designated by their
program numbers (compare December number of this
Journal).
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER
28TH
Section a. 10.00-12.30 Caswell Grave, acting chairman, presiding.
Comparative and General Physiology. Papers 1 to 14, inclusive; no. 5 being
read by title, owing to the absence of the author.
Beetion b. 10.00-11.30 W. M. Smallwood, acting chairman, presiding.
General Evolution, Protozoology, and C o m p a r a t h e A n a t o m y , concluded. Papers
12, 73, 74, 76, and 85 were read by title, owing to the absence of the authors.
329
PROCEEDINGS
The introduced paper by Philip M. Jones was read at the close of this session.
2.00-4.00 Demonstrations and exhibits according t o program.
8.00-10.00 The Biological Smoker was held in the Alumni Memorial Hall.
THURSDAY, DECEXBER
2
9
~
~
Section a. 10.00-12.45 Caswell Grave, acting chairman, presiding.
Comparative and General Physiology. Papers 15 t o 24, inclusive; no. 18 being
read by title, owing t o the absence of the author. The introduced papers b y
Margaret R. Murray and Robert T. Hance were read at the close of this session.
Section h. 10.00-12.00 Joint session with t h e American Society of Parasitologists.
2.00 Section 2. H. H. Newman, acting chairman, presiding.
Comparative a n d General Physiology. Papers 25 t o 29, inclusive.
3.00-3.10 Business session of Section F.
3.10-4.20 Business session of the American Society of ZoSlogists.
6.30 Zoologists’ dinner under the auspices of Section F, Dr. G. T. Hargitt,
Secretary of the Section, presiding. The address of the evening was given by
Dr. W. C. Curtis, retiring Vice-president of the Section, on “Old problems and
a new technique.” About one hundred and fifty attended the dinner.
FRIDAY, DECEMBER
3
0
~
~
Section a. 10.00-12.30 W. C. Curtis, acting chairman, presiding.
Comparative and General Physiology, concluded. Papers 30 to 32, inclusive.
Cytology papers 88 t o 91, inclusive.
Embryology papers 105 t o 109, inclusive.
Nos. 30 and 31 were rcad by title, owing to the absence of the author.
Section b. Joint session with the Ecological Society of America.
THURSDAY, DECEMBER
3.10-4.20
29TH
Business session, H. H. Newman, acting chairman, presiding.
REPORTS O F OFFICERS AND COMMITTEES
Through the Secretary, S. I. Kornhauser, representative
of the Society on the Executive Committee of the Commission
€or the Standardization of Biological Stains, presented the
following report for 1927 :
To the Oficers and Members
of
the American Society of ZoGlogists:
As your representative on the Commission for the Standardization of Biological
Dyes, I wish t o report progress during the past year.
Beside the regular work in testing new hatches of dyes f o r certification, the
Commission has made important contributions t o our knowledge of dyes and
has published many of these in “Stain Technology.” Most useful t o us is the
work on tliionin and the azures, which can he used a s routine stains with eosin
330
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
for ordinary histological work and give most splendid results with a great variety
of tissue a f t e r any of the ordinary methods of fixation. Your representative
has used this technique with excellent results and can recommend i t to you
heartily a s a rapid, differential, and easily controlled method.
Improvenients and innovations have been made in fat-soluble stains, so that
now a variety of good, strong stains f o r adipose tissue can be had which are f a r
superior t o Sudan I11 of the past.
A substitute permanent green for light green so much used in the Bends
safranin-light green technique is being tested out. I t is hoped t h a t this substitution will do away with the fading of the green stain so annoying in the
older technique.
Your representative was present at a meeting of the Executive Committee
a t Nrw York October 8th. Plans for the coming year were discussed. “Biological
Stains” will appear in revised edition. “ S t a i n Technology” will continue to
publish progrrss on the dyes and methods of staining and will also publish a
series of articles on the history of staining.
Both these publications have been well accepted and have more than paid
f o r their cost of publication.
It is hoped that if any member of the American Society of Zodogists has
any particular problem in regard to stains or has any complaint t o make relative
t o American microscopic dyes, especially those certified by the Commission, he
will iiotify your representative or the Chairman of the Cornmission.
Respectfully submitted,
8.
I.
KORNIIAUSER.
The Society accepted the report and ordered that Doctor
Kornhauser continue in the same capacity.
Through the Secretary, the following report was presented
€or the information of the Society :
NATIONAL
RESEARCH
COUNCIL
Eeport to the American Soceety of Zoologists on the work of the Dzvision of
Biology and Bgricwltwre which may be of anterest t o the Society
The National Keseareh Council, a cooperative organization f o r the promotion of
scientific research, is founded on the principle o f representation through the
national scaientific societies. Taking the Division of Biology and Agriculture as
a n example closest t o our interests, fifteen societies in both the pure and the
applied fields of biology a r e given opportunity, 1) to select someone from their
respective memberships to constitute, with several members-at-large chosen by
the Division a s a whole, the membership of the Division; 2 ) t o bring t o the
Council the research needs in their own fields which this body may be in a
position to encourage, and, 3 ) t o take a n active part in the general work of
the Division. The history of the Division has indicated that this plan for
serving the scientific groups of the country has worked ont unusually well.
Already a dozen or so outstanding achievements have resulted and are now
operating independently as major activities in the realm of science. The work
PROCEEDINGS
331
of the Council, like its membership, is a continuing process, and each year a s
certain projects branch out to stand alone more or less, new ones arise. Consequently, there is a t all times a large list of active projects. Those t h a t may be
of interest especially t o the members of the American Society of Zoologists a r e
briefly reported upon below.
1. C o m m i t t e e on Aq?tict~Ztwe. This committee was established i n 1925 for
the consideration of the general subject of aquiculture and its probable relations
t o conservation of waters in streams, lakes, and soils, and thus t o agriculture,
forestry, and the general welfare. The present aim of the Committee embraces
a thorough survey of the whole subject of aquiculture, particularly as t o the
development of its scientific aspects in Europe and other countries, and t h e
existing facilities f o r scientific training f o r this field in America, and a roundtable conference of those primarily interested in this country with a few leaders
from abroad. Efforts a r e being made to find financial support f o r both the
survey and the conference.
2. C o m m i t t e e on AnzmaZ Breedzng. This committee has been operating since
1924, first under the chairmanship of Dr. L. J. Cole and, beginning with J u l y
of 1926, with Mr. E. N. Wentworth a s chairman. The two major problems now
before its subcommittee on Methods of Analysis are, 1) correcting production
f o r age in dairy cows and, 2 ) the development of methods which will providc a n
accurate test and measure of the worth of the dairy sire. The subcommittee
on Survey of Research plans to ascertain the various projects in animal breeding
being conducted at the experiment stations, that the information may be available
f o r general use.
