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The myelinated component of the vagus nerves in man.

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T H E MYELINATED COMPONENT O F T H E
VAGUS NERVES I N MAN
HAROLD NORMAN SCHNITZLEIN, LUTHER CONRAD ROW-E,'
AND HENRY HARLAND HOFFMAN
Department of Anatomy, University of Alabama Medical Center,
Birmingham, Alahama
SEVEN PIQURES
INTRODUCTION
The structure, relations and functions of the vagus nerve
and its branches have been extensively studied in many animals since the early work of Gaslrell (1856). The largest
amount of morphological and physiological information has
been accumulated on the cat (Mohlant, '13 ; Chase and Ranson,
'14;Neuman, '14; Ranson and Mihalik, '32; Jones, '32, '37;
Heinbecker and 0 'Leary, '33 ; Richardson and Hinsey, '33 ;
McSwiney and Spurrel, '33 ; Ranson, Foley and Alpert, '33 ;
Foley and DuBois, '33, '34, '37 ; DuBois and Foley, '36, '37 ;
Wolf, '41;Hinsey, Hare and Wolf, '42; Whitteridge, '48 ;
Aidar, Geohegan, and Ungewitter, '52 ; Daly and Evans, '53 ;
Mohiuddin, ' 5 3 ; Paintal, ' 5 3 ;Anderson and Berry, '56). Some
work has been conducted on the rabbit by Langley (1898),
Neuman ( '14)' Larsell and Mason ( 'Zl), Partridge ( '33),
Evans and Murray ('54) and others. The anatomy of the
vago-sympathetic trunk and its branches have been studied
in the dog by Chase ( '16), Gronkahl and I-Ianey ( '40)'Hamaty and Truex ('54), Truex, Scott, Long and Smythe ('55)'
Mizeres ('55) as well as by some of the early investigators.
Although the gross anatomy of the nerve, particularly its
esophageal branches, has been reported in man (McCrea, '24,
'26 ; McSwiney, '31 ; Botar, '33 ; Mitchell, '40 ; Miller and
' Supported by U.S.P.H. Fellowship No. -144.
649
650
SCHNITZLEIN, ROWE AND HOFFMAN
Davis, '47 ; Small, '47 ; Bradley, Small, Wilson and Walters,
'47 ; Alvarez, '48 ; Doubilet, Shafiroff and Mulholland, '48 ;
Jackson, '49 ; Armstrong and Hinton, ,51), little comparable
histological information is available on the vagus nerve in man
(Chase and Ranson, '14; Kiss, '31; Botar, Afra, Moretz,
Schiffman and Scholz, '50 ; Sunderland and Swaney, '52 ; and
Hoffman and Kuntz, '57).
The histological studies, including a limited number of
fiber counts, have been largely based on cadaver nerves. This
type of material usually does not permit adequate differentiation of nerve fibers. Generalizations and disagreements on
the correlated function of the nerve in man have resulted.
Because of these inadequacies, this investigation has been
undertaken to give additional information on the number and
distribution of the myelinated nerve fibers in the mid-cervical
vagus nerve in autopsy specimens of man.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Segments of the mid-cervical vagus, the recurrent laryngeal nerve after all thoracic branches had been given off,
and the esophageal vagi at the diaphragm were removed from
17 autopsies. This was accomplished as soon after death as
possible, usually within 5 hours. These nerves were stretched
and fixed in Orth's fixative for 24 hours followed by post
chromation f o r 4 days in 4.8% potassium dichromate. The
nerves were then washed, dehydrated, cleared and embedded
in paraffin. Cross sections were made a t 5 p to 7 p, stained with
Sudan black B (Chiffelle and Putt, '51; Elftman, '54) and
mounted in Apathy's gum syrup.
The myelinated fibers of the cervical vagus and recurrent
laryngeal nerves were counted using an ocular grid estimation technic (Schnitzlein and Foley, '57) at a magnification
of approximately 700 diameters. The esophageal vagi were
totally counted since the many fascicles makp this relatively
easy. The esophageal vagus is usually condensed into anterior and posterior groups of fiber bundles as pointed out by
M c C T c a ('26) and others, and these ~ 7 e r removed
e
and mapped
MYELINATED VAGUS NERVE COMPONENTS
651
accordingly. I n some instances, it was more practical to remove the entire esophageal plexus and treat it as a single
bundle of fascicles.
