close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

The Schweigger-Seidel sheath (Ellipsoid) of the spleen.

код для вставкиСкачать
THE SCHWEIGGER-SEIDEL SHEATH (ELLIPSOID)
O F THE SPLEEN
OTIXMAR SOLNITZKY
Department of Anatomy, Georgetown University School of Medicine,
Washington, D . C .
THREE PLATES (SIX FIGURES)
Of the many problems of the finer structure and function of
the vascular system of the spleen, one of the most intriguing
has been that of the histological nature and function of the
Schweigger-Seidel sheath. I n spite of the many papers dealing with this subject which have been written since this structure was first described nearly 80 years ago, there is still no
agreement as to its essential histological makeup and function.
Most modern textbooks in histology give only a vague description of the Schweigger-Seidel sheath. Addison (’32) makes
no mention of it in his edition of Piersol’s Normal Histology.
Cowdry (’34) states that the wall of each penicillar artery
“becomes locally thickened in a manner not found elsewhere
in the vascular system.” Bremer ( ’36)’ Jordan (’31)’ and
Smith (’34) refer to the sheath briefly as a concentric or
ellipsoidal concentration of reticular connective tissue. Cajal
(’33) speaks of it as a reinforcement of the adventitia of the
enclosed vessel with longitudinal fibers. Schaffer (’33) regards the sheath as a muscular structure and compares it to
an arterio-venous anastomosis as found in the cutaneous
glomus. Naximow and Bloom (’34) describe the sheath as
‘‘a compact mass of concentrically arranged elongated nuclei
(probably reticular cells) and longitudinal fibers which continue with the reticular fibers of the red pulp.” Petersen
(’31) describes the sheath as a syncytial structure. SharpeySchiifer (’34) refers to the sheath as a “spindle-shaped investment of concentric lamellae of connective tissue with
numerous lymphocytes in the meshes of the tissue.”
55
T H E ANATOMICAL RECORD, VOL.
69, NO. 1
56
OTHMAR SOLBITZKY
There is also no agreement as t o the nature of the blood
vessel passing through the sheath. By some the blood vessel
is called the ‘sheathed artery’ and by others it is regarded
as a capillary.
It is the aim of this paper to prove that the Schwei,g
0 erSeidel sheath is a part of the reticulo-histiocytic system and
that the contained axial vessel is a capillary and not an artery.
HISTORICAL
Billroth (1857) was the first t o observe the sheath in the
spleen of birds. Key (1861) first saw it in the spleen of
mammals. Schweigger-Seidel (1863) gave the first extensive
description of this structure in the pig, dog, cat, and man, and
called it ‘Kapillarhiilse. ’ He also described communications
between the meshes of the sheath and its axial vessel and hence
considered the entire structure as a sort of filtration apparatus. R4iiller (1865) gave the first comprehensive description of the sheath in fishes, reptiles, birds, and carnivores.
He was also the first to apply the term ‘ellipsoid’ to this
structure. Miiller interpreted the sheath as a fibrous thickening of the adventitia of its axial vessel and as the termination
of the splenic nerves. According to Kyber (1870) the sheath
is a loosened adveiititia infiltrated with lymphocytes ; i.e.,
identical in structure with the malpighian corpuscle. He also
denied any communication between the capillary lumen and
the meshes of the sheath. Bannwarth (1891, 1893) failed to
find the sheath in the human spleen, but described it in the
cat’s spleen, especially in young animals. He considered the
sheath as a growth center for the splenic pulp and hence important only during the embryonic period. Sokoloff (1888)
who studied only the human spleen denied the existence of the
sheath. Hoyer (1892) made no statemeiit as to the histological structure of the sheath, but considered it as a
mechanical provision against tearing of the axial vessel from
increased intra-arterial pressure or compression from without.
He explained the appearance of blood cells within the sheath
as due t o postmortem rupture of the axial vessel. Rultschitzky (1882, 1895) described the sheath as a compact mass
THE ELLIPSOID O F THE SPLEEN
57
of lcucocytes. Carlier (1895) considered the sheath as a compact mass of reticular fibers containing connective tissue cells.
Whiting (1897), von Ebner (1899) and Janossik (’03) found
smooth muscle cells, which they considered as essential constituents of the sheath. Mall (’00) first proposed the theory
that the sheath acts as a one-way valve, preventing the reflux
of blood from the venous into the arterial side.
The later literature will be dealt with in the discussion.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The material used in the present study consisted of 4 spleens
of the rabbit, 6 of the dog, 6 of the cat, 3 of the sheep, 4 of the
pig, 2 of the calf, and 7 of man. Of human spleens, three were
of newborns and four of adults. The spleens were divided into
three groups.