3 . T h e Cornmattee 0% the Atmosphere and Man was established in the spring
of 1921 primarily for a study of the relation of air to health. A t its initial
meeting in the fall of 1921 it determined upon the following projects to engage
its attention f o r the time being: 1) variation of influenza from citp t o city;
2 ) mortality in New York City; 3) factory records; 4 ) laboratory experiments.
With financial and other material support, the committee has been enabled to go
ahead with the first three studies and has published the following to date:
Causes of geographical variations in the influenza epidemic of 1918 in the cities
of the United States. A report of the Committee on t h e Atmosphere and Man
of the Kational Research Council, Ellsworth Huntington, chairman, July, 1923.
35 pp. Bulletin 34, N. H. C., vol. 6 .
Influenza and the weather in the United States in 1918, by Ellsworth Huntington. Scientific Monthly, pp. 4 6 2 4 7 1 , vol. 17, no. 5, November, 1923.
Temperature and mortality in New York City. A preliminary report from the
Committee on the Atmosphere and Man, Xational Research Council Statistical
Bulletin, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, vol. 4, no. 2, February, 1923,
pp. 3-7.
Civilization and climnte, hy Ellswortli Huntington. September, 1924, Yale
University Press.
4 . Commzttee o n FamiZy Records. This committee was established at the
request of the Huntington Family Association, who desired a n advisory and
scientific committee in the National Research Council to help t h e Association in
its proposal t o inaugurate a scientific record keeping of the physical and mrntal
characteristics in the successive genrrn tions of the family. The Council, through
332
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
this Division, gave its endorsement, a n d the Committee has been a t work since
1922. Dr. Clark Wissler, of the American Museum of Natural History and
Yale University, is the present chairman. Some funds for the committee’s work
have been secured and a comprehensive questionnaire has been prepared f o r
obtaining the desired records. The program of work as outlined will require
a period of about five years t o bring t o some conclusion.
5. Committee on Pood and Nutrztion. This is a carry-over from the war
organization of the National Research Council. J n reorganizing it in 1919, the
committee was made up of two subcommittees, one on animal nutrition and the
other on human nutrition. The committee has published mostly in the animal
field a s listed:
Cooperative experiments upon the protein requirements f o r the growth of
cattle. First report of the subcommittee on Protein Metabolism in Animal Feeding. H. P. Armsby, chairman. June, 1921. Bulletin 12, N.R.C.
On the formulation of methods of experimentation in animal production.
E. B. Forbes and H. S. Grindley. June, 1923. Bulletin 33, N.R.C.
Cooperative experiments upon the protein requirements f o r the growth of
cattle. Report of the subcommittee on Animal Nutrition, E. B. Forbes, chairman. February, 1924. Bulletin 42, N.R.C.
Problems in the field of animal nutrition. Subcommittee on Animal Nutrition.
May, 1923. Reprint 42, N.R.C.
Mineral nutrient requirements of farm animals. Report of subcommittee on
Animal Nutrition, E. B. Forbes, chairman. December, 1924. Reprint 60, N.R.C.
The determination of the protein requirements of animals and of the protein
values of f a r m feeds and rations. Report of the subcommittee on Animal Nutri
tion, b y H. 1%.Mitchell. Bulletin 55, N.R.C., March, 1926.
6. Committee on Infectious Abortzon. Activities in the field of infectious
abortion were first initiated in the Council through several conferences held over
a period of t,wo or three years, beginning in 1921, a n d since 1924 a committee,
first under the chairmanship of Dr. L. W. Goss and now with Dr. Theobald Smith
acting in this capacity, has served as a nucleus for promoting cooperative work
in this connection.
7. Baologzcal Abstracts. Since the establishment of the Council, this Division
in particular has been concerned especially in a study of publication needs, with
a view to attempting t o meet some of these. As a first step in this direction
was the launching of International Biological Abstracts. This abstracting
journal expects to cover the whole field of biological and closely related sciences.
6 . Committee on Research Publicatzons. The Division has further been concerned with a study of the needs among scientific biological journals for the
publication of original research articles. Dr. C. E. McClung has been chairman
of this committee during the past few years, but, inasmuch as he is out of the
country now f o r the full year and it is felt desirable t o push this study this
winter, the committee is being reorganized.
9. Fellowships growing out of actzvzty o f the Davzsion. I n addition to a
number of special fellowships, funds for which have been made available a t
various times f o r the support of particular pieces of research, there has been
operating since 1923 a major series of fellowships known as the National
Research Fellowships in the Biological Sciences and designed primarily for the
PROCEEDINGS
333
training and development in fundamental biological science of individuals beyond
the doctorate stage.
The special fellowships which may be of interest to members of the American
Society of Zoologists are the Sulphur Fellowships, the National Live Stock and
Meat Board Fellowships, and the Rosenwald Fellowship.
10. Commission on the Standardizatzon o f Bzological Stains. This organization
is now independent of the National Research Council except that the latter
acts as its fiscal agent. It was established in 1922 for the development in this
country of standardized stains, and its activities are no doubt well known by now.
11. American T y p e Culture Collection. This is another project which is now
separated from the Division, but which it may be of interest to report on Here
briefly. Following earlier arrangements for its maintenance, the Division of
Biology and Agriculture, in cooperation with the Division of Medical Sciences,
was asked by the bacteriologists to appoint a committee to study the situation
and determine upon some plan whereby the collection might be provided for in
a more permanent way and allow for its development on a scale which would
meet the needs of the biological centers using these cultures. Early in 1925,
support f o r the collection was secured through the General Education Board to
the extent of $24,000 over a period of five years, and housing and other privileges
were accorded it by the McCormick Institute for Infectious Diseases in Chicago.
18. Institute for Research in Tropical AmPrica. The Institute for Research
in Tropical America was organized, under the auspices of the Division of Biology
and Agriculture, in January of 1921 for the purpose of promoting “research
in Tropical America, by exploration, by the establishment of laboratories and
research stations, by coordinating the efforts of cooperating institutions, and by
such other methods as the Institute may adopt.”
Since its organization the Institute has concentrated its energies largely upon
the establishment of the Barro Colorado Island Biological Station in the Panama
Canal Zone. The assistance of the Nationnl Research Council was sought in
endorsing this project to the government of Panama to bring pressure to bear
on seruring the site desired for this Station. The Council gave its endorsement.
The reserve was subsequently set aside, and, with Dr. Thomas Barbour in charge,
plans for the establishment of the Station went forward without delay. It has
been a going concern since the summer of 1923 and has received financial support
from various sources. Some seventy-five persons, at least, have made use of the
facilities a t the laboratory during the few years of its operation.