Undoubtedly, a limited number of aberrant fascicles may
not have been removed with the cervical vagus and recurrent
laryngeal nerves. It is believed, however, that these were
minimal. More of these aberrant fascicles were encountered
and probably not removed with the esophageal nerves ; but the
number of fibers thus excluded should be relatively few since
a liberal amount of connective tissue in the adventitia of the
esophagus was removed with these nerves. It has also been
demonstrated by Gronkahl and Haney ('40) and Thomas ('49)
that some fibers course within the wall of the esophagus. The
esophagus was cut and the thoracic and abdominal viscera
mere removed in such a manner at autopsy that inadvertently
a large sympathetic fascicle was obtained in a few instances.
These nerve fibers are easily differentiated from the vagus
(Ranson, Foley and Alpert, '33).
OBSERVATIONS
The number of myelinated fibers in the mid-cervical vagus
varies in the two sides of the same individual and to an even
greater extent in different individuals. It can be noted from
table 1 that, in general, those individuals having one cervical
vagus with more myelinated fibers than the average will also
have more myelinated fibers in the contralateral side. I n the
cervical vagi, the number of myelinated fibers on the left
varied from a low of 6,398 to a high of 30,065 with an average
of 16,552 (S.E. 2 1,639) fibers ; whereas on the right the number varied from 8,996 to 33,697 with an average number of
19,991 (S.E. -t- 1,364) myelinated fibers which is slightly
higher than that found in the left.
Table 2 shows the results of counts of the myelinated nerve
fibers of the cervical vagi divided into three categories ; large
(10 p or larger), medium (9 1.1 to 3 p ) , and small (less than
3 p ) . These counts do not have the accuracy of total counts
since the shrinkage due to fixation may vary and it was most
7"
8 fi
I
D
16
74
65
67
79
70
76
ti8
72
58
82
55
49
10
AGE
30,065
27,319
14,690
25,184
14,855
21,095
17,416
15,507
16,732
18,532
13,260
11,664
16,765
6,398
10,943
32,278
7,793
16,552
21,639
33,697
26,760
25,997
23,660
24,500
23,797
23,021
22,529
19,432
19,063
17,704
7 7,495
13,090
14,844
13,218
12,041
8,996
19,991
11,364
RIGHT
I D -_
C I R V I CAI,_
LEFT
~
1
1,710
3,076
2,200
1
2,33!2
-+I48
1
2,553
k247
1
1
3,126
2,586
2,231
2,155
2,251
2,733
2,063
1,405
1,987
2,837
1
2,244
1
RIGIiT
1,825
2,855
4,096
2,848
2,417
1,594
3,275
1,516
2,042
1,116
3,668
3,646
2,643
LEFT
RECURRENT LARYNGEAL
No section obtained.
The esophageal plexus was not diffmrntiated into anterior and posterior nerves.
This nerve appeared to have a large sympathetic coniponeut.
_______.
4071
4079
4117
4156
4111
4065
4157
4110
4118
4104
-1108
4068
4109
4078
4081
4063
4095
Average
Standard Error
AUTOPSY N U M B E R
-~
482
1
1
4,175
445
988
771
993
-~
452
1
1
996
2
206
2,810
346
850
:
0
w
*@
3
0
H
.9z
N
cj
5
v,
0
2,035
2978
l 4F
934
1
651
3,798
1,117
1,843
536
5,171
1
3,451
1,001
1,132
794
1
1,349
4,583
1,795
2
2
1
1
1
835
777
1
1
1,035
1,612
2
2
TOT4L
1
POSTERIOR
RSOPHAUEAL AT DIAPHRAflM
1
ANTERIOR
Numbers of myelinated fibers in the vagiis newe of man
TABLE 1
MYELINATED VAGUS ?SERVE CO;\IPOITENTS
653
difficult to avoid subjectkity in classifying those myelinated
fibers which are nearly 3 p or those approximating 10 p. It is
obvious, however, that approximately 80% of the myelinated
axons are less than 3 p, 15% are medium in size and a variable
number 10 p or larger. Altho~ighin adults the number of large
fibers varied considerably, the nerves of a two-year-old v e r e
obviously lacking in large myelinated axom.