One group of spleens was examined histologically in the
contracted state after removal from the body. The second
group of spleens was examined after perfusion through the
aorta or the splenic artery with oxygenated Ringer solution
warmed to 38°C. In the case of the rabbit, dog and cat, the perfusion was done with the spleen in situ, while the animal was
still under anesthetic. The perfusion lasted from 3 t o 6 hours,
depending upon the size of the spleen. The perfusion was
followed by the fixing fluid. The following fixing fluids were
used: 10% formol in normal saline, Susa, Regaud, Maximow,
Bouin, and Carnoy. Several blocks of tissue were removed
from each spleen, dehydrated, and embedded by the methylbenzonate-celloidin method. Serial sections were made from
each block. The sections were divided into groups and stained
by the following methods : Harriss’s hematoxylin and eosin,
Weigert ’s iron hematoxylin with picro-fuchsin or picro-indigocarmin, Heidenhain’s iron hematoxylin counterst ained with
aurantia or benzolicht bordeaux, Mallory ’s triple stain
(Andersen’s modification), Heidenhain’s azan method, Masson’s triple stain, Weigert’s elastic stain, orcein, and the
Bielschowsky-Maresch silver method. The third group consisted of spleens of dogs and cats which were injected intravenously with trypan blue and India ink. The trypan blue
58
OTHMAR SOLNITZKY
used was a 0.5% solution in boiled distilled water. The
amount of this solution injected was calculated on a basis of
3 to 4 cc. per 1000 gm. of body weight. The India ink
solution consisted of a 5% suspension in sterile normal saline.
From 20 t o 40 cc. were injected intravenously. After
definite intervals, as described below, these spleens were
perfused with Ringer solution, followed by Carnoy or Susa,
and then placed in the same k i n g fluid. I n all cases serial
sections were made, as single sections were found to be of no
value at all.
PERSONAL OBSERVATIONS
The following personal observations are based almost exclusively on the study of perfused spleens, since unperfused, contracted spleens were found useless for the investigation of the finer structure of the sheath due to the close
packing of its constituent cells and the density of the surrounding splenic pulp.
Upon following the follicular artery as it emerges from the
splenic corpuscle, it was found to divide, as a rule, into two to
six branches, called penicillar arteries or arteries of the red
pulp. These, contrary to the usual textbook descriptions did
not run parallel to each other, but pursued a radiating course
from their point of origin. Only an examination of serial
sections, especially those stained with iron hematoxylin, could
bring out this point. Each penicillar artery (fig. 4) has a
definite, delicate intima, consisting of endothelium and a thin
subendothelial layer of delicate collagenous fibers, with no
elastica interna ; a thin media of two or three layers of smooth
muscle cells with no elastica externa; and a still thinner
adventitia of collagenous and elastic fibers. The lumen of
the penicillar arteries is very conspicuous as compared with
that of the axial vessel of the sheath (figs. 3, 4). Each penicillar artery, after following a more or less straight course,
finally branches, as a rule, into two to three branches which
immediately lose the structural characteristics of an artery t o
become a capillary (fig. 3 ) . The majority of these capillaries
THE ELLIPSOID O F THE SPLEEN
59
become surrounded by a Schweigger-Seidel sheath immediately upon their appearance. There are, however, many
capillaries arising as branches of a penicillar artery which are
not associated with a sheath. I n the rabbit spleen, in spite
of a diligent search of many serial sections, sheaths were never
found. This finding agrees with those of Mills ('26) and
von Herrath ('35). With the exception of the rabbit, the
sheath was found in all the spleens examined.
Topographically, the sheaths were found throughout the
splenic pulp, but never in the splenic corpuscles (fig.1). As a
rule, they had an intimate anatomical relation to the venous
sinuses. They may be in close proximity to a venous sinus,
project into it, or be surrounded by several venous sinuses
(fig. 3). However, in no case was there ever found a direct
communication between a sheath and the adjacent venous
sinuses, a small lamina of splenic pulp always separating
the two.
Most often only one sheath was seen at the termination of a
penicillar artery. Occasionally, from two to as many as five
vessels were found to be associated with a single sheath.
Sometimes, two to three sheaths were seen arranged serially
upon a single branch of a penicillar artery. The axial vessel
of the sheath was occasionally found divided into two o r more
branches, each branch being surrounded by a prolongation
of the sheath. I n this way more or less complex sheaths were
formed.
The size of the sheath varied considerably in the various
species examined. It was largest in the spleen of the pig,
dog and cat. It mas smallest in the spleen of the calf and man.