1.9, Commzttee on Tropical Research. The project a t present under the advisement of this group is the establishment of a graduate school of tropical agriculture. On the basis of study of a number of possible sites and following
visits by the Division chairman of last year and the present chairman, the
committee, with the endorsement of the Division, is recommending Porto Rico
as the most suitable location for this proposed graduate school.
On behalf of the Division of Biology and Agriculture, its present officers wish
to call the attention of the members of the American Society of Zoologists to
the fact that the National Research Council welcomes the representation on it
of the Society and that the Division is the unit through which the Society
secures this representation and t o whom it may bring any matters in which the
Council can be of assistance. The extent t o which this Society, along with the
334
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
others included in this one unit, utilizes the Division organization a s a means
t o arcomplish some of its needs, is the extent t o which the Division itself will
justify its value to the societies.
The report of the Secretary showed the membership of the
Society to consist of 6 life members, 423 active members, and
51 associate members, making a total of 480. The election
of 16 new active members, of 4 associate members to active
membership, and of 10 new associate members later in the
meeting brought the total up to 506.
Two active members, A. D. Howard and 0. W. Hyman, and
two associate members, Ruth Ball and E. E. Engle, resigned
during the year. Three active members, C. H. Eigenmann,
H. G. May, and C. C. Nutting, died during the year. Two of
those elected to associate membership at the 1926 meeting,
J. C. Donaldson and Mary Stuart MacDougall, declined election.
The report of the Secretary was adopted and ordered filed.
Through the Secretary, the Treasurer submitted the following report:
TREASURER'S REPORT
Report of the Treasurer of the American Society o f Zodogists for the year 1927
Credats:
Balance on hand December 23, 1926, when accounts were
$1127.71
last audited .......................................
Receipts from dues, 1927 . . . . .
..... 1055.96
Interest on deposits (July 1, 1926, to J u l y 1, 1927). . . . .
25.53
~
_
_
Total Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$2209.20
Expenditures :
Secretary's expenses :
Traveling :ind incidental expenses at annual mcctiiig.. . $ 142.93
Stenographer .....................................
159.58
Printing .....................
..........
Stamps, stationery, and tclegrain
Treasurer's expenses :
Stamps, staiionery, telegrams, and printing
..
22.91
Exchange on rhecks .....................
Stciiograpliir and clerical services . . . . . . . . . . . .
335
PROCEEDINGS
The Wistar Institute :
Anatomical Record programs .......................
Refunds for overpaid dues ............................
Dues collected for Genetics Section ....................
Contribution voted to Ecological Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motion-picture operator a t annual meeting . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total expenditures .....................................
Balmce on hand, December 24, 1927, deposited in the
name of the American Society of Zoologists in the
National Bank of the Republic, of Chicago, Illinois ...
242.88
12.25
75.00
25.00
3.00
$ 902.96
$1306.24
Respectfully submitted,
L. B. A m y , Treasurer.
The report of the Treasurer was accepted and ordered filed.
The Auditing Committee, consisting of Carl R. Moore and
G. T. Hargitt, reported the books t o have been examined and
to have been found correct. Their report was accepted and
ordered filed.
The Necrology Committee submitted minutes on the deaths
of three members which occurred during the past year. The
minutes were adopted by a rising vote, and were ordered
spread on the records. Copies of the minutes were ordered
sent to the families of the deceased.
Minute on the death of Carl H . Eigenmann
Carl H. Eigenmann was born March 9, 1863, at Flehingen, Germany, and
died April 24, 1927, at Coronado, California. H e came to America while still
a boy and located at Rockport, Indiana. All his collegiate work was done a t
Indiana University, where he obtained the degrees A.B. (1886), A.M. (1887), and
Ph.D. (1889). He was made Professor of Zoology at Indiana University i n 1891
and Dean of t h e Graduate School in 1908. He had been i n declining health some
years prior to his death, the decline probably beginning a f t e r contracting a fever
while on one of his collecting trips to South America.
It was the contact with Jordan while a student which aroused Doctor Eigenmann’s interest in zoology, a n interest which never lagged and which, coupled
with his enthusiasm and determination, carried him through the tremendous
amount of work which he did. Doctor Eigenmann’s contributions to zoology
centered about three fields of interest. The first was a pioneer piece of research
on the history of the sex cells in Cyrnatogaster; the second was his work on
degenerative evolution with the blind vertebrates of North America. His third
and greatest piece of work was his study of the fresh-water fishes of South
America, a study planned in his younger days, but dropped temporarily during
the studies on Cymatogaster and the blind vertebrates. These studies gained
for Doctor Eigenmann world-wide recognition as a great zoologist. I n America
THE AN.4TOMICAL RECORD.
VOL. 37, NO. 3
336
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZO~LOGISTS
he was clreted to membership in tlie National Academy of Sciences, the American
Philosophical Society, and other societies.
Judging by the number of present-day zoologists who have been students
under Doctor Eigennmnn, his influence as a teacher was more than ordinary.
IIis method of work and particularly his energy and enthusiasm inspired his
students.
As a colleague within his department, he was exceptionally agreeable and
stimuhtting t o the younger men. H e always kept in mind their interests and
the interests of his former students.
As :t man he was liked by all. His smile, liis ready wit, and his stock of
storirs made friends whcrever he went.
W. J. MOENKENHAUS,
FERNANDUS
PAYNF.
Mznute
o n the death of H e n r y
Gustav May
Henry Gustar May (Mai), who died December 23, 1926, of infection of throat
glands, was born October 22, 1886, in Prussia.
H e received the degree of B.S. at t h r University of Rochester in 1913 and
P h D . from the University of Illinois in 1917. After graduation he became
associated with the United States Department of Agriculture as junior zoologist
and in 1918 served in Dijon, France, for nine months a s bacteriologist in the
United States Army, being concerned primarily with the bacteriology and
pathology of wounds.
During the gear 1919-1920 he was professor of biology in Mississippi College
and, in 1920, was appointed professor of bacteriology a t Rliode Island State
College and chief of the Division of Animal Breeding and Pathology a t the
Rhode Island Agricultural Experiment Station.
H e is survived by liis wife and three children, and his early death a t the
beginning of a promising career is rz real loss t o sciencr.
H. E. WALTER,
L. C . DUNK.
iwznutr on the tlrtclh of C1iarlP.s Cleveland Nuttzng
The p:rssing of Professor Nutting, on the 23rd of last January, removed from
among his fellows one of tlie oldest members of this Society, a n able teacher,
a skillful invcwtig:itor, i i cultured gentleman, and one who was to many a
belo%edfriend.
Charles Clevelaiid Nutting wiis horn a t Jacksonville, Illinois, May 25, 1858,
being the son of a clergyman. His alma mater was Blackburn College, Illinois,
from which he received the degrees of A.B. in 1880 and of A.M. in 1882.
I n 1926, Cornell College, Iowa, conferred upon him the honorary degree of
LL.D.
