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Sectional anatomy of the pelvis in the male rat with ultrasound correlations.

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THE ANATOMICAL RECORD 231:275-285 (1991)
Sectional Anatomy of the Pelvis in the Male Rat With
Ultrasound Correlations
TAKANORI SUZUKI, YUTAKA TAKEZAWA, YOSHIMI TAMURA,
TOORU MASHIMO, KYOICHI IMAI, HIDETOSHI YAMANAKA, AND KEIJI SUZUKI
Department of Urology, Gunma University School of Medicine (T.S.,Y.T., Y.T., T.M.,K.I.,
H.Y.), and Department of Pathology, Medical Care and Technology, Gunma University
(K.S.), Maebashi, 371 Japan
ABSTRACT
Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were used for sectional anatomy
and ultrasonic diagnosis of the pelvis. The prostate and the urinary bladder were
identified easily on longitudinal section by ultrasound examination. The prostate
(ventral, lateral, and dorsal lobes) was located in the midline of the pelvis cavity on
transverse sections and the caudal side of the urinary bladder on longitudinal
sections. The urinary bladder was positioned a t the cranial side of the prostate on
longitudinal sections and in the midline of the pelvis cavity on transverse sections.
The seminal vesicles were located at right and left positions of the urinary bladder.
Ultrasonic diagnosis was estimated to be useful for experimental studies and we
hope that ultrasound techniques may reduce the number of rats used for the treatment of prostate and urinary bladder cancers.
Ultrasound has been used for the diagnosis of human
prostate and urinary bladder diseases because of its
speed and safety, noninvasiveness, and high accuracy
in identifying anatomical abnormalities (Pollack,
1990). Canine prostates were studied by ultrasound for
elucidation of the development of benign tumors (Juniewicz, et al., 1989). Ultrasound is suggested to be
useful for the diagnosis of the development of tumors in
experimental animals.
Prostate tumors in rats induced by carcinogenic
agents were reported by Pollard (Pollard and Luciceut,
1986; Pollard et al., 19891, Shirai et al. (19861, and
Bosland and Prinsen (1990). The rat prostate consists
of three lobes, such as ventral, lateral, and dorsal lobes,
and are located around the proximal urethra beneath
the urinary bladder neck (Jesik et al., 1982). Rat prostates and the urinary bladder occupy the middle of the
pelvis. Clinically, the effects of anti-cancer drugs for
malignant tumors have been evaluated by ultrasound
and so we thought that ultrasound may be useful for
the diagnosis of the development and therapeutic evaluation of experimental tumors, especially of the rat
prostate and urinary bladder because of their anatomical location. Sectional anatomy of the rat pelvis is
needed to diagnose abnormalities of urogenital tract by
ultrasound exactly but had not yet been reported. The
present study identifies the location of the urogenital
tract in the male rat pelvis as seen in cross section.
This information will permit ultrasound studies of pelvic visceral tissues and, hopefully, will reduce the number of rats used in many experiments.
ography. After having a X-ray examination (JIRA,
SOFTEX EMB, 36 KV, 5 mA, 2 minutes), they were
frozen with liquid nigrogen and sectioned transversely
and longitudinally by a steel cutter (11030 Ryobi Co.,
Ltd.). The section level is illustrated in Figure la,b.
Sections were cut a t a thickness of 5 mm from levels 1
to 5 and 4 mm from levels 6 to 8. Section levels 1 to 5
were transverse sections and section level 5 was at the
level of symphysis publis. Section levels 6 to 8 were
longitudinal sections and level 8 was in the midline of
the rat abdomen.
Rats were anesthetized by the injection of 25 mg/kg
of nembutal (Abbott Laboratories) and 0.4 mg/kg of
furosemide (Hoechst Japan, Ltd.) subcutaneously. After 30 minutes, the urinary bladder was filled with
urine by the response of furosemide. We used Toshiba
SONOLAYER L (Toshiba SAL-77B) and the transducer (Toshiba, PLE 705S, 7.5 MHz) with the water
bag (Toshiba, UAWBOOSA). Ultrasonic examination
was performed transabdominally a t transverse and
longitudinal sections. Section levels were same as mentioned above (Fig. la,b).
RESULTS
Transverse section observations
The section at level 1was a position between the 6th
lumbar vertebra and sacrum and showed the urinary
bladder positioned in the midline of the peritoneal cavity. The cecum was located at the right side of the peritoneal cavity and the sigmoid colon a t the right side of
the urinary bladder (Fig. 2a). The sonogram at the
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were used. They were
received either inhalation anesthesia. After euthanasia, m1 Of iopamidol (SHL429B, Nihon Schering) was
instillated into the urinary bladder transurethrally because the urinary bladder was shown clearly by radi0
1991 WILEY-LISS. INC
Received July 13, 1990; accepted May 1, 1991,
Address reprint requests to Dr. Takanori Suzuki, M.D., Department
of urology, G~~~~ University, School of Medicine 3-39-22, Showsmachi, Maebashi, 371 Japan.