Many differences in size were also found in the sheaths of
the same specimen. There was no relation between size of
the sheath and the age of the individual from which the
specimen was obtained, as determined by examination of the
human spleens of newborns and adults. As a rule, the sheath
was smaller and more compact in the contracted, unperfused
than in the dilated, perfused spleen.
60
O T H M A R SOLNITZKY
The shape of the sheath was even more variable than its
size, not only in different species, but also in the same specimen. I n general, two varieties of shape were observed: the
elongated or almost tubular, seen in the spleen of the dog and
man ; and the spherical or ellipsoidal shape, seen in the spleen
of the pig and the cat.
The structural components of the sheath were found to be
two in number :fibers and cells.
The fibers, making up the framework of the SchweiggerSeidel sheath, were invariably found t o be reticular fibers.
These fibers stained black with the silver method and blue
with the azan method. With picrofuchsin they barely stained
a very light pink color in contrast with the deep red stain seen
in the collagenous fibers of the trabeculae, capsule, and the
larger blood vessels. Picro-indigbearmin did not stain them
at all. The fibers formed a network enclosing meshes which
were small in the contracted, but larger in the perfused spleen.
The fibers are best seen in perfused spleens of animals that
had been previously injected with trypan blue or India ink
and killed 24 hours afterward, when the sheath was seen
almost freed of its cellular elements as the result of the
migration of the latter into the surrounding splenic pulp. The
fibers were arranged neither concentrically nor longitudinally,
as claimed by various investigators, but form a closely-knit
network which persists as such after long-continued and even
forcible perfusion. Internally, the fibers are continuous with
a circularly disposed layer of reticular fibers immediately
surrounding the contained axial vessel. At the periphery of
the sheath, the reticular fibers are directly continuous with
the reticular fibers of the splenic pulp.
Examination of many serial sections of perfused spleens,
stained with orcein or Weigert’s elastic stain, has never shown
the slightest trace of elastic fibers within the confines of the
sheath. Invariably, the elastic fibers in the wall of the penicillar artery ceased abruptly at the beginning of the sheath.
Smooth muscle cells also were never found, even though a
diligent search was made for them in sections of spleens in
THE ELLIPSOID O F THE SPLEEN
61
which the sheath had been rendered free of its contained cells
by injections of trypan blue or India ink. Such sections,
stained with picrofuchsin and picroindigocarmin, also showed
no trace of collagenous fibers.
The cells found in the Schweigger-Seidel sheath were of two
kinds: those which were found constantly in the sheaths of
all specimens examined as characteristic constituents of their
structural makeup, and those which were found only occasionally. Among the latter were red cells, whole or fragmented ; lymphocytes ; and polymorphonuclear leucocytes.
The latter cells did not form a characteristic and constant
finding, but merely represented cells of passage and need not
be discussed further.
The appearance of the characteristic cells of the sheath depended entirely upon the technique of preparing the sections
and upon the degree of distention of the spleen. It was practically impossible to study these cells well in contracted spleens
as they were too closely packed in such specimens to distinguish their cytological characteristics. I n preparations
obtained from perfused spleens fixed in 10% formol, the
outlines of the cells were ill-defined and the cells seemed to
form a syncytium. This finding explains the usual description
of the cytoplasmic constituent of the sheath as a syncytium.
I n order to determine definitely the presence or absence of a
syncytial cytoplasmic network, formol as a fixative was discarded early in the present investigation and replaced by the
fixing fluids of Carnoy, Regaud, Susa, Bouin and Maximow.
I n all preparations of spleens fixed by one of the five abovementioned fixing fluids, it was not at all difficult to observe
that the characteristic cells of the sheath were discrete and did
not form a syncytium. Toward the center of the sheath, the
cells were founded o r ovoid, but toward the periphery of the
sheath there was observed a gradual transition into the stellate
reticular cells of the splenic pulp. Around the axial vessel,
the sheath cells were, as R rule, closely packed, whereas toward
the periphery the arrangement was looser. However, no
definite pattern of cellular arrangement was seen. I n many
62
OTHMAIl SOLNITZKY
cases, thc cells were either distributed irregularly or clumped
together at some point. This was especially true of the sheath
cells in the preparations from the human spleens.
The cytoplasm of the sheath cells stained well with acid
dyes and showed a slight, fine granulation. The nucleus was
round or oval, depending upon the shape of the cell, and
more or less vesicular, the chromatin being disposed in the
form of small granules. I n no preparation could any distinction be made between the sheath cells and the reticular
cells of the pulp.