I n 1886. he becime a member of the faculty of the University of Iowa a s
professor of zoology and curator of the Museum of Natural History, and
after the lapse of four years was made head of the zoology department. This
and the euratorship he retained till 1926, when he relinquished all administrative
duties. Ilc continued t o teach, however, until five days before his death.
PROCEEDINGS
337
As a teacher, his overflowing enthusiasm and never-failing energy acted as a n
effective stimulus to students who were so fortunate a s t o come under his
instruction, a n d as a constant source of inspiration to his colleagues.
To collect specimens for the museum under his charge and to secure material
f o r his researches, mainly in the field of marine zoiilogy, Professor Nutting
traveled widely. In 1881 and 1882, he engaged in explorations in Central America
f o r the Smithsonian Institution, aiid thereafter he visited in turn Costa Riea
(1882), Nicaragua (1883), Florida (188-5), the region of the Saskatchewan
River in Canada (1891), the West Indies (1888 and 1893) ; the zoological stations
a t Plymouth, England, and Naples, I t a l y (1895), the Hawaiian Islands (1902,
a s a civilian member of the Hawaiian cruise of the U. S. S. Albatross) ; LaJolla,
California, and the Pacific coast (1903 and 1909), and Barbados (1917). H e led
three expeditions from the Uiiiversity of Iowa-to
the Bahamas, in 1893, with
:I party of twenty-three; to Barbados aiid Antigua, in 1918, with a party of
nineteen; and t o the F i j i Islands and Kew Zealand, in 1922, with a party of six.
His published ‘Narratives ” of these expeditions a r e exceedingly interesting.
Professor Nutting’s research was devoted largely to marine zoology, and
concerned particularly the hydroids and the Alcporiaria among the coelenterates.
T o the taxonomy of these groups and to our knowledge of their distribution aiid
relationships he made very valuable contributions. His publishcrl papers, if
enumerated, would form n long list. Among these the most extensive a r e
papers in the Proceedings of the United States National Museum on hydroids
from Puget Sound and the north Pacific roast, on the Alcyonaria of the
Californian roast, and 011 the Alcyonaria collected by the U. 8. S. Albatross,
mainly in Japanese waters, in 1906. He published on the hydroids in t h e
papers from the Harriman-Alaska Expedition, a n d on the Gorgonacea of the
But his
Dutch ‘siboga’ Expedition to the Dutch E a s t Indies in 1899-1900.
most noteworthy publications a r e three large folio volumes oil American hydroids,
published as special bulletins by the United States National Museuni in 1900,
1904, and 1915. H e had read the proof on a fortli-coming report on Philippine
Iiyrlroids only a few days before his death.
Professor Nutting was one of those wlio participated in the organization
of the Central Branch of the Aincrican Society of Zoologists in 1902, and was its
president in 1906. H e has heen ever active in his membership, and has contributed in many ways t o the work and t o the programs of the Society.
As a man, he presented to those wlio came in contact with him a very attractive personality. Though hardly of medium height, his alert bearing,
genial manner, and straightforward address carried a n appeal which on
acquaintance ripened into affectionate regard. To his friends he gave much,
and was ever eager t o impart more. His culture was broad, extending in
many directions outside the limit of his chosen field, and in later years he
prepared several papers of a more philosophic character. H e lived in fullest
measure, and the impress of his life and character upon his friends, his university,
and his science will long remain.
ROBERTH. WOLCOTT,
DAVIDD. WHITNEY.
‘
338
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
ELECTION O F O F F I C E R S
The Nominating Committee (Art. 111, See. 6), composed of
W. C. Curtis, Arthur N. Banta, and J. Percy Moore, submitted the following report:
President, one year, CASWELLGRATE, Washington University.
Pice-PresiBent, one year, M. H. JACOBS,
Pennsylvania.
Secretary, three years, D. E. MINNICH, Minnesota.
Treasurer, three years, L. B. AREY, Northwestern University Modieal School.
Executive Committee, five years, S . J. HOLMES,California.
Council, A.A.A.S., one year (two t o b e elected), F. B. LUTZ,American Museum
of Natural History; W. C. ALLEE, Chicago.
Editorial Board, .Journal of Morphology and Physiology, three years (three to
ALLEN, Missouri; 0. A. BAITSELL,
Yale; R. E. COKER,
be elected), EDGAR
North Carolina.
There being no nominations from the floor, the Secretary
was instruct,ed to cast a ballot for the above list of nominees.
The Chairman read the appointment of the nominating
committee made by President Holmes for 1928: F. R. Lillie,
Chairman ; Charles Zeleny, and H. J. hluller.
ELECTION O F N E W MEMBERS
The Executive Committee recommended and the Society
elected 16 new active members, 4 associate members to active
membership, and 10 new associate members. The names of
the new members are given in the following list. Associate
members elected to active membership are indicated by a
dagger ( t).
ACTIVE MEMBERS
ATWELL, WAYNE JASON,
A.B. (Nebraska Weslyan), A.M., Ph.D. (Michigan),
Professor of Anatomy, University of Buffalo, 24 High St., Buffalo, N . P.
+BALL, GORDAN
HAROLD,
B.S., M.S. (Pittsburgh), Ph.D. (California), Assistant
Professor of Zoology, University of California at Los Angeles, Department
of Zoology, University of Californta, Los Angeles, Calzf.
BEWARI,
NELLO, M.D. (Chirurgie), Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Istitute
di Anatomia Comparata (Firenze), Istitute d a Anatomia Comparata, 1 9
Via Rornana, Florence (92), Italy.
CRABB,EDWARD
D., A.B., M.A. (Oklahoma), Ph.D. (Michigan), Instructor in
Zoology, University of Pennsylvania, Zoological Laboratory, Unkersity of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
PROCEEDINGS
339
t CREASER, CHARLESW., A.B., M.S., Ph.D. (Michigan), Associate Professor of
Zoology, College of the City of Detroit, 4841 Cuss Awe., Detroit, Mich.
DE GARJS, CHARLESFRANCIS,
A.B. (Wisconsin), A.M. (Johns Hopkins), M.D.
(Washington University), Associate in Anatomy, Johns Hopkins Medical
School, Department of Anatomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.
DOMM,LINCOLN
VALENTINE,A.B. (North Carolina), Ph.D. (Chicago), Research
Assistant in Zoology, W h i t m a n Laboratory for E x p e r h a t a l Zoology,
University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.
FEIEDMAN,
HERBERT,
B.Sc. (College of the City of New York), Ph.D. (Cornell),
Instructor in Biology, Amherst College, Department of Biology, Amherst
College, Amherst, Mass.
tGATES, WILLIAM HAZEN,A.B. (Williams), Sc.D. (Harvard), Professor of
Zoology a n d Entomology, Louisiana State University, B a t o n Rouge, La.
