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Variations in the histological structure of the inguinal lymph nodes of the albino rat.

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VARIATIONS I N T H E HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
O F THE INGUINAL LYMPH NODES
O F THE ALBINO RAT
ALDEN B. DAWSON AND JACK MASUR
Department of Biology, Uniuersity College, New P o r k Univarstty
THREE PLATES (SIX FIGURES)
I n a series of recent publications Jordan and his associates
have emphasized the instability of the lymph node even in
apparently normal animals. The changes occurring within
the lymph nodes are believed to result largely from the disjunction of the normal lymphatic drainage. The small lymphocytes of both the cords and sinuses then may undergo enlargement and become partially or completely differentiated
into erythrocytes. Evidence in support of this view was also
adduced by the author (Dawson, '27). More recently, however, Maemillan ('28) has suggested that the enlarged lymphocytes are plasma cells, and not red-cell ancestors.
Two years ago, a series of experiments was planned to
test the validity of the claims advanced as to the effectiveness of lymphatic disjunction in initiating changes within the
lymph node. Accordingly, on account of their accessibility,
the inguinal nodes of the albino rat were selected f o r study.
I n the preliminary examination of these organs, undertaken
merely to establish their normal structure, it was found that
no experimental procedure was necessary t o induce changes,
since all of the nodes exhibited great variability in structure
and departed widely from all accepted descriptions. The
problem, therefore, has been limited t o an attempt to follow
these changes which apparently occur spontaneously within
the inguinal nodes.
143
144
ALDEN B. DA'VVSON A N D J A C K MASUE
M A T E R I A L AND X E T I I O D S
The r a t s utilized in this study mere chiefly young males, six
to ten months of age, atid represented a n excess stock which
had accumulated while a study of ossification was in progress.
The animals v e r e in good health and reasonably free from
both external and internal parasites. I n many cases, in order
t o demonstrate the lymphatic communications and also to
assist in locating the inguinal nodes themselves, small
amounts of India ink were injected subcutaneously into the
medial aspect of tlie thigh several hours before exposing the
nodes.
In order to avoid injuring tlie node by dissecting it free €or
fixation, it mas frequently found advantageous to expose the
nodes by reflecting tlie skin and to fix the tissue, a t least
partially, in situ. Tlater in the study, our attention was
clirected t o the importance of tlie venous drainage and several
successful injections with carmine-gelatin and Berlin blue
were made.
All of the material was fixed in Helly's fluid and sectioned
serially. Originally all of tlic tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin, lout subsequently some of the more significant sections were decolorized and'rcstained with eosin-azur.
Twenty animals Tvere included in the study, and ordinarilv
the tioclcs from one side only were removed.
DESCRIPTION-GENERAL
HISTOLOGY
Tlie inguinal nodes of the albino rat appear as pairs of
separate nodes, the members of each pair being located in tlie
successive bifurcations of the superficial epigastric vein. Occasionally small accessory nodes a r e found along with the
paired nodes. The nodes a r e associated with the femoral
lymph vessel and also connected anteriorly with the axial
drainage (Job, '15). The inguinal nodes occupy a very superficial position and a r e so closely attached t o the dermis that
they a r e usually removed with the skin.
According to the classification of J o b ('22), based largely
on the common wild rat, these nodes together with those of
INGUINAL L Y M P H NODES O F THE ALBINO RAT
145
the cervical, axillary, and lumbar areas are designated as
type 11. In such nodes there is a strong tendency for the
two portions, cortical or nodular and medullary or sinusoidal,
to be separated and lodged at the two extremities of the node.
I n addition, Job found that a peripheral sinus was present
only over the nodular portion of the node and that a collateral
lymphatic circulation was also present, with lymph vessels
passing directly from the peripheral sinus over the surface
of the node to the efferent vessels at the hilus. Accordingly,
after injections of India ink the nodular division was usually densely blackened and the sinusoidal division uncolored.
In cases where the sinusoidal portion was eventually affected,
the discoloration took place from within outward, indicating
the absence both of a peripheral sinus and of afferent lymph
vessels in the sinusoidal division. Such an atypical lymph
drainage is regarded by Job as a normal and constant feature
of type I1 nodes. Later studies, especially by Jordan and
his associates, suggest that Job encountered conditions which
are not normal and constant, but are stages in the modification of nodes and that the partial disjunction of lymph drainage is an initial step, which is usually followed by great
changes in the medulla which may eventually extend to the
cortex.