The cellular picture, however, changed dramatically in
preparations obtained from spleens which had been injected
with trypan blue or India ink.
Within 7 to 10 hours after such injections, the sheath cells
were found invariably filled with granules of trypan blue or
ink. At the same time the cells appeared much larger,
spherical and, in many cases, small pseudopodial processes
were seen projecting from the free surface of the cells. I n
preparations made 24 hours after the injection, most of the
sheath cells had migrated out of the meshes of the sheath
into the surrounding pulp, where they could be seen scattered
singly or in small groups, close to a venous sinus. As the
result of this massive migration of the sheath cells, the sheath
itself could be seen as a network of reticular fibers with almost
empty meshes. At no time was the sheath meshwork seen
without at least a few cells. I n preparations made from 5 to
8 days after the injection of trypan blue or ink, the sheaths
were found almost wholly devoid of granule-laden cells.
Instead, the sheath was seen to be the seat of a marked
hyperplasia, the newly formed cells presenting the identical
histological characteristics that were exhibited by the sheath
cells of spleen into which ink or trypan blue had not been
previously injected. In the hyperplastic mass, several
mitoses were seen. There was no evidence that the newly
formed cells were derived from the endothelium of the axial
vessel, o r that they had migrated into the sheath from the
surrounding pulp. All evidence pointed to the interpretation
THE ELLIPSOID O F T H E SPLEEN
63
that the newly formed cells were derived by mitosis from the
cells which had not migrated out of the sheath into the splenic
Pulp.
Cytoplasmic stains and silver impregnation showed also
that the axial vessel is not an artery but a capillary, consisting of an endothelial tube surrounded by a thin layer of
circularly disposed reticular fibers which, peripherally, are
continuous with the reticular fibers of the sheath. The endothelial cells were elongated, their long diameter being
disposed parallel to the course of the vessel. The nuclei were
relatively large and projected conspicuously into the lumen
(fig. 3). At the beginning of the sheath, the circular reticular
fibers surrounding the axial vessel were usually arranged in
two to three rows, but within the confines of the sheath only
one row of reticular fibers was seen. Moreover, the reticular
fibers immediately surrounding the axial vessel were more
delicate than those constituting the framework of the sheath
itself. There was no evidence of any permanent stomata in
the endothelial lining of the axial vessel communicating directly with the meshes of the sheath network. On several
occasions, red cells and granulocytes were seen passing
through the endothelial wall, but at the point of exit from
the vessel the migrating cell was constricted, showing that the
process of cellular migration through endothelium here is not
different from that seen in capillaries elsewhere in the body.
DISCUSSION
The various views that have been advanced to explain the
structure of the Schweigger-Seidel sheath may be grouped as
follows :
1. The sheath is a nervous structure receiving the terminal
arborizations of the splenic nerves (Miiller, 1865). This view
is untenable as there is neither histological nor physiological
evidence to support it.
2. The sheath is a contractile muscular organ (Bannwarth,
1891; Whiting, 1897 ;von Ebner, 1899 ; Janossik, '03 ; Schaffer,
'33). Since in the present study no smooth muscle cells were
64
OTHMAR SOLNITZKY
ever found in the large number of serial sections of different
spleens, stained with appropriate methods, this view must also
be abandoned. The same conclusion was reached by Mills
( ’as),Riedel ( ’32) and others.
3. The sheath is a localized thickening of the adventitia of
the axial vessel ( Schweigger-Seidel, 1862 ; Kyber, 1870 ; Hoyer,
1892 ; Carlier, 1895 ; Weidenreich, ’01 ; Sobotta, ’14). This
interpretation must also be discarded as the axial vessel of
the sheath has been shown to be a capillary distinct from the
enclosing sheath. The independent character of the axial
capillary is well shown in the spleen of the rabbit, where in
spite of the absence of a sheath, it presents exactly the same
structural characteristics as the axial capillary of the spleen
of animals that are provided with sheaths.