HOPKINS,DWIQHT LUCIAN,B.S., M.S. (Virginia), Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins),
Instructor, Duke Universit,y, Durham, N. C., B o x $63, Duke University,
Durhm, N . C.
KEELER,
CLYDEEDGAR,
B.S., M.S. (Dennison), M.A., D.Sc. (Harvard), Research
Fellow, Harvard Medical School, Bussey Institution, Forest Hills, Boston,
Mass.
LYNCH,
CLARAJ., A.B. (Smith), A.M., Ph.D. (Columbia), Member of the Staff,
Rockefeller Institute, 77th S t . and Ave. A., New Pork City, N . P.
MACDOUGALL,MARY STUART,
A.B. (Randolph-Macon), M.S. (Chicago), Ph.D.
(Columbia), Head of Biology Department a n d Professor o f Zoology, Agnes
Scott College, Decatur, Ga.
t MAY, RAOULMICHEL,A.B. (Leland Stanford), A.M., Ph.D. (Harvard), Docteur
des Sciences (Paris) ; Instructor, Washington Square College of New York
University, Department of Biology, Washington Square College, Washington
Square East, New P o r k City.
MURRAY,MAROARETR., A.B. (Gouclier), M.S. (Washington), Ph.D. (Chicago),
National Research Fellow in Zoology at the University of Chicago, 5518
Ellis Avenue, Chi,cago, Ill.
NAGEOTTE,,JEAN,
M.D. ( P a r i s ) , Professor of Comparative Histology, College
de France, 82 rue N . D . des Champs, Paris, France.
ORTENBURGER,
ARTHURIRVING,
A.M., M.S., Ph.D. (Michigan), Assistant Professor
o f Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Curator of Vertebrates, Museum of
Zoology, Curator of Vertebrates, Oklahoma Biological Survey, Zoology Department, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla.
RINGOEN, ADOLPHR., B.A. (Iowa), M.A., Ph.D. (Minnesota), Assistant Professor of Zoology, Uniluersity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.
WALLIN, IVAN
EMMANUEL,
B.S. (Iowa), A.M. (Nebraska), D.Se. (New York),
Professor of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Colorado University, Denver, Colo.
WITSCHI, EMIL,Ph.D. (Munich), Professor of Zoology (Experimental Embryology) , Zoiilogical Laboratory, State Uniluersity of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
340
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
I~ERTHOLF,
LLOYDMILLARD,A.B. (Southwestern), A.M. (Johns Hopkins), Professor of Biology, Western Maryland College, Westminster, Maryland,
9602 Maryland Ave., Baltimore, M a .
RLUMENTHAL,
REUBEN,B.S., M.S. (Pennsylvania), graduate student, University of
Pennsylvania, 514 Reed St., Phzladelphta, Pa.
CHALKLEY,
HAROLDWILLIAM,B.S. (Mississippi A. and M.), M.A., P1l.D. (Johns
Hopkins), Johnston Rescarch Scholar, Johns Hopkins University, 109 W .
86th St., Baltimorr, M d .
CLARK,LEONARD
B., B.A., B.Sc. (Manitoba), M.A. (Hopkins), graduate student,
Department of Zoologfl, Johns Hopkzns Wniverszty, Baltimore, M d .
HAMLETT,GEORGE WHITFIELD DELUZ, A.B., A.M., P1i.D. (Texas), Assistant
Professor, Indiana Vniversity, Zoology Department, Indzana Unzversaty,
Bloorninyton, I n d .
HULPIEU, HAROLD RAYMOND,
A.B. (Southwestern), M.A. (Oklahoma), Adam T.
Bruce Fellow in Zoology, Johns Hopkins University, Deyiartment of Bzology
( H o m e w o o d ) , The J o h n s Hopkzns Unaversity, Baltzmore, Md.
JOHNSON,
PERCY
LEROY,
B.S. (Maine), M.S. (Syracuse), Graduate Assistant in
the Department of Zoology, Johns Hopkilis University, 3535 Greenmount
AvP., Baltimore, M d .
MULLIN,CATHERINEAGNES,B.A., M.A., Ph.D. (Iowa). I o w a City, Iowa.
SPENCER, WARRENPOPPINS,
B.S. (Wooster), M.Sc. (Ohio), Assistant Professor
in Biology, Wooster College, 702 Collegc St., Wooster, Ohao.
WEATHERBY,
JESSE
HOWELL,B.S. (Mississippi 9. and M.), M.S. (Johns Hopkins),
graduate student, Department of Zoology, Johns Hopkins University, Box
1071, Johns Hopkanr Unzvtmaty, Baltamore, Nd.
MISCELLANEOUS B U S I N E S S
The Secretary reported the receipt of a statement of progress from Biological Abstracts. The report was not read,
owing t o its length, but is given in full below.
REPORTON
I (
BIOLOGICAL
ABSTRACTS”
For thr infornwtion of tlte member societies of tlic U n i o n of American
Biologzcal Societies
“Biological Abstracts” was formally launched in December, 1926, and five
numbers have been issued to date. That the journal is not yet on its regular
monthly publication schedule is a matter of much regret t o the editors. This
delay is not due t o any dearth of manuscript, but t o t h e deliberate policy t o
proceed no more rapidly with publieation than adherence t o the standards and
spirit of the undertaking permit. It is now certain, however, t h a t by the new
year tho journal will attain its regular publication schedule. It is confidently
helievcd that these temporary publication arrears will be more than compensated
for by a steady adherence t o the standards set, and t o the plan of world-wide
cooperation in the production of the journal.
PR,OCEEDINGS
341
It is now reasonably clear that the estimates a s t o the proportions of the task,
made by the Joint Publications Committee of the Union of American Biological
Societies and the National Research Council, were sound. These were t o the
effect that the literature in theoretical and applied biology, exclusive of clinical
medicine, totaled approximately forty thousand titlrs annually; and that, with
the typography and format adopted for the journal, it would require i n t h r
vicinity of four thousand pages annually for thr abstracts and indexes. Also, the
estimates as to printing costs are proving remarkably accurate.
T t has taken time to assemble and train a conipetent scientific staff; there a r e
practically no sources of trained personnel, since very little work of this character in biology has been done in America. Attention has been given to a proper
balance b e t w e a the fields covered by the journal, and the present scientific staff
is made up as follows: Animal biology, 1)r. Mary Jones Fisher, Dr. Ezra Allen,
I h . Nellie Payne, Mr. Frank Haimbach; bacteriology, Dr. F. V. Rand; plant
biology, Dr. Oran Raber, Dr. J. H. Schramm. This distribution is almost exactly
proportional to the estimated annual volume of literature in the respective fieldsanimal biology, 20,000 papers ; bacteriology, 5000 ; plant biology, 10,000.
