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The histology of vascular terminations in the rabbit's spleen.

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T H E HISTOLOGY O F VASCULAR TERMINATIONS
I N T H E RABBIT’S SPLEEN
THEODORE SNOOK
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University
of North Dakota, Grand Fol’ks, N o r t h Dakota
THIRTY FIGURES
INTRODUCTION
The inability of investigators using standard histological
methods to agree on certain basic problems of splenic circulation is well known. Furthermore, among those who have
studied the intact organ by transillumination methods, a wide
divergence of opinion has arisen. A summary of the literature
dealing with both approaches was given by Bjorkman (’47)
and need not be dealt with here. His analysis of the “spleen
problem” (an open versus a closed circulation) is excellent.
By way of summary this author stated, “The histological
examination is doomed to failure on the basis of the involved
vascular architectonic. Nor has transillumination
up to
this time afforded any results capable of but one interpretation.” Since the publication of Bjorkman’s paper, two more
transillumination studies have appeared in the literature
bringing the total number of major reports to four. Two of
these support the concept of a closed or separatory circulation (Knisely, ’36; Peck and Hoerr, ’51)’ and two support
the so-called open circulation (MacKenzie, Whipple and Wintersteiner, ’41; Parpart, Whipple and Chang, ’55).
That a closer cooperative effort between the histologist
and transilluminist is essential for the removal of the impasse
has been suggested in the literature. McKenzie et al. (’41)
stated, “We have made use of standard histological techniques, as a sort of control for our findings by transillumina711
712
THEODORE SNOOK
tion, feeling as we do that these methods of approach should
by synergistic rather than antagonistic to one another. ” Their
histological findings, unfortunately, were omitted from the
report. Snook ( ’50) voiced a similar opinion.
It is our belief that one of the reasons leading to disagreement is the structural variability in mammalian spleens.
Studies of the spleens of the rat, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit,
cat and others show that, because of their variations and
dissimilarities in structure, conclusions based on the study
of one animal cannot always be applied to another animal.
See Snook (’50) for a classification of mammalian spleens
based on their structural characteristics. It mould thus seem
to be imperative that a single suitable form be selected for
a cooperative study by both histological (light and electron
microscopy) and transillumination methods.
Because of its small size and ease of manipulation, the
mouse has been used most extensively for transillumination
studies. However, the mouse spleen has certain internal structural characteristics which make it less ideal for study than,
for instance, that of the rabbit. Sinuses are poorly developed
in the mouse, if present at all. Knisely (’55) stated that
sinuses a r e “known to be present in the spleens of all mammalian species.” On the other hand, Snook (’50) classified
the mouse with those mammals which possess non-sinusal
spleens. Snook’s histological studies on the mouse are in
rather close accord with the findings of P a r p a r t et al. (’55)
and also JfacKenzie et al. (’41) for that form. The statement in the latter paper concerning the lack of definite preformed sinuses in the guinea pig and rabbit is at variance
with the reports of Snool.; ( ’44) f o r the guinea pig and Billroth
(1862), RIacNcal et al. ( ’27) and Bjijrkman ( ’47) for the
rabbit.
Since the mouse spleen has proved to be such a n enigmatic
organ, it would seem logical to turn to a form in which there
already exists a considerable amount of agreement as to basic
morphology, and incidentally, one which more closely resembles the structure of the human spleen. The rabbit’s
RABBIT’S SPLEEN
713
spleen would appear to be an ideal subject for such a cooperative investigation. According to MacKenzie et al. ( ’41),
the rabbit’s spleen is somewhat better adapted for transillumination than the spleens of other laboratory animals such
as the rat and guinea pig since it is quite easily mobilized,
and rhythmic contractions are less forceful than in the other
forms.
There are two minor structural differences between rabbit
and human spleens as far as the questions in point are concerned. First, there is the difference of reticular fiber patterns
of the sinus wall, an anastomosing network versus strong
parallel “ring’, fibers. Second, the rabbit lacks ellipsoid
sheaths of Schweigger-Seidel on the penicilli. Whiting (1894)
described “ellipsoidal sheaths” in the rabbit’s spleen, but
he was apparently describing extensions of the lymphoid
tissue sheath. MacNeal et al. ( ’27) illustrated an ellipsoid
sheath in the rabbit’s spleen (their fig. 3 ) , but it is evident
from the following figure descriptions that the legend should
have read human instead of rabbit.
It is then the purpose of this investigation to re-examine
and trace the vascular connections of the rabbit’s spleen as
far as is possible by standard histological methods and to
determine at what points transillumination methods of study
may be required to complete the study of the course of blood
in that organ. It is believed that in this way errors of interpretation can be markedly reduced and the complete vascular
picture firmly established.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The spleens from 25 white New Zealand rabbits were used.
Slices from each end and the center were fixed in one of
the following fluids: ( a ) 70% ethyl alcohol plus 10% glacial
acetic acid; (b) absolute methyl alcohol plus 10% glacial acetic
acid; (c) 70% ethyl alcohol 85 parts, formalin 10 parts, glacial
acetic acid 5 parts. Four specimens were perfused with saline
followed by 10% formalin. Five others were injected with
Higgins india ink by way of the coeliac artery (after clamping
714
THEODORE SNOOK
the hepatic artery) until they became partly blackened. These
were fixed in. t o t o in the alcohol, formalin, acetic acid mixture
before slices were removed f o r embedding. Free-hand sections
were cut from the injected spleens after fixation, dehydrated
in n-butyl alcohol, cleared in cedar oil and mounted in damar.
All excised slices were embedded in paraffin and cut at 10 p.
Serial sections were stained for reticulum and counterstained
by the method given by Snook ('44). Spaced sections from
the series were mounted singly and stained with routine
hematoxylin and eosin.
Fig. 1 Graphic reconstruction of branching white pulp system with enclosed
white pulp artery branches (solid black). The large circles and ovals represent
nodules. A portion of the marginal zone is indicated by the broken lines. The
origin of penicilli from arterial branches within tapering lymphoid cones is
also shovm X 25. (See abbreviations on page 724.)
OBSERVATIONS
White p u l p
The white pulp of the rabbit's spleen differs little from
that of other mammalian species (figs. 1and 4). At the hilus,
RABBIT ' S SPLEEN
715
branches of the splenic artery become invested by a lymphoid
tissue sheath with prominent nodules. The arteries and the
sheath branch frequently as they radiate into the interior of
the organ. All arteries and capillaries of both red and white
pulps stand out clearly in sections impregnated for reticulum.
Each is surrounded by an envelope of closely-matted fine
reticular fibers. The terminal branches of the white pulp
arteries (i.e., just before they become penicilli) are surrounded
by tapering cones of the lymphoid tissue sheath (figs. 4 and
5).
Reticular fibers are coarse and form a wide-meshed net
(fig. 4). At the apex of the tapering cones reticular fibers
blend with the adventitial covering for the penicilli (figs. 5
and 18).
Marginal zone
The marginal zone is that region lying between the lymphoid tissue and the red pulp proper. It thus forms a continuous envelope for the white pulp. It is widest over the
nodules ( 6 0 ~ )and narrowest around the terminal cones
(16 p). The reticular fibers are fine and closely knit, and
are similar to those of the red pulp cords with which they
are continuous (fig. 6). Cells found in the zone are mainly
lymphocytes, reticular cells and macrophages and are less
densely arranged than in the neighboring lymphoid tissue
(fig. 7).
White pulp capillaries terminate in or pass through the
marginal zone. Certain penicilli also terminate here (see
below). Sinuses from the red pulp labyrinth often send
extensions into it, especially around the terminal cones. Some
of these marginal zone sinuses may have rounded or blunt
terminations (fig. 8) while others taper into very fine tubes
whose endings may be obscured by the peripheral fibers of
white pulp reticulum.
No perifollicular space was found between the lymphoid
tissue and the marginal zone contrary to the report by
Altschul and Hummason ('47) for the rat, rabbit and guinea
716
THEODORE SNOOK
pig. Andrew (’46) was the first to describe this space for
the rat. Snook (’50) confirmed its presence in the rat and
also in the mouse, but traiisilluminists have not reported it
in these forms.
Red p u l p
The red pulp consists of an elaborate system of anastomosing sinuses and the intervening pulp cords containing the
penicilli and their arterial capillary branches. The sinuses
form a veritable maze of interconnected spaces (figs. 4,9, 17,
and 30) whose greatest diameters vary from 20 I-I to 57 ~1 and
whose lengths (i-e., the sectors between anastomoses) are
quite variable but may be as much as 2 4 4 1 ~ .The sinuses
abutting on the marginal zone tend to be more slender with
short, narrow intcrconnections and with wider pulp cords.
This arrangement would agree with MacNeal’s ( ’29) concept
of the splenic lobule in which the largest sinuses are located
a t the border of the lobule. Inter-sinus connections may be
short and wide, short and narrow or long and narrow (fig. 10).
These narrow interconnections appear to correspond to the
“reusen” which Herrlinger (’49) found in the human spleen.
The reticular fiber network of the sinus wall is regularly
arranged with rounded o r elliptical meshes (figs. 9, 11, and
18). These figures are identical with Bjorkman’s figure 8
of a rabbit sinus prepared by the same method. The pattern
is similar to that illustrated by Mollier ( ’10) in his figure 40,
a and b. A comparison of erythrocyte diameters with reticular
mesh diameters is shown in figure 11. I n sections stained
with lieniatoxylin and eosin, the elongate reticulo-endothelial
lining cells are shown to have interconnections embracing
stomata of sufficient size to admit erythrocytes (fig. 1 2 ) . The
reticular meshes of the narrow connecting sinuses are reduced
t o mere slits (fig. 10).
V a s c u l a r connections
White p u l p capillaries. The capillaries of the white pulp
are supplied by branches of the white pulp arteries. They
RABBIT'S SPLEEN
717
form an anastomosing plexus whose terminal twigs enter the
marginal zone or adjacent red pulp. Thick cleared sections
from spleens injected with india ink illustrate the capillary
distribution admirably (fig. 2). This figure agrees with the
one shown by Nisimaru and Steggerda ('32) for the cat.
Capillaries terminate in the marginal zone with ampullary
,,
/'
I
I'
I
,
1
\
\
\
\
\
\1
\
\\
\
\
\
\
Fig. 2 Camera lucida drawing from a thick section of spleen which was
injected with india ink. Shown are the white pulp artery, white pulp capillaries
and branching penicilli. The ink which flooded the marginal zone is omitted.
The 6 rounded reticulated masses in the red pulp represent ink which has entered
pulp cords from arterial capillaries. X 94.
dilatations (fig. 13) or without them (fig. 15). Some capillaries pass through thc marginal zone and into the red pulp.
MacNeal et al. ('27) and MacNeal ('29) illustrated similar
types of endings for the human spleen.
India ink injected by way of the splenic artery invariably
floods the meshes of the marginal zone (figs. 2, 14, and 15).
This fact has been noted by a number of investigators: Tait
and Casliin ('25) - dog; Nisimaru and Steggerda ( '32) -
718
THEODORE SNOOK
cat; Herrlinger ( ’49) - human. Injected avian erythrocytes
also tend to aggregate in the marginal zone of the rabbit’s
spleen (MacNeal and Patterson, ’26; MacNeal et al., ’27).
Figure 16 of the latter publication shows nucleated erythrocytes entering nearby sinuses. By close inspection of figure
14, it can be seen that ink has entered some of the sinuses
bordering the marginal zone. It should be noted at this point
that three examples of marginal zone capillaries opening
directly into sinuses were found in the rabbit. One of these
is shown in figure 16.
Fig. 3 Camera lucida drawing from an india ink-injected specimen. The
branches of a penicillar artery are shown. The zones included within the broken
lines represent areas of pulp cords flooded with ink. X 125.
It is not suggested that the flow of india ink in any way
simulates the passage of whole blood. It does at least give
a clue to the location of channels available for the movement
of plasma.
Pewicilli and arterial capillaries. Terminal branches of the
white pulp arteries continue as penicilli after emerging from
the tapering ends of the white pulp cones (fig. 17). Their
origin, mode of branching and distribution can best be seen
in thick cleared sections from spleens injected with india ink
(figs. 2 and 3). They can also be traced easily in reticular
RABBIT ’S SPLEEN
719
preparations by means of the dense, closely woven and ragged
appearance of the reticular fibers in the adventitia (figs. 9
and 18). Some are short (33 p) (fig. 19) and other are much
longer (348 p). They may terminate by dichotomous branching into arterial capillaries (fig. 20)’ o r they may end in a
dilatation from which several arterial capillaries arise (figs.
21 and 22).
Some penicilli turn into and terminate within the marginal
zone of the lymphoid sheath from which they originated (fig.
23)’ or they may enter the marginal zone of an adjacent white
pulp system. The former group correspond to the centripetal
twigs of MacNeal et al. (’27) and the “Hofarterien” of
Jager (’29).
Arterial capillaries (and some penicilli) terminate in the
pulp cords in one of 4 ways. (1) The reticular fiber sheath
fans out to form a cone-shaped ampullary dilatation in the
pulp cord, and the ends of the fibers become continuous with
the fibers of a sinus wall (fig. 24). (2) Oval ampullae lie in
linear juxtaposition to sinuses (fig. 25). ( 3 ) Oval ampullae
lie in the central zone of a pulp cord about equidistant from
neighboring sinuses (fig. 26). (4) The arterial capillary opens
into the pulp cord reticular net through a funnel-shaped
orifice (fig. 27). “Acorn-shaped” ampullae in the rabbit
have been described by MacNeal et al. (’27) and by MacNeal
( ’29).
No direct openings of red pulp arterial capillaries (or
penicilli) were seen in the rabbit material used in this study.
Bjorkman (’47) illustrated two such connections in his figure
7, but there is a possibility that these could be narrow connecting sinuses rather than arterial capillaries.
Injected india ink leaves the ends of penicilli and arterial
capillaries and forms reticulated masses in the pulp cords
(figs. 2, 3,28, and 29). Figure 29 shows a column of ink entering a sinus from such a mass. It appears as if it were being
squeezed through a stoma in a manner somewhat similar to
Robinson’s ( ’26) “oozing” gelatin mass.
Collecting veins. The sinus labyrinth is drained by red
pulp collecting veins. They are larger than sinuses, but ap-
720
THEODORE SNOOK
pear t o be structurally indentical in their initial segments.
A sinus opening into a collecting vein is shown in figure 30.
DISCUSSION
These histological studies indicate that the intermediate
circulation of the rabbit’s spleen is predominantly of the socalled “open” type. The only seemingly direct connections
between capillaries and sinuses were made by white pulp
capillaries, and such connections are rare. The arterial capillary branches of penicilli always terminate in pulp cords,
usually in ampullary dilatations. There is always a narrow
zone of reticular tissue between the end of the arterial capillary proper and the nearest sinus wall. These findings are in
agreement with those of MacNeal et al. (’27) and NacNeal
(’29). I n a recent study on the development of the circulation in the spleen of the fetal rabbit, Lewis (’56) has shown
that from the earliest stages the circulation is of the open
type.
Bjorkman’s ( ’47) experiments with starch grain injection
lead him to conclude that a closed (divided or separatory)
circulation must operate in the rabbit’s spleen. He found
that, following an injection of a mixture of large and small
rice starch grains into the rabbit’s ear vein, the large grains
(3.51 p ) were located within the sinuses and the small ones
(2.7 p ) were in the pulp cords. He concluded that the small
grains had “leaked” out of the sinuses through mural stomata
and that the larger ones were retained because of their size.
He reasoned that if the starch grains (and blood) had first
passed into the pulp cord reticular tissue rather than entering
sinuses directly, the opposite would have been found; i.e.,
the larger grains in the pulp cords and the smaller in the
sinuses.
At this time, one may only speculate in attempting to
reconcile Bjorkman ’s conclusions with the findings reported
in this paper. I n the rabbit, the pulp cords are so narrow
that terminal ampullae are always close to sinuses and in
some cases are practically in contact. If a “mainstreani” type
RABBIT ’S SPLEEN
721
of pulp flow existed in the rabbit as Parpart et al. ( ’ 5 5 )
described in the mouse, it could conceivably carry the blood
(with its assorted starch grains) through the intervening pulp
interstices and directly into the sinuses via their numerous
stomata. I n other words, could the system be anatomically
“open” but physiologically “closed? ” The arrangement of
the ampullary reticulum in figure 24 suggests that it might
exert a directing and restraining effect on passing jets of
blood.
The marginal zone, receiving blood as it does from both
white pulp capillaries and penicilli, must play an important
role in splenic function. MacNeal (’29) stated, “It is at once
evident that this marginal zone about the follicle is the most
important part of the lobule, as far as action on formed elements in the blood is concerned.” He also suggested that
the long penicilli of the pulp cords are likely to be occluded
during splenic contractions, thus forcing more blood into the
marginal zone. Mills (’26) called attention to the sluggish
flow of blood about the lymphoid follicles. The histology of
the marginal zone has been demonstrated. Circumstantial
evidence indicates that blood from white pulp capillaries and
centripetal arteries passes through the meshes of the zone
and into perimarginal sinuses. Direct evidence awaits study
of the functioning organ. By the use of histological methods,
most of the vascular channels of the spleen can be elucidated.
Good “reticular” preparations are especially useful in this
regard. Arteries, sinuses, veins, capillaries, white pulp and
marginal zone are all clearly demarcated and can he traced
easily in serial sections. The visualization of blood flow
through these demonstrated channels awaits study of the
functioning intact organ by transillumination techniques.
Three points in particular call for careful study by these
methods: ( a ) The course of blood from arterial capillary
ampullae into the sinuses; (b) the course and disposition
of blood entering the marginal zone; (c) conducting rhythmicity of penicilli versus white pulp vessels. The satisfactory
completion of such studies, because of the essential similarity
722
THEODORE S N OO K
of the red pulp of the human and rabbit spleen, should also
serve to establish an understanding of the functioning of the
human spleen.
CONCLUSIONS
1. Histological studies indicate that the intermediate circulation (i.e., the connecting link between red pulp arterial
capillaries and sinuses) of the rabbit’s spleen is predominantly of the “open’ type.
2. Red pulp arterial capillaries open into the reticular
tissue meshes of pulp cords.
3. Four types of these endings are found: ( a ) A spray or
cone-shaped ampulla of reticular fibers; ( b ) an oval (“acornshaped”) ampulla lying adjacent to a sinus; (c) an oval ampulla lying in the center of a pulp cord; ( d ) a funnel-shaped
opening.
4. A few direct connections between white pulp capillaries
and perimarginal sinuses are present.
LITERATURE CITED
ALTSCHUL,R., AND 3’. A. ITUMNASON 1947 Minimal vascular injections of
the spleen. Anat. Rec., 9 7 : 259-264.
AXDREW,W. 1946 Age changes in the vascular architecture and cell contents
in the spleens of 100 Wistar Institute rats, including comparisons
with human material. Am. J. Anat., 7 9 : 1-73.
BILLROTH,
T. 1862 Znr normalcn und Pathologischen Anatomie der menschlichen
Milz. Arch. f. path. Anat., 23: 4 5 7 4 8 7 .
BJORKMAN,S. E. 1947 The splenic circulation with special reference t o the
function of the spleen sinus wall. Acta Med. Scandinav., Suppl.,
291: 1-89.
HERRLINGER,
R. 1949 Neue functionell-histologische Untersuchungen a n der
mensohlichen Milz. Ztschr. f . Anat. u. Entwcklngsgsch., 14 : 340-365.
JXGER,E. 1929 Die Gefassversorgung der Malpigischen Korperchen in der Milz.
Zejtschr. f. Zellforsch. n. mikr. Anat., 8: 578-601.
KNISELY, M. H. 1936 Spleen studies. I. Microscopic observations on the
circulatory system of living unstimulated mammalian spleens. Anat.
Rec., 65: 23-50.
1955 Discussion (of article by Parpart, A . K., A. 0. Whipple and
J. J. Chang 1955. The microcirculation of the spleen of the mouse.
Angiology, 6: 350-362) 363-368.
LEWIS, 0. J. 1956 The development of the circulation in the spleen of the
foetal rabbit. J. of Anat., 90: 282-289.
1:ABRIT ’ S SPLEES
723
I ~ ~ A C I C E N Z I E1), . W., A. 0. WFIIPPLEIXD M. P. WIKTERSTEINER1941 Studies on
the microscopic anatomy and physiology of living transilluminated
iii:iiiintalian spleens. A m . J. Anat., 68: 397-456.
ILIxKmL, W. J . 1929 The circulation of lilood through the spleen pulp.
Arch. of Path., 7 : 215-227.
M x S E a L , W. J., S. OTANI A K D M. R. PAkrrrrmsox 1927 The finer vascular
clianiiels of the spleen. Am. J. Path., 3: 111-122.
MACSEAL,W. J., A N D 1Lz. R. PATTERSON
7926 The pathway of nucleated
erythrocytes introduced into the splenic artery. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol.
aiid Mrd., .?3: 420-421.
MILLS, E. H. 1926 Thr v:isrular :irr:nigements of the iiiaiiinialian spleen. Quart.
J. E s p . Physiol., 16: 301-319.
MOLLIER,S. 1 9 1 1 Uher den Bau der capillaren Milzvenen (Milzsinus). Arch.
f. mikr. Anat., 76: 608-657.
KI S I N- ~ R U,
T.,ASD 5’. It. HTEGGERDA 1932 Obserrations on the structure and
fuiiction of certaiii blood vessels of the splcen. J. Physiol., 7 4 : 327-337.
P A R P A R T , A. K., A. 0. WHIPPLEA N D J . J . CHAM 1955
The microcirculation
of the spleen of the inoiise. ~hgiOlOgy,6: 350-362.
P E C K , 11. JI., A X D S. L. IIOERR 1951
The interniediary circulation in the red
pulp of the i i i o u s ~splern. Anat. Rec., 109: 447-478.
ROBIXSOS,W. L. 192G The vascular mechanism of the spleen. Am. J . Path.,
2: 341-356.
S S O O K , T. 1944 The guinea pig splcen. Studies on the structure and connections
of the venous sinuses. Ailst. Rec., 89: 413-427.
- 1950 A comparative study of the vascular arrangements i n mainiiialiaii spleens. Am. J . Anat., 8 7 : 31-78.
T.4IT, J., A S D M. F. CASHIX 1925 Some points concerning the structure and
function of the spleen. Quart. J. Exp. Physiol., 15 : 421-445.
WHITING, A . J. 1894 On the comparative histology and physiology of the
spleen. Trails. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 5 8 : 253-316.
Abbwciutiotis for l c x l figiirer
U R plulcs
~
JS, Iyiiiplioitl slicutli
MZ, innrgiuiil ZOUO
A, wliito pulp tirter?.
AC, arterial capilktry
A W , rirtcriril ciipilliiry ttwiiiu:itiou
AM, illllpulln
C!, ctipillnry
CA, ceutripct:il artcry
LS,lyniplioid iiodulc
P, penicillas
RP, red pulp
S, sinus
TLC, taperiiig lyiiiplioid cour
V, reiii
4
White pulp (coiisintiiig of lyiuplioid slieiith, a nodulo niid triperiug lyuiplioid
co~ics),iiinrgiiinl zoiic and red pulp. Reticular iuipreguntion. X 53.
5
Tlw origiu of a pcuicillus froiii n tapcriug lyuiplioid cone. Reticular
pregiintiou. X 83.
iiii-
0 The reticulrir fiber p:ittcriis of n uocliile, iiinrgiiial zoiic iiiid rrd pull) niuitws.
Itcticulrir iuipregnatiou. X 178.
7 The celle of the uinrgiiitil zoiie wliicli is 1oc:ited Ictwec~ii:i iioilule
iitirrow red pulp siiius. Heiuntosylin niid cosiii.
x
:ind :I
567.
8 A xiiius whicli lins pcm4rnted the ui:irgiiial zone to lie ndjnceut to tlie
lyuiplioid dicstli. Reticiilitr iuipreguiitioii. x 233.
9
Red pulp with lougitudiunlly-cut siuuses :iud n curving pcuicilluw trtirerxiiig
tlic iiitcrreiiiiig pulp cords. Retieiilrir iiiiprcguntioii. X 180.
10 A iiiirrow c*oiiucctiiig siiiue joiiiiug two l;irger siuoxcs. Rctiriiliir iuqmgii:itiou. X 530.
11 Tlie reticular fiber uieshwork of tlic siiiiis iwill s110w1iin coiiipurixoii with
erj-throcgtcs in tlie sinus luuien. lieticulrir iiiiprep1:itioii. x 327.
12 Rocl-like reticulo-endotlielial liuiiig ec4ls with eouiiectiiig str:ilids f roiii :I
siuus nmll. A n erythrocyte (arrow) is noted for coiiipnrixon. 1Tci1i:itosyliii
r i i d cosiii. x 600.
724
K.kBI31T'Y YPLEEX
THEODORE S S O O X
725
PLATE
2
13 A white pulp ca1)ill:iry (Iiidiiig iii a n aiiipiillary di1:it:itioii
niarginnl zone. Reticular inipregiiatioii. x 460.
witliiii the
14
Jii(li:L ink flooding tlic ixirginal zoiie and. eiitrriiig p(~rimargiiia1 siiiiiscs.
I n d i a ink iiijcctioii Ijy coeliac xrtcry an{l Iiematosyliii aiid eosiii s1:iiiiiiig.
X 707.
1?.
1iicli:i iiik fro111 :I wliite pulp capillary p:issiiig iiito the reticular nic&rs of
tlic niargiiial zone. E’roiii tlic saiiie splceii as figure 14. Reticu1:ir i m p ~ e g i i a tioii. x 589.
16 A white pulp c:ipill:iry
prcBgii:itioii. x 391.
opciiiiig into
:I
1wriiiiargiiial siuns. 1~eticul:n. i n -
1;
peiiieillus branching a f t w leaving a t:ipvriug l p i p l i o i d c o i ~ c ’ . Xeticul:ir
inipregii;ilioii. x 123.
18
.I long peiiicillus with its c1i:iractcristic rc,tieol:ir filwr covering p:issiilg
lictwcwi red pulp sinuses. Reticular inipregiiatioii. x 225.
19 AL s h o r t peiiicillus cliidiiig in :L fuiiiicl-sliaprtl opening. Reticular iniprcguLitioil. X 445.
70
A ~~ciiicillus
br;iii(~liiiigiiito two arterial c:ipill:iric~s. I<cticular iuipregiiatioii.
x 430.
21
A priiicillus cndiiig i i i :I (lilstatioii f r o m wliicli :iris(%tlirce arterial e:ipillnrit’s.
Reticular iiiipwp:ition. x 169.
22
T h e e arterial capillaries arising froiii tlic dilated end of a pciiicillus. Tlie
u p p r riglit hraiich o p i s widely into the rc4icular tissue of n p u l p cord.
Kcticular impregnation. X 438.
RABEIT'S SPLEES
THEOUORE SSOOK
727
(Iwiiicillus) 1cL:idiiig into the :rtlj:ic.cxiit 1ii;irgiii:il
rntlier tliaii into tlic rctl 1)ti11). licticiilar iiiipregiiatioii. x 163.
A i i arterial rapill:iy>- ttxririiii:itiiig
Reticular inipregiintioii. X 3 i 3 .
in
:I
cone-sliapetl rcticiil:ir
zoiitz
iiicsliwork.
Arterial capillary tcriiiiii:itiiig iii :I r e t i r u h r fiber :liiipull:i lyiiig :itljaeeiit
t o :L siiiiis. lieticulnr iiiipregiiatioii. x 462.
Arteri:il capillary teriiiiiiatiiig iii i i i i :iiiipulln 1)-iiig iii the iiiitlst of
cord. Reticular iiiipregiiatioii. X 440.
Arterkil c;ipillnry with :L fiiiiiit~1~sli:i~~c~tl
olwiiiiig.
x 453.
:I
piill)
I l c i ~ ~ : ~ t o ~ y:iiitl
l i n eosin.
Iiidia ink lenviiig artvrial capillarics ;iiitl passing iiito pulp cords. India
iiik irijcctioii by coeliac artery. Hciii:itoxyliii aiicl eosiii staining. x 440.
A jet of I n d i a iiik (anon.) Iuissiiig iiito n sinus f r o m n mass iii a p l l i cord.
Rcticulxr iiiipregiiatioii. x 433.
Siiius opciiiiig iiito n red pulp collrctiiig veiii. 1tc.tic.ul:ir iiiipregiiatioii.
x
93.
R.4BDITS SPLEES
'IIIk.ODORE h S 0 0 1 i
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