4. The sheath is a localized infiltration of the perivascular
connective tissue with lymphocytes (Kyber, 1870 ; Hartmann,
’30), granular leucocytes (Kultschitzky, 1862, 1895), sessile
phagocytic cells (Tait, ’27), sessile white cells (Neubert, ’ZZ),
monocytes o r endothelial phagocytes (Mills, ’26) and endothelial cells (MacNeal, ’27). Although lymphocytes and
granulocytes are occasionally found in the Schweigger-Seidel
sheath, they do not form its essential cellular constituent. I n
addition, they do not characteristically take up particulate
matter from the circulating blood. The terms ‘sessile phagocytic cells,’ ‘sessile white cells’ and ‘endothelial cells’ (as
used by MacNeal) are too vague as to terminolo,T. The
term ‘endothelial phagocytes’ used by Mills is partly correct
in that the cells of the sheath are intensely phagocytic. However, Mills uses the terms monocytes and endothelial phagocytes interchangeably. I n hematological nomenclature these
two terms do not signify the same thing. The use of the
term ‘endothelial’ in this connection is objectionable since
endothelium is not characterized by intense phagocytosis of
particulate matter. I n discussing the origin of the phagocytic cells of the sheath, Mills states that they are “presumably a modified type of endothelium” derived from “the
cells at the termination of the arteriole.” However, he does
not make clear just what the nature of these cells is.
THE ELLIPSOID O F THE SPLEEN
65
As none of the views discussed above takes into account the
actual structural characteristics of the sheath, there remains
only one interpretation thati is in accordance with the factual
findings of the present study; namely, that the sheath is a
localized condensation of splenic pulp tissue, consisting, as it
does, of the same structural elements: reticular fibers and
intensely phagocytic reticular cells. This view is supported
by the findings of Hueck ( 'as), Jaeger ('as), and Li, Garven
and Mole ( '29).
The axial vessel of the sheath has been considered as an
artery or precapillary artery by almost all investigators and
by practically all authors of textbooks of histology. Only
Schweigger-Seidel (1862, 1863) and Petersen ( '31) have
definitely and consistently termed the axial vessel a capillary.
The findings of the present investigation leave no doubt that
the axial vessel of the sheath is a capillary, consisting of an
endothelial tube surrounded by a single layer of circular
reticular fibers with no elastic or muscular fibers. Several
investigators ( Schweigger-Seidel, 1863 ; Hoyer, 1892 ; Phisalix,
1885; Greschik, '15 ; Staemmler, '25 ; Mills, '26 ; Oberniedermayr, '26 ; Li, Garven and Mole, '29 ; Hartmann, '30 ; TeitelBernard, '31) have claimed that the axial vessel of the sheath
is perforated. Mills, for instance, states that such perforations can be determined by the appearance of the ink perfused
sheaths and by the observation that at certain points along the
vessel wall, where it seems to lose its continuity, the nucleus
of an endothelial cell is averted. Teitel-Bernard supports
his contention that the endothelium has preformed stomata
by the observation of the passage of red cells through the
endothelial wall, but his figure 3 shows that such passage of
red cells is simply a case of diapedesis. Although evidence
was sought in the present investigation for any permanent
preformed communications between the lumen of the sheathed
capillary and the meshes of the sheath, none was found. I n
both the contracted and the dilated spleens the lumen of the
capillary was found to be remarkably constant. An interesting observation which supports the view represented here,
66
OTHMAR SOLNITZKY
namely, that the meshes of the sheath are not in direct communication with the vascular system through preformed
stomata is that of Passalacqua ( '32). This investigator injected the arterial system with a 2% aqueous solution of
trypan blue, then made sections 100 p thick, dehydrated them
completely in absolute alcohol, and finally immersed them in
oil of wintergreen. All the tissues became transparent and
only the vessels filled with the dye were visible under the
microscope. Close examination of these preparations revealed no trace of ellipsoids. The spleens employed by
Passalacqua were of human adults.
As regards the function of the Schweigger-Seidel sheath, the
following theories have been advanced :
1. The sheath is a one-way valve (Stieda, 1862; Mall, '00).
The observation of Stieda that the spleen cannot be perfused
from the venous side has been corroborated by many investigators. Mall was the first to explain this finding as due
to a one-way valve action of the sheath. This view was further
elaborated by Tait and Cashin ('25) and since then most
investigators have considered the sheath as a valve preventing backflow from the venous into the arterial side. Mills
('26) found that Stieda's finding was true of only the contracted spleen. By perfusing a dilated spleen, Mills succeeded
in obtaining a reverse flow through the ellipsoids. However,
there is very little evidence in favor of the assumption that
the sheath is a one-way valve. I n the rabbit, where there are
no sheaths, there is as much and even greater difficulty in
obtaining a reverse flow as in spleens that are provided with
sheaths. Moreover, in the spleens of dogs, cats, pigs, etc.,
not all the capillary branches of a penicillar artery have
sheaths and yet reverse flow is as difficult to secure through
them as through sheathed capillaries. As the splenic corpuscles are wholly resistant to reverse flow, even when such
flow is obtained through the sheathed capillaries, a valvular
action may more logically be attributed to them than to the
sheaths. Finally, the lumen of the sheathed capillary is exceedingly constant in the contracted and perfused spleen.