Before proceeding with the description of the structure and
lymph drainage of the inguinal nodes, brief reference should
also be made to the hemal circulation within the nodes. The
most noteworthy feature of this circulation is the presence
in the lymphoid tissue of atypical veins or venules which
have received passing attention by many workers (Barbacci,
'96 ; ThomB, '98 ; Schumacher, '97, '99 ; Weidenreich, '05, '27 ;
Naximow, '22, '27 ; Kuczynski, '22 ; Zimmermann, '23 ;
Schultze, '25; Hett, '27, and Ehrich, '29), but their functional
significance is still problematical. Schultze ('25) has made
the most complete investigation and his interpretation has
been accepted by Maximow ( '27). Schultze described them
as being associated primarily with the secondary nodules, but
this is denied by Ehrich ('29). The endothelium of these
146
ALDEN 13. IIAWSON A N D J A C K MASUR
vessels is high and the cells project far into the lumina (fig.
6). Between the cells and extending through the basal layer
of the vessels Schultze described oblique, valve-like cleftsstomata. Maximow remarks that this is in keeping with the
readiness with which extravasations into the germinal centers
occur when attempts a r e made to inject the blood vessels of
lymph nodes. Also in perfusion with India ink suspended in
Locke's solution the ink granules frequently make their way
hy this indirect route into the lymph sinuses. Finally, Maximow suggests that the presence of stomata explains the frequent occurreiice of free red blood cells in the lymphoid tissue
and in sinuses of apparently normal nodes. Small lymphocytes also may reach the blood stream by this route. Hett
('27) and Weidenreich ( '27) suggest that the hypertrophied
cndothelial cells may also serve as local centers for bloodcell production. The general association of special walled
veins and venules with lymphoid tissue throughout the body
is noteworthy, but the question of whether the more important
pathway is to or from the blood vessel must remain for the
time undecided,
I n the face of such variability a s is encountered in both the
liemal and lympliatic circulations of the inguinal nodes, it is
almost impossible t o construct any hypothesis which satisfies
all conditions. One gains the impression that not all the
ehanges taking place a r e regressive, but that some of tlie
conditions encountered may be clue to reparative or regenerative processes.
Recent studies have emphasized the importance of circulatory conditions within centers of hemopoiesis. A maximal
blood supply is necessary in granulopoiesis (Sabin, '28)'
while a low oxygen tension favors the increased formation of
red blood cells ( J o r d a n et al.), and, as Ehrich ( '29) and
Xothermel ('29) point out, there is also a direct relation hetween affluent lymph and tlie presence of secondary nodules
in lymph nodes. Accordingly, the condition of the vascular
supply of the blood-forming tissues becomes a matter of
prime importance, arid in the present study there appears to
INGUINAL LYMPH NODES OF THE ALBINO RAT
147
be a definite relationship between the number of lymphatic
and hemal vessels and the normality of the node.
I n this study restricted to the inguinal nodes of the albino
rat, we have been unable to verify Job's generalizations regarding the structure of the nodes of the wild rat. Occasionally the segregation of sinusoidal and nodular tissue to
the opposite poles of the node (type 11) is realized, but more
frequently there is no definite localization of the two types
of lymphoid tissue. Only isolated nodules or groups of
nodules are present in some nodes and in other nodes no
nodules or other evidences of a differentiated cortex are present. The complete or partial absence of secondary nodules
is apparently associated with modifications of both the lymphatic and hemal vessels-i.e., reduction of lymphatic connections and increase in the hemal circulation, particularly of
the thin-walled special veins.
I n some instances the lymphatics are only partially obliterated, while in others there is no evidence of any lymphatic
connections. On the other hand, the lack of lymph supply
is compensated for by the increased venous supply, so that
in many cases, as evidenced by injections and a study of
serial sections, a true intranodal venous plexus is established.
The exact relation existing between lymphatic and hemal
circulations is difficult to determine. I n the more typical
nodes the venous supply is relatively meager, in slightly modified nodes the lymph sinuses and dilated veins may exist side
by side, while in greatly modified nodes only the hemal vessels
can be recognized.