The recurrent laryngeal nerves (table 1)varied from a low
of 1,116 on the left and 1,405 on the riglit to a high of 4,096
on the left and 3,126 on the right. The average nu~ribcrof
myelinated nerve fibers of the two sides is not significantly
different. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve had an average
of 2,553 (S.E. I
247) myelinated nerve fibers and the right
recurrent laryngeal nerves averaged 2,339 (S.E. t 148) myelinated fibers. This nerve contains predominantly larger
nipclinatcd fibers with the majority in the 8 p to 10 I.I range.
Sonic small myelinated fibers were observed in this nerve.
Although the esophageal vagi a t the level of the diaphragm
(table 1)usually may be grouped into anterior and posterior
groups of fascicles (Bradley, Small, TTilson and Walter, '47,
and others), thc connt of the combined esophagcd nerves is
probably the only significant figure since communications exist
between the right and left nerves (McCrea, '26). Tlicse nerves
vary from a total of 536 to 5,171 myelinated fibers with an
average number of 2,035 (S.E. 978) myelinated fibers. Few,
if any, large myelinated fibers are found in the nerve a t this
level. The myelinated axons in the esophageal vagiis a t the
diaphragm are quite predominantly 3 p o r less in diameter.
mscussroiv
The gross anatomy of the vagus nerve has been described
in many animals and the gross course and variations of this
nerve in man reported by a number of investigators. Evidence
which indicates some functional differences in this nerve in
man and other animals has been reported by Thomas and
Komarov ( '48). Although the cervical portion of the vagiis
is quite different in man and the dog, which has a common
654
SCHNITZLEIN, ROWE AND HOFFMAN
vagosympathetic trunk, certain similarities are to be found in
man, the cat, and the rabbit (McCrea, '24). It has been
pointed out that very few fascicles of the cervical vagus and
cervical sympathetic trunk intermingle in man and in the cat
(Chase, '16 ; Ranson, Folcy and Alpert, '33 ; Richardson and
I-Iinsey, '33; Hinsey, Hare and TVolf, '42; Foley, '45). The
number of sympathetic fibers in the cervical vagus in man
is not known but is probably minimal in most vagi.
The cervical vagus is both afferent and efferent. The afferent fibers arise largely from the pseudo-unipolar nodose
ganglion cells (Daly and Evans, '53). The peripheral processes of these cells make up the majority of fibers found
in the cervical vagns (Foley and DuBois, '34; DuBois and
Poley, '36). Muller ( ,ll),Heinbecker and O'Leary ( '33),
.Jones ('37) and Mohiuddin ( '53) concluded, therefore, that
some of them must be motor. Most authors are unwilling to
agree with the conclusion that the nodose is a motor ganglion
since there are no synapses observable in the ganglion (Ranson, Poley and Alpert, '33) and its cells conform to the same
type observed in the dorsal root ganglia. The somatic motor
fibers below the nodose are distributed via the recurrent
laryngeal nerve (DuBois and Foley, '36). The visceral motor
and visceral sensory components are transmitted through
branches to the larynx, trachea, lungs, heart, esophagus and
some abdominal viscera. The numbers of these functional
types which are myelinated and nonmyelinated in man are
not known; however, it has been reported in the cat that approximately 15% of the visceral afferent and approximately
60% of the motor fibers in the cervical vagus are myelinated
(Foley and DuBois, '37). The vagus nerve is composed predominantly of nonmyelinated axons (Mohiuddin, '53 ; DuBois
and Foley, '37) which arise principally from the nodose ganglion. A variable number of multipolar ganglion cells which
may contribute nonmyelinated fibers has been observed along
the course of this nerve in man and in the cat (Botar, '33;
Hoffman and Kuntz, '57).
MYELINATED VAGUS NERVE COMPONENTS
655
The cervical vagus of a single two-year-old individual was
conspicuously lacking large myelinated nerve fibers. The age
when myelinization is complete in man is not known and
raises the problem of postnatal development of visceral
nerves. Whether there is demyelinization of the larger axons
in older individuals cannot be conclusively determined from
this data (table 2) although there are some indications that
this may occur.
The counts of myelinated axons in the cervical portion of
the vagus nerve as reported by Hoffman and Kuntz ('57)
are below the averages in table 1. This may have occurred
because of the limited number of nerves counted by them; however, their numbers do fall within the lower limits of the
counts presented here. It may also be pointed out that counts
on cadaver material may be low because of the degeneration
and diffusion of stainable material of all the nerve fibers. The
quality of fixation and staining in quantitative investigations
becomes increasingly important. The age, height and size of
the individual may also be factors in considering the sizes
of these myelinated axons (Truex, Scott, Long and Smythe,
'55).