THE ELLIPSOID O F T H E SPLEEN
67
This would hardly be the case if the sheath had a very important valvular action. It is more logical to suppose that the
resistance to reverse flow is due to some other factor, such
as the compression of the capillaries and arterioles by the
venous sinuses, distended by the perfusing fluid (Hueck, '28).
As the capillaries of the spleen tend t o collapse unless kept
distended by an arterial pressure greater than the pressure
of the fluid medium around them, it is hardly necessary to
attribute to the Schweigger-Seidel sheath a special one-way
valve action to explain the resistance to reverse perfusion.
2. The sheath is a capillary regulator (Heidenhain, '28;
Oberniedermayr, '26 ;Heiischen and Reissinger, '28). Heidenhain supposed that when the spleen contracts, the sheaths also
contract as the result of their natural tonus and so protect
the splenic pulp from a sudden overflowing when the blood
pressure rises abruptly. Henschen and Reissinger, like
Schaffer ( '33) considers the sheath as a vasomotor organ, an
autonomic neurovascular structure, which regulates local
blood flow and blood pressure. They compare them in function to the cutaneous glomus described by Masson. Although
the sheath may somehow regulate the lumen of the capillary,
there is neither histological nor physiological evidence to
indicate the exact nature of this mechanism.
3. The sheath is a growth center for the splenic pulp
(Rannwarth, 1891, Greschik, '15 ; Staemmler, '25). According
to this view the sheath by constant proliferation contributes
to and maintains the substance of the splenic pulp. The
supporters of this view also maintain that the sheath is important functionally only during the embryonic period. This
view is hardly tenable as the examination of spleens from
human newborns and adults has shown there is no significant
difference in appearance, size, or distribution.
4. The sheath is a part of the reticulo-histiocytic system.
This is the only interpretation of the function of the
Schweigger-Seidel sheath that harmonizes with the facts. Its
constituent cells, like those of the reticulo-histiocytic system
throughout the body, are characterized by a selective and
68
OTHMAR SOLNITZIlY
intense phagocytosis of particulate matter, by their rapid
mobilization into migratory, ameboid phagocytes under the
influence of injected vital dyes o r India ink, and by their
remarkable capacity for proliferation and regeneration.
SUMMARY ANY CONCLUSIONS
1. The Schweigger-Seidel sheath is a localized condensation
of splenic pulp, consisting of a iietwork of reticular fibers and
intensely phagocytic reticular cells.
2. The sheath does not contain smooth muscle cells, collagenous or elastic fibers.
3. The sheath is not an embryonic structure, but functions
throughout life.
4. The sheath has no active regulatory function.
5. The sheath forms an integral part of the reticulo-histiocytic system.
6. Regeneration of the sheath occurs through mitotic
division of its own component reticular cells.
7. The axial vessel of the sheath is not an artery, but a
capillary and should be designated the ‘sheathed capillary. ’
8. The sheathed capillary has no preformed stomata and is
hence not in direct communication with the meshes of the
sheath.
9. No ellipsoids occur in the spleen of the rabbit.
LITERATURE CITED
ADDISON,W. H. F. 1932 Piersol’s normal histology, 15th ed. J. B. Lippincott
Co., Philadelphia.
BANNWARTII 1891 Untersuchungen iiber die IWz. Virchow’s Archiv, Bd. 38,
s. 345.
BILLROTH,
TH. 1857 Beitriige zur vergleichenden Histologie der Milz. Archiv f.
Anat. und Physiol., Bd. 88, S. 88-108.
BREBIER,J. L. 1936 A textbook of histology arranged upon an embryological
basis, 5th ed. P. Blakiston’s Son and Co., Phladelphia.
CAJAL,R. S. 1933 Histology. William Wood and Co., Baltimore.
CARLIEE,W. 1895 Note on the minute structure of the reticulum in the cat’s
spleen. J. Anat. Physiol., vol. 29, pp. 479-484.
COWDRY,E. V. 1934 A textbook o f histology. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.
ON EBNER,
V. 1899 Die Milz. Kollikers Handbuch der Gewebelehre, 6. Aufl.,
Bd. 3, S. 257-280, Wilh. Engelmann, Leipzig.
THE ELLIPSOID O F THE SPLEEN
69
GRESCHIK, E. 1915 Uber deli Bau der Milz einiger Vogel mit besonderer
beriicksichtigung der Schweigger-Seidelschen Kapillarhiilsen. Aquila,
Bd. 22, S. 133.