Job ('22), as has been pointed out, regarded the condition
of lymphatics which he described as a normal and constant
feature of type I1 nodes, but in the inguinal nodes studied
neither the segregation of tissue nor the arrangement of the
lymphatics has been found constant. Following injections
of India ink, the particles were always found to be associated
not with the presence of nodular tissue, but with lymph
sinuses, both peripheral and medullary. There is, accordingly, no evidence f o r regarding the peripheral sinus and
148
ALDEN B. DAWSON AKD J A C K MASUR
afferent lymph vessels as being constantly absent from areas
of sinusoidal tissue. On the contrary, afferent lymphatics
can be frequently observed in serial sections and their presence also demonstrated indirectly by the distribution of the
injected material. The frequent occurrence of dilated lymph
sinuses (fig. 2) offers further evidence of the patency of
afferent lymphatics (Dawson, '27), besides suggesting either
local occlusion of the sinuses or disjunction of the e-fferent
vessels.
Recently, Macmillan ('28) made a survey of the lymph
nodes in the rat and other mammals, with especial reference
to the occurrence of blood in the sinuses. She, however,
makes no mention of the special lymphoid veins which are
so conspicuous a feature of the inguinal nodes. blacmillan
would account in several ways for the presence of blood in
the nodes she examined: 1) by a hemorrhage in some vessel
within the node; 2) by a hemorrhage in the region of an
afferent lymph vessel; 3 ) by the formation of erythrocytes
within the node, or, 4) the node might be a true hemal node.
To these possibilities a fifth might be added-the escape of
red blood cells through the stomata of ihe lymphoid veins
(Schultze, '25 ; RIaximow, '27).
I n our study many of the nodes were fixed in situ as soon
as the skin was reflected, so that hemorrhage due to dissection was avoided. I n cases where India ink was injected
subcutaneously there was always the possibility that small
amounts of blood might be introduced into an afferent lpmphatic and eventually reach the node. Nevertheless, no bloodfilled sinuses were encountered in this series of nodes, but in
several instances regions were observed in which there was
a considerable infiltration of red blood cells into the lymphoid
tissue, usually in areas where the plexuses of special postcapillary venules mere conspicuous. Macmillan found that
the blood-vascular system of the nodes of the rat was that
characteristic of lymph nodes, with the exception of one case
which showed a blood vessel opening into the peripheral
sinus. From our observations it would appear that when
INGUINAL LYMPH NODES O F T H E ALBINO RAT
149
such connections between lymphatic and hemal circulations
occur, they are due to the weakness inherent in the walls of
the special lymphoid veins. It is difficult t o evaluate the influence of the venous supply on the structure and subsequent
history of the node or to determine under what conditions
the veins become so greatly increased in number. It appears
in part to be compensatory t o the reduction o r elimination
of the normal lymph drainage, but whether it is an iiitermediate stage in the rehabilitation of a node or a step in the
final disintegration of an abnormal structure is not evident
from this study.
I n certain nodes the normal lymphocytes are narrowly restricted to the regions of the special lymphoid veins (fig. 3 ) ,
and the number of lymphocytes in the vessels themselves appears in many instances to be abnormally high; but there is
nothing in fixed material to indicate whether immigration or
emigration is taking place. It is possible that, after lymphatic
disjunction has occurred, the lymphocytes leave the node
entirely by the venous route. On the other hand, it may be
that a degenerate node can be rehabilitated by an influx of
lymphocytes from the blood vessels, since, according t o Uta
('as),the tonsil in the human fetus owes its origin to lpmphocytes which escape from the blood vessels and gather
around the capillaries. The large number of lymphocytes
observed in the veins might then be explained as the result
of some chemotactic influence.
However, in other instances the evidence points strongly
t o the conclusion that rehabilitation may not take place, but
that the process of degeneration will proceed t o terminal
stages. The great amount of early fibrosis associated with
an extensive vsscularization produces conditions in some
modified nodes suggestive of granulation tissue, and it is
difficult to see how such a structure could regain its normal
structure and function.
T H E I K A T O X I C A L RECORD, T O L . 44, NO.
2
150
ALDEN B. DAWSON AND J A C K MASUR
CELLULAR ELEMENTS
I h r i n g recent years, interest in the cellular elements of
the lymph nodes lias been focused largely on the relation of
lymphocytes to extramedullary hemopoiesis. The literature
concerned with this problem has been extensively reviewed
hy sweral authors (Maximow, '27, '28; Lang, '26; Bloom,
'26, and ,Jordan and associates) and will not be repeated in
any detail. Macmillan ( '28) questioned the interpretation
of Jordan and of Dawson ('27) and suggested that the
enlarged lymphocytes encountered in modified lymph nodes
were plasma cells rather than red-cell ancestors. Jordan
('29) reviewed at some length the evidence bearing on the
genetic relation between plasma cells and erythroblasts, and
concluded that the findings sustain the claim that the lymphocyte is a potential red-cell ancestor and that the typical
plasma cell is in part the variable abortive result of an
cry tlirocyt opoietic effort .
In tlie lymph nodes studied the most numerous element
other tlian the normal components of these structures is the
plasma cell. This has already been noted by Maximow ('27,
p. Xi), who states that in the rat and the mouse, even under
physiological conditions, the number of plasma cells observed
in many nodes is great and that the medullary cords are freqnently composed exclusively of them. Our observations in
the main confirm this generalizatjon, but these cells appeared
to be grouped rather definitely in regions showing lymph
stasis and increased venous drainage.
In such areas cells with Russell bodies are also very numerous (figs. 1, 5). This peculiar type of cell is very often
associated with foci of plasma cells and has been interpreted
as a degeneration form. I n the rat only one body is ever
present in a cell, and it may reach a relatively great size,
so that the nucleus is greatly displaced and the cytoplasm so
reduced as to be practically imperceptible-a condition comparahlc t o that existing generally in f at-cells.
In addition to the plasma cells and associated cells with
Russell bodies, there are elements which apparently resemble
INGUINAL LYMPH NODES O F T H E ALBINO RAT
151
to some extent at least the Russell-body cells. The amount
of cytoplasm is relatively great, is hyaliiie in appearance, and
stains light pink in eosin (fig. 5, h.c.). They are interpreted
as atypical forms of Russell-body cells.
The only other type of non-granular cell encountered is the
form over which the present controversy has arisen. It is
apparently an enlarged lymphocyte whose cytoplasm exhibits
a greater or less degree of polychromatophilia. After hematoxylin and eosin the cytoplasm is decidedly acidophilic, while
after eosin-azur I1 the acidophilic reaction appears to be less
intense (fig. 4). They are characteristically found in such
modified nodes as shown in figure 4, and in these cases are
restricted to the modified portions of the nodes. They have
been previously interpreted by both Jordan and Dawson as
proerythroblasts. No further evidence of their potentialities
as red-cell ancestors has been found in this study. They are
modified lymphocytes, but do not conform to the descriptions
of typical plasma cells as Macmillan ('28) concluded.
Whether the change in nuclear cytoplasmic ratio and change
in cytoplasmic staining reaction can be attributed entirely
to degenerative phenomena is problematical.
I n almost all the nodes studied the number of polymorphonuclear eosinophiles observed was relatively great. In both
the rat and the mouse, however, such cells are regularly
found in relatively large numbers in the interstitial or loose
connective tissue (Maximow, '06), but the number encountered here precluded the explanation offered by Macmillan
('28) that their distribution in the nodes is due entirely to
the presence of the connective-tissue elements associated with
the lymphoid tissue. They are found in both the sinuses and
lymphoid tissue. I n some cases the peripheral sinus is completely filled with these elements, and the adjoining lymphoid
tissue is also densely infiltrated. Their abundance in modified nodes may possibly be explained by the immigration of
blood leucocytes, but there is also much experimental evidence which indicates that granulocytes may differentiate in
situ from lymphocytes. In addition, the striking accumula-
152
A L D E N B. D4WSON A N D J A C K MASUE
tioiis of such cells iii the sinuses afford supplementary
evidence of lymph stasis.
Besides plasma cells, cells with Russell bodies, and polymorphonuclear eosinophiles which are c,haracteristic of the
regions of great modification, tliere are also two types of
mononuclear granular cells, basophiles, and eosinophiles
present. Cells with basophilic: granules, occurring in both
sinuses and lymphatic tissue, have been previously noted by
Xacmillan ( 'as),who reported them more numerous than the
eosinophiles, presumably of the polymorphonuclear type.
The basopliilic cells encountered in this study were relatively few in number and restricted to the cords. The>-were
of tlie same size as the plasma cells aiid possessed a nucleus
with the same chromatic pattern. The granules were small,
uniform in size, but not highly refractive, and accordingly
tlie granulation was not conspicuous.
The mononuclear eosinophiles, on tlie other hand, are very
coiispicuous elements. They are much larger than the polymorphonuclear eosinopliiles and possess larger granules (fig.
5, W L . ~and
.,
fig. 4, p.9z.c.). The size and pattern of tlie nucleus
are the same as those of tlie plasma cells, but the amount of
cytoplasm is much greater. The granules are highly refractive and stain brilliantly in eosiii. Those cells are not restricted entirely to the lymph nodes, but are frequently seen
in tlie adjoining loose connective tissue. There is nothing
to suggest that they are genetically related to tlie polymorphonuclear eosinophiles, and 110 evidence lias been obtained
t o indicate whether their presence in lyrnplioid tissue is dne
t o migration or to differentiation in situ.
DISCUSSIOK
This study supports the general conclusion that the occurrence of atypical o r abnormal cells within lymph nodes is
associated with marked variations in both the lymphatic and
hemal connections. I t appears that the flow of ljmpli through
both tlie afferent lyrnpliatics and tlie peripheral sinus is essential f o r the maintenance of secondary nodules, otherwise
INGUINAL L Y M P H NODES O F T H E ALBINO RAT
153
the node undergoes regressive changes which result in the
obliteration of a typical cortex. I n many instances, however,
the reduction or loss of the lymph supply is compensated
f o r by an extension of the venous drainage, which in turn
presumably induces other changes within the node, since
it is generally recognized that a rich blood supply favors
granulocytopoiesis, while a high concentration of carbon
dioxide stimulates erythrocytopoiesis.
Many of the atypical cells encountered in this study are
admittedly derived from lymphocytes, and most of them are
either typical plasma cells or modified plasma cells which
have elaborated special inclusions within their cytoplasm.
The special hyaline cells, the cells with Russell bodies, and
the basophilic and eosinophilic granular mononuclears probably can be included in this group (Dubreuil and Favre, '21;
Jordan, '29).
The polymorphonuclear eosinophiles may be true blood
leucocytes which have migrated into the node or may be derived from lymphocytes in loco. The enlarged lymphocytes
exhibiting polychromatophilic cytoplasm may be regarded as
cells which have begun to differentiate into erythroblasts,
since, as Jordan ('29) has clearly shown, there are no morphological criteria by means of which they can be distinguished from the true erythroblasts of the marrow.
I n other words, the conditions in the inguinal nodes at
times and in certain regions favor the development of grannlocytes and at other times and places favor the differentiation
toward the red blood-cell series, the determining factor apparently being the relative amounts of hemal (venous) eirculation. I n lymph nodes with a normal vascular supply, both
lymphatic and hemal, the conditions f o r lymphocytopoiesis are
at an optimum; but when either o r both of the vascular connections are modified, conditions for granulocytopoiesis or
erythrocytopoiesis are usually suboptimum and result in the
production of the atypical and abortive elements described.
154
ALDEN B. DASVSON A N D J A C K X A S U R
CONCLUSIONS
Typical lymph nodes are rarely encountered in the inguinal
region of the albino rat, aiicl it is only occasionally that the
so-called double node (type 11 of Job, ’22) is encountered.
There is no evidence that the segregation of nodular and
sinusoidal portions is a normal constant feature, but this
conditioii is apparently correlated with partial disjunction of
the lymphatic connections.
The extent of the lymph drainage of individual nodes is
extremely variable. I n some cases the sinuses are plentiful
and almost normal, in others the sinuses are few and greatly
dilated, and in others they are practically absent.
I n nodcs with reduced and modified lymph vessels the
liemal circulation is very conspicuous, consisting of large
thin-walled veins which frequently form an intranodal plexus.
The endothelium of these veins is hypertrophied and the cells
project into the lumen. Many lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear eosinophiles are seen migrating through the walls
of these veins. I n those regions of the modified nodes in
which the special veins are well developed there are numerous
normal as well as degenerating plasma cells (hyaline cells,
cells with Russell bodies). Nany nodes are also densely infiltrated with polymorphonuclear eosinophiles, probably
identical with blood leucocytes. Both basophilic and eosinophilic granular mononuclears are also encountered. They
may be special types of plasma cells. Other cells, morphologically similar to erythroblasts, are present in restricted
a 1’ea s.
L I T E R A T U R E CITED
BARBA4CCI,
0. 1896 Ujber die feineren histologisclien ~ ~ t e r a t i o i i eder
n M ~ I Z , der
Lyniphdrusen iind der Leber hei drr Diphtherie-Infektion. Zentralbl.
f. Path., Bd. 7, S. 145.
Br,oox, W. 1926 The hemopoietic potency of the small lymphocjte. Folia
Haemat., Bd. 33, S. 122.
DAWSON,A. B. 1927 Modified lymph nodes from dogs with a known history
of irradiation, including a note on ‘globiile’ loucocyte formation.
Anat. Rec., vol. 36, p. 1.
DA41VS0X’, A. B., AND J. MASUR 1929 Variations in the microscopic structure
of the inguinal nodes of the albino rat. Anat. Rec., vol. 42, 1’. 46
(3lJStraCt).
I N G U I N A L L Y M P H NODES O F THE A LBI N O BAT
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DUBREUIL,G., ET M. FAVRE1921 Cellules plasmatiques. Plasmazellen ?
granui
lations speeifiques. Cellules ?L corps de Russell. Arch. d. h i a t .
Micr., T. 17, p. 303.
EERICH, W. 1929 Studies of the lymphatic tissue. I. The anatomy of the
secondary nodules a n d some remarks on tlic lymphatic and lymphoid
tissue. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 43, p. 347.
HEW, J. 1927 Untersuchungen a m Lymphknoten. Verhandl. Anat. Gescllsch.,
Bd. 36, S. 139 (ErgZnzungslieft, Anat. Anz., Bd. 6 3 ) .
JOB,
T. T. 1915 The adult anatomy of the lymphatic system in tlie common
rat (Epimys norvegicus). Anat. Rec., vol. 9, p. 456.
1922 Studies on lymph nodes. I. Structure. Introductory paper.
Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 31, p. 125.
JORDAN,
H. E. 1926 a The transformation of lymphocytes into erythroblasts
in a lymph node of a rabbit. Anat. Rec., vol. 32, p. 369.
1926 b The erythrocytogeiiic capacity of mammalian lyniph nodes.
Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 38, p. 255.
1927 The significance of hemal nodes. Jour. Morpli. and Phpsiol.,
vol. 44, p. 89.
1929 On tlie genetic relation between so-called plasma cells and
erythroblasts in certain lymph nodes. Anat. Rec., vol. 42, p. 91.
JORDAN,
H. E., AND J. B. LOOPEB1927 The comparative histology of the lymph
nodes of the rabbit. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 39, p. 437.
JORDAN,
H. E., AND C. C. S P E I D ~
1929 Blood-cell formation iii tlie horned toad,
Phrynosoma solare. Ibid., vol. 43, p. 77.
KUCZYNSKI,
AT. H. 1922 Edwin Goldmanns Untersuchnngell uber cellukre
Vorgange im Gefolge des Verdauungsprozesses auf Grund nachgelasscner P r Z p r a t e dargestellt und durch neue Versuche erginzt. 1%chow’s Arch. f . path. Anat. ti. Physiol., Bd. 239, S. 183.
LANG,F. 1926 Experimentelle Untersuchungen uber die I h t o g e n e s e der extramedullkren Myelopoese. Zeitschr. f. mikr. anat. Forsch., Bd. 4, s. 417.
NACMIILLAN,
Rum3 E. 1928 The so-called hemal nodes of the white rat, guineapig, and sheep: a study of their occurrence, structure, and significance.
Anat. Rec., vol. 39, p. 155.
MAXIMOW,A. A. 1906 Uber die Zellformen des lockeren Bindgewebes. Arch.
f. mikr. Anat., Bd. 67, S. 680.
1922 Untersuchungen iiber Blut und Bindgewebe. TII. Uber ‘in
vitro ’ Kulturen von lymphoidem Gewcbe des erwachsenen Siiugetierorganismus. Ibid., Bd. 96, S. 494.
____
1927 Bindegewebe und blutbildende Gewebe. Mollendorff ’s Handbuch der mikroskopischen Aliatomie des Menschen, Bd. 2, Teil 1.
1928 Lymphocytm and plasma cells. Colvdry ’s Special Cytology,
rol. 1, p. 321. New York.
ROTHERINEL,
JULIA
E. 1929 A developmental study of the medial retropharyngeal lymphatic node of t h e calf (Bos taurus). Am. Jour. Anat.,
vol. 43, p. 461.
SABIN,F. R. 1928 Bone marrow. Physiol. Rev., vol. 8, p. 191.
SCHULTZE,
W. 1923 LTntcrsuchungcn iiber die Capilliirtn und postcapilliirm
Venen und lymphatischer Organe. Zeitschr. f. Anat. u. Entwicklungsgesch., Bd. 76, S.421.
156
ALDEN B. DAWSON AND J A C K MASUR
SCHUI~ACHER,
S. 1897 Uber die Lymphdrusen des Macacus rhesus. Arch. f .
mikr. Anat., Bd. 48, S. 145.
__1899 Uber Phagocytose und die Abfuhrwege der Leukocgtcn in
den Lymphdrusen. Ibid., Bd. 54, S. 311.
TIIOMI~,R. 1898 Endothelien als Phagocyten (aus den Lymphdrusen vou
Macacus cynomolgus). Arch. f. mikr. Anst., Bd. 5 2 , S. 820.
UTA, K. 1929 Uber die Entwicklung der Zungenbalgdrusen und Mandeln beim
Menschen. Folia Anat. Japon., Bd. 7, S. 137-184.
WEIDENREICH,
F. 1905 Studien uber das Blut und die blutbildenden und hlutzerstorenden Orgsne. 11. Bau und morphologische Stellung der Blutlymphdrusen. Arch. f . mikr. Anat., Bd. 65, S. 1.
1927 Diskussionsbemerkungen. See Hett, ' 2 7 .
ZIMMERMANN,
K. 1923 Der feinere Bau der Blutcapillaren. Zeitschr. f. Annt.
u. Entwicklungsgesch., Bd. 68, S. 29.
PLATES
157
PLATE 1
EXM,ANATlON O F FIGURES
1 A small area from the region of the hilns of node H 19, sliowiiig typical
plnsuia cells a n d iiumerous cells with Hussell bodies. Large mononuclear eosinophiles and smnllcr polymorphonuclear eosinopliiles a r e also present, but a r e not
rrcognieahle. This node is formed largely of compact lyinphoid tissue with lymph
siilusrs and special lymphoid veins limited mainly t o the hilus and adjoining
:lieas. The peripheral sinus is incorriplete and locally dilated. The few medullary sinuses presrnt are either dilated or densely infiltrated with polgmorphonuclear eosinophiles. The node lies on a large lymph vessel.
2 A region from the same node (fig. l), showing an area containing dilated
niedullary sinuses. These sinusos contain only a few reticular cells and small
eosinophiles. The surrounding lyniphoid tissue is tleiisely infiltrated with
ciosinophiles.
158
I S G U I N B L LYMPH NODES O F THE A L B I N O RAT
A L D E N B . D A W SON A N D JACK MASUR
PLATE I
PLATE 2
EXPLANATIOX OF FIGURES
3 A cross-section of a special lymphoid vein, showing the marginal concentration of lymphocytes. Within the Tessel eleven lympliocytes arid one neutrophile
may be recognized.
4 A n area from the modified cortex of node F 18. Most of the cells seen in
this photograph a r e enlarged and modified lymphocytes and, according t o their
morphology and staining reactions, may b e classified a s proerythroblasts. Two
polymorphonuclear eosinophiles (p.m.e.) arid one cell with a Russell body a r e also
present.
ISGVINAL LYMPH NOTIES O F T H E ALBINO RAT
ALDEN B. D h W b O N A N D J 4 C K XASUR
161
PLATE 2
PLATE 3
EXPLANATION OF FIGURES
*? Another arca f r o m tlie liilus of node I1 19. IIlodificd lymphocytes predominate. Some a r e calearly plasma cells, others contain Russell bodies (r.b.), and
a few resemble proerythroblasts. Occasional cells with a large amount of eosinophilic, liyaline cytoplasm (h.c.) a r e also present. Two large monoiiuclear
eosinophiles ( m e . ) a r e shown.
6 A portion of a special lymphoid rein from node A 10, showing tlie conspicuous endotlielial cells projecting into the lumen. The nuclei a r e large and
lightly stained. Lymphocytes may be obserred penetrating the wall of the
vessel.
162
I N G U I N A L LYMPH NODES O F THE AIJBINO RAT
ALDEN B . DAWSON AND JACK X A S U R
163
PLATE 3
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albina, inguinal, structure, variation, node, rat, lymph, histological
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