Shrinkage due to the technic and the difficulty in categorizing those myelinated fibers which border between large and
medium and between medium and small makes evaluation of
the data in table 2 difficult. It is questionable, however, that
many fibers in the thoracic branches of the vagus, including
those in the depressor nerve, are over 10 p in diameter unless
considerable branching of the fibers takes place without reduction in diameter.
Nearly all of the larger fibers of the cervical vagus can be
accounted for as contributing to the formation of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Although there is variation in the number of fibers in this nerve, it does not differ quantitatively
from individual to individual as greatly as the cervical or
esophageal vagi. The recurrent nerve contains predominantly
myelinated axons of 8 p to 10 p although some fascicles contain numerous small myelinated fibers. I n the cat DuBois and
656
SCHITITZLEIN, ROWE A N D HOFFMAN
Foley ('36) reported a total of 1,000 to 1,400 myelinated axons
in the recurrent laryngeal nerve of which approximately twothirds were below 5 p in diameter.
TABLE 2
Size of myelinated fibers i n t h e mid-cervical vagzis
TOTAL
MEDIUM a
S M A LL
0
0
2,061
1,077
11,157
9,866
14,844
GO
2,599
12,185
55
17,495
11,664
532
414
3,321
1,397
13,642
9,853
4104 Rt.
4104 Lt.
58
19,063
18,532
1,282
1,008
2,518
1,233
15,263
16,291
4110 Lt.
68
15,507
1,523
1,569
12,415
4065 Rt.
70
23,797
932
3,293
19,572
4063 Rt.
4063 Lt.
72
12,041
12,278
509
71 8
2,167
2,365
9,365
9,195
4118 Rt.
72
19,432
174
2,571
16,687
4111 Lt.
79
14,855
48
1,769
13,039
4108 Rt.
4108 Lt.
82
17,704
13,260
255
103
2,258
2,342
15,191
10,815
4095 Rt.
4095 Lt.
86
8,996
7,793
188
528
1,531
1,468
7,277
-5,797
NERVE
AGE
4081 Rt.
4081 Lt.
2
13,218
10,943
4078 Rt.
10
4068 Rt.
4068 Lt.
a
COUBT
LARGE
Large = 10 p or larger.
Medium = 9 p to 3 p.
Small = less than 3 P.
Figure 1 demonstrates that of the myelinated asons in the
cervical vagus, a little over 13% are distributed to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and only approximately 6% remain
a t the level of the diaphragm. This would seem to indicate
that approximately 80% of the myelinated axons in the midcervical vagus are distributed t o thoracic structures ; however,
some of the myelinated fibers in the cervical region may lose
their sheaths before reaching the level of the diaphragm and
MYELIXATED VAGUS XERVE COMPOXENTS
657
the estimated percentage of myelinated fibers distributed to
the thorax may therefore be high.
The sizes of the myelinated thoracic nerve fibers were not
observed. Unless, however, there is branching of larger nerve
fibers of the cervical vagus, the thoracic branches must contain predominantly small myelinated axons since the number
Fig. 1 Diagrammatic representation of the average numbers and standard error
of the myelinated nerve fibers in the vagtis nerves of man.
of large fibers of the recurrent laryngeal nerve is sufficiently
high to account f o r nearly all those counted in the cervical
vagus. It would seem improbable, therefore, that many of
the aortic chemoreceptors and pressoreceptors as well as
stretch receptors in the lungs are not the terminals of large
myelinated nerve fibers.
The anterior and posterior esophageal vagi contain few
sympathetic axons and are made up of fibers derived from
both the right and left cervical vagi (McCrea, '24; Mohiud-
658
SCHNITZLEIN, ROWE AND HOFFMAN
din, ' 5 3 ) . The number of myelinated fibers recorded in figure
1 for the esophageal plexus refers to the total population of
this group of nerves and therefore should be compared with
the total of the right and left cervical nerves. The relative
paucity of these myelinated fibers has also been reported by
Chase and Ranson ( '14).
I n considering the ultimate distribution o€ the vagus to
abdominal viscera, particularly its enteric relationships, three
possibilities must be considered ; (1) the preganglionic axons
of the vagus at the level of the diaphragm are predominantly
nonmyelinated; (2) the vagus has so few preganglionic fibers
that the mathematical ratio of pre- to post-ganglionic neurons
rnay be of a magnitude of one to several thousand; or (3)
w relationship of enteric neurons and axons exists which has
not been reported for the other divisions of the autonomic
nervous system. All three of these possibilities may be true.
Kiss ('31) hypothesized that all the fibers of the esophageal
vagus were sympathetic. Mohiuddin ( '53) demonstrated that,
although some of the fibers mere derived from the stellate
ganglion, the majority of the nerve fibers were processes of
cells of the nodose ganglion. Duncan ('28) has also demonstrated that although gross communications exist between the
vagus and sympathetic nerves in the upper thorax, there is
practically no evidence of vagus fibers in the thoracic sympathetic system. If, however, some myelinated sympathetic
fibers and those derived from the nodose ganglion are subtracted from the total myelinated population of the esophageal vagi, the number of myelinated preganglionic axons is
further reduced.
A mathematical ratio of pre- to post-ganglionic neurons of a
magnitude of even 1:1000 has not been described anywhere
in the autonomic nervous system and would seem to require
an inordinate amount of branching of small fibers. Sauer and
Rumble ( '46) found a minimum of 20,000,000 ganglion cells
in the myenteric and submucous plexuses of the small intestine of the cat. Irwin ('31) has also reported large numbers of
myenteric ganglion cells in the guinea pig. Wolf ('41) re-
A'IYELINATED VAGUS NERVE COMPONENTS
659
ported ratios in the cat of preganglionic sympathetic fibers
to cells in the superior cervical ganglion of 1:11 and 1:17
and of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to cells of the
ciliary ganglion of 1:2. Since a single preganglionic neuron
may establish synaptic contact with many post-ganglionic
neurons, the few myclinated preganglionic fibers of the vagus
would appear t o have even greater difficulty in reaching all of
the enteric neurons of the stomach, small intestine and portions of the large bowel. Johnson ('25) believed that the
gastrointestinal canal was similar in its innervation to the
other portions of the autonomic nervous system in having only
a two neuron pathway.
I n view of the data reported in this paper and the many
physiological investigations of the problem, the enteric ganglia, at least in part, may have an arrangement as independent
intrinsic reflex arcs (Kuntz, '22; Waddell, '29) or exist as
chains of post-ganglionic neurons with a "mother cell" as
concluded by Langley ( '22). Both arrangements may exist.
Cajal ( '54) described terminal syncytial interstitial cells in
these regions which he believed to be of a neuronal nature.
Although the vagi undoubtedly have an effect on the movements of the gut and on enteric neurons (Bayliss and Starling, 1899; Yonmans, '52), it would not seem unreasonable to
use Langley ' s original classification of the autonomic nervous
system into sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric rather
than include the enteric neurons only as a subdivision of the
parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system.
The modalities of sensation conducted in the vagus nerve
from the abdomen are usually not considered to include pain
(Grimson, Hesser and Kitchen, '47); although some evidence
that this occasionally may occur has been reported by Alvarez
( '31). Pain impulses from this region are generally believed
to be transmitted by the splanchnic nerves (Harper, MeSwiney and Suffolk, '35 ; Bingham, Inglefinger and Smithwick, '50). I n studies on the vagus nerve of the rabbit, Evans
and Murray ('54) reported that the vagus nerve is predominantly afferent. These afferent fibers are either non-myelin-
660
SCHNITZLEIN,
ROWE AND HOFFMAN
ated or of a medullated caliber between 4 p and 10 p. In the
rabbit a t the level of the diaphragm, the motor component
constitutes only about 10% of the population of this nerve
which also contains few myelinated axons. If impulses of
pain from the abdomen are transmitted by the splanchnic
nerres in this animal, the role of these non-myelinated afferent nerve fibers, wliich are usually considered to be conductors of painful sensations, needs further investigation in
other animals a i d in man. At least a portion of the feeling
of hunger or nausea probably is conducted also by non-myelinated axons since so few of the raga1 fibers a t the level of the
diaphragm are myelinated. This is in agreement with the
conclusions of Paintal ('53) and anderson and Berry ('56)
~vhohave demonstrated that there is a considerable overlap
of the conduction velocities and fiber size of the different
modalities of afferent fibers.