HARTMANN,
A. 1930 Die Milz. Von Mollendorff '8 Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen, Bd. 6, 1. Halfte, S. 397-563, Julius
Springer, Berlin.
HEIDENHAIN,M. 1928 Uber die Kapillarventile der Milz. Miinchener mediz.
Wochenschr., Bd. 75, 8. 381.
HENSCHEN,
C., AND H. REISSINGER 1928 Beitrage zur klinischeii Physiologie der
Milz. Deutsche Zeitschr. f . Chirurgie, Bd. 210, S. 1-35.
VON HERRATH,
E. 1935 Bau und Funktion der Milz. Zeitschr. f . Zellforsch. und
mikr. Anat., Bd. 23, S. 375-430.
HOYER,H. 1892 Uber den feineren Bau der Milz von Fischen, Amphibien,
Reptilien, und Vogeln. 1naug;Dissert.
Straussburg.
HUECK,
W. 1928 Die normale mensrhliche Milz als Blutbehiilter. Verhandl. d.
deutsch. pathol. Gesell., 23. Tagg., Wiesbaden, 8. 6-38.
JANOSSIK,
J. 1903 Uber die Blutzirkulation in der Milz. Archiv. f . mikr. Anat.,
Bd. 62, 5. 580-591.
JORDAN,
H. E. 1931 A textbook of histology, 5th ed. D. Appleton and Co.,
New York.
KEY, A. 1861 Zur Anatomie der Milz. Virchows Archiv, Bd. 21.
KULTSCHITZKY,
N. 1882 Uber die Struktur der Milz (Russian). Ref. in
Jahresber. Anat. un Physiol., Bd. 12.
1895 Zur Frage iiber den Bau der Milz. Archiv f. mikr. Anat.,
Bd. 46, S. 673-695.
KYBER,E. 1870 Uber die Milz des Menschen und eiiiiger Siiugetiere. Archiv f.
mikr. Anat., Bd. 6, 9. 540-580.
Lr, P. L., H. S . n. GARTEN AND R. H. MOLE 1929 Microscopic anatomy of the
vascular system of the dog's spleen. J. Roy. Micr. Soc., vol. 49,
pp. 109-119.
MACNEAL,W. J. 1937 The splenic lobule. Contrib. to med. science dedic. to
A. 8. Warthin, pp. 525-533, Geo. Wahr, Ann Arbor.
MALL, F. P. 1900 The architecture and the blood vessels of the dog's spleen.
Zeitschr. f. Morphol. und Anthropol., Bd. 2, S. 1-42.
MAXIMOW,A. A., AND W. BLOOM1934 A textbook of histology, 2nd ed. W. B.
Saunders Co., Philadelphia.
MILLS, E. 5. 1926 The vascular arrangements of the mammalian spleen. Quart.
J. Erp. Physiol., vol. 16, pp. 301-319.
MULLER,W. 1865 Uber den feineren Bau der Milz. Leipzig und Heidelberg.
NEUBERT,K. 1922 Der Ubergang der arteriellen in die ventise Blutbahn bei
der Milz. Zeitschr. f. Anat. inid Entwicklungsg., Bd. 66, S. 4 2 4 4 5 0 .
OBERNIEDERMAYR,
A. 1926 Der Weg des Blutes durch die Hundemilz.
Krankheitsforsch, Bd. 3, S . 476-489.
PASSALACQUA,
L. A. 1932 The blood channels of the spleen. Boletin de la
Asoeiacci6n MBdica de Puerto Rieo, Ano XXIV, pp. 221-239.
PETERSEN,
H. 1931 Die Milz. Histologie und mikroskopische Anatomie, 4-5.
Abschnitt, 8. 361-375, J. F. Bergmann, Miinchen.
RIEDEL,H. 1932 Das Gefasssystem der Katzenniilz. Zeitschr. f . Zellforsch. und
mikr. Anat., Bd. 15, 5. 459-529.
70
OTIIMAR SOLNITZKY
PHISALIX,
C. 1885 Recherches sur l’anatomie et la physiologie de la rate chez
les icthyopsidks. Arch. de 2001. exp6r. e t &n6rale, T. 3, pp. 369-464.
SCHAFFER,J. 1933 Lehrbuch der Histologie und Histogenese, 3. Aufl. W.
Engelmann, Leipzig.
SCHWEIGGER-SEIDEL,
F. 1862 Untersuchungen iiber die Milz. Virchows Archiv,
Bd. 23, S. 526-570.
1863 Uiitersuchuiigen uber die Milz. Virchows Archiv, Bd. 27,
S. 460-504.
SMITH, P. E. 1934 Bailey’s textbook of histology, 9th ed. William Wood
and Co., Baltimore.