The journal apparently has been favorably received, if one may judge from
the flood of letters, many of them from leading biologists, that greeted i t s appearance. A favorable reception seems also to be indicated by the fact that, though
only five issues are published, the subscription list is already nearly three thousand; of these, a few over one thousand are institutional subscriptions (the number *hich the Joint Committee estimated could be secured), the remaining being
individual. The extent of subsrription support will not be apparent until
the journal has maintained its regular schedule for some time and until at least
one volume index is issued, the latter being the main consideration for the great
body of taxonomic workers. Incidentally, the format, typography, paper, and
general arrangement of the journal have met with very general approval.
An encouraging beginning has been made in securing advertising. Contracts
in hand for the first volume are sufficient t o cover the cost of business management, including salary of assistant, supplies, and circularizing, thus making all
subscription income available for defraying printing costs of the abstracts and
indexes. With growth in the subscription list, it is hoped that advertising can
be made a substantial auxiliarj source of income and help to guarantee sufficient
funds for necrssary printing.
As soon as the journal reaches its regular publication schedule, it is very vital
that the subscription list be very materially increased, as the printing outlay will
necessarily be much greater with the larger number of issues per volume.
I n the general editorial conduct of the journal the editors are adhering to
the broadly cooperative and non-provincial spirit in which the undertaking was
conceived. It requires more time t o get matters fully under way by these
methods, but the conviction has steadily grown that it is the only sound method
in a n undertaking of this character. It is a particular source of satisfaction to
be able to report that the cooperation from biologists in nearly all parts of the
world is hearty and beyond expectation. The degree to which the journal is
already the product of a n almost world-wide cooperative effort will be apparent
from a perusal of the names of the abstractors, representing as they do several
thousand biologists and probably rvery country with biological activity. Besides
342
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
the thousands of biologists who cooperate by submitting abstracts of their own
papers, the journal now has a regular staff of collaborators numbering approximately three thousand.
The plan of operation, especially in the examination of the original publications, presupposed the establishment of cooperative relations with a number of
iiistitutions with notable current library resources, in order t o avoid the prohibitive cost of subscribing t o the thousands of serials. These relations have been
very satisfactorily established, and the editors are very greatly indebted t o the
institutions that are so generously extending f acilities. Besides the University
of Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia institutions which are extending especially
important cooperation are the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and
the College of Physicians. At the former, about 2400 rurreiit serials (mainly in
descriptive biology) are carefully perused, and at the latter about 1200. Including journals covered a t the central editorial office and elsewhere, about 4000
serials, in round numbers, are looked after in Philadelphia.
This by no means includes all serials from which material must be gathered
for “Biological Abstracts.” I f the library resources of Philadelphia may be said
to be deficient in any direction, it is that of agriculture, since there is no local
institution that is especially concerned with this field. The United States Department of Agriculture undoubtedly is the great center for literature in this
field, and with the generous cooperation of the Department and Library authorities
facilities have been extended enabling a member of the scientific staff of “Biological Abstracts ” t o consult such publications in the Department of Agriculture
Library and elsewhere in Washington as are not available in Philadelphia.
Similar cooperation has likewise been generously extended by the SurgeonGeneral’s Library, Library of Congress, Smithsonian Institution, and others.
The total number of journals now being regularly perused is about 5000. The
number requiring attention will probably reach 6000, if not more.
To date, over 30,000 abstracts have been received and some thousands are in
process of preparation. After receiving the abstracts, follows one of the largest
tasks-the detailed indexing-all of which is completed before publication. Only
about 8500 abstracts have been published t o date, but with the establishment
of the regular monthly publication schedule the arrears in publication will be
eliminated as rapidly as possible, so that the incoming abstracts may be published
with only the unavoidable delay incident to indexing, editing, and printing.
Thus the apparent incompleteness of the journal, judged by the numbers published t o date, is due to delay in publishing abstracts rather than t o incompleteness in examining the original publications.
The editors adopted the policy of inviting collaboration in the abstracting on
a non-honorarium basis. This policy presupposes a large and diversified number
of collaborators in order that only a small and uon-burdensome contribution may
be asked from any one, and that the papers to be abstracted may be reasonably
closely adapted to the collaborators interests. While there are certain special
fields and a few languages in which the staff of collaborators, now about 3000,
is not yet adequate, it is reasonably so for the great bulk of the literature, and
is, it is believed, an unusual demonstration of cooperation. The staff of collaborators is steadily being amplified. This willingness of so large a number of
biologists to give time and effort without monetary compensation to produce an
’
PROCEEDINGS
343
adequate abstracting service in biology is perhaps the best evidence of the importance attached by biologists t o the undertaking.
The Union desires to keep the subscription price of the journal within reasonable reach of individual biologists, even those in the earlier stages of their development. To pay honoraria, even very inadequate ones, would very materially increase the subscription price.
The subscription price of the journal was placed a t $15.00 per annual volume.
To individual biologists, however, a discount of 40 per cent is made in view of
the contribution of abstracts by thousands of biologists throughout the world on
a non-honorarium basis; thus the cost of the annual volume is $9.00 to individual
biologists.
I f these prices can be maintained, they will be remarkably low for a service of
this kind, lower by f a r than those of many existing services covering a much
smaller field; the prices, it is believed, are within reach of the majority of inrlividual biologists and institutions, thus making the journal vastly more effective
than would be the case if the subscription price were such that in the main the
journal could be made available only in some libraries.
The most obvious service the journal renders is in providing abstracts and
indexes so arranged as to serve the needs of specialists. Not so apparent, but
perhaps equally important, is the synthetic influence which the journal is certain
t o exercise, since it will eventually make available in one journal a master key,
with abstracts and detailed indexes (author, subject, and systematic) of practically the entire biological literature. Very important in the judgment of the
editors is the fact that abstracts of theoretical and applied research have been
kept within the same journal.
While only a good beginning has been made, the editors are increasingly confident that, with adequate funds from subscriptions to guarantee publication of
abstracts and indexes, the undertaking can be carried through on a high plane
and on the broadly cooperative basis originally planned. To this end, it is
hoped that biologists individually will feel justified in continuing their support
through personal subscriptions.
THE EDITORS.
The Secretary read the following excerpts of a letter from
Doctor Greenman, of The Wistar Institute :
The chief point which I wish t o report t o the Society is that The Wistar
Institute is now installing its own engraving plant for the production of the
highest type of illustrations for scientific papers. We shall specialize in heliotypes and the first journal to benefit by this improvement will be the Journal
of Morphology and Physiology. While we are unable t o use heliotypes for all
illustrations, they will be used in those instanres where no other type of illustration will give as good results.