Fig. 1 , a: Transverse section level. Level 5 is symphysis pubis. b: Longitudinal section level. Level 8 is
the midline of the abdomen. A X-ray radiography. The urinary bladder is filled with radiographic
contrast medium.
SECTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE MALE RAT PELVIS
277
Ventral
Fig. 2. a: Transverse section at level 1. b: Sonogram of the section level 1. The urinary bladder (B) is
seen in the midline of the peritoneal cavity. The small inset figure indicated a t the location of transducer.
same level showed the urinary bladder in the midline
of the peritoneal cavity (Fig. 2b). Urinary bladder
showed normal cystic findings on sonogram.
The section a t level 2 was a middle position of artic-
ulatio iliosacrum. The urinary bladder was located in
the midline of the peritoneal cavity, the right seminal
vesicle was positioned a t the right side of the urinary
bladder, and the left seminal vesicle was located at the
278
T. SUZUKI ET AL.
Ventral
Fig. 3. a: Transverse section a t level 2. b: Sonogram of the section level 2. The urinary bladder (B) is
seen in the midline of the peritoneal cavity. The right seminal vesicle (RSV) is located a t right side of the
bladder and the left seminal vesicle (LSV) is located at left side of the bladder.
left side of the urinary bladder. The right seminal vesicle was near the abdominal wall compared with the
left seminal vesicle due to the sigmoid colon (Fig. 3a).
The sonogram at the same level showed the urinary
bladder in the midline of the peritoneal cavity, the right
seminal vesicle at the right side of the urinary bladder,
and the left seminal vesicle a t the left side of the urinary bladder (Fig. 3b). The right seminal vesicle was
near the abdominal wall compared with the left.
The section at level 3 showed the urinary bladder,
SECTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE MALE RAT PELVIS
279
Ventral
Fig. 4. a: Transverse section at level 3. b: Sonogram of the section
level 3. The right ventral prostate (RVP) is located a t right side of the
bladder (B), the left ventral prostate (LVP) a t left side of B, and the
dorsolateral prostate (DLP) at dorsal side of B. The right seminal
vesicle (RSV) is seen at right side of RVP and the left seminal vesicle
(LSV) a t left side of LVP.
280
T. SUZUKI ET AL.
Ventral
Fig. 5. a: Transverse section at level 4. b: Sonogram of the section level 4. The prostatic complex is seen
in the midline and the urethra (U) is located at the middle of the dorsolateral prostate (DLP). The left
ventral prostate (LVP) is positioned at the left side of DLP.
the right and left seminal vesicles, and the right and
left ventral prostates. The urinary bladder was smaller
than that shown at level 2 and located in the midline of
the peritoneal cavity. The right ventral prostate was
found a t right and ventral sides of the bladder and the
left ventral prostate a t left and ventral sides. The right
seminal vesicle was positioned at the right side of the
urinary bladder and the left seminal vesicle a t the left
side of the urinary bladder (Fig. 4a). The sonogram a t
the same level showed the urinary bladder in the midline of the peritoneal cavity. The right ventral prostate
was found at the right side of the urinary bladder and
SECTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE MALE RAT PELVIS
281
Ventral
Fig. 6. a: Transverse section at level 5. b: Sonogram of the section level 5. The urethra (U) is seen a t
the midline and the dorsal side of symphysis publis (SP).Rectum (R), right 0s coxae (ROC), left 0s coxae
(LOCI.
the left ventral prostate was found at the left side of the
urinary bladder. The right seminal vesicle was positioned at the right side of the right ventral prostate and
the left seminal vesicle was positioned at the left side of
the left ventral prostate. Ventral prostates were seen
as a homogeneous isoechoic area and seminal vesicles
were seen as a cystic or hypoechoic area (Fig. 4b).
The section at level 4 was a position at articulatio
282
T. SUZUKI ET AL.
Ventral
Fig. 7. a: Longitudinal section at level 6. b Sonogram of the section level 6. A part of the seminal
vesicle (SV) is seen. Also a part of the lumbar vertebra (LUMBAR V.) is seen in this case.
283
SECTIONAL ANATOMY OF T H E MALE RAT PELVIS
Ventral
Fig. 8. a: Longitudinal section at level 7. b Sonogram of the section level 7. The urinary bladder
is seen a t the cranial side and the prostate (P) a t the caudal side.
(B)
284
T. SUZUKI ET AL.
Ventral
Fig. 9. a: Longitudinal section at level 8. b: Sonogram of the section level 8. The ventral (VP) and the
dorsolateral (DLP) lobes of the prostate are seen at the caudal side of the bladder (B). The urethra (U)is
located at the caudal side of the prostate.
285
SECTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE MALE RAT PELVIS
coxae. The urinary bladder and seminal vesicles were the clinical treatment were diagnosed by radiography,
not seen at this level. The prostatic complex (the ven- computerized tomography, and ultrasonography. Espetral, lateral, and dorsal lobes) was located in the mid- cially ultrasound has been the method with its safety,
line of the peritoneal cavity and especially the left ven- noninvasiveness, and high accuracy (Pollack, 1990).
tral prostate was seen near the abdominal wall (Fig. We consider that ultrasound may be useful for the
5a). The somogram at this level showed the prostatic identification of the effects of treatment on experimencomplex in the midline of the peritoneal cavity. A part tally induced tumors. There are no published reports of
of the left ventral prostate was seen a t the left and cross sectional anatomy of the rat with ultrasound corventral side of the dorsolateral prostate. The urethra relations. This paper identifies the morphological relawas seen in the middle of the prostatic complex and tionship of the urogenital organs in the pelvic cavity of
showed a hypoechoic finding. The dorsolateral pros- the male rat. It is also estimated that the number of
tates was seen as a homogeneous isoecholic area (Fig. rats used for the experimental studies may be reduced
5b).
because of the usefulness of ultrasound.
The section a t level 5 was a position of symphysis
The prostate of the rat consists of three lobes
pubis. The urethra was seen in the midline of the pelvic (Greene, 1955; Jesik et al., 1982) and cross-sectional
cavity. The right ductus deferens was located a t the anatomy showed the prostatic complex to be located in
right side of the urethra and the left ductus deferens at the midline of the pelvic cavity a t transverse sections.
the left side of the urethra. The rectum was seen be- The right seminal vesicle was positioned at the right
tween the right and left 0s coxae (Fig. 6a). The sono- side of the bladder and the left seminal vesicle at the
gram at this level showed the urethra in the midline of left side of the bladder on transverse sections. Longituthe pelvis and the dorsal side of the symphysis pubis. dinal observations showed that the prostatic complex
The rectum was seen a t the dorsal side of the urethra was located a t the caudal side of the urinary bladder.
(Fig. 6b).
The urinary bladder and the prostate were seen easily
by ultrasound.
Longitudinal section observations
The urinary bladder and the prostate were not seen
at level 6. A part of the seminal vesicle was seen in the
pelvic cavity (Fig. 7a). The sonogram at this level
showed a small cystic finding of the seminal vesicle
(Fig. 7b).
The section a t level 7 showed the prostate a t the
caudal side of the pelvic cavity. The urinary bladder
was not seen a t this level because it deviated from the
midline to the left side in this case (Fig. 8a). The sonogram at this level showed the bladder a t the cranial
side of the pelvic cavity and the prostate a t the caudal
side. The seminal vesicle was unclear (Fig. 8b).
The section a t level 8 was the midline of the abdomen. The urinary bladder was seen cranially and the
prostatic coplex was seen caudally in the pelvic cavity.
The urethra was located a t caudal to the prostate and
the ventral side of the pelvic muscles (Fig. 9a). The
sonogram a t this level easily showed the bladder at the
cranial side of the pelvic cavity and the prostate a t the
caudal side. The bladder was seen as a cystic area and
the prostate was seen as a homogeneous isoechoic area
(Fig. 9b).
DISCUSSION
Prostate and urinary bladder cancers, induced by
carcinogenic agents, have been reported in experimental animals by many investigators (Pollard and Luckert, 1986; Pollard et al., 1989; Shirai et al., 1986; Bosland and Prinsen, 1990; Druckrey et al., 1964). The
comparison of the effects between the pretreatment
and posttreatment is very important and has been
made a t the time of the posttreatment mostly in the
experimental studies (Suzuki et al., 1989). Effects of
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported in part by a grant-in-aid for
Cancer Research from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan.
LITERATURE CITED
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prostate adenocarcinomas and other accessory sex gland lesions
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Druckrey, H., R. Preussmann, S. Ivankovic, C.H. Schmidt, H.D. Mennel, and K.W. Stahl 1964 Selektive Erzeugung von Blasenkrebs
a n Ratten durch Dibutyl-und N-Butyl-N-butanol (4)-nitrosamin.
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study of the rat prostate. Prostate, 3t81-97.
Juniewicz, P.E., B.M. Lemp, F.H. Batzold, and J.R. Reel 1989 Transrectal ultrasonography as a method to monitor canine prostatic
size in situ: Measurements following endocrine manipulation and
ejaculation. Prostate, 14265-277.
Pollack, H.M. 1990 Clinical Urowaphy, Vol. 1, W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp. 284z286.
Pollard, M., and P.H. Luckert 1986 Production of autochthonous prostate cancer in Lobound-Wistar rats by treatments with N-nitrosoN-mehtylurea. J . Natl. Cancer Inst., 77t583-587.
Pollard, M., P.H. Luckert, and D.L. Synder 1989 The promotional
effect of testosterone on induction of prostate-cancer in MNUsensitized L-W rats. Cancer Lett., 45:209-212.
Shirai, T., S. Fukushima, E. Ikawa, Y. Tagawa, and N. Ito 1986 Induction of prostate carcinoma in situ a t high incidence in F344
rats by a combination of 3,2'-dimentyl-4-aminobiphenil
and ethinyl estradiol. Cancer Res., 46t6423-6426.
Suzuki, T., K. Imai, Y. Takezawa, H. Tsuji, H. Yamanaka, and K.
Suzuki 1989 Effect of intravesical instillation of antitumor drugs
for the development of N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamineinduced bladder tumors in rats. Acta Urol. Jpn., 35:247-251.
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