CKNOTT'LEDGMENTS
The authors wish to express their appreciation to Dr. J. 0.
Folcp for his many suggestions during the conduct of this
inrestigation, and to the Department of Pathology, particularly to Xr. Edward 1,. Ramsey, for cooperation in obtaining
the material used in this study.
SU3f M A R P
The myelinated fibers of the vagus nerve of man are predominantly small myelinated nerve fibers. The total population of the right cervical vagus (19,991 S.E. 1,364) is
somewhat greater than the contralateral nerve (16,552 f S.E.
1,639). Although this may be due to individual variation,
the right nerve contains more myelinated fibers than the left
in the majority of autopsies reported.
The recurrent laryngeal nerves are less variable. The right
recurrent averaged 2,339 2 148 and the left 2,553 -L 247.
These nerves are predominantly made up of myelinated fibers
8 LI to 10 cc in diameter and appear to include nearly all of the
larger fibers of the cervical vagus.
M Y E L I K A T E D VAGUS N E R V E C O M P O N E N T S
661
The total number of myelinated nerve fibers in the esophageal plexus is strikingly small (2,034 978) in view of the
reported visceral motor distribution of these nerves and constitutes only about 6% of those meylinated nerve fibers found
at mid-cervical levels. These fibers are alniost a11 less than
3 y in diameter.
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SCHNITZLEIN, ROWE AND HOFFMAN
DUNCAN,
D. 1928 On the possible presence of vagus fibers i n splanchnic nerves:
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1934 An experimental study of the rootlets of the vagus nerve
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1937 Quantitative studies of the vagus nerve in the cat. I. The
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GASKELL,
W. H. 1886 On the structure, distribution and function of the nerves
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A. A., B. A. MCSWEENY
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I
_
_
-
MYELINATED TrAGUS NERVE COMPONENTS
663
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1922 Connexions of the enteric nerve cells. Ibid. 56 .-39.
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KUNTZ,A.
664
SCHNITZLEIN, ROWE AND EOFFMAN
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A. P., AND J. C. HINSEY 1933 A functional study of the nodose
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THOMAS,J. E. 1949 Recent advances in gastrointestinal physiology. Gastroenterology, 1.2: 545-560.
THOMAS,J. E., AND S. A. KOMAROV1948 Physiological aspects of vagotomy.
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D. M. LONGAND M. Q. SMYTHE1955 Effects of the
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WADDELL,
M. C. 1929 Anatomical evidence f o r the existence of enteric reflex
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WHITTERIDGE,D. 1948 Afferent nerve fibers from the heart and lungs in the
cervical vagus. J. Physiol., 107: 496-512.
WOLF, G. A. JR. 1941 The ratio of preganglionic neurons to postganglionic
neurons in the visceral nervous system. J. Comp. Neur., 75: 235-243.
YOUMAKS,
W. B. 1952 Neural regulation of gastric and intestinal motility.
Am. J. Med., 13: 209-226.
PLATE 1
EXPLANATION O F FIQUBES
2
Photomicrograph of a cross section of a cervical vagus of man containing
16,732 myelinated nerve fibers. Sudan black B. X 55.
3
Photomicrograph of a cross section of a recurrent laryngeal nerve of man
containing 2,231 myelinated nerve fibers. Sudan black B. x 55.
4
Photomicrograph of a cross section of a total esophageal plexus of man
containing 1,349 myelinated nerve fibers. Sudan black B. X 55.
PLATE I
665
I'LA'l'E 2
EXPLANATION OF FIDURES
ti
Pliotoa~icrograpl~
of n portion of the mid-cervical vngus in figure 2 dottotixtrating the various xizcs of niyelinritcd iicrre fibers. Sudan blrick B. X 075.
6
Photoinicrogropli of n portioii of tltc recurrent laiyigeal nerve of figure 3.
The preponderniice of lnrge myelinu.tec1fibers and absence of tlic lightly stained
bnckgrouiid observed in figure 5 and figure 7 may be noted. Sudm blwk 13.
x 975.
7 P1iotomierogr:ipli of n portion of one of thc fascicles of the csopliagcal plexus
of figure 4. The majority of these nerve fibers are less thau 3 p in elianieter.
Sudan black R. x 975.
667
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