I wish also t o report t o your Society that the Bibliographic Service of The
Wistar Institute is extending its cooperation t o other journals not published by
the Institute. The latest journal for which this service is t o function is the
newly established Journal of Physiological Zoology. We have already taken on
two foreign journals, and requests have been received t o consider this service for
344
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
othcr foreign journals. It is a serious proposition t o thus extend the Bibliographic Service, and any expression the American Society of Zoologists desires
t o make regarding the advisability of such extension will be most gratefully
receivrd by The Wistar Tnstitute.
The Secretary was instructed to thank Doctor Greenman
on behalf of the Society for, the improvement in the facilities
of The Wistar Institute for reproduction of illustrations. The
Secretary was also instructed to inquire what the relation
might be between the Abstract Service of The Wistar Institute and Biological Abstracts.
The Chairman was instructed to appoint a committee of
two with power to draw up appropriate resolutions of thanks
in connection with entertainment of the Society in Nashville.
The Committee, consisting of W. C. Allee, H. F. Perkins. and
D. E. Minnich, drew up the following resolutions :
1. That the Society, through its Secretary, express t o Dr. R. S. Cunningham
and his associates in t h e Department of Anatomy and t o Dr. W. S. Leathers,
Associate Dean of the Medical School, its appreciation of their hospitality extended the Society in making available the laboratories and lecture rooms of the
Vanderbilt School of Medicine for this meeting.
8. That the Society, through its Secretary, express t o the Local Committee,
consisting of E. E. Reinke, F. H. Swett, and W. McA. Deacon, the Society’s
appreciation of its highly e s c i e n t work in connection with the local arrangoments f o r this meeting.
The Secretary gave a brief summary of the results t o date
of the questionnaire on the time of meeting. An informal
discussion followed.
The meeting was then adjourned.
D. E. MINNICH,Secretary.
345
PROCEEDINGS
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
Officers f o r 1968
President. ..................................................
CASWELLGRAVE
Vice-president................................................
M. H. JACOBS
Secretary ...................................................
D. E. MINNICH
Trensacrer....................................................... L. B. AREY
Executive Committee
M. F. GUYER.........................................................
R. G. HARRISON
.......................................................
C. R. STOCK
ARD .......................................................
S. 0. MAST...........................................................
S. a. HOLMES
.........................................................
1928
1929
1930
1931
193~
Oficers of Genetics Section
Ckairman ....................................................
H. J . hifULLER
Secretary-Treasurer ............................................. L. C. DUNN
Society Representative. ........................................
.O. E. Wnrm
Eepresentative ow Editorial Board of 4 6 Journal of Heredity”. . . . .M. D E M E R E ~
Representatives of the Society in the Division of Biology and Agriculture o f the
National Research Council
L. L. WOODRUFF
......................................................
G. H. PARKER
........................................................
1928
1929
Represrnlative of the Society on tLe T y p e Culture Committee of the National
Research Council
C. A. K O ~ O........................................................
ID
1929
Representatives of the Society on the Council of T h e American Association for
t h e Advancement o f Science
F. E. LUTZ
W. C. ALLEE
Representatives of the Society on the Council o f the Union of American
Biological Societies
Ross G. HARRISON
D. E. MINNICH
Representatives of the Societg on t h e Advisory Editorial Board of
‘ Biological Abstracts’ ’
H. S.
D. H.
M. H.
R. H.
PRATT, G. K. NOBLE
....................................... Taxononty
TENNENT........................................
.General Embryology
JACOBS..
......................................... .General Physiology
BOWEN
..................................................... Cytology
346
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
EDITORIAL BOARD O F THE JOURNAL O F MORPHOLOGY
AND PHYSIOLOGY
Managing Editor (term expires 1931).
.......................
.C. E. MCCLUNG
Associate Editors
i
i
M. H. JACOBS
To serve until 1929 .................................... L. J.COLE
J. H. GEROULD
J. PERCYMOORE
To serve until 1930 ....................................
W. C. CURTIS
A. F. SHULL
EDGAR
ALLEN
To serve until 1931.. ..................................
G. A. BAITSELL
R. E. COKER
PROCEEDINGS
347
M I N U T E S O F T H E M E E T I N G O F T H E GENETICS SECTIONS O F T H E
AMERICAN SOCIETY O F ZOOLOGISTS AND T H E BOTANICAL SOC I E T Y O F AMERICA, H E L D AT NASHVILLE, TENNESSEE, DECEMBER
28 TO 30, 1927
Sessions f o r the reading of papers were held on the mornings of the 28th, 29th, and 30th, a demonstration session was
held in the exhibit room on Wednesday afternoon. The Sections met jointly with the Geneticists interested in Agriculture
on Thu,rsday afternoon for a symposium on “Irregularities
of chromosome behavior in relation to plant and animal improvement. ” Forty contributions were presented, twentyfour by reading, five by demonstration, and eleven by title
only. Prof. R. A. Emerson, Chairman, presided at the morning meetings and Dr. Elmer Roberts, Secretary of the Geneticists interested in Agriculture, presided during Professor
Emerson’s absence at the joint meeting on Thursday afternoon.
A short business meeting was held on Friday morning. The
following officers were nominated and elected for 1928:
Chairman ....................................................
H. J . MULLER
Society Representative. ........................................
0. E. WHITE
The report of the American members of the Committee
appointed by the last International Genetics Congress t o consult with the Genetics Sections in determining the time and
place of the next Congress to be held in America in 1932
(T. H. Morgan and C. B. Davenport) was presented by Doctor Davenport. Tentative agreement had been reached to
recommend holding the Congress at the middle or end of
August, 1932, at either Ithaca, New York, or New Haven,
Connecticut. Invitations from Cornell University and Yale
University were presented, and the sections were asked to
decide which should be accepted. After discussion and on
the motion of Doctor Davenport, the Chairman appointed an
interim committee from the Genetics Sections to act with the
International Committee until the permanent committee of
the Congress should be organized, the interim committee to
hare power t o determine time and place of the Congress. The
348
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZOOLOGISTS
committee consists of C. B. Davenport, Chairman; E. B. Babcock, TV. E. Castle, L. J. Cole, R. A. Emerson, D. I?. ?Jones,
T. H. Morgan, and G. H. Shull.
O n the motion of Prof. G. H. Shull, the Chairman appointed
the following committee to consider what form of organization is for the best interests of Genetics in America, and to
report a t the next meeting of the Sections: G. H. Shull, C. F,.
Allen, L. J. Cole, E. C. MacDowell, 0. E. White.
Professor Shull presented the following resolution, which
was unanimously adopted :
Wlm-eas, the 16th of February, 1928, is the eightieth anniversary of the
birth of IIugo devries; and
Whpreas, Doctor deVries has continued,, and is continuing with a vigor that
commands our wonder and admiration, the genetical investigations he began
more than forty years ago;
BE IT RESOLVED, That the combined Genetics Sections of the Botanical Society
of America and the American Society of Zoologists assembled at Nashville, Tennessee, December 29th, 1927, express to Doctor deVries their most cordial congratulations, their affection and admiration and their sincere good wishes f o r a
long continuation of health and happiness in his richly productive work.
The average attendance at the Nashville meetings of the
Sections was about seventy. The enrollment in the Sections
is 96 members of the Botanical Society and 143 members of
the Zoological Society.
L. C. DUNN,Secretary,
St orrs, Connecticut.
PROCEEDINGS
LIST OF ’MEMBERS OF
THE
349
GEXETICSSECTIONS
From the American Socirty of Zoologists
Allen, Ezra
Hall, F. G.
Metz, C. W.
Hance, R. T.
Bagg, H. J.
Middleton, A. R.
Hanson, 2’. B.
Baitsell, G. A.
Miller, R. C.
Ball, G. H.
Harman, Mary T.
Moenkhaus, W. J.
Hayden, Margaret A.
Bangham, R. V.
Morrill, A. D.
Hays, F. A.
Banta, A. M.
Muller, H. ,T.
I h y s , Florence M.
Bartsch, P a u l
Nabours, R. K.
Hess, W. N.
Belire, Eleanor H.
Nachtrieb, H. F.
Rineline, Gertrude
Bigelow, Maurice
Newman, H. H.
Hinrichs, Marie A.
Bissonette, T. H.
Okkelberg, Peter
Boring, A, M.
Holmes, S. J.
Osborn, H. L.
Bruner, H. L.
Huhbs, C. L.
Papanicolaou, G. h-.
Boyden, A.
Huestis, R. It.
Pzrker, G. H.
Hunt, H. R.
Blizzard, A. W.
Payne, Fernandus
Cnrothers, E. E.
Hunter, G. W.
Pearl, Raymond
Huxley, J. S.
Carroll, Mitchell
Perkins, H. F.
Castle, W. E.
Hyde, R. R.
Plough, H. H.
Chester, W. M.
Ibsen, €I. L.
Richards, Mildred €1.
Jennings, €1. S .
Cole, L. J.
Riddle, Oscar
Johannsen, 0. A.
Collett, Mary E.
Rliodes, R. C.
Colton, H. S .
Jones, E. Elizabeth
Roberts, Elmer
Jones, Sarah van H.
Crampton, H. E.
Robertson, A. D.
Curtis, Maynie R.
Jordan, H. E.
Robertson, W. R. B.
Kincaid, Trevor
Curtis, W. C.
Rogers, C. G.
King, Helen D.
Coe, W. R.
Root, F. M.
King, Robert L.
Danforth, C. H.
Schaeffer, A . A.
Kirkham, W. B.
Ihvenport, C. B.
Schwitalla, A. M.
Kofoid, C. A.
Dawson, J. A.
Scott, J. M.
Kornhnuser, S. I.
Dederer, Pauline H.
Shull, A. F.
Koppanyi, Theodore
Detlefsen, J . A
Snyder, L. €1.
Kraatz, W. C.
Dunn, L. C.
Snyder, T. E.
Kuntz, Albert
Eddy, M. W.
Stromsten, F. A .
Lancefield, D. E.
Elrod, M. J.
Strong, R. M.
Landacre, L. F.
Erdmann, Rhoda
Strong, L. C.
Landauer, Walter
Fasten, Nathan
Rumner, F. B.
Lane, H. IT.
Feldman, H. W.
Taliaferro, W. H.
Lineburg, Bruce
Fox, Henry
Turner, C. L.
Lippincott, W. A.
Garman, Harrison
Uhlemeyer, Bertha
Lutz, F. E.
Gates, W. H.
Walter, H. E.
Little, C. C.
Gerould, J. Ir.
Warren, D. C.
MarArthur, J. W.
Goldfarb, A. J.
Whiting, 1’. W.
McClung, C. E.
Goldschmidt, R. B.
Wliitney, D. D.
McClure, C. F. W.
Goldsmith, Wm.
Wilson, J. T.
MacDowell, E. C .
Goodale, 11. D.
Wolcott, R. H.
Mark, E. L.
Goodrich, H. B.
Wright, S. B.
Mason, K. E.
Graham, J. C .
Young, R. T.
May, R. W.
Griffin, L. E.
Zeleny, Cliarles
Mavor, J. W.
Guyer, M. F.
350
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ZO~LOGISTS
Prom t h e Botanical Society of America
Allen, C. E.
Anderson, Edgar
Anderson, E. G.
Anderson, J. P.
Babcock, E. B.
Bartlett, H. II.
Beal, J. M.
Belling, John
Blakeslee, A. F.
Blanchard, Frieda C.
Brink, R. A.
Bucholz, J. T.
Burkholder, W. H.
Burlingame, L. L.
Cartledge, J. L.
Clausen, R. E.
Collins, G. N.
Davis, B. M.
Davis, D. W.
Deane, C. C.
Demere6, M.
Durham, G. B.
East, E. M.
Eggleston, W. W.
Elliott, C.
Emerson, R. A.
Endowe, H. M.
Eyster, L. A.
Eyster, W. H.
Ferguson, Margaret C.
Fraser, A. C.
Gager, C. S.
Games, E. F.
Goodspeed, T. H.
Gray, Wm.
Grover, F. 0.
Harper, R. A.
Hayes, €1. K.
Hill, J. B.
Holch, A. E.
Howlett, F. S.
Hutchison, C. B.
Jeffrey, E. C.
Jones, D. F.
Kearney, T. H.
Kelley, J. P.
Kulcarni, C. G.
La Rue, C. D.
Leighty, C. E.
Lindsay, Ruth H.
Lindstrom, E. W.
Lyon, H. L.
McAvoy, Blanche
McClintock, Barbara
McKay, A. H.
MacMillan, H. G.
Mangelsdorf, P. C.
Meinicke, E. P.
Moore, A. C.
Ottley, Alice M.
Palmer, E. F.
Panemel, L. H.
Park, G. B.
Pearson, Norma L.
Petry, E. J.
Plitt, C. C.
Prince, A. R.
Quillian, M. C.
Robinson, W. J.
Rosa, J. T.
Roscoe, M. V.
Rosendahl, C. 0.
Rolfs, P. H.
Sax, K a r l
Schaffner, J. H.
Schultz, 0. C.
Setchel, W. A.
Shull, G. H.
Simpson, Mrs. J. L. S.
Sensing, Ruby
Showalter, A. M.
Sinnott, E. W.
Smith, H. B.
Smith, R. W.
Stout, A. B.
Stadler, L. J.
Thompson, W. P.
Thompson, R. B.
Valleau, W. D.
Warren, P. A.
Weinstein, A. I.
Wetmore, R. H.
White, 0. E.
Wilcox, Alice W.
Woodcock, E. F.
Yampolsky, C.
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