SOBOTTA,J. 1914 Anatomie der Milz. Handbuch der Anatomie. Herausgeg.
von E a r l v. Bardeleben, Bd. 3, Abt. 4, S. 281-328, Gustav Fischer, Jena.
SOKOLOFF,N. 1888 Uber die venose Hyperamie der Milz. Virrhows Archiv,
Bd. 112, S. 209-236.
STAEMMLER,
M. 1925 Die Bedeutung der Schweigger-Seidelschen Kapillarhiilsen
der Milz. Virehows Archiv, Bd. 255, S. 585-598.
STTEDA,
L. 1862 Zur Histologie der Milz. Archiv f . path. Anat. und Physiol.,
Bd. 24, S. 540-556.
TAIT,J. 1927 The structure and function of the spleen. Brit. Med. J., vol. 2,
pp. 291-295.
TAIT, J., AND M. F. CASHIN 1925 Some points concerning the structure and
function of the spleen. Quart. J. Exp. Physiol., vol. 15, pp. 421-445.
TEITEL-BERNARD,
A. 1931 Uber die Blutzirkulation in der Hundemilz. Zeitschr.
f. Zellforsch. und mikr. Anat., Bd. 12, S. 544-558.
WEIDENREICH,F . 1901 Das Gefasssystem der nienschlichen Milz. Archiv f.
mikr. Anat., Bd. 58, S. 247-376.
WHITING, A. J. 1897 On. the comparative histology and physiology of the
spleen. Trans. Roy. Soe. Edinb., vol. 38, pp. 253-316.
PLATE 1
EXPLANATION O F FIGURES
1 Photomicrograph of a section of thr dog’s spleen perfused for 3 hours with
oxygenated Ringer solution warmed to 38°C. Stained with Heidrnhain’s iron
hematoxylin. On thc right is seen the follicular artery, F A , entering the splenic
follicle, F. In the surrounding pulp are seen several Schweigger-Seidel sheaths, S.
x 80.
2 Photomicrograph of a section of the calf’s spleen perfused for 4 hours
with oxygenated Ringer solution warmed to 38°C. A penicillar artery, P A , is
seen on the right dividing into two branches which, after a short course, become
capillaries and enter a Schweigger-Seidel sheath, S. Notice the close proximity
of the upper sheath to the venous sinus, VS, from which it is separated by only
a thin lamina of pulp tissue. The upper sheath is cut longitudinally; the lower,
obliquely. x 300.
THE EL1,IPSOII) O F TIIE SPLEEN
PLATE 1
O T l l h I A R SOLNITZKY
71
THE A N A T O M I C A L RECORD, VOI.. 69, N O . 1
PLATE 2
ESPLANATION OF P‘IGURES
3 Photomirrograph of a section of human splren perfused for 6 hours.
Sheath, S,is r u t transversely and almost completely surrounded by venous sinuses,
VS. I n the meshes of the reticular network of the sheath are seen the reticular
cells scattered irregularly. I n the center of the sheath is the capillary, SC, its
lumen almost obliterated by two projrrting endotheliai cell nuclei. X 400.
4 Photomicrograph of a section of the rat’s spleen perfused with oxygenated
Ringt,r solution warmed t o 38°C. Azan stain. Two penicillar arteries, P A , a r r
shown cut transversely. Notice definite arterial wall and conspicuous lumen.
To thc right is seeii a. terminal eapilhry, (”, emerging froin a sheath and emptying
into a venous sinus, VC. T, trabecula. X 400.
72
PLATE 2
73
J’IjATE 3
E X P L A N A T I O N OF F I G U R E R
3 A drawing of a section of the dog’s spleen, reniotrd 2 2 hours after intravenous injection of trypan blue. Notice that most of the cells, filled with
granules of the dye, are migrating out nf the sheath, so t h a t the reticular framework of the latter can he seen clearly. I n the eeiiter is the sheathed capillary.
Bielschowsky-Marescli impregnation. x 1000.
6 A drawing of a section of the dog’s spleen, removed 7 days a f t e r intravenous injection of trypan blue. The sheath is freed of granule-laden phagoc.! tes.
There is a marked hgperplasia of the reticu1:ir cells. Birlschowskv-Mare~ic.11inipregnation. >( 1000.
74
THE ELLIPSOID OF THE SPLEEN
OTHMAR SOLNITZKY
75
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
2
Размер файла
1 770 Кб
Теги
seidel, spleen, schweigger, sheath, ellipsoidal
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа