close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

History Scotland - September-October 2017

код для вставкиСкачать
Vol.17 No.5 September/October 2017
EXPERT
INSIGHT
EVERY I IN
SSUE
✓ ARC
H
AEOLO
GY
✓ HER
ITAGE
✓ HIST
ORY
Explore
Edinburgh
The Edinburgh Town Guard
Defending the city during the Jacobite risings
Behind the scenes at Edinburgh Castle
Helping millions of visitors enjoy the historic fortress
Exploring the city’s history in 101 objects
Kings of the
Clyde
The heyday of the
Royal Clyde Yacht Club
The Battle of
Pinkie 1547
£4.50
MARINE
ARCHAEOLOGY
DISCOVERIES ON
THE WEST COAST
p01 Cover.indd 13
NEW ONLINE
ATLAS MAPS
1000s OF
HILLFORTS
WHY DIGITAL
INTERACTION IS
RE-INVENTING HOW
WE EXPLORE HISTORY
www.historyscotland.com
Compelling new
evidence on where
the battle took place
31/07/2017 10:25
Shining Lives
20 & 21 OCTOBER 2017
NEW LANARK WORLD HERITAGE SITE
NOVAK - Artist Impression
Register for FREE tickets at
www.newlanark.org/shininglives
With the stunning 230 year old buildings acting as the display surface, Shining Lives will bring
historic images and video footage from New Lanark and the surrounding area to life on a grand
scale, augmented by a soundtrack, lighting and living history echoing the life of the mills and the
workers. Through this innovative event, the tangible and intangible heritage of New Lanark will
be combined, capturing imaginations and providing a unique interpretation of this famous site.
Shining Lives is a key part of Scotland’s 2017
Year of History, Heritage and Archaeology celebrations.
2
02.indd 2
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - JA NUA RY / F E B RUA RY 2017
31/07/2017 10:59
History
PATRONS
David Breeze
Christopher Smout Historiographer Royal
Elizabeth Ewan University of Guelph
EDITORIAL BOARD
FIND OUT MORE AT: HTTP://SCOT.SH/HIS-BOARD
Mr Derek Alexander
Archaeologist,
National Trust for Scotland
Dr John Atkinson
Managing Director
GUARD Archaeology Ltd
Medieval and post-medieval
settlement and industry
Dr Aonghus Mackechnie
Principal Inspector of
Historic Buildings, Historic
Scotland (Architecture,
c.1600 - 1750)
Dr Ann MacSween
Principal Inspector, ‘Historic
Scotland’ (Prehistory)
Prof Hugh Cheape
Sabhal Mor Ostaig College,
University of the Highlands
and Islands
Dr Colin Martin
Honorary Reader in
Maritime Archeology
University of St Andrews
George Dalgleish
Keeper, Scottish History
and Archaeology, National
Museums Scotland,
Edinburgh. Scottish decorative
arts, specifically silver, ceramics
& pewter; Jacobite collections
Neil McLennan
Writer, education manager
and Past President of the
Scottish Association of
Teachers of History
Dr Piers Dixon
Operations Manager at
the Royal Commission on
the Ancient and Historical
Monuments of Scotland
(RCAHMS), (rural settlement
and medieval archaeology)
Mr Andrew Dunwell
Director, CFA Archaeology,
Edinburgh (Later prehistory
and Roman)
Mark A Hall
History Officer (archaeology
collections) at Perth
Museum & Art Gallery.
Dr Kevin James
Dept of History and Scottish
Studies Programme,
University of Guelph, Canada
Prof S Karly Kehoe
Canada Research Chair
in Atlantic Canada
Communities, Saint Mary’s
University, Canada.
Dr Catriona MacDonald
Reader in Late Modern
Scottish History
University of Glasgow
Cynthia J. Neville
George Munro
Professor of History
and Political Economy,
Dalhousie University
Dr Allan Kennedy
Lecturer in history,
University of Dundee
Prof Angela McCarthy
Scottish and Irish History,
University of Otago
Dr Iain MacInnes
Lecturer in Scottish
History, University of the
Highlands and Islands.
Prof Richard Oram
Scottish Medieval History
& Environmental History,
University of Stirling
Matt Ritchie
Archaeologist,
Forestry Commission
Dr Alasdair Ross
Reader in Medieval and
Environmental History,
University of Stirling
Mr Geoffrey Stell
Architectural Historian
Dr Simon Taylor
Scottish place-names,
University of Glasgow
history
SCOTLAND
Volume 17, Number 5
September / October 2017
FROM THE EDITOR
This month I would like to begin by congratulating an
occasional contributor to the magazine, Professor Dauvit
Broun, upon his election as a Fellow of the British
Academy. It is worth stopping to reflect upon Professor Broun’s many different
and important contributions to medieval Scottish (and British) history. I am
sure many readers will be familiar with at least some of his research but in
recent years his contribution has spread into the digital humanities with a series
of AHRC-funded projects that include People of Medieval Scotland
(www.poms.ac.uk) and The Breaking of Britain (www.breakingofbritain.ac.uk).
Each of these are new and important tools for medieval scholars.
As usual this month we have a wide range of material for you, ranging from
yachting on the Clyde to a hugely interesting contribution from David Caldwell
on his continuing investigations into the battle of Pinkie. Added to this, are
some excellent archaeology pieces, together with some interesting observations
on Heritage. Enjoy!​
Dr Alasdair Ross
Editor, History Scotland
editorial@historyscotland.com
MEET THE CONTRIBUTORS
Dr David Caldwell, prior to retiring from National Museums Scotland in
2012, was Keeper of Scotland and Europe and Keeper of Archaeology. He is
currently President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Vice-President of
the Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology, and a director of Fife Cultural Trust.
In this issue (page 18), Dr Caldwell presents his new research on the Battle
of Pinkie, which explores the evidence for where the battle took place.
Starting on page 24, local history researcher David I. Hutchison presents
a history of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club at Hunter’s Quay, which is part
of his ongoing research into the history of Robertson’s Yard and its
contribution to Clyde Yachting. He explores the golden years of this
yacht club, which hosted world-class yacht races on the Clyde, with
members enjoying the facilities of a luxury hotel which the club owned
on the banks of the river.
Frank Harkness, a retired detective inspector, completed a postgraduate
research MSc at Edinburgh University’s School of Scottish Studies. He
is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
In this issue (page 32) Frank discovers why, in the 12th century, French
monks from Tiron abandoned the construction of David I’s Abbey at
Selkirk and moved to an alternative site at Kelso.
Dr Fiona Watson
Historian, writer
and broadcaster
Dr Alex Woolf
Senior lecturer in History,
University of St Andrews
History Scotland was launched in October 2001 at the Royal Museum
in Edinburgh by Professor Christopher Smout, Historiographer Royal,
who is now one of the magazine’s patrons. It is backed by the Scottish
history and archaeology professions with leading representatives from
a variety of different disciplines on the Editorial Board.
Articles appearing in this journal are abstracted and indexed in
Historical Abstracts and America: History and Life and the British
Humanities Index
p03 Eds intro.indd 3
SCOTLANDwww.historyscotland.com
JOIN THE HISTORY SCOTLAND COMMUNITY…
History news and events direct to your inbox
Join the history debate…
Sign up for our free e-newsletter to receive even more Scottish history
news, expert articles and more. Sign up at: http://scot.sh/free-e-news
Join History Scotland, save money and receive every issue direct to
your home. See page 50 for details, call us on 01778 392463, or
purchase securely on our website: http://scot.sh/his-join
Listen to the History Scotland – Hidden Histories
podcast at: http://scot.sh/his-podcast
History Scotland
on social media…
• www.facebook.com/
historyscotlandmagazine
• twitter.com/historyscotland
• instagram.com/historyscotland
31/07/2017 09:37
The Wallace Kiltpin
At Cairncross of Perth, we are known
for the quality of our craftsmanship blending precious metals and natural
Scottish freshwater river pearls to
create stunning pieces of jewellery.
The Wallace Kilt Pin is based on
the sword of William Wallace and is
crafted in solid silver, set with ‘rustic’
Scottish freshwater river pearls.
Available exclusively from
18 St John Street Perth PH1 5SR
Phone 01738 624367 www.cairncrossofperth.co.uk
Scottish river pearls were legally sourced by Cairncross in accordance
with the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended).
THE STRATHMARTINE TRUST
THE SCOTTISH GENEALOGY SOCIETY
Family History Centre
(Scottish Charity Number: SC 028924)
All Scotland’s OPRs on film… census records…
Largest M.I. collection in Scotland and free access to
www.ancestry.co.uk and www.findmypast.co.uk
The Strathmartine Trust (Established 1999) is a
charitable trust the primary object of which is to
support research and education in Scottish History.
Open 5 days a week, except Friday & Sunday
Contact us at 15 Victoria Terrace, Edinburgh EH1 2JL
Telephone 0131 220 3677
enquiries@scotsgenealogy.com
www.scotsgenealogy.com
The Trustees seek applications for the following grants:
• Strathmartine Awards - up to £5,000 to assist with the
completion of existing projects and to aid publication.
• Sandeman Fund Awards - up to £2,000 for research in
the field of early medieval Scottish History.
Take a tour of Scotland in 2017 with the...
HIDDEN HISTORIES PODCAST
Full details and application forms can be
obtained from The Strathmartine Trust by email to
factor@strathmartinetrust.org
or on the Trust’s website:
www.strathmartinetrust.org
The History Scotland – Hidden Histories
podcast follows Neil McLennan’s travels
around the country, as he visits historic
sites, attractions and museums,
and meets the locals.
Listen at:
http://scot.sh/his-podcast
or via iTunes and SoundCloud
The closing date for the return of completed
applications in each case is 15 November 2107
HS Podcast.indd 1
Strathmartine4trust.indd 1
04.indd 4
01/02/2017 14:43
H I S TO RY SC OT LA19/07/2017
ND - SE P
T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
16:27
31/07/2017 11:03
42
CONTENTS
48
24
IN-DEPTH FEATURES
18 The Scots’ defeat at Pinkie in 1547: new light on how and where
Dr David Caldwell presents new information on what happened in
the last battle fought between England and Scotland as separate
nations, and reviews the evidence for where the battle took place
32 Selkirk Abbey: Scotland’s lost abbey
We discover why the medieval abbey of Selkirk, founded by the
future King David I, was abandoned after just fifteen years. Did
localised flooding play a part?
24 The Royal Clyde Yacht Club
An exploration of the meteoric rise of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club,
in the golden years of organising world-class yacht races followed
by a decline hastened by the outbreak of World War I
42 Charles Seton: the reluctant rebel, part II
We continue our study of Seton’s relations with King Charles I,
exploring whether this nobleman, who was arrested after the
battle of Edgehill, was the neutral that the king believed him to be
FEATURES
REGULARS… IN EVERY ISSUE
8
The Engine Shed
Opening of a world leading centre for
historic building preservation
9
Mapping Scotland’s hillforts
A new online atlas maps thousands
of hillforts for the first time
10
The Edinburgh Town Guard
The men who defended the city
during a century of strife
12
Anchors and adventures
A collection of historic posters
31
36
39
40
Style at sea
A new exhibition explores the golden
age of Clyde-built liners
48
Edinburgh Castle
Interview with Nick Finnigan, chief
executive of Edinburgh Castle,
on managing visitor flow at this
historic attraction
6
History news
New bid for Paisley Museum, repairs
to Ross Fountain. Plus: RSGS firsts new series!
60
Hidden history
Neil McLennan visits Edinburgh and
East Lothian
Isle of Iona finds
6th-century wooden cell identified
14
Doors Open Days
Your guide to this annual festival of
history and heritage
Coastal defences
Recording the best preserved length
of anti-invasion crust in Scotland
16
Maritime archaeology
Report from a project which
utilised the knowledge of West
Coast people to explore underwater
wreck sites
£14.99
51
Join History Scotland
Have the magazine delivered
and receive a free gift
52
Family history news
Spotlight on West Lothian History &
Amenity Society. Plus, using
official government records for
family history
53
Book reviews
The latest Scottish history
and archaeology titles
58
Diary Dates
Lectures, exhibitions and festivals
taking place in September and
October, plus spotlight on
Edinburgh events
62
Final word
Adam Wilkinson, director of
Edinburgh World Heritage, talks
about a new project which spotlights
101 historic objects around the capital
ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS
13
NEWLY
RELEASED
!
WORTH
National Records of Scotland
Exploring statutory registers, which
record the lives of millions of Scots
NEWS
Who captured Antonine Brennier?
New evidence on a popular folk tale
from the Peninsular War
Going digital with our heritage
New ways to share Scotland’s
history with difference audiences
50
Mary, Queen of Scots A study in failure
FREE BOOK WHEN YOU JOIN HISTORY SCOTLAND
Call: 01778 392463 or see page 51 for more details.
Live outside the UK? See our offer on page 38.
p05 Sep Oct contents.indd 5
31/07/2017 09:38
HISTORY NEWS
Paisley Museum
makes new £4.9m
approach to Heritage
Lottery Fund
Paisley Museum has submitted new funding plans which
would transform the attraction into an ‘international class
destination’ focusing on Paisley’s place in Scotland’s history.
The project is a key part of a wider strategy to use Paisley’s
unique heritage story to transform its future, including a
shortlisted bid to be UK City of Culture 2021.
Paisley councilors have been asked to approve the new plans,
which include a proposal to create an extension to the existing
Victorian building, creating extra space for historic collections.
The new bid follows a recent application for £10M from the
Heritage Lottery Fund, when Paisley Museum narrowly missed
out on being selected for funding. The new plans have reduced
the cost of the project from £49M to £42M, with plans to
temporarily close the museum in 2018, and reopen in 2022.
Renfrewshire Council Leader Iain Nicolson said: ‘Our
revised plans for Paisley Museum retain our ambition of an
international-class museum for Renfrewshire. While we are
The new plans would see an extension added to the original Victorian building,
which opened in 1871
disappointed the previous application to HLF was not a success,
the feedback made clear the application was of high quality and
had no weaknesses. In the end we were extremely unlucky to miss
out in an unusually-competitive round of funding at a time where
available money was very tight.’
‘However the important point is we now have a viable set
of refreshed funding plans which can still deliver a project
meeting the original aims.’
Royal Highland Show
makes historic step
onto Land Register
of Scotland
The showground of Scotland’s largest agricultural event, the
Royal Highland Show, has been added to the Land Register of
Scotland’s digital map register.
The move will help complete the land register, compiled and
maintained by Registers of Scotland, which, in time, will provide a
full picture of who owns what across the country.
The Royal Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland
has chosen to move its property title for the showground from
the 400-year-old General Register of Sasines onto the modern
map-based land register.
Registers of Scotland is encouraging owners of larger
landholdings, including agricultural land, to move their titles
to the land register using its voluntary registration process.
Voluntary registration clarifies exact boundaries and makes
buying and selling property easier, faster and cheaper. It also
6
p06-07 News.indd 6
helps with re-financing and succession planning.
The Land Register of Scotland is a public record of land
and property ownership in Scotland, and is due to replace
the sasine register by 2024. At present, around 62 percent of
property titles, relating to just over 30 percent of Scotland’s
land mass, are on the register.
For more on the Registers of Scotland, visit their website:
www.ros.gov.uk
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 09:39
Get daily news stories and expert articles at: www.historyscotland.com
Restoration for
the Ross Fountain
Howard Carter (1874-1939)
Jo Woolf launches a new series, looking at
‘firsts’ in the history of the Royal Scottish
Geographical Society, beginning with
archaeologist Howard Carter, who discovered
the tomb of Tutankhamen
Edinburgh gunsmith Daniel Ross gifted the fountain to Edinburgh after seeing it in
operation in 1862 at the Great Exhibition in London
Edinburgh’s famous Ross Fountain is to undergo a major
restoration, due to be completed in 2018.
Crafted in Antione Durenne’s foundry in France in the
early 1800s, the structure was gifted to the city by local
gunsmith Daniel Ross. The year-long restoration project
under the Ross Development Trust will see new foundations
and waterworks, enabling the fountain to operate for the first
time in years.
The conservation will be carried out by Industrial Heritage
Consulting Limited, which worked with Lost Art Ltd in 2013
to restore the Grand Central Fountain in Paisley. Engineers
will temporarily remove the Fountain over the coming months
to renovate the internal structure and return it to full working
condition.
Edinburgh’s Lord Provost, Frank Ross, said: ‘Edinburgh
boasts statues and monuments at almost every turn. Yet, out
of the 200 monuments in our care, the Ross Fountain stands
out as one of the most timeless.
“Since being installed in the shadow of Edinburgh Castle in
1872, it has become one of the most recognisable features of
Princes Street Gardens. We are very grateful to the support of
the Ross Development Trust. Thanks to this project, Edinburgh
can look forward to seeing the fountain back in Spring.’
For more on the work of the Ross Development Trust, visit their
website: www.rdtrust.org
A
Archaeologist Howard Carter,
who opened the tomb of
Tutankhamen in 1923
rguably the most famous archaeologist of all time,
Howard Carter was first hired for his artistic talents,
as a tracer of wall paintings in Egypt, aged only
seventeen. Eight years later he had risen to become
Chief Inspector of the Egyptian Antiquities Service.
In 1907, he was appointed by wealthy landowner and Egyptologist
Lord Carnarvon to conduct excavations in the Valley of the Kings.
On 4 November, 1922 Carter made a discovery that would
change his life. He cleared away some rubble and found the
entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamen, an enigmatic boy-king of the
Eighteenth Dynasty who had captured public imagination. A few
weeks later, he was holding a candle into the dark antechamber, as
Lord Carnarvon peered over his shoulder. ‘Can you see anything?’
asked his patron. ‘Yes,’ said Carter, ‘wonderful things’.
Across the world, Carter’s revelation was greeted with frenzied
excitement. The tomb consisted of several compartments but
because of the wealth of artefacts, excavation was necessarily slow.
In February 1923 Carter opened the burial chamber to find the
gilded shrine, still sealed and intact; he then closed the site for the
summer and returned to London.
On 10 September, 1923 Carter gave his first ever lecture about
his discovery to the Royal Scottish Geographical Society at the
Usher Hall in Edinburgh. He showed lantern slides and speculated
on what he might find when the shrine was opened:
‘...he believed that... they would find the King himself unscathed...
and probably with him would be the crowns of Egypt and other regalia of
Tutankhamen.’
He added that ‘it had given him great pleasure to deliver his first
lecture on his discoveries in Edinburgh - a magnificent city, which
he had never seen before.’
In October Carter returned to Egypt, to open the doors of the
shrine and reveal the sarcophagus, which in turn was found to
contain the coffins, the breathtaking golden mask, and ultimately
the mummified body of Tutankhamen.
For more information about the RSGS, visit: www.rsgs.org
H I S TO RY S COT LA ND - JA NUA RY / F E B RUA RY 2017
p06-07 News.indd 7
7
31/07/2017 09:39
ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS
THE ENGINE SHED
OPENS TO THE PUBLIC
A world-leading centre for the historic environment and built heritage has opened in Stirling,
providing the knowledge, skills and material to care for Scotland’s 450,000 historic buildings
T
he Engine Shed is an
£11m national building
conservation centre which
will serve as the national
conservation hub, using world-leading
innovation to bring Scotland’s built
heritage to life through technology and
hands-on activities.
The new centre was opened by
Cabinet Secretary for Culture,
Tourism and External Affairs Fiona
Hyslop, who toured the facility and
invited local school pupils to explore
the building, with the large map
centrepiece (pictured above right)
proving particularly popular. This
is a large-scale map of Scotland
compiled from hi-resolution satellite
images, from which visitors can
access additional information
using an iPad as an augmented
reality device.
The building, on Stirling’s
Forthside Way, is a former Ministry
of Defence munitions store, and
with sustainability at the heart of the
building’s conservation, it has has
been ‘respectfully adapted’, retaining
much of the original fabric and
character of the original building,
while showing how traditional
materials can be used in a modern
context in two extensions, as well as
8
p8 Engine shed.indd 12
From left: Cabinet
Secretary for
Culture, Tourism
and External Affairs
Fiona Hyslop at the
Engine Shed with
local school children;
the centrepiece of
the Engine Shed
is a giant map of
Scotland made up of
satellite images
TAP HERE
FOR A
TIMELAPSE
VIDEO ON THE
BUILDING OF
THE ENGINE
SHED
incorporating modern technologies
to enhance the historic building’s
energy efficiency.
The Engine Shed hopes to inspire
a new generation to be interested
in traditional buildings, by sparking
interest through interactive exhibits,
a 4K 3D auditorium and augmented
reality experiences.
It will be home to Historic
Environment Scotland’s building
conservation research and education
facility, which will share its world
class expertise with national and
international partners in building
conservation.
Speaking at the official opening,
Chair of Historic Environment
Scotland Jane Ryder, said: ‘Today’s
opening marks a significant
milestone in the journey of
Historic Environment Scotland
and the Engine Shed is a visible
demonstration of our commitment
to both leading and supporting the
vital heritage economy.’
‘It is the result of great
collaboration and partnership
working, and thanks must go to
the Scottish Government, Heritage
Lottery Fund, European Regional
Development Fund and the Historic
Scotland Foundation, who have
supported us in delivering this unique
facility. In particular, thanks must go
to our partners at Stirling Council
for providing us with the building,
which I hope will play a key role in
continuing to maximise the potential
of heritage-led regeneration through
their broader city deal.’
‘This world-class facility is a
wonderful living classroom with
science and technology at its core,
demonstrating that innovation can
be inspired by the past. The Engine
Shed is about thinking differently
and challenging perceptions, which
will act as a catalyst and a beacon for
the historic environment.’
The Engine Shed is open Monday
to Saturday, 10am-4pm. Entry is
free. The building is also available
to hire as a conference space, with
room for up to 200 delegates.
The Engine Shed, Forthside
Way, Stirling FK8 2BY;
tel: 01786 234800; e-mail:
technicaleducation@hes.scot;
website: www.engineshed.org
Look out for an in-depth feature on
The Engine Shed’s role in preserving
Scotland’s built heritage in Nov/Dec
History Scotland, on sale 7 October.
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
08/08/2017 10:23
TAP HERE TO WATCH
A VIDEO OF THE
WHITE AND BROWN
CATERTHUNS IN
SCOTLAND, FILMED
BY DRONE BY A PHD
RESEARCHER
New resource for exploring
Scotland’s hillforts
A new online atlas created with the help of ‘citizen scientists’ has captured all of the
UK and Ireland’s hillforts within one database for the first time ever
D
otted across the landscape of the UK and Ireland,
hillforts have been part of our story for millennia,
with a total of 4,147 of these to be found across
Britain and Ireland.
With the help of ‘citizen scientists’ from around
Scotland, England, Ireland, Northern Ireland and Wales, a
research team funded by the Arts and Humanities Research
Council has spent the last five years sifting and recording
information on hillforts around the UK and Ireland.
The team were drawn from the University of Edinburgh,
University of Oxford, and University College Cork.
Edinburgh’s Professor Ian Ralston, who led the project with
his Oxford colleague Professor Gary Lock, said: ‘Standing
on a windswept hillfort with dramatic views across the
countryside, you really feel like you’re fully immersed in
history. This research project is all about sharing the stories
of the thousands of hillforts across the UK and Ireland in one
place that is accessible to the public and researchers.’
This new resource will provide free access to information
about world-famous sites as well as many little-known
hillforts, helping audiences including history enthusiasts,
naturalists and walkers to discover the forts and their
landscapes in all their variety.
Mostly built during the Iron Age, the oldest hillforts date
to c.1,000BC and the most recent to c.500AD, and they
were central to 1,500 years of ancient living: with numerous
functions – some of which are yet to be fully uncovered. The
latest research shows that, intriguingly, not all hillforts are on
hills – nor are they all forts.
Professor Alice Roberts, presenter of TV’s Digging for
Britain and professor for Public Engagement with Science,
said ‘Hillforts are an astonishing reminder of the ancient
past; monumental impressions left by our ancestors on the
landscape. But some of them are more obvious, and more
well-known than others. This new atlas draws on the latest
research and maps over 4,000 hillforts – making this facet of
our ancient heritage accessible to everybody.’
The new data will be made available to the national
monuments records of Britain and Ireland and will also help
heritage managers, naturalists, archaeologists and policy
makers to consider how we care for these special places, and
address the various environmental and human factors.
Dr Martin Poulter, Wikimedian-in-residence for the Bodleian
Library, Oxford, will be working on making the research easily
available to the public through Wikidata. He said: ‘We are
encouraging researchers to upload photographs of the hillforts
to Wikimedia Commons, where they join thousands of images
from the public. These freely-reusable data and images will help
to improve and create hillfort articles on Wikipedia, with links
to the main atlas website for further detail. It will also allow
customised maps looking at a particular type of fort or region of
the British Isles, or combining hillfort locations with other data.’
There are plans to make the hillforts atlas available as an app
and a paper atlas is also in development, due to be published in
summer 2018.
For more information, visit the project website:
www.arch.ox.ac.uk/hillforts-atlas.html
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p9 Hillfort atlas 1 pg.indd 9
9
08/08/2017 10:29
Musket, Axe and Drum
Defending Edinburgh during
a century of strife
Nico Tyack, curator at Museum of Edinburgh, shares the history of Edinburgh Town Guard,
a city guard with a chequered history, whose clashes with the local population led to
them being nicknamed the ‘Town Rats’
F
or much of the 18th century,
Edinburgh had a formalised
unit of a city guard
organised and equipped
along military lines whose main duties
were peacekeeping within the city
walls. They grew out of an earlier
mix of trained guards and civilian
watches. They had a chequered
history. Contemporary literary sources
such as Sir Walter Scott and Robert
Fergusson, eyewitness accounts and
anecdotal evidence gives us a mixed
picture of a unit where personal gains
or sheer aggression and violence on
the part of its officers and privates
often took precedence over the
Guard’s main functions.
New research into the Guard from
the other sources however give us
a more balanced picture of a unit
which was never properly funded or
equipped, nor given the authority to
be more than a deterrent against petty
crime. Furthermore, because the unit
10
p10-11 Town guard.indd 10
Town Guard
re-enactors
in Edinburgh
was made largely of retired Highlander
soldiers, of whom the Lowland
people of Edinburgh were nervous
and apprehensive, with hindsight we
can see why they were the target of so
much abuse and hatred.
A new exhibition, ‘Musket, Axe
and Drum: The Town Guard in a
Time of Unrest’, gives an overview
of the guard’s history, but focuses
on the middle of the 18th century,
a period which includes two of the
most significant events in the guard’s
history: the Porteous Riots of 1736
and the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745.
By showing objects from the Town
Guard and their headquarters (a
purpose built guard house on the
High Street and then the Edinburgh
Tolbooth after 1685) alongside
documentary records, the exhibition
aims to bring the Guard to life.
Visitors will be encouraged to
evaluate the evidence and come to
their own assessment of the Guard’s
effectiveness and reputation. Were
they the ‘Good Toun’s Company’ or
the ‘Town Rats’?
Scotland in the 1680s was a very
unhappy place. The country was still
recovering from civil wars which had
torn through the kingdom. There
was so much religious persecution
in the reigns of King Charles II and
James VII and II that the period
was known as the ‘Killing Time’.
Edinburgh needed an armed force to
keep the streets safe and to be ready
to defend the City from any threat
from outside.
The solution was a system known
as ‘watching and warding’ where
tradesmen such as weavers, bakers
and blacksmiths, took it in turns to
keep watch in the City each day and
night. Watching and warding was an
ineffective system, so the King’s Privy
Council gave the City Council an
ultimatum: either they raised enough
money for a well-trained and well-
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 09:55
Get daily news stories and expert articles at: www.historyscotland.com
EDINBURGH TOWN GUARD CHARACTERS
JAMES BURNET
Burnet was the last Captain of the Guard. He
was a man of great size and a fiery, unpredictable character to match.
Despite Burnet’s size, he accepted a challenge to run up Arthur’s
Seat in full uniform and fully armed. This he did in an incredible 15
minutes. A modern group of historical re- enactors recreate this feat
every two years.
DUNCAN MCINTYRE, or Duncan Bàn nan Òrain (Fair Duncan
of the Songs) Duncan ‘Bàn’ McIntyre enrolled in the Town Guard later
in life. He had previously been a gamekeeper for the duke of Argyll,
and a soldier, fighting for the Government’s army at Falkirk in 1746.
When the Town Guard disbanded he was one of the older members to
be given an allowance for good behaviour.
McIntyre is best known as a poet. His work is highly regarded
among the poetry of the Gaelic revival in the 18th century. He wrote
poems inspired by nature, drawing from his time in the Highlands
but some of his poems suggest his support for the Jacobites, such as
“Ode to Trousers”. After the Jacobite Rebellion it was illegal to wear
the kilt, a symbol of Highland culture.
equipped guard, or the King’s troops
would patrol the streets instead.
By 1679, a small unit of 40-60
men was established. In charge of
the Guard was the Lord Provost in
a ceremonial role. Under him, the
officers of the Guard were modelled
like the army with sergeants,
corporals, captain-lieutenants and
drummers. By 1747, there were
three captains in charge of three
squads of about 20 men each.
In 1690 an Act of Parliament
created a new tax, known as
Watchmoney, to pay for the Town
Guard. The law set a maximum
number of 126 men, and only up to
£15,000 Scots could be raised. This
was never enough, and throughout
its history the Guard was always
poorly funded.
The size of the Town Guard varied
depending on how much money
was available and also in response to
events outside Edinburgh. During
the Jacobite Rebellions of 1715 and
1745 the Guard was increased to a
much larger size than normal.
Officers of the Guard were
appointed by the King, and often
had important roles in the City’s
public life. Recruited men were
usually veterans of the British army
returning from overseas campaigns,
attracted by the good salaries paid
to the Guard. The majority were
Highlanders. Many spoke Gaelic
which was still foreign to the people
of Edinburgh and did little to soften
their image.
The Guard patrolled the streets
of the Old Town all day and night.
Each evening they announced the
curfew, beating their drum known as
the ‘ten hours drum’, as a signal that
no-one was to be out in the streets
until morning.
The Town Guard helped keep the
The Town Guard on
parade, with the ten
hours drum shown
City safe from petty criminals such
as pickpockets and thieves.
They
could put people in a cell in the
Guardhouse, or bring them to the
City’s Tolbooth jail.
In 1776, Edward Topham, an
English visitor to Edinburgh wrote:
Notice in the
Edinburgh Courant,
April 1746, about the
Jacobite Risings
The City Guard [..]prevent any
quarrels or disorders [..] and as they
are chiefly used as a guard during
the night time, their heroic deeds are
unfortunately concealed from
public view.
The Edinburgh Town
Guard drum, which
signalled the hours
when the night
curfew was in place
Musket, Axe and Drum; The Town Guard at a Time of
Unrest is an exhibition at Museum of Edinburgh, which
runs until 30 October. Admission is free.
Museum of Edinburgh, 142 Canongate,
Edinburgh, EH8 8DD; tel: 0131 529 4143;
website: www.edinburghmuseums.org.uk
Opening hours: Monday, Thursday-Saturday 10am-5pm, Sunday 12pm - 4pm
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p10-11 Town guard.indd 11
One gruesome job of the Guard
was policing public executions to help
prevent riots. It was usual at such
occasions for the crowd to throw stones,
dung or anything else they could find at
the Guard and the executioner.
Although the Town Guard was
often complimented for their
parading and target practice,
members were frequently fined or
removed from office for violence
or drunkenness.
An attempt in 1704 to introduce
regulations for the Guard
included rules for daily exercise
on Parliament Square, a strict
uniform, and listed punishments
for any guard found breaking the
rules. However, these regulations
did little to control more rowdy and
troublesome members.
11
31/07/2017 09:55
Curator’s pick
Anchors and adventures
Glasgow Museums’ collection
of Anchor Line posters
Emily Malcolm, Curator of Transport & Technology, explores a colourful collection of historic
travel posters, which convey the excitement of world travel in years gone by
T
e Anchor Line
was one of the
Glasgow’s longestlived shipping
companies. The
founders began chartering cargo
ships to the Baltic in the 1830s
and grew from strength to strength
in the later part of the 19th
century. By 1900 they had 27 ships
supplying passenger and cargo
services to America, Canada, the
Mediterranean and through the
Suez Canal to India.
In 1982, Glasgow Museums
was gifted a collection of posters
produced by the Anchor Line
between 1914 and 1939. A new
story display featuring twelve of
the finest images and digital access
to the entire collection opened at
Riverside Museum in April 2017.
The evocative advertising images
show everything from ships to
elephants and from the Rock of
Gibraltar to the skyline of New
York. Most of the artwork is
anonymous but there are designs
by several prominent graphic
artists of the 1920s and 1930s
– Kenneth Shoesmith and Odin
Rosenvinge among them.
The posters are in near perfect
condition – their jewel-bright
colours have been preserved
because they were added to the design
archive of the company and never
actually used. A fascinating aspect
of this is that each poster has a label
attached detailing the printer and the
quantities and dates of each print run.
Most of the posters had print runs
of around 2,000, but 15,000 copies
of a dramatic highland scene were
ordered for distribution to Anchor
Line agents in the USA and Canada
in 1922. It probably played a part in
creating the impression of Scotland
many North American tourists still
cherish today!
Other posters reflect the great social
changes that were taking place in the
early years of the 20th century. There
are examples offering cheap assisted
passage fares to Canada – as low
as £2 per person in 1927, but also
posters encouraging emigrants to pay
visits to their homelands – showing
emigration was no longer the one-way
ticket it had been in earlier decades.
The posters also reveal the power
of advertising – it is intriguing that
a particularly jolly set of designs
promoting cruises in the 1930s
actually disguise the fact that
the Anchor Line was struggling
financially. The Great Depression saw
a disastrous drop in the transatlantic
passenger and cargo trade and
cruising was an attempt to keep
12
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p12 Curator's pick.indd 12
Above, from left:
poster Advertising
Anchor Line
services through
the Mediterranean
to India, 1926
(T.1982.2.34)
Poster advertising
Anchor Line cruises,
1939 (T.1982.2.37)
Anchor Line Poster,
1922 (T.1982.2.52)
Poster advertising
Anchor Line cruises,
1933 (T.1982.2.59)
surplus vessels active while sailing
on shorter trips to Gibraltar,
Morocco and the ‘Cornish Riviera’.
It is also rather poignant
that the final poster in the set,
featuring a beautiful image of a
girl in traditional North African
dress (second from left above),
advertises a cruise that never took
place. Anchor Line offered two
cruises to Portugal, Spain, Algeria
and Morocco in July and August
1939. The second of these voyages
was cancelled at the last minute as
war loomed.
You can see more images and buy
copies at Glasgow Museums’ online
Photolibrary: www.csgimages.org.uk
Right: poster for
distribution in the
USA advertising
services to
Londonderry, about
1926 (T.1982.2.50)
31/07/2017 09:56
Archaeology news
TAP HERE
FOR A FILM
ABOUT THE IONA
DISCOVERY
Remains of St Columba’s
6th-century cell identified
A
rchaeologists from the University
they were still in a good condition.’
of Glasgow have uncovered
‘Thomas always believed he and his team
had uncovered Columba’s original wooden
‘conclusive evidence’ that a
hut, but they could never prove it because the
wooden hut traditionally associated
technology was not there. Radiocarbon dating
with St Columba at the monastery on the
was in its infancy, it had only been discovered a
island of Iona dates to within his lifetime.
year earlier in 1956, so there was not a lot they
Carbon dating has led to the breakthrough,
could do with the samples.’
which ‘categorically proves’ that samples of
hazel charcoal, unearthed from an excavation
‘So for us, 60 years later, to be able to send
Top: ruins of Old Bishop’s House, Iona
of a simple wattle and timber structure on
the original samples off to the radiocarbon
Below: the Columba cell charcoal
Iona 60 years ago, dates back to the exact
dating labs and have them come back showing,
period Columba lived and worked at the Inner
within the margin of error, as something which
Hebridean monastery. It may be the monk’s ‘cell’ where
may have been built in the lifetime of St Columba, is
he prayed and studied in isolation.
very exciting.’
The samples, excavated in 1957 by British
‘This is as close as any archaeologist has come
archaeologist Professor Charles Thomas, were kept
to excavating a structure built during the time of
in his garage in Cornwall, preserved in matchboxes,
St Columba, and it is a great vindication of the
until 2012 when they were given to Historic Scotland
archaeological instincts of Thomas and his team. It is
(now Historic Environment Scotland). A University
a remarkable lesson in the value of curating excavation
of Glasgow team of archaeologists identified the
archives for as long as it takes, to make sure the
significance of the finds and recently submitted the
material is ready for the next wave of technology.’
samples for carbon dating.
The carbon dating
St Columba, known in Gaelic as Colum Cille ‘the
Through the services of the Scottish Universities
dove of the Church’, is widely revered as a key figure
Artist’s impression of
Environmental Research Centre, the world-leading
who brought Christianity to Scotland from Ireland,
St Columba in his Iona
centre for scientific analysis, the team decided to carbonlanding on Iona in AD 563. In the Life of St Columba,
Abbey monk’s cell
date the hazel stakes and the results show the hut dated
written 100 years after his death by one of his successors,
back to AD 540-650. Columba died in 597AD.
Adomnan, described Columba writing in his cell on a
Altogether, ten radiocarbon dates were returned from
rocky hillock, called Tòrr an Aba or ‘the mound of the
samples from Thomas’ excavations, all dating to the early medieval
abbot’ within the monastery, looking out of his door towards the
period (AD 500-1100). Although the excavators of the hut had
mountains of Mull.
argued it was likely Columba’s cell, the lack of dating technology
When Professor Thomas’ team excavated at this site 60 years ago,
at the time led many archaeologists to dismiss the findings as
the carbonised remains of wattle walls of a small hut were unearthed
below layers of loose beach pebbles, suggesting the wooden structure speculation and scientifically unproved.
Richard Strachan, Senior Archaeologist at Historic Environment
had burned down and the area deliberately filled over. The site was
Scotland, said: ‘The results of this recent work are hugely
later marked with a cross.
significant and really exciting. The radiocarbon dates have
Until recently, the finds from the site were believed to be missing,
confirmed the Tòrr an Aba structure excavated in the 1950s to be
but a project led by University of Glasgow archaeologists Dr
consistent with Columba’s presence on Iona in the 6th century AD
Ewan Campbell and Dr Adrián Maldonado, funded by Historic
and provides compelling evidence this was Columba’s writing hut,
Environment Scotland, re-located the samples.
as described by Adomnan.’
Commenting on the findings, Dr Adrián Maldonado said:
‘It endorses Thomas’s meticulous curation of his archive
‘This discovery is massive. St Columba is a key figure in Western
for over 60 years ago and demonstrates the huge value in its
Christendom. He was the national patron saint of Scotland in the
re-examination. The team at the University of Glasgow has done an
Middle Ages.’
amazing job synthesising his extensive excavation, and combined
‘We were granted access to the original finds from Charles
with the considerable other archaeological work of Iona definitely
Thomas, and we could work on his notes and charcoal samples
add up to more than the sum of the parts. It is a huge regret that
which were excavated in 1957. Luckily Thomas kept hold of them,
Professor Thomas did not live to see these results.’
as he knew they were important, and because they were kept dry,
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p13 Archaeology iona.indd 13
13
08/08/2017 10:31
ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS
Recording the
Lossie Coastal Crust
Matt Ritchie, archaeologist with Forestry Commission Scotland, explores what remains of the
longest and best-preserved length of anti-invasion ‘coastal crust’ in Scotland
I
n the late summer of 1940, under threat from German
invasion, sections of the British coast where the enemy
could easily land were fortified with a series of defences
built along them, forming a ‘crust’. The Moray coastal
defences ran between Cullen Bay and Findhorn Bay,
through today’s Lossie and Roseisle Forests.
Within Lossie Forest, you can still discover evidence of the
variety of defences constructed: an unbroken line of anti-tank
blocks interspersed with pillboxes and road blocks; and a coastal
gun battery at Innes Links, complete with Battery Observation
Post, generator houses, searchlights and the concrete foundations
of the barrack blocks.
At over 8km in length, the coastal defences in Lossie Forest
comprise the longest and best-preserved length of anti-invasion
‘coastal crust’ in Scotland.
However, conservation management of this historic asset can be
difficult. While the encroaching scrub vegetation can be removed,
structural concrete degrades and steel rusts. Many of the buildings
are hazardous and are unsafe to enter.
The coastline itself is dynamic, occasionally burying
blocks and pillboxes in sand and shingle. Recording the
structural evidence is an ongoing process, using photography,
archaeological measured survey and (in recent years) terrestrial
laser scanning.
Laser scanning allows the creation
of what surveyors call a ‘point cloud’
– a 3D digital view of the millions of
vertices (or points) recorded during
the survey. These in turn can be
processed into a ‘polygonal mesh’,
effectively a surface draped over
the point cloud, which can then be
coloured or shaded to produce the
desired effect. The resulting models
can then be presented in 3D or as a
plan, section or elevation. This view
shows the initial point cloud of a
road block and its associated antitank blocks, artificially coloured by
elevation. The slots were designed to
hold three lengths of steel tram line at
different levels.
By combining new archaeological survey techniques
with an aesthetic illustrative methodology we can
produce detailed site records alongside innovative
and spectacular illustrations, encouraging greater
engagement and understanding. This survey of
the gun emplacement has been presented in an
evocative ‘blueprint’ style.
14
p14-15 Lossiemouth V2.indd 14
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:00
Get daily news stories and expert articles at: www.historyscotland.com
Krzystof Madejski describes constructing the anti-tank
cubes along the Lossie coastline in the Kronika of the
1st Polish Engineer Company: “[Building the concrete
blocks] is very zmudne (tedious) and unpleasant
because of the continuously blowing wind, which
covers the workers with sand and cement… They
return to camp white with dust and complain about
the concrete mixers that regularly break down”.
Archaeological measured survey has always been a powerful
illustrative tool, enhancing knowledge, raising awareness and
providing a baseline of information for conservation and
management. This image shows the initial point cloud of a
pillbox and stretch of anti-tank blocks, with real colour captured
at the time of survey. Find out more about the defence of
Scotland during World War II in If Hitler Comes: preparing for
invasion: Scotland 1940 (Dr Gordon Barclay, Birlinn, 2013).
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p14-15 Lossiemouth V2.indd 15
15
31/07/2017 10:00
ARCHAEOLOGY NEWS
SAMPHIRE
Working with Scottish communities
to preserve local heritage
Lesley Dalgleish and Dan Atkinson of Wessex Archaeology report on a project which
utilised the knowledge of local communities to investigate wrecks along the west coast
A
fascinating and
innovative project that
captured local knowledge
and helped preserve
Scottish maritime heritage along
the west coast of Scotland aims
to provide a blueprint for future
projects, according to archaeologists
from Wessex Archaeology. The team
16
p16-17 SAMPHIRE.indd 16
Detailed planning
was undertaken
before each dive
One of the Fearnmore
wrecks, discovered
by Professor Karen
Hardy in 2015
at Wessex Archaeology worked
with Flinders University in south
Australia to combine their expertise
with the knowledge of local maritime
communities over the course of two
years from 2013 to 2015 as part of
project SAMPHIRE.
The Project was a great success
and resulted in over 100 new sites
being revealed and recorded. The
innovative approach that Project
SAMPHIRE adopted – crowdsourcing knowledge and engaging
with local communities – was
acknowledged recently by Europa
Nostra when SAMPHIRE was
awarded the prestigious European
Union Prize for Cultural Heritage/
Europa Nostra Awards 2017
in the Education, Training and
Awareness-raising category.
So how was this innovative
approach achieved? Each year
Project SAMPHIRE underwent
four key phases; preparation and
promotion; community engagement
and fieldwork; site investigation
fieldwork; and finally, analysis and
dissemination. Embedded in this
methodology was the way in which
communities and individuals were
encouraged to engage with the
project, and take ownership of their
local heritage.
The first phase established the
community locations that would
be crucial to the other phases. The
locations were chosen based on
factors such as population size,
accessibility and existing contacts.
Members of the SAMPHIRE
team combined pre-arranged
talks and meetings with a more
organic approach where they visited
promising areas and engaged with
the locals to establish contacts
within the maritime community
and garner local knowledge. It was
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:04
Get daily news stories and expert articles at: www.historyscotland.com
quickly apparent that these two
approaches were effective, with a
wealth of information being supplied
by various members of the local
communities such as recreational
divers, fishermen, harbour masters
and scallop divers. Alongside
this, the team also disseminated
information about the project to
the public through tools such as
websites, flyers and a blog.
The second step was to meet
the targeted communities through
pre-arranged meetings and
‘organic’ approaches. Both of these
approaches proved to be hugely
successful as people from the local
communities were keen to share
their knowledge of sites they had
seen themselves or heard stories
of over the years. Many sites were
reported to the team with the
aid of admiralty charts and dive
logs. Recreational divers proved
themselves to be an invaluable
asset at this stage and various
meetings and talks were held with
local sub-aqua clubs along the
length of the west coast.
A high level of organisation was
also involved in terms of the follow
up investigations, with diver safety
taking precedent for the planning
of the operations, as many of the
locations proposed were remote
and far from emergency services.
Sites were considered for further
investigation based on several factors
but a desire to target previously
unknown sites was a key objective.
The investigation fieldwork was
primarily carried out by diver survey
of the sites reported, by members of
both the SAMPHIRE dive team and
wherever possible with input from
local volunteers who had supplied
the initial information. Intertidal
survey and aerial survey were also
undertaken to investigate sites that
were not completely submerged.
Finally, the dissemination phase of
the project consisted of ongoing blog
and website updates, the addition of
the information gathered in to the
national database, Canmore, and
ultimately the publication of three
annual reports detailing the finds of
each year of the project.
Throughout the course of the
three-year project the information
gathered from members of the
local communities was crucial in
ensuring the project’s success.
One example of a fascinating
find that would never have been
identified had it not been for local
community involvement were the
remains of a wreck at Fearnmore
near Applecross along the west
Highlands coast.
In 2015 Professor Karen Hardy,
a collaborator with the project and
expert in prehistoric archaeology,
contacted the SAMPHIRE team
to report some unrecorded wrecks
she had noticed at Fearnmore. It
quickly became apparent that the
team were going to have to call upon
local knowledge to understand the
wrecks and so they reached out to
Sheildaig resident Robert Gordon,
who had been a friend of the project
since 2013.
Harris resident Hamish Taylor
also assisted by getting in touch after
spotting some pictures that had been
shared with the West Coast fishing
boat group (Past & Present) on
Facebook. Within the remains of the
wrecks two engines are still visible
and Hamish could identify these as a
13/15 Kelvin Poppet petrol/paraffin
engine and a 26/30 Poppet where
the smaller engine would have been
located on the starboard side of the
vessel, and the larger engine located
on the port side.
The information provided by
Robert Gordon was extremely
valuable and he visited the site
to take more pictures. He was
also able to provide a probable
identification and brief history of
the wrecks. He informed the team
that the locals believed the two
wrecks to be the Queen and the
Sally; Queen having been beached
at the end of World War II and the
Sally having been present on the site
for longer. Another local, Donnie
Johnston provided the team with
the information that the Queen had
belonged to a man called Alistair
MacDonald and had been put
ashore in the 1950s.
The identity of the Sally was not
so clear until fisherman Donald
Livingston contacted the team to tell
them that the mysterious Sally was
in fact the Elizabeth, another skiff
thought to have been beached in the
1930s. There are no recorded losses
of vessels going by any of these
names so their identities cannot be
One of the
Fearnmore wrecks,
which was further
investigated thanks
to the input of
members of the
local community
Talks and
community events
kept members
of the public
up to date with
the progress
of the project,
encouraging people
to get involved
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p16-17 SAMPHIRE.indd 17
definitively proven. Nonetheless
these two wrecks represent how
a collaborative approach to
archaeology can be incredibly
valuable. Had it not been for the
initial reporting of the finds by
Professor Hardy and the combined
knowledge and efforts of various
members of the local community,
these wrecks may never have been
recorded at all.
The success of the project can be
measured not just by the number
of newly recorded sites, that are
now shared online through the
website and Canmore database and
through the hard copy publications,
but also in the increased trust
and positivity shared by the
communities that were engaged and
the archaeologists involved.
Much of the information gained
during field survey was also
disseminated more widely through
local talks and community events.
New finds and friends were made
each year. The team hopes that
the inclusive model applied during
project SAMPHIRE will provide a
foundation for similar projects in
the future.
Information on all the discoveries made
by SAMPHIRE and its partners can be
found at www.wessexarch.co.uk/samphire
17
31/07/2017 10:04
www.historyscotland.com
THE SCOTS’ DEFEAT
AT PINKIE IN 1547
NEW LIGHT ON HOW AND WHERE
Pinkie was a major battle; the last fought between the Scots and English as separate
nations. David Caldwell presents some new information on what actually happened in the
battle and reviews the evidence for where the battle took place.
I
n 1579 Thomas Digges had
published in London an
important work in the history
of science – An Arithmeticall
Militare Treatise named Stratioticos.
It was aimed at gunners, military
camp masters and other professional
soldiers, providing methods of
calculating, amongst other things,
the range of guns, the area of ground
necessary to encamp an army, and
how to draw up units of fighting
men.It is clear that much of the work
is derived from his father Leonard
18
p18-23 Main battle of Pinkie.indd 18
(c.1515 - c.1559), also famous in his
day as a mathematician and scientist.
The writer consulted this work as
it appeared it would provide useful
information on drawing up and moving
armies, specifically for research he was
undertaking on the battle of Pinkie in
1547. It did indeed do so.
To his surprise, there was included
in the book a marginal note on why
the Scots lost at Pinkie, and on delving
deeper the author discovered that
Leonard Digges fought in that battle.
He is specifically mentioned by the
Scottish and English
troop formations
overlaid on a modern
map of the battle site
main contemporary authority on the
battle, William Patten, as having taken
part in the cavalry attack which was
repulsed by the Scottish vanguard.
Digges cites Pinkie (‘Muscleborough
Fielde’) as an example of how
an enemy can be defeated by the
malicious spreading of rumours:
Some in the line of battle by corrupted
espies or otherwise have caused rumour to
be spread in the enemies battell, that their
Generall was slain or some part of them
defeated or flying away, and thereby so
amazed them in the middest of the flight,
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:05
Military history - battle of Pinkie
that they have swayed and broke: but this
must be done in the contrey part of the
battle, where the general is not to be seen.
What is especially interesting
about this is that Digges appears to be
reflecting a view that does not come
through in more official or influential
English reports but perhaps one that
was held in the ranks of the English
army. This opinion about the Scottish
collapse may also underlie a report by
the French ambassador in London,
Odet de Selve, who wrote that the
Scottish defeat was by an unbelievable
misfortune which no one could
have had any good reason to have
predicted. De Selve’s main source of
information was the commander of
the Scottish rear guard, the Earl of
Huntly, taken prisoner by the English.
So what is the particular context
of Digges’ assertion and is there any
truth in it? The author decided to
investigate. In 1991 he published an
account of the battle in a book of
essays on Scotland And War. At that
time he was primarily interested in
the overall political context of the
battle, why it happened and what the
consequences were. He concluded
that the battle took place about half
a kilometre to the southeast of the
battle monument which is positioned
off Salter’s Road, Wallyford, at the
A1 junction. A major consideration
in locating the battle was the
identification of ‘the slough’ which
features largely in the main account
of the fighting. In 1991 the author
thought that it might equate with
the Carberry Burn, a tributary of
the River Esk. Now on reviewing all
the evidence again, paying particular
attention to the topographic clues
provided by contemporary and early
accounts of the battle, he is still
inclined to think that the battle took
place well away from the monument,
even further eastwards than he had
previously supposed.
The key reason for thinking this
is a reconsideration of the ‘slough’
which features so largely in the
account of the battle by William
Patten. Patten was what we might call
in present day parlance an English
staff officer. He was well placed to
see and understand all that happened
and reflect the views of the English
high command. A slough is a piece
of soft, boggy or muddy ground, or
else a ditch or a drain. Patten also
describes this feature on the battlefield
as a cross ditch, which might mean
one that ran at right angles to the
adjacent agricultural rigs – except
that is not what his plans of the battle
show. They represent a linear feature
approximately on the same orientation
as the rigs. It appears to have been a
feature with distinct edges, one that
could be leapt over by some of the
English horsemen, but in the bottom
of which others got stuck. Taking
Patten’s plans literally, this was a ditch
that defined the south edge of the rig
and furrow cultivated zone stretching
southwards from Inveresk. It may
be surmised that it then marked the
upper limit of cultivation, with pasture
and moorland beyond it, including
Falside Hill.
A major consideration in locating the
battle was the identification of ‘the slough’
which features largely in the main account
of the fighting
Phase 2 of the battle,
as each army begins
to advance
Patten never describes the slough
as a burn or stream, and the Carberry
Burn nowadays does not look much of
an obstacle to determined horsemen.
To the east of the Carberry Burn
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p18-23 Main battle of Pinkie.indd 19
there is a feature named Colton
Dean, which could well be the slough
described by Patten. It is deep and
wide, positioned right on the margin
of the lower slopes with the steeper
slopes of Falside Hill, and would have
presented a significant impediment to
the progress of mounted troops. It is
now relatively dry, but that is clearly
due to a substantial piped drain that
runs its length. The landscape of the
Pinkie area has changed enormously
since 1547, and we presently do not
know to what extent Colton Dean
might have been altered in more recent
times, perhaps quarried or otherwise
enlarged. In the writer’s view, however,
it must be a strong candidate to be the
slough. This identification helps
explain how the battle developed on
10 September, 1547.
The English army led by the duke
of Somerset, protector of England on
behalf of the young King Edward VI,
had advanced through Berwickshire
and East Lothian, supported by a
19
31/07/2017 10:05
www.historyscotland.com
strong fleet. Somerset was intent on
persuading the Scottish administration
to back down on its refusal to allow
the marriage of the baby Queen Mary
to the English king, and it was part of
his strategy to induce this change of
heart by holding large swathes of the
country from a series of earthwork
forts. Work had already started on
one of these at Eyemouth. Somerset
did not necessarily expect to fight a
Scottish army in the field. The night
before the battle he camped his army
at Prestonpans.
By then he was aware that the
Scottish governor, the earl of Arran,
had gathered a large army and had it
camped at Monktonhall on the west
bank of the river Esk. On 9 September
the Scottish horse had been worsted
and driven off by a superior force
of English cavalry which allowed
Somerset the opportunity to view the
Scottish camp and make plans for
how to draw closer and bombard it
with his artillery.
Rather than stay in their camp, the
Scots moved out first thing on the
morning of 10 September, crossing
the River Esk and drawing nearer to
the English camp. Unfortunately, we
20
p18-23 Main battle of Pinkie.indd 20
do not appear to have any rationale
for this that can be attributed to the
Scottish high command as distinct
from disparaging explanations from
the English and other detractors of
the governor. There would be many
amongst the Scots, however, who
would recall the battle fought between
two national armies at Flodden in
1513 when the Scots stayed in their
camp until it was almost too late while
an English army manoeuvred around
their position. Facing an English army
whose main strength was cavalry, there
was no option for Arran to withdraw
and risk being taken in rear. The other
side of the Esk there was a piece of high
ground, now largely represented by
Lewisvale Park in Inveresk, extensive
enough for Arran to draw up his army
in battle array. This is what is referred
to by Patten as the two hillocks because
so it would have appeared to the
English approaching from the east.
Not far to the east of this high ground
is Pinkie Cleugh, a gorge or ravine that
would have been difficult for either
army to traverse.
It must be supposed that
the Scottish camp was laid out
according to the units and battles
Plan showing Scottish
forces encountering
the English Cavalry
(the contemporary word used for
battalions) in which the men would
fight. Even so, it was no small or quick
task for the Scottish commanders to
have their men march out of camp,
cross the river, some by the bridge
at Musselburgh, others by wading,
and draw them up ready to fight. The
most reliable estimate of the size of the
Scottish army is that given by the earl
of Huntly – 22,000 or 23,000 strong.
There were three forces of pikemen,
perhaps each about 6,000 strong.
The other forces consisted of light
horsemen (prickers in contemporary
parlance) and ‘Irish archers’. We might
guess about 1,500 for the former and
about 3,000 for the latter.
Pikes are very long spears, over
three times the height of an average
man, and large units of pikemen had
been a major feature of European
battlefields since the late 15th
century. The Scots had been armed
as pikemen at Flodden in 1513, and
just as then, the pikes in 1547 may
have been issued from the arsenal
in Edinburgh Castle rather than
supplied by individuals. We must also
suppose the presence of a number of
experienced or professional men who
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:05
Military history - battle of Pinkie
could facilitate the drawing up of the
battles and act as officers. We know
that generals of the period wanted
their pike units to be arranged as
square formations, which meant in
practice, in order to give each rank
enough space when marching, that
there was a ratio of 7:3, files to ranks,
with enough space on either side of
each man for him to use his weapons.
Thus a battle of about 6,000 men
positioned on the right wing of the
battle line.
The archers, presumably also armed
with axes, were drawn up on the left
wing of the army. They are described
as Irish but were actually men from
Argyll and the Isles under the overall
command of the earl of Argyll.
Perhaps the most substantial element
amongst them would have been
contributed by the staunch Campbell
The Scots had been armed as pikemen
at Flodden in 1513 and just as then, the
pikes in 1547 may have been issued from
the arsenal in Edinburgh Castle
might have had a front face of about
118 men with their pikes and those
of at least the two rows behind
thrusting forward. The whole unit
would have measured about 108m
square. Depending on the gaps
between these units, the line of battle
they formed at Inveresk might have
been in the region of half a kilometre.
The main battle was commanded
by the Governor, the earl of Arran.
To his right was the vanguard under
the earl of Angus and to his left the
rear guard under the earl of Huntly.
All three men had had successful
battle experience. The Scots also
had an artillery train, mostly
relatively light pieces that could be
pulled and manoeuvred speedily by
squads of men. They were probably
positioned in the gaps between the
battles of pikemen.
The presence of horsemen and
archers is often down-played, largely
due to the biased way they are dealt
with by English reporters. It is even
claimed by some commentators
that the horsemen took no part in
the events of 10 September. Are
we really to believe, however, that a
force which, by the admission of the
English themselves, captured three of
their captains on the ninth suffered
more than 50 percent casualties that
day? There is sufficient evidence
to show that the Scottish prickers
were still a force to be reckoned
with on the 10th and were no doubt
ally, Clan Donald South, under the
leadership of James MacDonald
of Dunyvaig and the Glynns. He
and Argyll had landed their men
from their galleys near Glasgow. Of
all the forces in the Scottish army
these warriors were likely to have
been the most experienced and
professional, many no doubt having
participated in campaigns in Ireland
that had humiliated or scared the
English administration there. Does
that explain the jibes by English
The battle lines
during phase four of
the battle
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p18-23 Main battle of Pinkie.indd 21
commentators that they were last
in order in the army but first to run
away; that they were so unsettled
by English gun fire from the ships
that they refused to advance with
the rest of the army? Perhaps a more
appropriate image to retain of them
comes from the pages of George
Buchanan’s History. He describes how
during the rout of the Scottish army
the Highlanders formed a circle in
good order and retreated without loss,
unassailed by the English.
On marching out from their
camp at Prestonpans first thing in
the morning the English were soon
aware that the Scottish army was
drawn up ahead of them, on the
far side of Pinkie Cleugh. They had
not anticipated this development,
and there was a pause of some time
as both generals considered their
options. Neither would have wanted
to advance through Pinkie Cleugh
and both would have been aware of
the potential danger of turning their
armies and being taken in flank, even
though at this point they may have
been well over a mile apart. Guns were
fired by both sides, including some
from the English ships immediately
off-shore. The effectiveness of this fire,
particularly from shipboard, is seen
by many commentators as one of the
key events which brought victory to
the English, but neither side felt able
to crow about hits or regret losses.
21
31/07/2017 10:05
www.historyscotland.com
The battle of
Pinkie,woodcut
illustration by
William Patten, 1548
Perhaps the one recorded casualty
on the Scottish side, the death of the
Master of Graham, was more in the
nature of a lucky strike.
The Scots broke the deadlock by
moving first. Perhaps gun fire had
something to do with their decision,
perhaps they saw the advantage of
outflanking the English and gaining
the high ground represented by
Falside Hill. Through a combination of
distance, the lie of the land and weather
conditions (not good?) the Scottish
move was not immediately obvious to
Somerset who had to rely on reports
brought to him by his horsemen. His
assessment was evidently that he had
to gain Falside Hill before the Scots,
and he wheeled his army round to
do so. In this he was clearly at a great
disadvantage. On the one hand, unlike
the Scots, he had a large baggage train
that had to keep pace with his fighting
22
p18-23 Main battle of Pinkie.indd 22
men and which he had to protect,
and on the other hand, his cavalry, in
numbers almost a third of his army
of about 17,000 fighting men but by
far his main strength, would now be
marching with their own foot units
between them and the enemy. Not
only that, it probably did not take him
too long to realise that the Scots would
win this race. Drastic action was clearly
required. That took the form of sending
out a force of cavalry, including
Leonard Digges, to stop the Scottish
advance and give time for the rest of
the English army to manoeuvre.
The Scottish army had been moving
close enough that its gunners had
considered it worthwhile to fire their
guns at the English. The Scottish horse
may already have been sent ahead to
try and take possession of Falside Hill.
Possibly in their speed the Scottish
battles had become a bit disordered
and needed to stop and reorganise
themselves, but in any case, with their
vanguard only about 500m from the
English vanguard, they were aware that
they were about to be attacked by a
force of English horse that had headed
southwards and was about to swing
round and come at their vanguard
down the slopes of Carberry Hill.
Whether by accident or design on the
part of the Scots, they were positioned
in such a way that the English horse
had to negotiate a slough in order to
get at them. If this slough was Colton
Dean, the Scottish units of foot at this
point would have stretched from about
the position of the present day steading
of Crookston NSE for a distance,
perhaps, of about 0.7km, and if badly
bunched up less than that.
The cavalry attack was successfully
seen off by Angus’ men. The English
suffered a number of casualties
and some of their units were badly
disordered in the retreat. Meanwhile,
Somerset got his baggage train well
away from the likely scene of battle
to the summit of Falside Hill to the
northeast of Falside Castle. He also
pushed ahead some of his artillery, well
up the slope of the hill. The Scottish
horse, which had by accident or design
avoided coming into contact with any
of the English horse units, failed in an
attempt to stop these guns becoming a
threat to their own pikemen.
Somerset, however, did not continue
with the general advance of his
footmen up Falside Hill. Instead he
used the breathing space given him by
the cavalry attack to wheel his battles
of footmen around to form a battle
line somewhere between the present
day built-up area of Wallyford and the
slopes of Falside Hill. The author’s
best guess is that it stretched for about
400m on a NNW – SSE alignment
just to the west of St Clement’s Wells
and to the south of the present day
A1 dual carriageway. It also consisted
of three battles, mostly armed with
pikes but with significant numbers of
archers and men armed with hagbuts
(an early type of hand gun). The
archers and hagbutters were brought
forward to screen the pikemen and
there was artillery on the left wing. All
this manoeuvring was probably done
efficiently and quickly. The English
army had been in enemy territory since
4 September and had daily experience
since then of being prepared to meet
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:05
Military history - battle of Pinkie
enemy threats.
The English vanguard was only ‘two
flightshot’ (about 500m) away from
Angus’ battle, but all the Scottish units
were still in line of march, stretching
away on the line of the present road
from Crookston to West Mains. Each
battle now had to be swung round
counter-clockwise to oppose the
English, a difficult enough task in ideal
circumstances, but now required in
the face of an enemy which could now
effectively target them with artillery
and bring up hagbutters to fire into
their ranks. The English horse had
also been re-grouped and further
cavalry attacks were likely. Also, this
was the very first day that the Scottish
forces had been mustered and moved
together as one army.
At this point let us remind ourselves
of what Leonard Digges had to say
about the reason for the Scots’ defeat,
that rumours were spread amongst
their ranks about the death or flight
of their general, rumours that so
affected them that they broke and fled.
The author believes that this really
does explain what happened. The
immediate context is that the Scottish
battles were too bunched together and
Arran’s was effectively being squeezed
out by Angus’ and Huntly’s. It thus
started to break up. It would have
been difficult for most Scots in the
ranks to see what was happening but
the English with their vantage points
on Falside Hill would understand, and
informed hagbutters and horsemen
would no doubt be only too happy
to jeer and point at their old enemy.
Possibly Angus and Huntly tried to
position their battles alongside each
other, but by that time it was too late.
Rumours of flight were turned into
reality as every man looked to his
own safety. Until that point casualties
on both sides had probably been
relatively light, but in the ensuing rout
many Scots were ridden down by the
English horse, and possibly as many as
6,000 were killed. That is the estimate
given by Huntly.
Pinkie was undoubtedly a black
day for the Scots, and if we believe
Leonard Digges’ explanation we can
take no pride in how our ancestors
behaved. It was not, however, a
knock-out blow. Somerset was to fail
in his objectives of achieving a royal
English-Scottish marriage alliance.
The Scots turned to their old allies
Battle formation: English Army
Battle formation of
the Scottish Army,
showing the numbers
and percentage of
each section
the French to eject the English and
sent their young queen for marriage
to the French Dauphin.
Dr David Caldwell, prior to retiring from
National Museums Scotland in 2012,
was Keeper of Scotland and Europe and
Keeper of Archaeology. He is currently
President of the Society of Antiquaries of
Scotland,Vice-President of the Society
for Post-Medieval Archaeology, and a
director of Fife Cultural Trust.
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p18-23 Main battle of Pinkie.indd 23
FURTHER
READING
Scotland And War AD 79-1918,
Norman MacDougall (ed.)
(Edinburgh 1991), 61-94
23
31/07/2017 10:05
www.historyscotland.com
THE ROYAL CLYDE
Yacht Club
David I Hutchison explores the history of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club, from a meteoric rise in
membership to the years of exciting world-class yacht races, followed by a decline hastened
by the outbreak of World War I and subsequent loss of their prestigious clubhouse
W
ith rapid industrial
growth on the
River Clyde, the
estuary became a
popular holiday
and yachting destination. The spread
of yachting was inextricably linked
to the expansion of steamer routes
and piers ‘doon the watter’. James
Hunter of Hafton built the first hotel
at Hunter’s Quay in 1871 and initially
rented rooms to the prestigious Royal
Clyde Yacht Club. By the end of the
19th century the RCYC’s new Royal
Marine Hotel and Clubhouse had
become one of the foremost yacht
racing venues in the world.
Emergence of yacht
clubs on the Clyde
The Industrial Revolution,
shipbuilding and growing overseas
trade brought great prosperity to
the region. As a result many wealthy
industrialists and merchants bought
mansions along the coast, away from
all the noise and pollution of the big
24
p24-30 Royal Clyde Yacht Club.indd 24
cities, where they developed a great
passion for yachting.
The Northern Yacht Club, which
was founded in Belfast in 1824, was
divided into two sub-sections (Irish
and Scottish). This association became
the first yacht club on the Clyde and
received its Royal Warrant in 1830
to become the Royal Northern Yacht
Club (RNYC). The Irish section
petered out and was eventually
dissolved in 1838. The surviving
Scottish section grew stronger, with
Largs becoming a centre of activity.
Nevertheless, yachting did not really
take off on the Clyde until the middle
of the 19th century. The Clyde’s Royal
yachting connection was reaffirmed
with Queen Victoria’s visit aboard the
Royal Yacht in 1847.
It was only after the foundation
of the Glasgow based Clyde Model
Yacht Club in September 1856 that
regular weekly races took place on
the Clyde. On 27 January 1857 the
Admiralty gave permission for the
club to fly the blue ensign with their
Britannia and
Vigilant at Hunter’s
Quay in 1894
burgee: blue background with a red
lion on a yellow shield in the centre.
The term ‘Model’, which refers to a
restriction to yachts of less than eight
tons, was dropped from the title in
1864 when the club became known
as the Clyde Yacht Club (CYC).
James Smith of Jordanhill, the
distinguished first Commodore of the
club, was a merchant, antiquarian,
architect, geologist, biblical critic, and
an authority on ancient shipping &
navigation. He was famously known
as the ‘father’ of yachting on the
River Clyde.
The Hon G. F. Boyle, who later
inherited the title earl of Glasgow,
became the second Commodore
in 1861. During his 26-year
stewardship the club went through
a period of great transformation
and membership rose from 85 to
610 persons. As the great industrial
wealth of the region increased so
too did the size of the club yachts
(from eight tonners to 40 tonners).
By 1865 the CYC was well
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:08
The Royal Clyde Yacht Club
established on the Clyde and had
become quite influential among
the many yacht clubs which raced
there, several of which carried the
royal title. However, during the
spring of 1871 members of the club
began to feel that ‘it was no longer
consistent with the importance
of the club or the convenience
of its members to be without a
headquarters and an address’.
Hunter’s Quay and the
original Royal Marine Hotel
The first James Hunter of Hafton
(1780-1834) was a wealthy Greenock
businessman. He purchased the Hafton
Estate c.1815 and built Hafton House
in 1816. In order to encourage the
building of big marine villas on their
estate the Hunters built a stone quay
in 1828 which resulted in the name
Hunter’s Quay.
At the time of James Hunter’s death
in 1834 he was a partner in a diverse
range of prestigious companies across
the water, among them: Greenock
Bank; Gourock Ropeworks; Wallace
& Hunter; Shaws Water; Castles
Steamboat; Monkland Canal, and
Robertson & Hunter. These business
interests represented a personal
fortune of £30,000 on his death and
in addition the Hafton Estate was
bequeathed to his eldest son.
A later James Hunter (1838-76)
was involved in further expansion of
the estate and in particular building
the first hotel at Hunter’s Quay. He
had worked for the East India Civil
Signal Tower and
James Hunter’s
original pier, c.1830
Service in Bombay for a few years
before returning home to Hafton
House following his marriage in
1864. James was chairman of the
Dunoon & Kilmun School Board
and one of the most popular
landlords in Argyll. At the time of his
death he had built up an extensive
farm and property portfolio which
included Dunoon pier.
In 1871 it came to the attention
of the committee of the Clyde Yacht
Club (CYC) that James Hunter
of Hafton was planning to build a
private hotel at Hunter’s Quay. It was
indicated that he might be willing
to set aside a modest suite of three
rooms for the exclusive use of the
club for up to ten years at a rent not
exceeding £60 per year. By October
The imposing new English
styled club yacht-house was
quite unrivalled in the kingdom
1871 the lease arrangement had been
settled but work on the building had
not yet commenced. Membership of
the yacht club at this time was 140,
with the annual subscription set at
just two guineas.
The architects of the spacious
hotel and clubhouse were Messrs.
Pilkington and Bell of Edinburgh
and Mr A Purdie, a surveyor for
the Hafton Estate, was appointed
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p24-30 Royal Clyde Yacht Club.indd 25
Clerk of Works. The three-storey hotel
section contained a ladies’ coffee room;
several parlours; twelve bedrooms; and
all the facilities associated with a first
class hotel. The two-storey club section
had six rooms for coffee; reading;
billiards; smoking; club master; and
committee meetings. The total cost
of the building when completed and
fully furnished was just under £5,000.
Amazingly after only eight months of
construction James Hunter’s Royal
Marine Hotel was in operation and the
yacht club was finally able to leave its
rented Glasgow headquarters.
During 1871 the club had been
actively petitioning to gain Royal
Status but it was not until 18
December, 1871 that a formal letter
indicating the Queen’s approval
was finally received. The new Royal
Clyde Yacht Club flag was proudly
displayed from a massive flagpole in
front of the new hotel, but now the
lion on the flag had its royal crown.
Members proudly met for the first
time in their new rooms on 30 May,
1872 to enjoy a celebratory lunch
before embarking on the opening
cruise of the season. With the new
clubhouse facilities and Royal status,
membership increase rapidly from
140 in 1871 to 400 in 1873. As a keen
yachtsman and member of the RCYC,
James Hunter donated the Hafton
Cup for yachts competing in the
twenty to 40 tons category in 1874.
The RCYC went into debt for
the first time in 1875 due to rising
costs and low annual subscription
fees, which were still two guineas.
Notwithstanding, the finances of the
club were soon to be stretched even
further. James Hunter of Hafton
inquired if the yacht club would like
to buy the hotel/clubhouse outright
for £4,000. By October 1875 all
the requisite loans, overdrafts and
legal documents were in place for
the club to take over the running of
both their clubhouse and the hotel.
On 16 November,1875 the sale was
concluded and by 1877 the club was
25
31/07/2017 11:33
www.historyscotland.com
thriving with 643 members, a fleet
of 195 yachts and a brand new brass
starter’s cannon proudly displayed in
front of the clubhouse. However, it
was not until 1878 that the club finally
purchased the remaining furnishings
and stock for an additional £1,150
In the early 1880s the RCYC
patronised a big summer Marine Fete
at Hunter’s Quay which included
some rather unusual competitions:
swimming for yachtsmen with clothes
on; swimming with a flag in one
hand; and water polo on horseback.
The horses were made from ballasted
barrels with an assortment of tails
and heads attached. The players had
double paddles to manoeuvre their
extremely unstable craft and propel
the polo ball.
The club experienced a steady
increase in influence and prosperity
over the next few years and due to
the increase in hotel visitors a large
extension was built in 1882. The
hotel now boasted 34 bedrooms
and a dining room which could
accommodate 100 guests.
In 1887 a syndicate from the RCYC
headed by Vice Commodore James
Bell built the G L Watson designed
yacht Thistle to challenge the New York
Yacht Club’s yacht Volunteer in the
7th America’s Cup. Thistle won eleven
races out of her fifteen starts in home
waters but sadly lost the America’s
Cup series in the US later that year.
On 12 July, 1888 a fire broke out
in the kitchen and quickly spread to
the rest of the hotel because there
were no fire appliances. A telegram
was immediately sent to Dunoon
and the fire hose arrived within 45
minutes. However, it was found to be
far too short to be of any use so the
damage was much more extensive
than it should have been and the hotel
burnt to the ground. The fire hose
lay unused on the shore road and
provided a great source of amusement
at the expense of the authorities.
Fortunately the fire occurred during
the day so everybody managed to
escape to safety. Much of the furniture
and liquor stock was removed in time
but tragically the club records and
yachting photographs did not survive.
It appears that many of the
liquid assets found their way
into the ‘hands’ of the local
volunteers and observers. In
fact, several of the helpers
26
p24-30 Royal Clyde Yacht Club.indd 26
had to be removed from the site due to
their intoxicated state.
It was not until January 1889 that
the Dunoon Police Commissioners
(which were still responsible for
Hunter’s Quay) recommended that
a fire brigade be formed. Mr James
Collie the Burgh Surveyor placed an
advertisement in the newspaper for
four firemen on 30 January and the
Dunoon Fire Brigade was officially
formed on 16 February, 1889.
Valkyrie II, one of the
finest yachts ever
built on the Clyde,
was commissioned by
Lord Dunraven from a
prominent member of
the RCYC
The new Royal Marine Hotel
While the new hotel and clubhouse
were being built the nearby Craigend
Villa was quickly rented for a year
to provide temporary facilities.
As the hotel was fully insured the
committee quickly organised an open
architectural competition for a larger
and more imposing replacement for
the old hotel and clubhouse. By the
end of 1888 Thomas Lennox Watson’s
design had been selected. T L Watson
was the cousin of famous naval
architect George Lennox Watson
who was a distinguished member of
the club. The initial estimate for the
work was just over £6,000 so they
quickly began to look at financing the
project. The list of Trustees appointed
in December 1888 read like a Who’s
Who of big business on the Clyde
and as a result £8,000 to start the
rebuilding project was quickly raised
by just 32 of the 643 members.
However, the final cost including
all the luxurious fittings and
furnishings is believed to have
been in excess of £18,000.
Fortuitously, significantly
improved transportation
links materialised
just in time for the
opening of the new
hotel. Following
extensive
tunnelling
work the
Greenock
to
Gourock railway line was opened on 1
June, 1889. Compared to a three-hour
steamer trip direct from Glasgow,
Hunter’s Quay could now be reached
by train/steamer in two hours.
This made the RCYC and the new
Royal Marine Hotel a much more
appealing destination for yachtsmen
and tourists alike.
When the new building was
opened on 28 December, 1889 it
was renamed the Royal Marine
Hotel. The imposing new English
styled club yacht-house was quite
unrivalled in the kingdom. Above
the spacious public rooms there
were 40 bedrooms, bathrooms and
changing rooms. A first floor balcony
provided a fine vantage point for
the yacht racing and the billiards
room, with its fine oak roof and
low-arched windows, also offered
magnificent views of the Clyde.
The internal decor was designed to
complement the fine carved wood
work and stained glass windows.
The club’s reading room was full
of model yachts, historical yachting
photographs and paintings of famous
members. During the rebuilding
project the small landing pier and
access from the road were greatly
improved. However, the big new
hotel only had one small flagpole
which was attached to the top of the
stone tower.
The golden years
The opening cruise of 1890 heralded
the start of the Golden Years of the
RCYC and the Royal Marine Hotel
which lasted two decades. Due to the
influence of its members, the club was
in a position to organise some of the
most exciting yacht races the world
had ever seen: the America’s Cup
challenge of 1893; the battle between
the big US yacht Vigilant and the
Royal yacht Britannia in 1894;
and the Olympic twelve metre
competition in 1908.
The Club had rapidly
grown in influence and
power within thirty years of
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:08
The Royal Clyde Yacht Club
its formation.
Quite apart from Royal patrons and
titled Commodores, the membership
included the cream of the industrial
aristocracy of the West - the threadmaking Coats and Clarks of Paisley;
MacIver of Liverpool, Donaldson, Birrell
and Dunlop among the shipowners;
such shipbuilders as Scott, Inglis,
Duncan Hamilton and Connell - with
Professor J.H. Biles of the chair of Naval
Architecture at Glasgow University;
William Beardmore, John Ure,Wylie,
Teacher,Thom in a looser classification;
then Lyles and Neills of the Greenock
sugar refining dynasties.
The imposing new RCYC
clubhouse at Hunter’s Quay was now
at the very heart of Clyde yachting
with membership over 800. The club
even had its own 40 ton yacht Alcyone,
for the exclusive use of members. The
three leading yacht designers of the day
– William Fife, George Lennox Watson
and Alfred Mylne – were all influential
members of this prestigious club. Such
was the importance of the organisation
that the committee was instrumental
in getting a telegraph office built at the
entrance of the clubhouse to quickly
relay results of yacht races to London
and allow the captains of industry to
remain in contact with their businesses.
In 1897 the club was asked to bring
its influence to bear to persuade the
Post Office authorities to extend the
Glasgow telephone line to Dunoon.
The new Royal Marine
Hotel, pictured
in 1890, the year after
the new Greenock
to Gourock railway
line opened, allowing
Hunter’s Quay to
be reached from
Glasgow in two hours
be kept alive in the hotel’s bathtubs,
would always be on the menu.
1893 was a very notably year for
both Clyde yachting and the RCYC.
The Prince of Wales and Lord
Dunraven went to G L Watson to
design two of the finest yachts ever
built on the Clyde, Britannia and
Valkyrie II. It was a great honour for
one of the club’s most active members
to be awarded these high-status
commissions. In a late season race
organised by the New York Yacht Club
in October 1893 Valkyrie II sadly lost
the America’s Cup challenge to US
It was said that at times you
could almost walk between Hunter’s
Quay and Strone Point there were so
many yachts anchored offshore
The start of each new season was
always a very special occasion. It was
said that at times you could almost
walk between Hunter’s Quay and
Strone Point there were so many
yachts anchored offshore. As carriages
drew up to the entrance they would
be greeted by the band of the Argyll
& Sutherland Highlanders playing
on the lawn. Morning dress was
prescribed for the opening dinners
and Herr Iff’s famous string orchestra
would provide musical entertainment
in the evenings. Lobsters, which would
yacht Vigilant, many attributing the
unfortunate defeat to her sail problems.
At the start of the 1894 season
Valkyrie II was tragically hit below
the waterline in an accident at the
start of the Mudhook Regatta race off
Hunter’s Quay and sunk in seventeen
fathoms of water in just nine minutes.
After a massive operation to recover
the yacht she was brought ashore
at Ardnadam to be pumped out,
having been temporarily patched
up underwater with canvas. She was
successfully refloated on the rising
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p24-30 Royal Clyde Yacht Club.indd 27
tide and towed to Greenock for
inspection. Fortunately, her mast did
provide an admirable replacement for
the big flagpole at the original hotel.
This new flagpole remained in the
garden of the hotel until 1988 when
it had to be removed due to safety
concerns. The mast was then recycled
and turned into the wooden benches
that can still be seen at the Lazaretto
Point war memorial.
The skirl of pipes aboard the big
steam yachts anchored off Hunter’s
Quay on 9 July, 1894 heralded
breakfast and the start of one of the
most significant days in the history
of yacht racing on the Clyde. On
the lawn of the hotel music was
provided by the brass band from
the sail training ship Empress, which
was based in the Gareloch between
1889 and the 1920s. Out at sea the
band of the 1st Volunteer Battalion of
the Highland Light Infantry played
aboard the club steamer, which had
been hired for the day.
Dunselma, which was built as a
sailing lodge for James Coats can also
be seen in the photograph below, on
the skyline above Strone Point:
This house and associated buildings
are the ultimate expression of conspicuous
wealth of the late 19th century
industrialists. .…James Coats Junior
(1841-1912) was the grandson of
Sir James Coats, the Paisley cotton
millionaire. He was the president of the
Royal ClydeYacht Club and is known to
27
31/07/2017 11:33
www.historyscotland.com
have owned 16 yachts.
With all eyes and telescopes
focused, two of the world’s most
famous super-yachts were propelled
out of the mouth of the Holy Loch
at speed. His Royal Highness’s yacht
Britannia and the previous year’s
US America’s Cup winner Vigilant
were about to commence battle for
the magnificent Queen’s Cup. These
powerful 120 ft. yachts with crews of
around 40 carried over 10,000 sq. ft.
of canvas and with their spinnakers
set were capable of reaching close
to sixteen knots. The first race was
closely fought with Britannia taking
the honours. More than 100,000
people watched the thrilling contest
and crowds were jam-packed along
the Hunter’s Quay to Dunoon road
and between Gourock and the Cloch
Lighthouse. All the Clyde steamers
respectfully gave the racing arena a
wide berth but the yachts were still
pursued by many small craft.
Three quotes from the Dunoon
Herald and Cowal Advertiser on 13 July
1894, sum up the excited mood of the
Clyde on its Big Day:
The success of the Britannia
throughout the (Clyde) Fortnight has
been quite marvellous – having beaten
theYankee ‘flier’ (Vigilant) six times
in succession – and should make up
for the defeat suffered by this country
in American waters last year (in the
America’s Cup).
1894 will be memorable in the annals
of the sport, as it witnessed the struggle
which terminated in the decisive victory
of a British yacht over the best boat that
America could produce and man.
Now that the battle’s fought and won
and the honour of our country restored
by a Clyde-built yacht....I would suggest
in the interest of the Burgh (of Dunoon)
that a Cup should be subscribed for by the
community and presented to the Royal
ClydeYacht Club to be competed for at
the annual regatta next July.…I am sure
that such would be highly appreciated by
the members of the Club, and it would
also go to show that the community were
not slow to recognise and appreciate the
great benefit the Club has bestowed upon
the whole district.
the establishment was for yachting,
not golf. There was also a general
prejudice against the use of hired
or chartered yachts in any of the
club’s sailing events. For many years
membership for ladies was restricted
to certain areas of the club house and
even in 1949 was limited to 50. The
club even issued detailed guidelines
regarding clothing considered
appropriate for club balls, receptions,
evening wear, and morning dress.
Sir Thomas Lipton, the famous
grocery store and tea merchant,
built the first of his five ‘Shamrock’
challengers for the America’s Cup in
1899. Although he was an influential
member of the RCYC his challenges
were always issued in the name of the
Royal Ulster Yacht Club. Due to a
shared passion for yacht racing with
the Prince of Wales and King George
V, Lipton was frequently entertained
aboard the royal yacht at Cowes and
often took them on his big steam
yacht Erin.
At the end of the century the RCYC
was thriving with 1,091 members
and 389 yachts – by comparison the
Royal Northern Yacht Club had 520
members. A total of 308 steamers had
been built on Clydeside with 40 of
them now servicing 60 piers during the
peak summer months.Yachting was
such an important asset to the area that
in 1900 the Burgh of Dunoon (which
still included Hunter’s Quay) donated
the ‘Hundred Guinea Cup’ to the
RCYC, which became known as the
Dunoon Burgh Cup.
Without doubt, the RCYC’s Royal
Marine Hotel and Clubhouse at
Hunter’s Quay had become one of the
foremost yachting venues in the world:
The Club never seemed to be quite
sure whether it wanted women or not.
While they were appreciated in small
numbers it appears there were limits.
During the summer of 1894 a notice
was posted in the clubhouse informing
members that on regatta days
invitations to ladies should not extend
beyond four o’clock in the afternoon
and bedroom accommodation, as
much as possible, should be for
yachting men. Nonetheless, it appears
that no such restrictions applied when
it came to the Club Balls.
The RCYC Ball became one of
Glasgow’s main social events during
the winter. These large functions for
around 800 guests were held in St
Andrew’s Halls at Charing Cross, one
of the most fashionable places in town.
In 1897 the entire suite of rooms on
the first floor was requisitioned along
with the main hall which was used
for dancing. There was a nautical
theme for the decorations with the
club trophies proudly on display in the
reception area.
The club valued its exclusivity and
guarded itself against intrusion. One
poor fellow who made the mistake
of carrying his golf clubs into the
hotel was discretely taken aside by
the club secretary and reminded that
Hunter’s Quay c.1910
28
p24-30 Royal Clyde Yacht Club.indd 28
By 1899 the Royal ClydeYacht Club
could claim to be the largest yacht club in
the world in terms of tonnage. – James
Meikle, yachting journalist.
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:08
The Royal Clyde Yacht Club
A want which has been long felt by
yachtsmen visiting the Clyde will be fully
provided this season by the erection of a
spacious hotel and clubhouse at Hunter’s
Quay…..the anchorage in the vicinity
being perhaps unequalled anywhere at
any other point on the coast. – Hunt’s
Yachting Magazine.
Yachts racing off
Hunter’s Quay, 1893
As a club yacht-house it is quite
unrivalled in the kingdom. ….and
cannot fail to strike strangers as the most
picturesque and spacious building on the
Clyde. – Dunoon Herald.
….the palatial residence was
without any question the finest building
anywhere dedicated to the sport. –
Evening Times.
….with the distant view up the Clyde,
obtained from the club-house windows
or frontage, is not to be surpassed in any
country in the world. – Yachting by Sir
Edward Sullivan Bart.
As active members William Fife, G
L Watson and Alfred Mylne raised the
credit of the Royal Clyde Yacht Club to
a level of esteem not enjoyed by more
than a dozen other yacht clubs in the
world. These three men had, in effect,
within 50 years or so endowed the
Clyde with precisely the same credit in
yachting terms as the Clyde shipbuilders
have earned in those of commercial
construction. – Cruise in Company,
George Blake.
One notable member of the club,
Thomas Glen-Coats of the Paisley
textile dynasty, prepared his yacht
Hera and a crew from the RCYC
to take part in the 1908 Olympics.
As only two yachts were entered in
the twelve-metre class the Olympic
committee allowed the race to be held
in one of their home ports rather than
the main yachting venue at Cowes.
The owners tossed a coin to decide
and as a result the race was held on
the Clyde. The Hera racing on her
home waters off Hunter’s Quay easily
beat the Merseyside based yacht
Mouchette, in the best of three races.
Sadly, the Golden Years of the RCYC
and Royal Marine Hotel at Hunter’s
Quay were about to come to a close:
The Big Boat was to be a long time
a-dying, but the red light started to
flicker as early as 1909.
As one diehard from the club put
it, golf, motor-cars and taxation
ruined yachting. At the end of 1909
the committee took note of the
serious drop in revenue from the
clubhouse during the year. The threat
of increased taxes on the wealthy
also had a major impact on the
future of the club. Lloyd George’s
revolutionary People’s Budget of
1909-10 introduced unprecedented
taxes on the wealthy to fund radical
social welfare programmes to try and
eliminate poverty.
Due to the influence of its members,
the club was in a position to organise
some of the most exciting yacht races
the world had ever seen
War years
By 1914 there were 70 piers on the
Clyde with up to thirteen steamers
operating during the summer.Yachting
on the Clyde effectively came to a
close in 1914 when the Navy rigged
an anti-submarine boom between the
Cloch Lighthouse and Dunoon in
preparation for World War I.
With the deteriorating economic
situation between the wars the big
racing yachts of the early 1900s were in
decline and smaller yachts had become
more popular. The resumption of the
RCYC’s yachting after World War I was
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p24-30 Royal Clyde Yacht Club.indd 29
a subdued affair and got off to a rather
slow start with only nine men turning
up for the first meeting in March 1919.
There was a very unpleasant reminder
from the past as the water and shores
of the Clyde were heavily polluted by
oil from all the wartime naval activities.
By the 1930s the bedrooms in the
hotel finally had water laid on and
were at last fitted with electric lights.
D Guthrie Dunn, a notable member
of the RCYC, set off to sail round the
world from the Holy Loch in 1930
in his Robertson built yacht Southern
Cross. Tragically he was lost overboard
near St Helena on the return leg but
with a replacement crew the yacht
returned to Sandbank and completed
the circumnavigation in 1933.
It was not until 1937 that the
RNYC, the other leading Clyde
yacht club, moved from Rothesay
to its current clubhouse at Rhu,
which had previously been the
private house, Ardenvhor. In 1938
the distinguished RCYC member
Herbert Thom, believed by many
to be the Clyde’s best yachtsman,
brought home the Seawanhaka
Cup from the US and successfully
29
31/07/2017 11:33
www.historyscotland.com
defended it in home waters the
following year. His sleek six-metre
yacht Circe was designed by David
Boyd, another loyal RCYC member,
and built just round the corner at
Robertson’s Yard in the Holy Loch.
With the outbreak of World War
II all yachting on the Firth of Clyde
was curtailed. However, contrary
to expectations the hotel showed a
handsome profit during the war as
it was one of the few to escape the
Clyde’s ‘restricted area’ and had
become a popular weekend venue
to get some respite from the heavy
bombing on Clydeside. Mirroring
the general decline in yachting and
size of yachts, by the end of the
war the number of Clyde piers had
reduced to just 34.
The move from Hunter’s Quay
There was a slow return to yachting
after the war and just sixteen
yachts took part in the opening
Clyde regatta of 1948. With the
deteriorating economic climate,
higher costs, increased taxes and a
great reluctance by many members
to accept higher annual fees, the
finances of the club started to go
downhill. The club purchased four
small Loch Longs for new recruits, to
try and boost membership.
At the end of November 1951 the
British Rail Executive announced
that no more passenger steamers
would be calling at Hunter’s Quay as
the service, along with others on the
Clyde, was no longer viable. With the
loss of this vital transportation link to
Gourock and Glasgow the decline of
the club was inevitable. At a meeting
held in early 1952 the members were
informed of the serious losses in
running the hotel of around £2,000
per annum. The following year the
committee indicated that if the club
was to survive they would have to
sell or rent. The financial situation
was not helped when in 1954 the
manager stole £807 from the hotel to
cover his gambling debts.
The hotel also suffered a major
decline in business due to the
introduction of cheap package holidays
to the sun in the 1950s. Advances in
jet engine design allowed aeroplanes to
carry more passengers, longer distances
at less cost. In addition, improvements
to the continental motorway network
now made bus holidays an attractive
30
p24-30 Royal Clyde Yacht Club.indd 30
option. Consequently, Hunter’s Quay
became a less viable location as a
tourist destination.
The RCYC’s 1956 centenary
regatta was held at Rothesay on
Saturday 30 June, rather than
Hunter’s Quay, because there was
better anchorage for the large
number of international yachts and
also the hotel accommodation was
considered more appropriate for
the Royal visit. After the racing was
concluded the yachts took part in
the famous RCYC/RNYC tradition,
a sailing procession called the
‘cruise in company’. Two hundred
British, Irish, Italian, German,
Danish and Norwegian wooden
yachts took part in one of the most
remarkable parades in the history
of Clyde yachting. At the end of
‘Clyde Fortnight’ the Marques and
Marchioness of Bute granted the
use of their palatial Mount Stuart
mansion for the grand Centenary
Ball held on 12 July.
In July 1960 Clyde Week operated
from the RCYC’s headquarters
at the Royal Marine Hotel at
Hunter’s Quay for the last time.
The club decided not to hold the
1961 International Regatta at
Hunter’s Quay but at Rothesay,
which in effect signalled the end
of the club at Hunter’s Quay. The
hotel/clubhouse was sold to John
MacLaurin on 8 February, 1961
for £10,000 and the RCYC moved
to a series of modest club premises
at Rhu. Due to the lack of space
in their new facilities a lot of club
memorabilia, cups and paintings
were stored in members’ houses for
safekeeping. Sadly, not all of the
material found its way back into the
club archives.
However, it was not until 20
View from the
New Royal Marine
Hotel, 1890
January, 1978, with their fortunes
reversed, that the two senior yacht
clubs in Scotland finally agreed
to a merger after twenty years of
tentative discussions. In 1899 RCYC
membership stood at 1,091 with
the RNYC at 520, however, RNYC
numbers had now climbed to 1100
with the RCYC at just 300:
It is with pride and considerable
pleasure that the committees announce
that Her Majesty the Queen has consented
to be patron of the Royal Northern and
ClydeYacht Club and his Royal Highness
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, has
agreed to become Admiral.
With the merger the illustrious 122
year history of the Royal Clyde Yacht
Club came to a close.
David I. Hutchison compiled the history
of the Royal ClydeYacht Club at Hunter’s
Quay as part of his ongoing research into
the history of Robertson’sYard and its
contribution to ClydeYachting.
FURTHER
READING
Cruise in Company: History of the
Royal Clyde Yacht Club 1856-1956,
George Blake & Christopher Small
(Royal Clyde Yacht Club, 1959)
The Clyde, from its source to the sea,
W.J. Millar (London, 1888)
The Clyde Passenger Steamer: Its Rise
and Progress during the Nineteenth
Century: From the Comet of 1812
to the King Edward of 1901, Captain
James Williamson (Glasgow, 1904)
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:08
Style at Sea
Chris Walker introduces a new exhibition which looks back at the golden age of ocean travel,
when Glasgow shipyards were producing some of the world’s finest ocean liners
O
cean travel has
always been perilous,
yet on the largest
modern ocean
liners you could
be forgiven for forgetting you were
even at sea. A new exhibition at the
Scottish Maritime Museum, Style
at Sea, celebrates the grand age of
ocean liners, their evolution, and
particularly the links tying Clydebank
shipbuilder John Brown & Company
and liner firm Cunard.
Perhaps the most famous
monuments of the collaboration
between John Brown and Company
and Cunard are the liners Queen Mary
and Queen Elizabeth 2 (QE2). These
monolithic ships became icons of their
age and touched the lives of thousands
of people. The roots of John Brown
and Cunard’s relationship can be
traced back much further, though, to
the middle of the 19th century.
Brothers James and George
Thomson formed J&G Thomson
in 1851 and built their first Cunard
ship, SS Jura, in 1854. By the time
the yard was bought by steelmaker
John Brown and Company in 1899,
the Clydebank yard already had a
reputation for building high quality
passenger ships. Expansion continued,
and John Brown’s innovation in steam
turbines, as well as the yard’s prime
positioning on the busy Clyde, made
them an obvious candidate to build
large ships. In fact between 1900 and
1970 the yard would launch sixteen
ships for Cunard.
Indeed many famous liners left the
yard; Lusitania was launched in 1904,
with John Brown spending some
£75,000 on upgrading the yard to
make it ready for construction. Her
career was tragically cut short after
she was torpedoed and sunk south of
Ireland on 7 May, 1915, with the loss
of almost 1,200 passengers and crew.
The event was controversially
celebrated in a bronze medallion
designed by Karl Goetz; a
British copy, reproduced by
department store entrepreneur
Harry Selfridge for propaganda
purposes, is on display as part of
the exhibition.
Perhaps most famous of all the
vessels built by John Brown was
Queen Mary. Coinciding with the
Great Depression of the 1930s,
her construction was held up and
almost bankrupted both the yard and
Cunard.
It was only through an emergency
loan from the government, in a deal
which saw Cunard acquire fellow
ailing firm White Star, that she was
completed. Such was the impact
on the local community that when
construction restarted a pipe band led
workers through the shipyard gates
and back to work.
Heralded ‘the wonder ship’ of
the age by the press, she became
the first vessel to be launched by
a reigning monarch, when her
namesake saw her down the slip and
Above: A 1930s
Cunard brochure
providing a cutaway
view of Queen Mary;
inset: the QE2’s Ward
Room book, with
decades-worth of
celebrity signatures
The Goetz Medal:
Death sells tickets
to doomed Cunard
passengers, beneath
the caption ‘Profit
Over All’; a reference
to the repeated
warnings by the
German government
that liners such as
Lusitania would
be targeted
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p31 Style at sea.indd 31
into the Clyde in 1934.
Ironically QE2 suffered similar
problems when John Brown built
her in the 1960s. At a time of fierce
competition and falling orders, she
was built almost at cost price by a
yard desperate to put themselves in
the shop window.
The ship was revolutionary and
foreshadowed many of the features
to be found on modern superliners.
Unfortunately, John Brown didn’t
survive to see her triumph; the yard
was absorbed into Upper Clyde
Shipbuilders before her launch,
ending the hugely successful
relationship between the two giants
of maritime history.
Style at Sea runs until 25
September and features artefacts,
paintings and the QE2 Ward Room
Book which was signed by the
liner’s most famous passengers.
Other highlights include costumes
reminiscent of those worn on board,
courtesy of the Museum of Ayrshire
Country Life and Costume.
Chris Walker is Exhibitions and Events
Officer at the Scottish Maritime Museum.
Scottish Maritime Museum,
Harbour Road, Irvine, North
Ayrshire KA12 8QE; web: www.
scottishmaritimemuseum.org
Open daily, 10am – 5pm;
exhibition included in the price
of admission to the museum.
31
31/07/2017 10:09
www.historyscotland.com
Scotland’s Lost Abbey
Selkirk Abbey
In this new study, Frank Harkness discovers how and why Selkirk Abbey was founded
assessing whether the flooding problems which periodically beset the area today played any
part in the decision to abandon the site after just fifteen years
T
he late Professor
Geoffrey Barrow
once stated:
….. it is a point
worth emphasising that the earliest
settlement anywhere in Britain
of any of the communities of
‘reformed’ Benedictines - Cistercians,
Tironesians, Savignacs and others
- through which the religious life
of western Europe underwent so
profound a transformation was the
abbey of Selkirk in Scotland.
If Selkirk Abbey was so
important, why do we know
so little about it? When was it
established, where and why?
Selkirk folk have long memories.
The slogan ‘We come frae
nothing sma’ suggests history
is important in Selkirk. The
highlight of Selkirk’s year, the
Common Riding, commemorating
Selkirk’s proud and tragic part in
the Battle of Flodden 600 years
ago confirms this. It is surprising
then that something as important
as the founding of Britain’s
first reformed abbey at Selkirk,
32
p32-35 Selkirk Abbey.indd 32
albeit 900 years ago, should have
dropped out of Selkirk’s folk
memory and that now there is
apparently nothing left to tell
where it was or even show that it
existed. However, there are clues if
you know where to look.
The abbey was founded by
earl David, later King David I
(1124-53), who probably did
more to shape his home country
than any other Scot. He was
devout, ambitious and astute.
He spent time as a youth at
his brother-in-law, Henry I of
England’s court and travelled
in England and France. He
was educated and informed in
politics, warfare and religion.
Although his time at Henry’s
court likely inspired his thinking,
he was his own man. Upon
gaining control over Cumbria
and most of southern Scotland,
David started a programme of
reforms with the aim of improving
administration and control. To
that end he introduced families
from England and Normandy who
would support and further ‘state
A modern-day view
of the land where
Selkirk might have
been sited
formation’. David was profoundly
religious but he also knew the
importance a strong and loyal
church could play in supporting
the cultural and political reforms
he planned. It was against this
background that he decided to
establish the abbey at Selkirk.
Selkirk and Tiron
Why Selkirk and why monks from
Tiron, a relatively obscure and
recently formed order in France?
David may have visited Tiron in
the forest of Perche while serving
King Henry I of England. He knew
that the order had been established
by Bernard as a breakaway from
the Benedictines who some felt
had strayed from their forming
principals – were too worldly
and less devout. The monks of
Tiron were reclusive, devout and
industrious. Every monk was
expected to learn and practice a
skill or trade. But perhaps most
importantly they were independent
of any other established order. At
a time when the Scottish Church,
supported by King Alexander I
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:11
Medieval history – Selkirk Abbey
and David, was struggling to resist
the authority of the Benedictine
archbishop of York, the Tiron
monks’ independence may have
been an important factor.
As for the choice of Selkirk,
Oram has recently argued that it
was in effect a ‘free zone’ where
‘population was small, royal or lordly
authority was remote and largely
ineffective, brigandage was endemic
and social and economic structures
were undeveloped’. Nearly 200
years later Wallace used the area as
a base from which to carry out his
guerrilla warfare against Edward I of
England. Selkirk and Ettrick Forest
was a key area for David. It lay on
the northern boundary between his
western possessions in Strathclyde
and to the east what was to become
the counties of Roxburgh and
Berwickshire. It also occupied a key
position on one of the major Scottish
highways of its day, the Minchmoor
road, capable of carrying wheeled
transport and providing access to
the rest of Scotland. Establishing
a monastery there was therefore
perhaps critical for David’s aim
to develop the area socially and
culturally and increase his authority
in a borderline but important area.
An equally important reason
to choose Selkirk returns to his
decision to select monks from
Tiron to establish the monastery.
Again politics and religion play
their part. Around 1070, monks
from Durham had tried to revive
the church at Old Melrose but
had moved on after refusing
to take an oath of fealty to the
1114, although almost certainly there
would have been an advance party
from Tiron surveying and defining its
basic requirements at least a year or
two earlier. By 1126 it was decided
that Selkirk was not ‘suitable’ and the
monks of Tiron moved to Kelso to
establish their abbey there.
The monks who arrived at Selkirk from
Tiron knew the need for and had experience
of creating a water supply for an abbey
Ruins of Kelso
Abbey superimposed
onto the author’s
suggested site
for Selkirk Abbey,
showing the location
of the river and burn
in relation to the
monastic complex
Scottish king. Kelso, at the time
that David established Selkirk,
came under the diocese of St
Andrews and under Alexander
I who was struggling to resist
English religious control. Selkirk
by contrast was part of the
diocese of Glasgow which was in
David’s territory and he could
and did resist control by York.
Selkirk not ‘suitable’
The reason we know so little
about Selkirk Abbey was that it
never really got off the ground.
David’s charter establishing the
abbey and allocating its lands and
resources was produced around
Although, from the time of its
inception to the withdrawal to
Kelso was not much more than
fifteen years, it is possible to
establish where the monks of Tiron
started their venture and why they
needed to abandon the work they
already had carried out to build
Selkirk Abbey.
Although we know it was in the
vicinity of Selkirk, the Abbey’s
exact location has been contested,
but plans and records exist which
indicate to us where the monks
intended to build their abbey.
One of Scotland’s oldest surviving
written records, David’s charter of
c.1114, gives a detailed description
River Ettrick
To Lindean Kirk
A7 to Selkirk
Batts Burn
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p32-35 Selkirk Abbey.indd 33
33
31/07/2017 11:34
www.historyscotland.com
of the lands given to the monks
to build and support the abbey.
Hardie in Roads of Medieval
Lauderdale made a detailed and
credible analysis of the description
of the Selkirk lands gifted to the
abbey: The northern boundary
was the stream which ran down
from the ‘Crossinemara’ and into
the River Tweed. Both Hardie
and Professor Barrow suggest
‘Crossinmera’ or ‘Crossanesmer’
refers to the land around
Cauldshields and Faldonside Lochs.
The south boundary is the
stream that runs down from the
hills to the Yarrow, now known
at Selkirk, as the Ettrick. Hardie
makes a reasonable argument that
this stream refers to what is now
known as the Batts Burn. However,
the really intriguing evidence from
the charter, and the key to the
mystery of where the Selkirk Abbey
was intended to be, is the inclusion
in the charter of a ‘particula terra’,
beyond the stream, a small portion
of land between the River Yarrow
and the road that ran from Selkirk
castle to the abbey. Convincing
evidence of where this particular
piece of land was can be found in
19th-century Ordnance Survey,
and earlier, maps depicting the
Parish of Galashiels.
Parishes have played an
important part in Scotland’s social
and cultural history and defining
them accurately was important.
The parish you lived in decided
which church you payed your teind
or taxes to. In the 13th century the
Scottish parish boundaries were
defined and remained largely the
same until the 1890s. The OS 25
inch maps of 1863 for Selkirk and
Roxburgh show an odd narrow strip
of land extending from the direction
of the Batts Burn south towards
Selkirk and stopping at the Shaw
Burn. This piece of land may be the
‘particular terra’ included in the
charter, land belonging to Selkirk,
then Kelso Abbeys; becoming part
of Roxburghshire; and subsequently
Lindean then Galashiels Parish.
This narrow strip of land must have
been specifically included in the
charter for a good reason.
Richard Fawcett provides a
likely answer:
Much depended on the availability
34
p32-35 Selkirk Abbey.indd 34
and position of a water supply to a
monastery because it was quickly
appreciated that an enclosed
community had to have a dependable
source of water for drinking, preparing
food, ensuring certain basic standards
of hygiene and for carrying
away waste.
We do not have to look far down
the Tweed for support of Fawcett’s
claim that a water supply was
essential for an abbey. At Melrose,
just above the cauld, a lade or
One of Scotland’s oldest surviving written
records, David’s charter of c.1114, gives a
detailed description of the lands given to the
monks to build and support they abbey
great drain runs off to the Abbey.
At Dryburgh, again running from
the Cauld Pool, the lade runs off
to service the abbey. Kelso too
has a cauld and although urban
development has obliterated where
a lade might have been, Hogarth’s
Mill shows the almost certain
presence of a lade up-river from
the abbey.
The monks who arrived at Selkirk
from Tiron knew the need for and
had experience of creating a water
supply for an abbey. The site of
Tiron abbey was a swamp and the
first thing the monks did was build
a dam across the river Thiron and
drain the land for their abbey. The
dam created a lake which is still
there today and a sluice was built
to control water in a canal or lade
designed to run past the abbey
kitchens and latrines. Although the
abbey is no longer standing the lade
is still there running underground
past the site of the abbey. A section
from an information board at
Thiron Abbey is significant:
Board at Tiron Abbey
which outlines the
importance
of a reliable water
supply to a
monastic community
Une Resource Indispensable
L’eau conditionne l’implantation
des monastères. C’est pourquoi
de nombreux monastères se sont
d’abord installés provisoirement afin
d’apprécier les ressources hydrauliques
locales et de réaliser les aménagéments
nécessaires. L’insuffisance de cette
ressource naturelle à parfois
justifié le déplacement d’un
monastère ou son abandon.
(An Indispensable Resource
Water affects the implementation
of the monasteries. This is why
many monasteries were first
provisionally installed to utilise
local water resources and produce
the necessary amenities. The
inadequacy of this natural resource
sometimes justified moving a
monastery or abandonment.)
I would like to suggest that the
‘particular terra’ was provided to
facilitate a lade or great drain to
service Selkirk Abbey. The cauld,
necessary to build a head of water
would have been built or planned
to be built just above where the
Shaw Burn would enter the River
Ettrick, well upstream from the
important ford giving access to the
Minchmoor Road.
The lade coming out of the
Ettrick above the cauld would
run down the east side of the
Ettrick, fed by the Shaw Burn and
continuing north picking up water
from the Batts Burn and on to
rejoin the Ettrick after servicing the
abbey. Water cannot run uphill, so
the course of the lade was dictated
by the contours of the land.
An indication of where the lade
would have been intended to have
run might be given by the existing
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:11
Medieval history – Selkirk Abbey
line of the disused lade, down
river, from the lade system and
cauld built in the 18th century to
provide power for the Selkirk textile
mills. This lade began close to
Bridgeheugh and then, fed by the
Batts Burn, continued to Lindean
Mill. Interestingly, Lindean and
Lindean Mill were recorded at the
time of the Reformation as being
part of the rental of Kelso Abbey.
There is still a mill building at
Lindean, close to the Ettrick, which
was serviced by the lade. If there is
any merit in this suggestion, then
it is in the flat area, east of the lade
and north of the Batts Burn, that
we can perhaps look for the site
of the intended Abbey. The usual
format would be for the kitchens,
latrines and dormitories to be built
close to the lade or great drain, and
then the Abbey nearby.
The move to Kelso
Anyone who has lived for a while
in Selkirk knows that the area
below Lindean church would
not be a good site to build an
important and prestigious building.
A vast area of hill land drains into
the Ettrick and Yarrow rivers. Not
every year, but on a fairly regular
basis, the Ettrick at Selkirk has
flooded the lower area of the town
and the low lying area between
Lindean Church and the river.
Millions of pounds are currently
being spent on The Selkirk Flood
Protection Scheme and maps
derived from computer modelling
show the area to be vulnerable. We
do not know how long the monks
from Tiron had to wait to find out
that the area chosen for the Abbey
was not suitable, but it is almost
certain that in the space of fifteen or
so years they would learn through
experience.
Fresh from taming a river at
Tiron, the River Ettrick may
just have seemed like a similar
challenge to be overcome, at least
We do not know how long the monks from
Tiron had to wait to find out that the area
chosen for the Abbey was not suitable, but it is
almost certain that in the space of fifteen or so
years they would learn through experience
Floor plan of Tiron
Abbey in France, the
house from which
the monks who
helped found the
monastic community
at Selkirk originated
at first. However, while the Thiron
originates a comparatively short
distance from the Abbey and
its catchment area is a relatively
small area of low lying hills, the
Ettrick and its major tributary the
Yarrow each have their origins
more than 25 miles distant in a
vast area of high hills. Today’s
engineers working on Selkirk’s
Flood Protection Scheme have a
very healthy respect for the river.
They describe it as ‘dynamic’ and
‘unpredictable’. Even with modern
technology, machinery and vast
resources, the river is still capable of
springing surprises.
It is often suggested that the
Selkirk site was abandoned in
favour of a move to Kelso following
David’s accession to the
Scottish crown in 1124; that
the monks moved to Kelso
to be near Roxburgh which
became David’s preferred base
in Scotland. Certainly Kelso’s link
to S. Andrews became less of a
problem following a deal with King
Henry I of England in relation to
allegiance to the archbishop of
York. However, I would also like
to suggest that moving entirely for
material reasons is unlikely.
Within a few years David was
responsible for building a vast
number of religious establishments
throughout Scotland. He clearly
had the means to build an abbey at
Kelso without abandoning his plans
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p32-35 Selkirk Abbey.indd 35
for Selkirk. In addition, his reasons
for establishing the abbey at Selkirk
had not changed. It remained a vital
area that David needed to control.
The Minchmoor Road was still an
important artery as demonstrated in
1234 when Alexander II bestowed
additional land across the Ettrick to
build a bridge at the site of the ford
near Lindean.
It seems unlikely that, still
motivated by their recently
established founding principles,
the devout and reclusive monks
would have been tempted to move
for purely worldly ambition. It
seems far more likely to me that
the monks of Tiron experienced
the same flooding problems that
exist today and were obliged by the
forces of nature to abandon their
plans for Selkirk Abbey.
Frank Harkness is a retired Detective
Inspector with a postgraduate masters
research degree from Edinburgh
University’s School of Scottish Studies.
He is a Fellow of the Society of
Antiquaries, Scotland.
FURTHER
READING
• Kingship and Unity:
Scotland 1000 -1306, G.W.S. Barrow
(Edinburgh University Press, 2015)
• Melrose Abbey, Richard Fawcett &
Richard Oram (Tempus, 2004)
• The Roads of Medieval Lauderdale,
R.P. Hardie (Oliver & Boyd, 1942)
• Domination and Lordship:
Scotland 1070-1230, Richard Oram
(Edinburgh University Press, 2011)
35
31/07/2017 11:34
www.historyscotland.com
Who captured
Antoine Brennier?
The capture of a French general by a 71st Highlanders soldier at the battle of Vimerio may
actually have been carried out by a young Irish soldier, writes Paul Cowan, who has been
studying contemporary reports of events surrounding the capture
I
t was one of the most
famous incidents in the
Peninsular War(1807-14).
The capture of French
general Antoine Brennier
by the 71st Highlanders made
newspaper headlines back in
Britain and was the subject of
several popular prints and at least
one commemorative jug.
The newspapers back home
reported Brennier’s astonishment
when his offer of his purse
and gold watch as a reward for
sparing his life was rejected. The
Highlanders’ commanding officer,
Lieutenant Colonel Denis Pack,
was said to have told Brennier: ‘We
are soldiers, Sir, not plunderers.’
Another version gives Pack’s words
as: ‘Do not be surprised, we come
not as robbers.’
The corporal officially credited
with capturing the Frenchman
at the Battle of Vimeiro in 1808,
36
p36-37 Brennier.indd 36
John Mackay, was promoted to
the lowest category of officer,
ensign, on the orders of the duke
of Wellington and posted to the
4th West India Regiment. Pack
was proud, Wellington was proud
and the British public was proud.
But some in the 71st Highlanders
were not impressed. Mackay was
accused of stealing the credit for
capturing Brennier from a young
Irish recruit.
Both the 71st Highlanders and
the 95th Rifles were elite units of
the Peninsular War and, as with
today’s elite units, a number of
rank and file members of the 71st
documented their experiences
after the fighting ended. One of
those regimental reminiscences,
Vicissitudes in the Life of a Scottish
Soldier unashamedly accused
Mackay of being a fraud.
The anonymous Glasgwegian
who authored Vicissitudes claimed
British and
Portuguese troops
face French forces at
the battle of Vimerio,
21 August, 1808
that the injured Brennier, trapped
under his dead or dying horse,
had instead been captured by
a nineteen-year-old Irishman
he identified only as Gaven.
The young recruit apparently
declared: ‘By Jasus! I have taken
the sarjant-major of the French.’
The anonymous author said
Mackay then arrived on the scene
but lacked the ‘barefaced’ cheek
to accept the proffered purse
and watch that so many of the
Highlanders present knew should
have gone to the Irishman.
Vicissitudes then went onto
lambast those who showered
Mackay with honours, including
a gold medal from the Highland
Society in London. ‘What was
the cause of this injustice, is
the natural question’, asked the
narrator of Vicissitudes in 1827,
before answering his own question:
I blush to answer: it was because
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:12
Military history
Mackay was a Scotchman, and
further more a Highlander, the latter
was an infallible recommendation to
a set of old drivellers, who lay, and
lie still, constantly on the watch, to
hunt out and blaze forth to the world
anything tending to distinguish the
Highland name – despite the truth.
This outburst could perhaps be
dismissed as sour grapes or the
result of a grudge but for what
the regiment’s other rank and file
chroniclers had to say, or not say,
about Brennier’s capture.
Former Forfarshire shoemaker
Balfour Kermack served with the
71st throughout the Peninsular War
and produced a brief summary of
his service sometime in the 1840s.
In it he also attributed Brennier’s
capture to an Irish private, whom
he did not name, who referred to
the general as ‘the Sergeant Major
of the French’. But Kermack came
up with an alternative reason why
the Irishman was not honoured.
He claimed that the Irishman
had been prevented by Corporal
Mackay from accepting money
from the Frenchman. Bugler John
Macfarlane also served with the
71st throughout the conflict and
left behind an account of the battle
of Vimeiro. The Glasgow man
chose his words very carefully and
simply noted that Mackay escorted
Brennier to battalion headquarters.
The most famous first-hand
account of the battalion’s part
in the Peninsular war is Journal
of a Soldier of the 71st. Perhaps
tellingly, it completely ignores this
most famous of the regiment’s
exploits during the conflict. It has
long been known that the book’s
supposed author ‘Thomas’ never
existed. The real author was a
Glasgow bookbinder called John
Howell. He later admitted that he
got most of his information from
two members of the regiment,
James Todd and Archibald Gavin.
But military records show the pair
could not have witnessed all the
events related in the book.
Military historian Stuart Reid
was recently able to add a third
soldier to the list of Howell’s
sources, Joseph Sinclair. Journal of
a Soldier was the Bravo Two Zerostyle bestseller of the early 1820s
and its silence as regards Mackay
and Brennier is both puzzling
and suspicious. Perhaps Howell’s
informants could not agree on
what happened or maybe the wily
Howell knew better than to rock
the boat.
hero of Vimeiro from the 71st,
Piper George Clark. Clark was
badly wounded in the leg but
nevertheless insisted on playing
his comrades into action as he
lay on the ground bleeding. A
The fifth rank and file memoir
is based on a diary kept by
Irishman William Gavin. It is
the only one that follows the
official line. William Gavin is
not the ‘Gaven’ credited with
capturing Brennier. That was
most likely 19-year-old Private
John Gavin who died a year after
Vimeiro. William Gavin, like
Mackay, was promoted from
the ranks to officer status. The
duke of Wellington authorised a
promotion in recognition of the
71st’s fine performance at the
Battle of Fuentes de Onoro in
1811. He might have expected it
to go to the soldier who fought
in the battle but it went instead
to William Gavin, who was in
Britain at the time.
Mackay’s own behaviour
when he was presented with
his gold medal by the Highland
Society in London was also a
little odd. He was honoured
along with another national
similar performance in 1897 on
the Northwest Frontier of India
would win Piper George Findlater
of the Gordon Highlanders a
Victoria Cross. Clark had to
settle for a set of bagpipes from
the Highland Society.
At the joint presentation in
London Clark made a speech
declaring his new pipes ‘sacred’
and pledging never to surrender
or forget he was a Highlander. He
then treated the society’s members
to an impromptu piping recital.
When Mackay was called forward
to receive his medal, he simply
bowed and returned to his seat.
Modesty or a guilty conscience?
There were those amongst his
former comrades in the 71st who
would appear to have had grounds
for suspecting the latter.
The young recruit apparently
declared ‘By Jasus! I have taken
the sarjant-major of the French’
Newspaper readers
eagerly followed
the progress of the
Peninsular War,
whose battles were
captured by sharpwitted cartoonists.
This 1808 print
titled ‘Boney at
Bayonne blowing
a Spanish bubble’
shows Napoleon
convincing the
Spanish royalty,
who are enclosed
in a bubble, of his
friendship as he
fires a cannonball
at Madrid
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p36-37 Brennier.indd 37
Canadian-based Scottish writer Paul
Cowan recently edited the first fulltext re-issue of ‘Vicissitudes in the Life
of a Scottish Soldier’ since 1827.
37
31/07/2017 10:12
E
IB
CR Y!
BS
SU DA
TO
LIVE OUTSIDE THE UK?
r
u
o
t
e
g
l
il
t
s
n
a
c
u
o
Y
!
e
ic
r
p
t
a
e
r
g
a
t
a
e
in
magaz
FREE! YEAR OF HISTORY, HERIT
AGE
& ARCHAEOLOGY GUIDE
Celebrate
Scotland
Vol.17 No.2 March/A
pril 2017
Your in-depth
Year of History,
guide to
2017
Heritage
and Archaeo
Produced
p01 cover.indd
01/02/2017
09:24
Bonnie Prince
CHARLIE
The Appin Murder of
Was the wrong man exec 1752
uted?
Exploring 5,000 years of
settlement around Roslin
£4.20
04
EXPERT
INSIGHT IN
EVERY ISSUE
✓ ARCHAEOLOGY
✓ HERITAGE
✓ HISTORY
• THE EARLY YEARS
OF TAXIDERMY IN
SCOTLAND • RARE
• SPOTLIGHT ON THE
MAP DISCOVERY
ARCHIVES OF ROYA
L OBSERVATORY EDINB
• NEW EVIDENCE OF
URGH
THRIVING INDUSTRY
IN 19TH-CENTURY
PORTOBELLO
p01 Cover.indd
HEROES
9 771475 527019
www.historyscotland.com
May/June 2017
Vol.17 No.3
PLUS
13
of
01/02/2017 12:43
1914
oured the
How America hon
to war
Scots who went
Gifts for a
PRINCE
JACOBITE
s showered on the
The treasure
ce Charlie
exiled Bonnie Prin
OLOGY
LATEST ARCHAE
ord
Bronze Age sw gus
discovered in An
e in
What life was likch
an Iron Age bro
06
£4.20
PLUS RS OF LAND REGISTRATION
400 YEA
MILITARY
• EXPLORING
IN SCOTLAND
ORDS OF
NATIONAL REC
TE DIARY
HISTORY AT
OF A JACOBI
• SECRETS
ND
TLA
SCO
p01 Cover.indd
9
9 77147 5 52701
and.com
www.historyscotl
Subscribe to History Scotland and enjoy…
Fast-track service (USA and Canada)
…you’ll receive the magazine within 7 to 10 days
Includes delivery direct to your home
Receive six issues a year, packed full of news,
opinion, reports and in-depth features
1
Follow in the footsteps
of
Live outside of Europe?
Get six issues for just £34
Your number one resource for
Scottish history, heritage and archaeology
logy
of
Compreh
ensive history
Your A to
Z of heritage events guide
Castles •
attraction
Museums
s
• Scottish
Clans
NEW HISTORY TRAIL
If you live within Europe,
get a year’s subscription for just £30
by the publishers
29/03/2017
09:12
13
JOIN HISTORY SCOTLAND TODAY!
VISIT: scot.sh/HSsubscribe17
OR CALL: 01778 392463
CODE:
HIS/0910-17
p38 Hist Subs Sep/Oct - OVERSEAS.indd 52
01/08/2017 15:19
The Scottish Civic Trust is the National
Coordinator for Doors Open Days 2017.
Every September, Doors Open Days
invites members of the public to explore,
for free, buildings across Scotland, many
not usually open to the public.
D
oors Open Days
is Scotland’s
largest free
annual
festival that
celebrates heritage and the built
environment. It offers free access
to over 1,000 venues around
Scotland throughout September.
The aim of Doors Open Days
is to ensure that Scotland’s built
heritage is made accessible to
everyone – both people living
in and visiting the country on
weekends in September.
Doors Open Days is
coordinated nationally by the
Scottish Civic Trust and is part
of European Heritage Days.
It is supported by Historic
Environment Scotland. Doors
Open Days is sponsored by
Aberdeen Asset Management and
Festival of Architecture 2017.
Every region across Scotland
coordinates its own programme,
with events held in a different
region for each of the five weekends
of the festival. Get involved in
walks, talks, behind the scenes
tours, exhibitions and archaeology
digs, to name just a few.
All events are hosted on
the national website www.
doorsopendays.org.uk so you can
plan adventures for every weekend
in September!
As part of its 50th anniversary
celebration, the Scottish Civic
Trust is inviting everyone
from celebrities, sports stars
and politicians, to members of
the public to nominate their
Favourite Scottish Door.
For fifty consecutive days, we
will celebrate a favourite door to
a Scottish building. Find out what
happened behind each door to
make it so special in people’s lives:
www.doorsopendays.org.uk/
news/
Follow the nominations
on the website, facebook
(dodscotland), twitter (@
DoorsOpenDays), and share your
photos and stories using hashtags
#dodscot and #50DODdoors.
Follow our Instagram page @
doorsopendaysscotland.
DATES OF WEEKENDS TO
BE FOUND ON WEBSITE:
www.doorsopendays.org.
uk/2017-weekends/
SCOTLAND’S LARGEST FREE ANNUAL ARCHITECTURAL EVENT
DOORS
OPEN
DAYS
Glass Studio at Cromarty, © Carsten Flieger
2017
Mull of Galloway Lighthouse, © Ian Cowe
© Blair Drummond House
Every weekend in September
you can explore hundreds of
fascinating buildings across
Scotland for free.
Some open up once a year,
some just once in a lifetime.
Get into buildings this September!
www.doorsopendays.org.uk
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
www.doorsopendays.org.uk
****Doors open day advo.indd 13
13
01/08/2017 15:20
www.historyscotland.com
GOING DIGITAL
with Scotland’s
History, Heritage,
and Archaeology
With so many history projects and events competing for the public’s attention, it can be difficult
to stand out from the crowd. David C. Weinczok offers his thoughts on how creating a digital
presence can transform the reach of even the smallest event or organisation
T
o reach new
audiences you have to
use new tools, which
is why I work with
Twitter rather than
trowels. Digital content and social
media has opened up Scotland’s past
to the world like never before. If a
schoolchild in Edinburgh wants to
wander the Renaissance-era streets
of the capital they can, thanks to a
digital reconstruction by historians
and computer scientists at St Andrews
University now available as a mobile
app. If a Canadian tourist wants to
get a glimpse of some of Scotland’s
countless castles to help decide which
ones to visit they can, guided along by
YouTube videos from the Registers of
Scotland and Dig It! 2017.
For people who may never have
the chance to visit a place themselves,
they can still see it in real time if they
follow a live broadcaster on a platform
like Facebook Live or Periscope.
Millennials in particular – but by
no means exclusively – will almost
always seek out information about a
place or organisation of interest online
40
p40-41 Castle Hunter.indd 40
David at a recent
shoot for the #RoS400
video series, which
celebrates 400 years
of the Registers
of Scotland
before actually visiting or getting
involved. Websites are well and good
and still a crucial part of the package,
but they by no means suffice on
their own; the reality is that from the
largest national heritage bodies to
the smallest local trusts, the lack of a
social media presence can amount to
virtual invisibility. The good news is
that it does not take too much to help
projects and places get the attention
and engagement they deserve,
especially amongst younger audiences.
Existing on at least two social
media platforms, most commonly
Twitter, Facebook and Instagram,
is a step in the right direction. Live
broadcasting is also becoming
incredibly popular. A video I shot
at Linlithgow palace with only my
smartphone has been viewed over
170,000 times, and live video is
now a standard part of what I offer
when I take on a digital awareness
campaign like #HistoryHunters or
#JacobiteTrailblazer for Historic
Environment Scotland. What
makes the difference is developing
a ‘digital personality’, which is not
nearly as scary as it sounds. Riveting
information helps, but social media
users want to know the people and
personalities behind the titles.
The Caithness Broch Project is a
fantastic example of this. While not
a model all organisations can follow,
their social media pages abound
with light-hearted insights, brochbased puns, and just-for-fun posts
involving Lego and props galore. All
this silliness has helped to land them
considerable coverage in regional and
national press, enhancing their public
profile and attracting more attention
and resources to their core purpose.
Their voice stands out from the
institutional crowd, and the results
are beginning to speak for themselves.
This new direction for Scottish
heritage presents an opportunity not
just for organisations but also for
young people looking to carve out
careers. Permanent, full-time roles in
the heritage sector are astonishingly
scarce, and the number of applicants
for the jobs that do come up often
reaches into triple digits. For
innumerable reasons it is simply
H I S TO
H IRY
S TO
SC
RY
OTSC
LAOT
NDLA- ND
SE P-TJEUMB
LYE/RAU
/ O
GU
C TO
ST B
2015
E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:12
Going digital with Scotland’s History, Heritage, and Archaeology
Drummond
not realistic or sustainable for many
young people in 2017 to wait for jobs
to appear; increasingly we are having
to create niches and roles that never
existed before. My own experience is
something of a case study.
I moved to Scotland six years ago
from Canada to complete a master’s
degree in international relations at the
University of Edinburgh. While there I
got my first taste of the heritage sector
as a volunteer guide at the National
Trust for Scotland’s Gladstone’s
Land. This was a vital stepping-stone,
and soon I was working with the
Trust to establish student groups at
universities throughout Scotland.
There was a strong appetite amongst
students for exploring Scotland’s
historic sites, yet many could not
afford the transportation costs to
get to them. Financial incentives for
students and young people such as
reduced memberships or admission
fees help, but awareness is the real
issue. That is one instance where
social media and digital content can
make a tangible difference.
Lest all this sounds far-removed
from concerns about the bottom line,
that can get a boost too. In 2016 I
conducted a talk about the myriad
connections between Game of Thrones
and Scottish history at Gladstone’s
Land. Historical tourism in Scotland
has received a tangible boost from pop
culture phenomena such as Outlander
and Game of Thrones, with the former
responsible for what has become
widely known as the ‘Outlander effect’.
A small press release from the Trust
combined with several social media
posts from the property’s and my
own social media accounts resulted in
newspaper headlines, television and
radio interviews, and a sold-out event
which was brought back for a
second round.
I am now taking that talk on
the road to Aberdeen’s Festival of
Science, Technology, Engineering and
Mathematics, as well as to Lincluden
in Dumfries as part of a festival run
by Sleeping Giants meant to engage
young people from impoverished
areas in Scotland’s history, heritage,
and archaeology.
If you ask me what I do now, I have
yet to find a single phrase for it. Long
gone is any semblance of a nine to
five job, and on any given day I could
be composing an article for The Scots
Magazine, leading a walking tour of
Edinburgh’s Old Town or prepping
to shoot a video series at a castle. This
kind of job-juggling is becoming more
and more typical for young people
seeking careers in heritage, archaeology,
conservation and similar fields.
Over three years I built up an
online presence, got involved
with organisations like Historic
Environment Scotland whenever
and however I could, and spent a
Bringing history
to life in the
battle immersion
theatre at the
Bannockburn Centre
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p40-41 Castle Hunter.indd 41
lot of time wondering if any of it
would go anywhere. I documented
this all through my personal brand,
‘The Castle Hunter’, to a dedicated
audience of over 20,000 across social
media platforms. Many of my first paid
roles as a guide, blogger, and writer
were through contacts and enquiries on
Twitter, which is something that, five
years ago, I never thought I would be
saying about my career trajectory.
From all the tinkering I’ve done with
digital content, I’ve found that what
matters most is that the audience you
cultivate feels invested in your work
and uplifted by your enthusiasm for
it. I find it fun and rewarding to take
a group of people from all across the
world through the gates of a castle or
into a museum exhibition, all via my
phone and a half-decent connection. It
is the stuff that I, as a kid thousands of
miles away, would have been inspired
by and made dreams from. That is the
power of digital content. So, while I
will never shy away from test pits and
hopping sheep fences to reach ruined
castles, that is why my hands more
often get dirty from wiping smudges off
a screen.
DavidWeinczok is a writer, presenter,
heritage consultant and Fellow of the
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. His
video series include ‘Dig It! TV’ on
YouTube and, most recently, the #RoS400
campaign for the Registers of Scotland.
41
31/07/2017 10:12
www.historyscotland.com
Charles Seton,
2nd earl of
Dunfermline
the reluctant rebel?
Par t
II
T
he Dictionary of
National Biography
suggests that, by
1642, Dunfermline
had been partly
won over by the king’s concessions
to the Covenanters in 1641. In
contrast, George Seton suggests
that it was the earl’s marriage to
Lady Mary Douglas, daughter of
the seventh earl of Morton and a
devoted Royalist, that may have
been responsible for changing his
views. Given the marriage took
place in 1632, such a ‘change’
apparently took a long time in
coming to fruition; however, what
if Dunfermline was always loyal
to the king? He must have been
under suspicion for his father’s
faith as well as the high esteem
and affection he and his father
were held in by Charles I; he
would have had to out-covenant
the Covenanters to overcome their
suspicions-signing the National
Covenant promptly and raising
a regiment of foot. Of course,
there is the usual contradiction in
that it does appear that the earl
actually fought in person against
the armies of his sovereign in the
42
p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 42
In part II of our study of the life of Charles Seton,
2nd earl of Dumfermline and his support of King Charles I,
Paul Christensen explores events leading up the earl’s arrest
after the Battle of Edgehill and asks whether Dunfermline was
the ‘neutral’ that the king believed him to be
second Bishops’ War.
Despite his fighting against the
king, in July 1642, Dunfermline
was (again) in royal favour,
as he was sent as the king’s
Commissioner to the General
Assembly of the Kirk in St
Andrews, which convened on the
27th of that month. Dunfermline
presented a letter to the Assembly
from the king, who wrote:
We have given expresse charge
to our Commissioner to see that all
things be done there orderly and
peaceably, as if we were present in
our own person; not doubting but in
thankfulnesse for your present estate
and condition, you will abstaine
from every thing that may make any
new disturbance, and that you will
be more wise then to be the enemies
of your own peace, which would
but stumble others, and ruine your
selves.We have also commanded our
Commissioner to receive from you
your just and reasonable desires, for
what may further serve for the good
of religion, that, taking them to our
consideration, we may omit nothing
which may witnesse us to be indeed a
nursing father of that Kirk, wherein
Obverse of the
silver duke of
Lauderdale medal,
1672 by J. Roettier.
This medal was
in the possession
of the third earl of
Lauderdale, Charles
Maitland (died 1691)
and thereafter by
descent through
Maitland family until
the 21st century
we were born and baptized, and that
if ye be not happy, you may blame not
us, but your selves.
On 23 July, the king wrote
from Leicester to Dunfermline in
St Andrews; and the first of his
instructions was:
Right trusty and welbeloved
Cosen and Counsellour…You shall
in our name assure the Assembly
that wee desire nothing more than
the Reformation of Religion, as it is
established by the Acts of the Kirk
and laws of the country, unto which
wee have given our Royall consent,
be preserved in truth and unity, both
against papistry, and against the sects
and divisions. And that no motions
shall ever come from us against it, but
that we will use our authority for it.
On 29 July, Charles wrote again,
this time from Beverley:
Right trusty and right well beloved
cousin and councillor – We greet you
well. By the order of our two Houses
of Parliament, whereof we have
herewith sent a copy, we perceive
that it is insinuated as if we were
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:13
Charles Seton and the Civil Wars
not disposed to peace, but inclined to
make war in this our kingdom.We
have therefore thought good by these
to require you to make known, as well
to the Assembly now at St Andrews,
as to all our good subjects in that
our kingdom, the gracious answer
we gave to that petition, and to let
them understand how far our life and
practice hath been from using any
ways tending to the effusion of blood,
– that there is no party of Papists
about us, which is a suggestion feigned
merely to render us disgustful to our
subjects, – and we doubt not but our
real actions will have more credit with
our subjects there than the bare words
and assertions of any disaffected to
our person and government.
At this time Parliament had
presented a rival declaration,
stressing its intention to avoid civil
war, to advance the reformation
of religion and work toward a
stable union between England and
Scotland. Dunfermline pressed
the Assembly not to answer
parliament’s declaration without
the permission of the king, but,
according to Baillie, ‘his weeping
could not obtain this’. Strong
words indeed, suggesting the
impression given by Dunfermline
was of the pleading of a loyal
servant of the king.
knowing that your Majesty will put
no more, of all that is done, upon
my attempts, but that which I assent
unto in your Majesty’s name. The
Assembly hath made choice of the
Lord Maitland to be the bearer of
their answer of the declaration sent
from the Parliament, and of their
supplication to your Majesty, which I
could not hinder. He is directed first
to come to your Majesty with them,
and [then] go to the Parliament, of
which I conceive it to be necessary
to give your Majesty timous
advertisement, that before his coming
Obverse of a silver
military reward,
1642, struck to
honour Robert
Devereaux, 3rd earl
of Essex. The earl
of Essex was the
Lord General of the
Parliamentarian
army at the start
of the Civil War.
This medal is
unique because of
its portrait, facing
slightly to the left,
and the inscription,
neither of which
feature on other
examples, and was
probably made for
an officer
your Majesty may, in your royal
wisdom, consider whether it be more
for your Majesty’s service that he be
stayed, or permitted to go forward,
both which (in my weak judgment),
have their own inconveniences; for
his stay may be evil construed here,
and his going may prove prejudicial
to your Majesty’s service there; for
certainly if he had no other business,
they would send another bearer; and
I know they have sent it to their
Commissioners already.Whatsoever
be the impressions your Majesty
receives of my carriage, I wish at
God I may no longer live than I
continue your most sacred Majesty’s
obedient subject, DUMFERMLING.
In short, the earl was warning
Charles to be wary of the earl’s
own nephew, John Maitland,
the earl of Lauderdale. Such a
warning was given at a time when
England was sliding towards Civil
War.
The King sent another letter to
Dunfermline before he received
the epistle of 5 August, dated 7
August:
Right trusty and right wel
beloved cosen and counsellour,Wee
greet you well. And as you have
hitherto punctually observed our
directions (whereof wee shall not
be onmyndfull) so wee doubt not
but you will als cairfully continue
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 43
Again, this suggests Dunfermline
was a trusted agent of the king,
keeping his ear to the ground on
the latter’s behalf.
The Battle of Edgehill took place
on 23 October, 1642 and, as was
stated above, Dunfermline was
The reasons for Dunfermline’s arrest may
be found in his own words in the Records
of the Parliament of Scotland
The king’s trust was well placed:
the earl wrote back on 5 August:
Most Sacred Sovereign,—Whether
matters please or not, I must,
according to your Majesty’s trust,
make a true and timeous relation,
as you have begun to discharge the
trust wee have put into you, and from
tyme to tyme acquent us with your
proceedings. So wee bid you farewell,
from our Court at York, the 7th of
August 1642.
after arrested and imprisoned by
Parliament. He was released in
December the same year and given
permission to return to Scotland
via Oxford, where he was allowed
to meet the king. The reason for
his arrest may be found in his
own words in the Records of the
Parliament of Scotland, requesting
an ordinance which was put before
the Scottish Parliament on 24
July, 1644 and entered into the
Parliamentary Register on 24 July,
1644. This appears broadly to be
a request for exoneration from
the Parliament and a remit for the
Commissioners then in London to
obtain the same from the English
Parliament:
To the honourable estates of the
high court of parliament presently
convened, the humble supplication
of Charles, earl of Dunfermline,
shows that where in July 1642 his
majesty having appointed me to be
his majesty’s commissioner for the
general assembly then held at St
Andrews, and after the dissolving of
the said assembly I having gone up
to his majesty to render an account
of the proceedings of the aforesaid
assembly for my exoneration of the
trust put upon me by his majesty,
and having carried up with me some
desires to his majesty from the kirk
of this kingdom, when I came to his
majesty I was forced to attend a long
space before I could get opportunity
43
31/07/2017 10:14
www.historyscotland.com
with his majesty to give an account of
the proceedings of the said assembly
and to represent the desires of the
kirk of this kingdom to his majesty,
to the which desires his majesty did
graciously accept and condescend
to as is known to your lords; and
before I got dispatch of his majesty,
it fell out that his majesty and the
parliament’s armies rencountered
in battle at Renton where there was
a bloody conflict, and it being my
fortune to be by his majesty’s person
at the aforesaid conflict, within two
days thereafter I got my dispatch and
pass for Scotland, and being upon my
journey home was taken by some of
the parliament’s forces and carried
to Northampton, where I was kept
prisoner two nights, and from there
was carried to London with a guard
and kept there by the space of eight
weeks, where I could never get hearing
of the parliament nor access to them
to have known upon what grounds I
was taken and detained; and during
the time of my arrestment there was
some malicious papers emitted and
put to the press against me, declaring
me an enemy to my country and
the religion professed there, albeit I
am confident that my actions and
carriage from the beginning of these
troubles may sufficiently vindicate
me from any imputation of that
kind, to which your lords I hope
and this whole kingdom may justly
give testimony; and seeing that the
aforesaid declarations so emitted
against me are yet unrecalled by the
parliament of England, whereby my
honour and reputation does heavily
suffer, therefore I humbly beseech your
lords to take the premises into your
consideration and to take such course
as the parliament of England may
be moved to recall and annul these
declarations emitted and dispersed
against me to my prejudice, as is
above-written, whereby my honour
and reputation which suffers thereby
may be vindicated to that kingdom
who may justly retain jealousies
concerning me if the said declarations
shall stand unrecalled; and for the
way and manner thereof, I humbly
submit the same to your honours’
judgement, being confident your lords
will take such an honourable course
as I may not lie any longer under
the said imputations emitted against
me, and your lords’ answer I humbly
44
p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 44
attend.Which supplication being read
in audience of the parliament and the
same, with the desire thereof, taken
into consideration by the estates of
parliament, they declare that they
will give a particular instruction to
the commissioners who are to go to
London concerning the supplication
above-written and desire thereof
aforesaid, to whom the estates of
parliament hereby recommend the
prosecuting of the same.
Kineton having become Kentone
and now Renton. The key phrase
here is:
…his majesty having appointed me
to be his majesty’s commissioner for
pamphletts, and employing privat
agents and instruments to give bad
impressions of us and our proceedings,
and under pretence of” a danger to
religion and government) to corrupt
their fidelities and affections, and to
ingage them in ane unjust quarrell
against us their King, wee cannot,
therefore, but endeavour to remove
these jealousies, and secure their
feares, from all possibilitie of any
hazard to either of these, from us.Wee
have, therefor, thought fit to require
you to call together your friends,
vassalls, tenents, and such others
as have any dependencie upon you,
and in our name to shew them our
willingness to give all the assurances
Fighting against the king at the Battle
of Marston Moor was contrary to all the
previous actions of Dunfermline since the
Second Bishops’ War
the general assembly then held at St
Andrews, and after the dissolving of
the said assembly I having gone up
to his majesty to render an account
of the proceedings of the aforesaid
assembly for my exoneration of the
trust put upon me by his majesty,
and having carried up with me some
desires to his majesty from the kirk of
this kingdom...
Clearly, as the Assembly
closed on 6 August 1642, the
earl had been kept waiting some
considerable time for an audience
with the king, well over a month
allowing for his travel time from
Scotland, presumably having to
follow the king on his trek across
England. Clearly, the English
Parliament had not been satisfied
with his explanation, to have
detained him ex communicado for
so long.
Subsequently, on 21 April 1643,
the king wrote to Dunfermline
from Oxford:
Right trustie and right welbeloved
cosen and counsellour, wee greet you
well. ……But knowing what industrie
is used (by scattering seditious
they can desire, or wee possibly grant
(if more can be given then alreadie
is), of preserving inviolably all those
graces and favours which wee have
of late granted to that our Kingdom,
and that wee doe faithfullie promise
never to goe to the contrarie of any
thing there established, either in the
ecclesiasticall or civill government,
but that wee will inviolably keep the
same, according to the lawes of that
our Kingdome; and wee doe wish
God so to blisse our proceedings and
posteritie, as wee doe reallie make
gude and performe this promise.
This may be one of the letters
to various Scottish nobles sent
via king’s secretary, the earl of
Lanark, to counteract the negative
impression Charles had created
by his treatment of the Scottish
commissioners’ request to be
allowed to mediate between him
and Parliament.
On 10 May, 1643, at the earl
of Argyle’s instigation, there was
a gathering of the Scottish Privy
Council, the Conservators of
the Peace (set up originally to
ensure the conditions of the Treaty
of London were kept) and the
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:14
Charles Seton and the Civil Wars
Scottish Commissioners who had
been sent to London to negotiate
between the Scottish and English
Parliaments. On 11 May, it was
proposed that a Convention of
the Estates be called to consider
the state of the Scottish army in
Ireland (sent over following the
rebellion in November 1641): the
calling of the Estates was usually
employed as a means of enacting
specific policies when the king
had not authorised the calling of a
Parliament. The duke of Hamilton,
as the King’s Commissioner, first
tried to delay this, then on 12 May
stated that the Estates could not be
called without the king’s consent.
Despite strong support from
various Scottish lords including
Dunfermline and Callander, he
was defeated. Of the sixteen nobles
present, six refused to sign the
letter to the king announcing the
calling of the convention, one of
whom was Dunfermline.
The earl of Dunfermline thus
appears to be continuing in his
loyalty to King Charles. However,
in January 1644, the Scottish
army again crossed the Tweed
under the command of Alexander
Leslie, this time in overt alliance
with the English Parliament,
and Dunfermline apparently
accompanied the army with his
Fife Regiment of Foot. According
to Furgol, Dunfermline received
his commission as Colonel of Foot
from the Estates on 26 August
1643, and recruiting continued
up to 24 December 1643. The
regiment served with Leslie in
Northumberland, in Durham and
at the siege of York. At the Battle
of Marston Moor, the Fife Foot
were part of the Scottish reserve
which were routed by the Royalist
cavalry. Again, according to Furgol,
on 19 October 1644 the Foot were
directly under the joint command
of Dunfermline and another
officer.
Fighting against the king in
that conflict was contrary to all
the previous actions of the earl
since the Second Bishops’ War.
Again, however, there is conflicting
evidence. Sir James Balfour, the
Lyon King at Arms, records in his
Historical Works (pp 165-166) that
Plaque on a
building on
Lloyds Bank in
Market Street in
Newcastle upon
Tyne recording the
captivity of King
Charles I by the
Scots 1646-47
Dunfermline attended the opening
of the Scottish Parliament on 4
June, 1644 when his regiment was
besieging York:
The noblemen and comissioners
of the barrons and borowes of the
kingdome mett in the Vpper Exeter
Chamber aboute 9 a clocke, and
ther the nobility putt one all ther
parliament robes, and came doune
the staires to the sessione chamber,
and beinng called by the Lyone K.
of Armes, they arrived in order, with
sound of trumpett, to ther setts in the
parliament housse, wich was weill
fitted with hangings, and a clothe
and chaire of estait first day ther
was present of the nobility, … E.
Dumfermling.
Given Sir James’ position as
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 45
Lyon King, it is unlikely that
he would mistake Dunfermline
being present at the opening of
parliament. Further, Dunfermline
is named on a committee
considering propositions of peace
on 11 June, another on 19 June,
and on 24 July he presented in
person the Bill asking parliament
to free him of the imputations
arising from his arrest after
Edgehill. During the period 164445 when Montrose was winning his
miraculous victories in Scotland
against the Covenanting army,
Napier wrote of Montrose:
The other, – that, though all else
should prove deceptive, there were
certain noblemen in Scotland who
never could.Was it possible for him,
when so commissioned, to doubt
45
31/07/2017 10:14
www.historyscotland.com
on 5 May, having been misled by
Montreuil of the treatment he
could expect from the Scots. The
king ordered the Newark garrison
to surrender one day later, and the
Scottish army withdrew, leaving for
Newcastle on 7 May, arriving there
six days later.
Despite all of Dunfermline’s
efforts on his behalf, the king’s
perception of Dunfermline seems
to have changed in 1646 when
he wrote from his captivity in
Newcastle on 16 June to Queen
Henrietta Maria:
DEAR HEART,…. Absolute
necessity made me admit Dumferling
to wait in my bedchamber; but he is
not, nor shall be sworn without thy
free consent, which I desire to know.”
In a letter dated the following
day, he expands upon his view of
Dunfermline:
“Dear Heart, I think it fit, for
change, to give thee a particular
account of the several humours
of the Scots. I divide them into 4
factions; Mountroses, the neutralls,
the Hamiltons, and the Campbells.
The second hath no declared head,
but Calander may be said to be
chief of them; as for the other, it is
ignorance to ask who were theirs.
...Dumfermling, who is a neutral,
makes me believe that I govern him,
and I verily think he tells me all he
knows. So, longing to hear from thee,
and that Pr. Charles is safe with thee,
I rest eternally thine, Charles R.
the instant, ardent, and constant
co-operation of Huntly, Crawford,
Traquair, and Dunfermline?
Apart from the clear statement
that the Fife Foot were under the
command of its Colonel on 19
October, 1644, Furgol does not
explicitly state that the earl of
Dunfermline was actually leading
his men during the campaigns
of 1644 and 1645. Given his
attendance at the Scottish
Parliament, it may have been the
case that the earl did not fight in
person against his sovereign.
On 23 March 1646, Jean de
Montreuil, appointed French
resident in Scotland and secretly
46
p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 46
charged with the return to power
of King Charles with Scottish help,
arrived in Oxford and commenced
secret negotiations with the king
on the Scots’ behalf. In April,
lord Loudoun met with the earl
of Balcarres and Dunfermline
(by then two of the Scottish
commissioners with the Scottish
army besieging Newark) and it
was agreed that the army would
welcome the king providing it was
done in such a way that the English
Parliament was not offended; i.e.
the king was to ‘drop in’ on his
way to Scotland. On 27 March,
the king left Oxford disguised as
a servant and surrendered to the
Scottish army outside Newark
Sir James Balfour
(c.1600-c.1658)
Lyon King at Arms,
who recorded
Dunfermline’s
attendance at the
opening of the
Scottish Parliament
in 1644
Read the concluding part of
this article in our November/
December issue, on sale
7 October. Missed part I? Get
a copy from our website: scot.
sh/2r5syKW
Paul Christensen is the Professor of
Pure and Applied Electrochemistry at
Newcastle University. He has been an
Electrochemist for thirty one years. He
has over 200 papers in international
Chemistry/Electrochemistry journals
and one textbook: more importantly, he
has two articles on English Civil War
coins in Spink’s Numismatic Circular,
was a contributor to the Platt’s recent
book on English Civil War medals, which
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:14
Vol 17.6
In the
next
Charles
Seton
and the Civil On
Wars
sale:
Nov/Dec 2017
issue of
he also reviewed for the Numismatic
Circular and published his first article
in History Scotland in the November/
December 2016 issue. He first became
interested in the era of King Charles
1 in 1997, at which time he was a
confirmed Parliamentarian: since
then, his sympathy with the king’s
views on predestination, and his
amateur research into the modus
operandi of John Pym et al have
(almost) convinced him to overlook
Charles Stuart’s (many) faults and
cross to the dark side.
The reverse of the Peace
or War medal, 1643, by
Thomas Rawlins. The
medal commemorates
the views of Charles I
after the defeat of
the Parliamentarian
General Sir
William Waller
at the Battle of
Roundway Down
by Lord Hopton
on 13 July, 1643,
and the reduction
of Bristol on 26
July, 1643 by
Prince Rupert,
when he summoned
a council “to consider
how these great
blessings in war might be
applied to procuring a
happy peace”
FURTHER READING
A large number of manuscript and published sources were used.
These include:
•
‘Venice: April 1640’, in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English
Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 25, 1640-1642, ed. Allen B
Hinds (London, 1924), pp. 32-40 http://scot.sh/HSvenice [accessed 9
March 2015]
•
Pamphlett E242[3], Thomason Collection, British Library. “A Continuation
of Certain Speciall and Remarkable Passages”, no. 17, 31st October - 3rd
November 1642
•
George Seton, Memoir of Alexander Seton, Earl of Dunfermline
(Edinburgh and London, 1882)
•
‘Charles 1 – Volume 420: May 1 -14, 1639’ in Calendar of State Papers
Domestic: Charles I, 1639, 143; Ed. William Douglas Hamilton (London,
1873), pp103 -167. http://scot.sh/HScharlesI. [Accessed 9 March 2015]
•
‘House of Lords Journal Volume 9: 5 June 1647’, in Journal of the
House of Lords: Volume 9, 1646 (London, 1767-1830), pp. 239-243
http://scot.sh/HSlords [accessed 15 March 2015]
history
SCOTLAND
Rewriting history:
the childhood and youth of
folklorist Alexander Carmichael
Exploring the childhood and youth of Isle of
Lismore folklorist Alexander Carmichael, as we
examine his original notebooks to untangle the
myths he wove about his early life. Far from
being proud of his crofting roots, Carmichael
went to great lengths to hide his origins, fooling
the public into believing he was descended from
a distinguished landed family. What were the
motives for this long-running deception?
The Glenkens Rising
The ‘dread and horror’ of the Glenkens Rising of
1666, when a Borders community shattered by
the burden of quartering government soldiers
took matters into its own hands, with far-reaching
consequences. We discover to what extent
government atrocities impacted on the character
and attitude of the glen’s inhabitants, both before
the Rising and in the years that followed.
Tea and Empire:
James Taylor in Victorian Ceylon
To mark the 150th
anniversary of the
Ceylon tea empire,
we tell the story of
James Taylor, the son
of a wheelwright who
became known as the
‘father of Ceylon tea’.
Taylor’s early efforts in
the tea trade helped to
create the foundations
for the transformation of
Sri Lanka’s economy and
in the process, began to
shape the world’s drinking habits.
Plus: Glimpses of 17th-century St Andrews with
the Burnwynd Project; spotlight on the Glasgow
Police Museum; cutting edge building conservation
at The Engine Shed, and much more…
GUARANTEE YOUR COPY…
Subscribe and never miss an issue of History
Scotland. Turn to page 51 for our latest subscription
offer or find more offers on the History Scotland
website: http://scot.sh/his-subs
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p42 Charles Seton PART2.indd 47
7 October
47
31/07/2017 10:14
EDINBURGH CASTLE
Nick Finnigan, executive manager of Edinburgh Castle, talks to History Scotland about the challenges
of meeting the expectations of visitors whilst protecting the fabric of a historic site which attracts
1.8 million visitors a year
N
ick Finnigan and his
team welcome around
150,000 visitors to
Edinburgh Castle
every month; people of
different ages, nationalities and with
differing expectations. So what are
the main challenges of managing
such large numbers of people in
this ancient building?
‘The castle was actually designed
to keep people out,’ says Nick, ‘and
so the main challenge is the design
of the building. I’d sum it up that
you have a building at the top of a
hill with a narrow entrance, which
was built over various centuries
and wasn’t perfectly designed to
accommodate thousands of people
at once’.
And how have the perceptions of
48
p48-49 Edinburgh interview.indd 48
Edinburgh Castle
was built to keep out
unwanted visitors,
meaning that the
design of the building
presents challenges
for managing visitor
flow nowadays
those many visitors altered over the
years? For Nick, the biggest change
has been over the last decade or so:
‘By and large, fifteen years ago, in
terms of consumerism people got
what they got and it was a “take it
or leave it” situation. But now the
public is incredibly discerning and
heavily critical. But I don’t have a
problem with that because it does
give us an opportunity to make the
visitor experience better.
‘We’re not a domestic visitor
attraction, we’re an international
one, and one of the biggest
decisions I made when I took on
the job of executive manager of
Edinburgh Castle back in 2011
was that I would answer every
single e-mail or letter of complaint
personally. We then tend to find
that people appreciate their
complaint has been taken seriously
– they want a more rounded visit
and what we’ve done is respond to
this expectation.’
So how does this work in practice?
‘One example,’ says Nick, ‘is the
situation at the Scottish National
War Memorial within the castle. We
manage this memorial on behalf of
the trustees of the memorial and
because it’s regarded as a shrine to
the war dead, there’s always been a
no photography rule.
‘Because of visitor feedback
we’ve actually adopted a more
relaxed regime and have asked
our incredibly passionate and
knowledgeable guides to adopt
a slightly lighter touch. We still
police the situation, and the site
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:16
Edinburgh Castle
is signposted beyond belief,
but we’re dealing with this in a
smarter way.’
‘Another example of visitor
feedback is from people with
disabilities, who often say
that we’ve exceeded their
expectations. People might
think Edinburgh Castle would
be a tricky site for someone
with disabilities to visit but we
have a mobility vehicle to take
visitors from the esplanade up
to the top of the castle, a lift to
take them to the Crown Jewels,
and wheelchair access to St
Margaret’s Chapel. With 1.8
million visitors a year we’re not
going to please everyone but
that’s not to say that we don’t try
our utmost.’
In terms of visitor profile,
this too is an ever-changing
challenge, as Nick explains:
‘Edinburgh Castle has 70
percent international visitors,
20 percent visitors from England
and 10 percent from within
Scotland, and so England is our
biggest single market. A big growth
market is visitors from Brazil, India,
Russia and China, and this will
only continue over the years when
Edinburgh International Airport has
a direct route from China, which is
reflected in the current China Ready
initiative, which challenges the city
to prepare for this time.’
With visitor numbers which look
set to continue to grow strongly over
the next decade, how do Nick and
his team manage the flow of visitors
around the castle? ‘There’s a general
“spine” of the castle, where people
would usually come in through the
entrance, then go to the esplanade to
look at the views, and move up the
spine from there,’ says Nick.
‘To create a better experience
for our visitors, what we’ve done
is things like moving the entrance
to our prisoners of war exhibition,
which is very popular, closer to
the exit, to ease pressure on the
spine area. This exhibition area
still gets a 70 percent footfall, but
it does relieve crowd pressure.
I was also very keen to increase
our living history presence in
the castle and so whilst once we
were having performances in the
p48-49 Edinburgh interview.indd 49
around easily, and where food, hotels
and visitor attractions can all be
found in cone ompact area.’
Of course, despite its huge
numbers of international visitors,
Edinburgh Castle is well-loved by
the locals too. So how does the castle
retain this audience? For Nick, this
is via the Historic Environment
Scotland membership scheme. ‘Our
membership scheme is phenomenal
and very important to us. We’re
a conservation organisation and
encourage people to really embrace
our heritage, and the best way we
can to this is to price the scheme
attractively, which is effectively
nurturing the next generation.
‘Our events programme also
reaches out to people who might
not ordinarily visit a historic
attraction. Something exciting
like the prospect of seeing knights
on horseback widens our visitor
base to families. I think Historic
As executive manager
busy Great Hall, we now take
Environment Scotland used to
of Edinburgh Castle,
some of these performances down
have a reputation of being dry and
Nick oversees the
to Hospital Square which is a
dusty but now we’re aiming to give
visitor experience
natural ampitheatre and can still
people fantastic value and they in
of some 1.8 million
accommodate around 100 people.
turn are making an investment in
visitors every year
A further challenge in managing
our heritage.’
the visitor experience comes from
‘Looking after Edinburgh Castle
the Scottish weather, which actually,
is a phenomenal responsibility, but I
says Nick, doesn’t cause as much
know that I have a team working with
as a problem as people might think:
me who are passionate about making
‘Where we’re fortunate is that
sure that the people who come here
we’re actually both an indoor and
have the best time. Because Historic
an outdoor attraction. You’ve got
Environment Scotland isn’t profit
the internal apartments and also
making, any money we generate pays
the outside sections of the castle,
for conservation and makes sure that
whereas a hugely popular and
these buildings are still here long
interesting attraction like National
after we’re gone, and I think that the
Museum of Scotland, which is
public understand and buy into that.’
nearby, might see far fewer visitors
Looking to the future, Nick has
on a sunny day because people want
one final thought: ‘One thing I’ve
to be outside enjoying the views.’
tried to do is to ensure that the
‘The people I feel sorry for,’
castle has contemporary relevance.
Nick laughs, ‘are those who have
So for example, the Olympic torch
obviously looked out of their hotel
arrived here and 9,000 folk turned
window before visiting the castle,
up to watch, we also have the
seen a lovely sunny day, and then
Edinburgh Tattoo and various pop
are at the castle in the afternoon
concerts each year which have the
wearing a t-shirt, shorts and flip
castle as their backdrop. This means
flops, but the weather’s changed for
the castle isn’t just a time capsule
the worse. Having said that, people
but has relevance today. In 50 years
who come to Scotland do in the
time, people will be able to look
main understand that the weather’s
back and remember that something
variable; visitors come here for
fantastic happened here.
the historical architecture and the
For more on Edinburgh
scenery. Edinburgh is regarded as a
Castle and its membership and
safe destination which you can walk
events programme, visit:
www.edinburghcastle.gov.uk
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
49
31/07/2017 10:15
Inside the National Records of Scotland
Famous and
not-so-famous Scots
Dr Tristram Clarke explores statutory registers
and the information they can give family historians
W
ith its circular
tiers of registers
recording every
birth, death or
marriage in Scotland since 1855, the
rotunda at the heart of New Register
House has been described as a ‘well
of souls’. While this may strike some
as a touch too poetic, the room has a
special quality appropriate for a space
in which the beginnings, middles and
ends of millions of lives are recorded.
They are the lives of ‘Jock
Tamson’s bairns’, and no distinction
is made in their functional details
between the ‘ordinary’ person and
those who have become celebrated.
This is what makes these records,
and the Old Parish Registers, such
a happy hunting ground for family
historians, and indeed for anyone
looking for authentic biographical
information or a vital clue that will
help them discover more about
someone’s parents or children, their
job, where they lived, whom they
married and how they died.
Other records available through
our ScotlandsPeople service can
reveal who were their neighbours,
whether they owned or rented their
dwelling, and what they bequeathed
at their death. And there are many
more historical records in National
Records of Scotland that can shed
light on the lives of Scots through
the ages.
Some historical figures feature
in our online ‘Hall of Fame’. By
drawing together various records
from our holdings about well-known
Scots, we offer people across the
globe the chance to see images of
original documents at a glance.
Nowadays biographical information
is widely and easily available, so we
aim to complement online resources
such as the Oxford Dictionary of
National Biography and Wikipedia by
offering uniquely authentic images
and information. At present the
50
p50 NRSC.indd 50
records mainly consist of entries
from the pre-1855 parish registers,
statutory registers from 1855,
censuses and testaments. Many of
the wills and testaments are available
as transcripts as well as images,
thus making it easier to read, for
example, the will of the poet William
Drummond of Hawthornden, who
died in 1649.
There are plenty of Scots from
all walks of life who are noteworthy
in some way. They range from the
pioneering physicist James Clerk
Maxwell (1831-79), whose genius
Albert Einstein acknowledged, to
John Broadwood (1732-1812),
the Berwickshire-born craftsman
whose pianos were sought after by
musicians in Britain and abroad.
Among female subjects are Mary,
Queen of Scots and Dr Elsie Inglis,
the courageous physician and
surgeon who died in 1917. The
latest additions bring the total so
far to about 160 entries, and the
subjects could be a quiz question.
‘Who were the only three Scottish
archbishops of Canterbury?’
(Answer: Randall Davidson, 18481930, Cosmo Gordon Lang, 18641945, and Archibald Campbell Tait,
1811-82.)
There is no shortage of important
and interesting people who might
be included. In the words of the late
Colin Matthew of the Oxford DNB,
‘the great and the good, the bad and
the exotic’ can find their place. Being
of good character or doing good
for humanity are not necessary for
inclusion. Among the infamous will
be Madeleine Smith (1835-1928),
who in 1857 underwent a sensational
trial for murder by poisoning, and
escaped with a famous ‘not proven’
verdict. This August she is being
featured in a special free exhibition
in Register House, ‘Famous Scots
from the Past’. The others include
Mary, Queen of Scots, and Sir
Statutory registers
line the rotunda
in New Register
House, Edinburgh.
William Arrol, the Scottish engineer
best known for constructing the
Forth Bridge.
Continuing to celebrate the
lives of Scots is part of our aim of
‘preserving the past, recording the
present and informing the future.’
Visit the NRS Hall of Fame:
http://scot.sh/HShall
Learn more about the ‘Famous
Scots from the Past’ exhibition,
until 1 September 2017:
http://scot.sh/HSfamous
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:17
Charity SC045925
A REMARKABLE NEW
HISTORY OF SCOTLAND IN
TWENTY-FIVE BUILDINGS
Out Now – £20
2
HES_Who
64.indd 2Built Scotland Advert HistoryScotland.indd 1
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - JA NUA RY / F E B RUA RY 2017
31/07/2017
31/07/2017 10:05
11:07
SPOTLIGHT ON…
Spotlight on...
West Lothian History
& Amenity Society
Founded in 1965, the West Lothian History & Amenity
Society exists to promote the study of the history of the
West Lothian region, and an appreciation of its historical
buildings and sites.
Society meetings are held between September and
May at venues around the area, including Ecclesmachan
Village Hall, Bo’ness Library, Acredale House in Bathgate
and Chalmers Hall at Linlithgow Bridge. Visitors are very
welcome and can apply to join the society at any of its
meetings, or by contacting the membership secretary,
whose details are below.
The Society’s syllabus for 2017/18 has just been published
and as always, includes talks on a range of topics from both
society members and visiting speakers. The September
meeting will comprise a visit from TV presenter and
historian Fiona Watson, who will give a talk entitled ‘The
master carpenter and the female engineer: oppression and
opportunity in Edward I’s Scotland’, followed by a visit from
Dr Fraser Hunter of National Museums Scotland (on 18
October) for a talk on the impact of the Romans in Scotland.
Over the years, the society has published a number of
books and booklets about the history of the area. Topics
range from the murder of Regent Moray through to West
Lothian in wartime, and from West Lothian people through to
transport history. These publications are listed on the website
www.wlhas.org.uk and can be purchased through the society.
New members are always welcome and annual
membership is £10 adult/ £15 family, or £75 for life
membership. For more information, or to join, contact
membership secretary Jane Bennie, e-mail: jane.bennie46@
gmail.com; website: www.wlhas.org.uk
From top: Preceptory of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem at
Torphichen; Blackness Castle. Blackness was in West Lothian
until 1975, but is now in the Falkirk local authority area. These
two aerial images were taken by Club member John Wells
Official government records
Discover more about family history
at: www.family-tree.co.uk the online
home of Family Tree magazine
Ken Nisbet explores a category of records which is often overlooked by historians, yet can add much to our
understanding of how our ancestors lived
A resource that is much
underutilised by many family
and local historians, is official
government reports. Whilst
they may not mention your
relative by name, they can be useful for
adding to the back story of what life was
like for Scots in years gone by.
One such example is the reports of
the House of Commons committees,
in this case ‘A Digest of Parochial
Returns Made to the Select Committee
Appointed to Inquire into the Education
of The Poor 1818’.
The report covered the whole of
Scotland and showed the name of the
parish and the name of the minister
signing the return, as well as the
52
p52 Spotlight.indd 52
population of each parish.
Other reports cover the employment
of women and children in factories
and coal mines and the application of
outdoor relief. In some cases the names
of the witnesses or informants to those
compiling the reports is given. In order
to access the records you need to sign up
through the subscription services offered
by major libraries.
If you live in Scotland you can sign
up at no cost for the National Library
of Scotland Digital Collection: https://
auth.nls.uk/eresources which includes
the above named resource under the title
of Parliamentary Papers.
The reports of the committee
mentioned above for the counties
of Morayshire and Nairn have been
transcribed and can be seen on the
Moray and Nairn Family History Society
website: www.morayandnairnfhs.co.uk
Ken Nisbet is
Secretary of the
Scottish Genealogy
Society and of
the Scottish Association of Family History
Societies and is on the user group for the
Family History Centre in Edinburgh. He
is a regular lecturer to Scotland’s family
history societies. He has written a number
of books, all of which are published by the
Scottish Genealogy Society, and tutors some
of the classes the society runs.
H I S TO RY S C OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:17
BOOKREVIEWS
Hunting the Bowhead
Edited by Dr Allan Kennedy
reviews@historyscotland.com
Dr Ross Crawford appreciates a detailed reconstruction of an under-appreciated Scottish
industry which, from the late 18th to the early 20th centuries, saw hundreds of Scots make the
long and dangerous journey to the Arctic in pursuit of bowhead whales
Scottish Arctic Whaling
Chesley W. Sanger
Birlinn, 2016
240 pages
Paperback, £30
ISBN: 9781906566777
In this book, Chelsey W.
Sanger brings to life a
near-forgotten Scottish
industry by drawing
upon a rich and largely
untapped supply of
archive material. From
the late 18th century
until the eve of World
War I, hundreds of Scots sailed from
east coast ports to hunt bowhead whales
around East Greenland, and latterly Davis
Strait and Baffin Bay.
Although the Scots were relatively late
to jump on the Arctic whaling bandwagon,
they made up for lost time by investing
considerable money and manpower into
the venture, eventually outstripping
England’s involvement. Rewards were not
always commensurate to this investment:
the whalers had a perilously small window
of time within which to hunt and harvest
their quarry before their passage home
was blocked by ice.
The author does delve into the ethics of
an industry that still provokes controversy,
and by his own admission his sympathies
‘lie firmly with the whalers, rather than
the whales’. That said, the whalers are
largely kept at arms-length throughout the
book – beyond a brief introduction which
contextualises some basic details we do
not glean much insight into the everyday
experience of the men aboard the whaling
vessels. Why did these men choose to
undertake such arduous voyages to the
Arctic? What were the conditions like on
board these ships? Sanger’s sympathies
may well lie with the men, but his primary
interest is in the processes and systems of
an industry.
The early chapters contrast the growth
of Scottish involvement in Arctic whaling
Whale being flensed alongside the Eclipse. After being ‘secured’ by a harpoon shot from the gun mounted on the
bow of the whaleboat, the bowhead was killed with lances and towed to the vessel for flensing. The baleen was
removed from the carcass and hoisted on board for cleaning and storage. The blubber was then cut into strips for
transport back to the home port for rendering into oil. (Courtesy of Birlinn Ltd.)
with the English experience, which helps
the reader to appreciate the sheer extent
of the later Scottish domination over
the activity. Sanger does still presume a
reasonable level of knowledge about the
practice of whaling on the part of the
reader. In addition, he quotes extensively
from the archive sources he has
uncovered, yet often does not offer much
analysis of the cited material, leaving the
reader guessing as to its significance.
An important turning point in the
history of Scottish Arctic whaling was the
outbreak of the American Revolutionary
War in 1775. The entire enterprise was
almost scuppered as the Scottish fleet was
reduced by more than half. The return to
peace in 1783 heralded a rapid growth in
the industry, culminating in the so-called
‘Golden Age’ of Scottish Arctic whaling
between 1802 and 1840. Chapter 8, which
H I S TO RY S COT L A ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p53-56 book reviews.indd 53
focuses on this era, is by far the richest
in terms of both analysis and evidence. It
fulfils the promise of the book, offering a
vivid insight into the industry at its height
– and its most deadly.
Sanger shows how the intensive hunting
at Davis Strait and Baffin Bay led to
dwindling numbers of whales, which in
turn encouraged the whalers to take more
risks and hunt for longer periods of time.
This inevitably led to more casualties,
reaching a high point in 1835-36 when
disaster struck two ships, the Dee and the
Thomas. From their combined crew of
124 men, only 22 survived the voyage and
returned to Scotland.
Attempts were made to slow the decline
of the industry towards the end of the
19th century. To subsidise bowhead
whaling, some ventures began to branch
out by hunting seals; a more inventive
53
31/07/2017 10:18
approach was to offer a prototype version
of ‘adventure-tourism’ hunting. These
efforts were in vain, and by World War I the
industry had come to a conclusive end.
Readers expecting lively tales of
Melvillian adventures on the high
seas may come away from this book
disappointed, but those looking for a
sober analysis of the rise and fall of an
important Scottish industry will find
much to appreciate.
Dr Ross Crawford received his PhD from the
University of Glasgow in 2016 for a thesis on
warfare in the west Highlands of Scotland in
the 16th and 17th centuries.
Arctic whaling, c.1828. The Harmony of Hull in foreground and (l to r) the Margaret, London, Eliza Swan, Montrose, and Industry, London. Oil painting by W.J. Huggins engraved
and published in 1829 by E. Duncan. The Eliza Swan, one of Scotland’s most successful Northern whalers, made 54 voyages as a member of the Montrose fleet between 1786 and
1839. Under eleven different masters she brought back 375.5 bowheads and 1,551 harp seals from both Davis Strait and East Greenland. (Courtesy of Birlinn Ltd.)
Adventures of a Hebridean crofter
Dr Bob Chambers is captivated by the remarkable autobiography of South Uist
crofter Donald MacDonald, who takes his readers on an astonishing and eye-opening
journey from the wind-swept Outer Hebrides to the trenches of World War I and across
the Atlantic to the Great Lakes
From Small Lochs to Great
Lakes: The Remarkable Story
of a First World War Soldier,
Sailor, and South Uist Crofter
D. MacDonald
For the Right Reasons Community Print,
2016; 290 pages
Paperback, £15.95
ISBN: 9781910205822
On the face of it this
could well be a worthy
but rather run-ofthe-mill 20th-century
autobiography of an
ordinary and quite
unremarkable South Uist
crofter. But none of it. Donald MacDonald
of South Lochboisdale – born 1897 and died
1985 – lived a remarkable life.
The book ends with Donald, in his eighties,
writing ‘It is far too late to say had I been
better educated my telling of this story could
be more interesting’. This reader’s response
to Donald’s statement is an emphatic ‘No’.
He has written a superb and compelling
autobiography. Its particular strength lies in
the first hand insights it provides into the life of
Hebridean crofting communities of the period,
54
p53-56 book reviews.indd 54
as well as events in his own life’s journey.
The portrait of life in a typical Western
Isles crofting community starts to be
revealed on the very first page of the book:
My father was a crofter and fisherman [...]
he owned part of a croft between himself and
his brother [...] There were nine of us in our
family though only six lived to full maturity
[...] Our house was very old [...] it had one
distinction in that it was the only house which
had a glass window [...] about a foot square
[...] Inside, apart from my father’s chest there
was very little in the way of furniture. My
mother also had a chest [...] although all she
possessed only half filled it [...] The remaining
furniture consisted of a bench, three beds, one
chair and a few stools arranged around the fire,
which was built in the centre of the floor.
The reader is immediately transported
to and drawn into this simple, hard, now
lost way of life. Who, these days, could own
so few possessions? But Donald’s brilliant
descriptions make it utterly and totally real
and tangible. We can see and breathe in
and almost touch and feel the scenes he
describes throughout the book.
He has the knack of making us feel
present, as an onlooker, no matter what he
is describing.
There are endless examples:
When thatching a roof, the thatch had to be
tied down securely and as wire and wire netting
were unknown to us, it was rope that was used.
Rope to buy was beyond our means[...] we had
to manufacture our own from heather. The long
winter nights were passed in making the rope.
School (at Garrynamonie) was over three
miles from his house and Donald had to walk
there and back daily with a ‘whole drove of
[other] children from his township’. Who
today could imagine having to undertake
that twice-daily school journey on foot over
remote hilly terrain? Apart from anything else,
it simply would not be allowed.
His headmaster (Frederick G. Rea,
the author of A School in South Uist:
Reminiscences of a Hebridean School Master
1890-1913, first published in 1964 well after
his death) was English and at that time did
not speak Gaelic. Needless to say, the young
Donald had little English.
The school was small, consisting of only
two rooms. Neither of Donald’s parents
could read or write – typical for that
period. Donald left school at fourteen,
joined the army before sixteen and was
wounded three times during World War I.
He was not yet 21 when the war ended.
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:18
Buy books at discounted prices with the History
Scotland Book Shop at: http://scot.sh/his-bookshop
What must so young a person have
experienced and endured during those
four years? The war scenes he describes
are harrowing and authentic.
In 1921, like so many of his
contemporaries, he emigrated to Canada –
on the much written about Metagama – first
trying farming, then moving to the USA
doing a variety of manual jobs and sailing on
the Great Lakes.
He even had a stint in the diamond trade
as a diamond cutter. Eventually, though, he
moved back to South Uist and married at
the age of 45.
By 1953 he had six children. Sadly,
however, after only twelve years of married
life, his wife died. The next phase of
Donald’s life, as a widower bringing up his
The reader is immediately transported
to and drawn into this simple, hard,
now lost way of life. Who, these days,
could own so few possessions?
young children, is no less dramatic. It is
compelling and crammed with information
that casts much light on the workings of
typical Highlands and Islands
crofting communities.
For anyone (including academics and
students alike) with even a passing interest in
South Uist, the Hebrides or authentic crofting
life this book is an absolute ‘must read’.
Dr Bob Chambers is the first History PhD
graduate of the University of the Highlands
and Islands. He has a special interest in
crofting and land settlement in the Hebrides.
Projecting power
Dr Katy Jack enjoys a rich and varied collection of essays exploring the wide range of
strategies used by those in authority in medieval and early modern Britain and Ireland
to both advertise and reinforce their power
Representation of Authority in
Scotland and the British Isles
K. Buchanan, L.H.S Dean and M.
Penman (eds.)
Routledge, 2016
284 pages
Hardback, £95
ISBN: 9781472423388
Borne from two
workshops and a
conference exploring
representations of
authority, this edited
collection is a triumphal
demonstration
of the benefits of
interdisciplinary
scholarship. Architecture, landscapes, saints’
cults, lordship, ceremonial displays, literature
and music are all used to full effect here in
revealing the variety of ways in which those
in power demonstrated their authority in the
medieval and early modern periods. Divided
into fourteen chapters across four sections,
the editors are to be commended for
anticipating the challenges associated with
such topical diversity through their effective
identification of complimentary themes
across each of the fourteen chapters, imbuing
each section with a crucial sense of unity.
The first of the four sections explores the
use of internal and external spaces by royal,
noble, ecclesiastic and social authorities.
Persuasive and direct, David Simpkin’s
chapter explores a court on the move, focusing
on the aesthetic visualisation of English royal
authority during the military campaigns to
Scotland between 1296 and 1336. Particular
attention is paid to the ‘appropriation’ of
Scottish power centres, and the use of tents
and banners to ‘overawe the Scots’ with the
majesty of the English court (p.20).
This attention to visual authority is
continued in Richard Oram’s commanding
analysis of regality jurisdictions, and
how enhanced fortification of monastic
gatehouses represented the secular power
of these communities as franchisees of
the Scottish crown. The judicial theme
continues in Kate Buchanan’s thoughtprovoking assessment of the physical
structures associated with the rights to
milling and fishing in 16th-century Angus,
exploring how their proximity to core noble
residences demonstrated a lord’s control
over a given landscape. Changing tack,
Kirsteen MacKenzie concludes this section
with an astute analysis of the politics of
contested spaces in Glasgow between 1650
and 1653, highlighting the complex nature
of transitional authority and the competitive
interests which shaped its success or failure.
The volume’s second section (undoubtedly
the most cohesive) considers public
demonstrations of pious devotion and the
effectiveness of artistic display. Michael
Penman’s discussion of three key ceremonial
H I S TO RY S COT L A ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p53-56 book reviews.indd 55
moments in the first twelve years of the
reign of Robert I (infused as they were
with both secular and liturgical elements)
provides a striking example of the utility of
such public displays in advancing Robert’s
right to rule in a period fraught with
challenges to his authority.
James Hillson’s account of the changing
depiction of royal authority during the
reign of Edward III (focusing on two
royal decorative programmes undertaken
at St Stephen’s chapel between 1330
and 1364, and the ‘domestic unrest and
changing fortunes’ which shaped them)
complements Penman’s conclusions,
highlighting the importance of these
innovative programmes to the development
of ‘self-imaging strategies’ employed by the
English monarchy (p.107). Tom Turpie’s
fascinating assessment of the engagement
with – and symbolism of – the cult of St
Ninian in late-medieval Scotland provides
a fitting conclusion to the section, not only
highlighting how the popularity of this
Scottish saint was tied to the ebb and flow
of domestic politics, but also exploring the
ability of some saints to transcend issues of
political hostility. The patronage of the cult
of St Ninian by Richard III – England’s last
Plantagenet monarch – is used effectively
here to underpin Turpie’s conclusions.
The penultimate section in this edited
collection explores the challenges faced
by royal women and Highland elites in
55
31/07/2017 10:18
representing their authority. Employing
a similar approach to Penman in his
assessment of Robert I, Lucy Dean provides
an authoritative analysis of the challenges
faced by Marie de Guise (mother of Mary
Queen of Scots) between 1543 and 1558,
and the importance of public display and
ceremony to the demonstration of her
absent daughter’s authority in a ‘complex,
male-dominated arena’ (p.146).
This issue is also given a platform by
Estelle Paranque, whose treatment of the
female kingship of Elizabeth I provides
a fascinating account of her dual role as
both king and queen, and the difficulties
faced in protecting her kingdom and its
subjects when warfare was deemed to be
the concern of men. Paranque’s assessment
of Elizabeth’s use of textual imagery to
invoke her military authority provides a vital
counterbalance to previous discussions of
physical expressions of power.
biographical nature of the text provides
a fascinating insight into the perceived
authority of James I, while also representing
the existence of what Murray deems a
‘lively literary culture’ which continued
beyond the reigns of James I and II (p.230).
Jamie Reid-Baxter’s penultimate chapter
considers how the music of Robert
Carver was used to accompany James IV’s
investiture with Scotland’s Sword of State on
Easter Sunday 1507 (a gift from Pope Julius
II). Reid-Baxter’s masterful analysis provides
a fascinating insight into the difficulty we
face as an increasingly secularised society to
understand the importance of such an event,
while the nature of papal gifts to encourage
crusade – and the honour associated
with receiving these gifts – provides
understanding of the authority James IV
both held, and wished to claim.
Stephen Bowman closes proceedings by
highlighting that the dominant focus on
Architecture, landscapes, saints’ cults,
lordship, ceremonial displays, literature
and music are all used to full effect here
Moving away from female authority,
Allan Kennedy’s concluding chapter seeks
to challenge the common perception of
lordly culture in the Highlands in the
17th century as ‘backward or conventionbound’ (p.177), highlighting the willingness
of Highland elites to engage in similar
activities to their counterparts in the
Lowlands (such as public office-holding) to
project their authority.
The final section looks to the importance
of more subtle expressions of power,
such as poetry, music and material
culture. Elizabeth FitzPatrick’s impressive
assessment of material expressions of
Gaelic lordship during the 14th and early
15th centuries explores the refurbishment
of book shrines and the rise of the pailís
(palace or palisaded enclosure). Such
expressions, FitzPatrick argues, are
representative of the ‘status anxiety’ of
Gaelic Irish dynastic families in the wake
of English determination to ‘disable the
authority of all Gaelic kings’ (p.197).
This is followed by Kylie Murray’s
exploration of royal authority as expressed
in the courtly literature of the 15th century,
focusing specifically on the Kingis Quair,
Bower’s Scotichronicon and the anonymous
Lancelot of the Laik. Though the authorship
of the Kingis Quair is debated, the
56
p53-56 book reviews.indd 56
the authority of ruling elites has detracted
from an understanding of the variety of
contexts in which power could have been
represented. To combat this, Bowman
draws attention to the striking commercial
and social authority of early modern urban
craft incorporations, specifically focusing on
the hammermen craft in Scotland.
The old adage ‘there’s something for
everyone’ is particularly pertinent to this
volume. Varied in both scope and focus,
this collection provides a fascinating insight
into the myriad ways in which individuals
or social groups sought to convey their
authority to an audience. Although the
concept of authority is relatively abstract,
the volume never strays too far into the
realm of theory. Indeed, the chapters
retain an energy that makes this volume
both readable and commanding, while
the inclusion of a wealth of colour images
to support the authors’ conclusions is a
welcome addition, allowing us to fully
comprehend the means through which the
authority of their chosen subjects was – and
still is – represented.
Dr Katy Jack recently received her PhD
from the University of Stirling for a thesis
discussing the lordship of the Earls of Mar
in 15th-century Scotland
RECENTLY
PUBLISHED
Scottish Legal
History, 10001707, volume one
by Andrew
Simpson & Adelyn
Wilson Edinburgh
University Press,
£40
The roots of
Scots law can be traced to the
1100s. How and why did that
law come into being? How was it
used in dispute resolution during
the medieval and early modern
periods? And how did its authority
develop over the centuries? This
volume explores such questions.
Mary Queen of
Scots: A Study
in Failure
By Jenny Wormald
Birlinn, £14.99
A new edition of
Jenny Wormald’s
classic and
acclaimed biography of Mary Queen
of Scots, with a new foreword and
afterword by Anna Groundwater.
Unlike biographies of Mary predating
this work, this masterly study set
out to show the real Mary – not a
romantic heroine, but the ruler of a
European kingdom with far greater
economic and political importance
than its size or location would
indicate. Get your free copy when you
join, History Scotland see page 51.
St Andrews
History Tour
By Helen Cook
Amberley
Publishing, £6.99
Local author
Helen Cook
guides readers
through this historic town, showing
how its famous landmarks once
looked and how they’ve changed
over the years, as well as exploring
the area’s lesser-known sights and
hidden corners. With the help of a
location map, readers are invited
to follow a timeline of events
and discover for themselves the
changing face of St Andrews.
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:19
Advertorial
Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopaedia
Introduction to the THIRD EDITION
Scottish Clan and
Family Encyclopaedia
The most distinctive feature of Scotland’s history, nationally and internationally, is that of clanship. Although the
clans are no longer the social force they once were, the continuing interest in them is testimony to the hold on the
imagination that the sense of clan identity still has for very many people worldwide.
However, the desire for knowledge about the great clans and families of Scotland frequently outstrips the ability
of published works to satisfy it. The Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopaedia redresses this situation. Beautifully
illustrated throughout, and featuringIntroduction
many specially to
commissioned
the THIRD illustrations,
EDITION this is the most comprehensive
and authoritative work yet published on the subject. It provides the histories and heraldic details of over 300 of
Scotland’s best-known
and most
famous
clan and
families, as• the
wellhistory
as highly
informative
key elements of
he most distinctive
feature
of Scotland’s
history,
and development
of essays
the clanon
system
clan life andnationally
society including:
and internationally, is that of clanship.
• the law of the clan
T
Although the clans are no longer the social force
they
once
were, the continuing
interest
in them is
the history
and
development
of the clan
system
testimony to the hold on the imagination that the
the law of the clan
sense of clan identity still has for very many people worldwide.
•
•
• tartan and Highland dress
• heraldry
However, the desire for knowledge about the great clans
• tartan and Highland dress
• heraldry
In addition, an extensive collection of appendices draws
together a wide range of information which has never before
appeared in a single volume. The Scottish Clan & Family
and families of Scotland frequently outstrips the ability of
Encyclopaedia is the work of a team of renowned specialists
published works
to satisfy collection
it. The Scottish
Clan & Family
and, inaaddition
to their
contributions,
has been
In addition,
an extensive
of appendices
draws together
wide range
ofown
information
which
has compiled
never
Encyclopaedia
redresses
this
situation.
Beautifully
illustrated
and
edited
by
George
Way
of
Plean,
Falkland
Pursuivant
before appeared in a single volume. The Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopaedia is the work of a team of renowned
throughout, and featuring many specially commissioned
Extraordinary and the late Romilly Squire.
specialists
and, in addition to their own contributions, has been
compiled and edited by George Way of Plean,
illustrations, this is the most comprehensive and authoritative
Revised and updated to reflect changes in clan society since
Falkland
Pursuivant
Extraordinary
and thethe
late
Romilly
work yet
published on
the subject. It provides
histories
andSquire.
its original publication in 1994, the Scottish Clan & Family
heraldic details of over 300 of Scotland’s best-known and most
Encyclopaedia is the definitive single-volume reference work
Revised
to reflect
clan society
its the
original
publication
inappeal
1994,tothe
Scottish
Clan
famousand
clanupdated
and families,
as wellchanges
as highly in
informative
essayssince on
Scottish
clans and will
everyone
of Scottish
on
key
elements
of
clan
life
and
society
including:
ancestry
throughout
the
world.
& Family Encyclopaedia is the definitive single-volume reference work on the Scottish clans and will appeal to
everyone of Scottish ancestry throughout the world.
Completely revised
•
•
•
new articles
alphabetical listing 344 clans and names
344 crests and shields
•
hundreds of new images
The definitive work on Clans in one volume available
only from
WWW.STKILDAPUBLICATIONS.COM
RELEASE DATE 7th August 2017
ST KILDA PUBLICATIONS LTD
45 Grovepark St,
Glasgow
E: sales@stkildapublications.com
G20 7NZ
T: + (0)141 332 0407
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
H IS TO RY SC OTL AN D - SE P TE M B E R / O C TO B E R 2017
W: www.stkildapublications.com
Untitled-6 1
57.indd
57 1
Untitled-8
st
kilda advertorial.indd
9
57
9
10/07/2017 13:56
31/07/2017 12:55
11:05
10/07/2017
13:52
19/07/2017
Add your organisation or
society’s event to our website:
http://scot.sh/events-diary
DIARY DATES
FESTIVAL
Highland Archaeology Festival,
30 September to 15 October
A two-week celebration of the history and
heritage of the Highlands with events suitable
for everyone from novice to professional
archaeologist. The programme includes
walks, talks, tours, workshops and exhibitions
– focusing on Highland heritage from
prehistoric times through to the 20th century.
Tel: 07788 835466; e-mail:
highlandarchaeologyfestival@gmail.com;
website: www.highlandarchaeologyfestival.org
EXHIBITION
Rough Wooing, until 17 October
This exhibition on the Rough Wooing in East
Lothian centres on the Battle of Pinkie, the
Siege of Haddington and the Abbey of St
Mary. A companion Personal View exhibit
explores the Seton family’s links with Mary
Queen of Scots. The exhibition features
interactive displays, replica costumes and
weapons, as well as rarely seen items drawn
from public and private collections.
John Gray Centre, 15 Lodge Street,
Haddington EH41 3DX; tel: 01620 820680;
website: www.johngraycentre.org
FESTIVAL
Doors Open Days, throughout September
An annual festival offering free access to
hundreds of fascinating buildings around
the country, many of which are not usually
open to the public. Events take place around
Scotland and include guided tours, talks and
themed visits.
To view the full programme, visit:
www.doorsopendays.org.uk
FESTIVAL
The Mackintosh Festival, 1 to 31 October
Every October, this Glasgow-based festival
focuses on the life and legacy of architect
Charles Rennie Mackintosh through a
programme of events, exhibitions, lectures,
workshops and tours at venues around the
city. This is the sixth such festival and visitors
and locals alike are welcome to join in the
celebrations. Website:
www.glasgowmackintosh.com/festival
Enjoy Edinburgh
The city of Edinburgh plays host to four great events this autumn,
focusing on different aspects of the history of the city
Edinburgh Alphabet (runs until 8
October) is an exhibition at the City Art
Centre which spans 60,000 years and
explores an alphabet of Edinburgh items
across four different floors.
Shadows of War at Palace of
Holyroodhouse (until 26 November) is
the first exhibition to focus exclusively
on Roger Fenton’s photographs of the
Crimea in 1855. These Victorian photos
show troops and battlefields, and
demonstrated the harsh reality of war to
readers of British newspapers.
Take a whistle-stop journey through
Scotland’s past with Age of Leisure and
Pleasure, a lecture at Longmore House
on 19 October. The theme of the evening
is ‘The practice of visitation: from
peeking at the gentry to social inclusion’.
For tickets, tel: 0131 668 8763 or visit
www.historicenvironment.scot
Reverend Dr Georgiana CameronGaiduschek, a scholar of Celtic and
Scottish Studies, explores different
aspects of Cramond’s past in a lecture
at Lauriston Castle on 7 Septmber.
Tickets are £9 and include a tour of the
castle. Tel: 0131 228 1155.
58
p58-59 events.indd 58
31/07/2017 10:19
Subscribe to History Scotland save money
and receive a free Mary Queen of Scots
book, see page 51 for more details
EVENTS SPOTLIGHT
EXHIBITION
EXHIBITION
Looking Good: The male gaze from Van
Dyck to Lucian Freud, until 1 October
This free exhibition considers the theme
of male identity, image and appearance
from the 16th century to the present
day. Portraits from the National Galleries
of Scotland and National Portrait Gallery
in London explore changing fashions in
hairstyles, fashions and male grooming.
Scottish National Portrait Gallery,
1 Queen Street, Edinburgh
EH2 1JD; tel: 0131 624 6200;
website: www.nationalgalleries.org
Portrait of a Man, Francois-Xavier Fabre
Stories in Stone, until 31 October
Uncover the stories behind key historic
buildings of Innerleithen and its surroundings,
as the town’s parish church celebrates
its 150th anniversary and the local school
celebrates its sixtieth year.
St Ronan’s Wells Visitor Centre, Wells Brae,
Innerleithen EH44 6JL; tel: 01896 833583;
website: http://scot.sh/HSronans
EVENT
Archaeology at Tantallon, 10 September
Join a Historic Environment Scotland
archaeologist to discover what the latest
research can tell us about the imposing
stronghold of Tantallon.Tantallon Castle
was built in the mid 1300s by nobleman
William Douglas, and designed to withstand
instruments of medieval warfare including
trebuchets, bows & arrows and battering rams.
Starts 11am, booking essential. Tel: 0131 668
8774; website: http://scot.sh/HStantallon
EVENT
Tales from the battlefield, dates between
2 September and 1 October
Travel back in time to one of the most
dramatic times in Scotland’s history with this
living history performance featuring costumed
actors. The story centres around the aftermath
of the battle of Stirling Bridge, as a lost soldier
meets a fellow combatant.
Performances between 11.15am and 4pm on
selected dates – check the website for details.
National Wallace Monument, Abbey Craig,
Stirling FK9 5LF; tel: 01786 472140; website:
www.nationalwallacemonument.com
FESTIVAL
Midwinter dinner aboard the Endurance
The Endurance frozen in the ice.
EXHIBITION
Enduring Eye: The Antarctic legacy of Sir Ernest Shackleton and Frank Hurley,
until 12 November
One of the greatest ever photographic records of human survival, Enduring Eye
honours the achievements of Sir Ernest Shackleton and the men of the Endurance
expedition of 1914-17. The exhibition showcases the powerful images of Shackleton’s
official expedition photographer, Frank Hurley, alongside items from the Library’s
polar collections, to tell the fascinating story of the expedition.
Enduring Eye has been researched, written and curated for the Royal Geographical
Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) by Meredith Hooper, with Library
collection items selected by Paula Williams.
National Library of Scotland, George IV Bridge, Edinburgh EH1 1EW;
tel: 0131 623 3700; website: www.nls.uk
Largs Viking Festival, 2 to 10 September
The town of Largs in Ayrshire is the home
of this living history festival which centres
around events which took place in 1263 when
Norse King Haakon was overwhelmed by the
forces of King Alexander III. Explore the living
history Viking village, enjoy Scottish food and
crafts, and watch a spectacular torchlight
procession on 9 September, which culminates
in the burning of a Viking longship.
Website: www.largsvikingfestival.com
59
p58-59 events.indd 59
31/07/2017 10:20
www.historyscotland.com
Hidden
history
Exploring
Edinburgh
LISTEN
NOW
Follow Neil’s travels
around the country with
our free podcast, available
to stream or download at:
http://scot.sh/his-podcast
This month, Neil McLennan explores heritage attractions in Edinburgh and East Lothian,
spanning hundreds of years of history and looking at the origins of the Saltire flag
I
recently took scholars from
the Alliance of Literary
Societies on a ‘World War I
War Poets’ Walk’ through
Edinburgh. Starting at
The North British Hotel (now the
Balmoral) where Wilfred Owen
breakfasted in late June 1917 on his
arrival into Edinburgh for recovery
from shell shock, we moved on to the
Scott Monument and then Princes
Street, by Allan Ramsay’s statue.
Just as Owen was inspired by the
Pentland Hills, so was Ramsay. I
shared a little story about Outlook
Tower and the driving force of
polymath Sir Patrick Geddes. By
strange coincidence I was to meet
a friend that night at Dishoom
Restaurant, inspired by Geddes’
work in Bombay. The Edinburghbased Dundee University professor’s
influence spread as far as India and
Israel. Seen by many as a crank in his
own time, it just shows the challenges
of being a prophet in your own
land. Moreover, a polymath is often
scorned by those less broad minded
and unable to see the genius.
We moved from there to the Royal
Scots Greys memorial and then
60
p60 Hidden histories.indd 60
moved to the Scottish American War
memorial, recently covered by History
Scotland (May/June 2017 issue) and
one with strong war poetry links
with Seaforth Highlander Alan
Ewart Mackintosh’s words around
the memorial.
Going back onto Princes
Street we gave a passing nod to
Edinburgh educator Thomas
Guthrie before arriving at the
Caledonian hotel where war poet
Owen met with the good, the great
and enlightened bohemian set of
early 20th century Edinburgh.
From here we looked west,
talking about Owen’s teaching
at Tynecastle High and noting
the Haymarket War Memorial.
Southwards up Lothian Road,
McCrae’s Place and the Usher
Hall link closely to the history
of the 16th Royal Scots in the
Great War. We closed the walk by
passing around the castle and its
Napoleonic prison that features in
Stevenson’s St Ives which Owen
taught Tynecastle students.
The war poets’ trail through
Edinburgh is just one way to
unearth the past through a different
The Royal Scot Greys
memorial in Princes
Street Gardens,
with Edinburgh
Castle beyond
lens. And Scotland offers so many
trails, the recent Jacobite Trail
being another innovative addition
to Scottish tourist attractions.
Everywhere we turn there are
possible hidden histories. Edinburgh
has perhaps more than any place in
the country, with simply layer upon
layer of history and links aplenty.
Further World War I trails in
Edinburgh could include the War
Poets Collection at Edinburgh
Napier’s Craiglockhart Campus or
indeed taking in the Royal College
of Physicians on Queen Street and
its magnificent resources on Great
War doctors. Both also have easily
navigated websites with gems of
information held on them. Outside
the city a new Military Museum
Scotland has opened at Wilkieston
and another new museum at
Tynecastle Park hosts not only
the football history of Heart of
Midlothian FC, but also a bit more
about McCrae’s Battalion and the
players and fans who left for the
Western Front, leaving their maroon
jerseys and scarfs behind.
Everywhere we turn, there is
another angle. One final place that
H I S TO
H IRY
S TO
SC
RY
OTSC
LAOT
NDLA- ND
SE P-TJEUMB
LYE/RAU
/ O
GU
C TO
ST B
2015
E R 2017
31/07/2017 10:22
Hidden history - Perthshire & Drummond
St Andrews
Newhailes,
Musselburgh, one of
the locations for the
2017 film Churchill
remains a firm favourite of mine
in the capital is the free of charge
People’s Story museum at the
bottom of the High Street. Charting
Edinburgh’s social history through
the ages it offers something for
everyone. The last time I was there
I noticed the flag of the Edinburgh
incorporated trades was no longer
on display. This blue saltire might
have been the first time we saw the
blue and white colours on an actual
flag. A trip further down the east
coast helps to shed more light on
that symbol of Scotland…
East Lothian
East Lothian has featured in
history minds more than most
recently, given its scenic sets
gave the backdrop to the new
Churchill movie. Newhailes House,
Yellowcraigs and other venues
played host to the film crews
charting Churchill’s pre D-Day
activity. Archerfield House itself
might have been a venue given
it was rumoured, although never
confirmed, that Roosevelt and
Churchill made final plans here.
East Lothian offers many more
hidden history trails. Indeed
Archerfield acts as an indicator of
that depth, with Mary Queen of
Scots also visiting the land and the
house’s name coming from Edwards’
feared archers camping here on
route to the Battle of Bannockburn.
And whilst Bannockburn defined
a nation in one way, the flag of
Scotland is the outward symbol of
nationhood. And yet the origins
of the usage of the blue and white
saltire are not what one might think.
Tradition has it that King
Angus’s army of Picts and Scots
army invading Northumbrian
held Lothian were surrounded by
Saxon’s led by Athelstan. Looking
up from the battlefield in 832AD
they saw the formation of a white
cloud saltire against the blue
sky; the diagonal cross on which
St Andrew had been martyred.
Despite this, the blue and white flag
was not used for some time.
Whilst the symbol appeared in
the Seal of Guardians in 1286, the
first record of it committed to cloth
came in 1386 as Scots preparing
to invade southern neighbours
painted white crosses’ against
their black cloth. The next outing
for the symbol appeared on the
Douglas Standard carried into the
1388 Battle of Otterburn, however
Listen to the latest episode of the
History Scotland Hidden Histories
podcast, featuring Neil’s travels, at:
http://scot.sh/his-podcast
Historic hotels & houses
In Edinburgh there are historic hotels
aplenty. However a real favourite of
mine has to be Prestonfield House.
James Thompson’s vision to restore
this house is to be highly commended
and I would recommend enjoying the
splendour and luxury it offers. The
Priestfield lands it sits on had been
ceded to a Cistercian monastery and
later confiscated and given to the Earl
of Carrick, son of King Robert III.
A stay here demands a visit to the
atmospheric Rhubarb restaurant,
named such as the house was the second
place in the UK to grow rhubarb. An
article in the Royal College of Physicians
of Edinburgh journal shared the story of
Alexander Dick and John Hope growing
it at Prestonfield and Edinburgh Botanic
Garden, leading to its eventual use in
medicine across the UK. For those
staying here, other types of medicine
can be found with a visit to the nearby
Sheep Heid, one of Edinburgh’s oldest
surviving watering holes.
Archerfield House in East Lothian
holds many special memories for me.
The fact it is full of history adds to the
enjoyment of this magnificent 17thcentury mansion house. Mary Queen
of Scots, Robert Louis Stevenson and
Sir Winston Churchill all wandered
the magnificent grounds along the
River Forth. Nearby Dirleton Castle
is worth a visit and on a recent visit an
archaeological dig added to the heritage
enjoyment of this historic area.
The Open Arms and Castle Inn
in Dirleton also offer warm hospitality
near to the 13th century castle and
quiet village green. Another place
oozing with a rich tapestry of History is
Greywalls House. Sir Edwin Lutyens’
1901 ‘dignified holiday home’ has
entertained Edward VII and World War
II fighter pilots. Lutyens also designed
the Cenotaph.
Nearby Gilmerton House is
another splendid mansion house. For
larger groups, the Kinloch family home
for twelve generations could offer you a
country house retreat with a difference.
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - SE P T E MB E R / O C TO B E R 2017
p60 Hidden histories.indd 61
here it was an olive green colour
as the background. It was not until
around 1460 that the white cross
against blue appears as part of the
‘Blue Blanket’ of the incorporate
trades of Edinburgh.
Keeping with sky gazing, a
trip not far from Archerfield and
Athlestaneford would take you to
the National Museum of Flight.
And if it is transport that takes
your fancy, the Myreton Motor
Museum founded by Willie Dale
in 1966 is on your doorstep. For
me, Athlestanford contains one of
the loveliest libraries, contained
in an old red phone box. It is the
sharing of knowledge in both
large museums and in the small
hidden gems that keeps our interest
alive and the layers of Scottish
history accessible and ready to be
interpreted and reinterpreted.
61
61
31/07/2017 10:21
Volume 17, Number 4
September/October 2017
www.historyscotland.com
EDITORIAL
Editor: Dr Alasdair Ross
School of Arts and Humanities
University of Stirling, FK9 4LA
editorial@historyscotland.com
Reviews Editor: Dr Allan Kennedy
reviews@historyscotland.com
News Editor: Rachel Bellerby
rachelb@warnersgroup.co.uk
Tel: 0113 200 2922
ADMINISTRATION
Warners Group Publications
Fifth Floor, 31-32 Park Row,
Leeds, LS1 5JD
Publisher: Collette Smith
Associate Publisher: Matthew Hill
Senior Designer: Nathan Ward
Designers: Mary Ward, Rajneet Gill
Advertising: Sarah Hopton
sarah.hopton@warnersgroup.co.uk
Tel: 0113 200 2925
Marketing: Lauren Beharrell
lauren.beharrell@warnersgroup.co.uk
Tel: 0113 200 2916
History Scotland Subscriptions
Warners Group Publications
The Maltings, Bourne, PE10 9PH
subscriptions@warnersgroup.co.uk
Tel: 01778 392 463
Subscription details on page 51 (UK)
and page 38 (outside UK)
Join History Scotland and save!
Nov/Dec issue: on sale 7 October, 2017
History Scotland is published bi-monthly by
Warners Group Publications ISSN: 1475-5270
Printed by Warners (Midlands) plc,
The Maltings, Bourne, Lincs PE10 9PH
Distribution by Warners Group Publications plc
The views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the
publisher. Every care is taken to ensure that the contents of the magazine
are accurate, but the publisher assumes no responsibility for errors.
While reasonable care is taken when accepting advertisements, the
publisher cannot accept responsibility for any resulting unsatisfactory
transactions, but will immediately investigate any written complaints.
Copyright: No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system or transmitted without the prior written permission of
the publisher. © WARNERS GROUP PUBLICATIONS PLC 2017
IMAGE CREDITS: Cover: Half Moon Battery,
Edinburgh Castle by T M Baynes, 1822 © Capital
Collections; p6-7 © Tony Hisgett Paisley Museum
© Thomas Nugent, Ross Fountain p8 © Historic
Environment Scotland; p10 ©The Alan Brecks
Regiment; p11 © City of Edinburgh Council Museums
& Galleries; p12 © CSG CIC Glasgow Museums
Collection; p14-15 Lossie Forest aerial © FCS by
Caledonian Air Surveys; creative visualisation,
Lossie pillbox and Lossie roadblock © FCS by AOC
Archaeology; Lossie pillbox; p24 Britannia painting
courtesy of Martyn Mackrill; p25 signal tower courtesy
of Ann Galliard; p26 Valkyrie II © Library of Congress,
reproduction number LC-DIG-det-4a05016; p27 Royal
Marine Hotel © Library of Congress reproduction
number LC-DIG-ppmsc-07608; p28 Hunter’s Quay ©
McClean Museum Collection, Inverclyde Archives; p30
Strone from Hunter’s Quay © Library of Congress,
reproduction number LC-DIG-ppmsc-07683; p32-35 ©
Frank Harkness, with the exception of p35 © UTCHA;
p37 © Library of Congress, reproduction number
LC-DIG-ds-00628; p40 © Registers of Scotland p47
Glenkens memorial © Padeapix; p49 Nick Finnigan
© Historic Environment Scotland; p50 © National
Records of Scotland; p52 aerial images images © John
Wells; p60 Scott memorial ©Tony Hisgett, Royal Scot
Greys © Vanbug28, Newhailes © Kim Traynor
p62 Final word.indd 62
FINAL WORD
Edinburgh in 101 objects
Adam Wilkinson, director of Edinburgh World Heritage,
spoke to History Scotland about the launch of a major
new project to spotlight the history of Edinburgh and
encourage locals and visitors to see the city in a new way
To celebrate the Year of History, Heritage &
Archaeology, Edinburgh World Heritage has
been working with partners around the city to
select 100 objects based around seven themes
– arts & performance; books, words & ideas;
building a city; city of innovation; everyday
living; faith & nation; and on the dark side.
The 101st object will be chosen by public vote
later in the year.
How were the seven themes chosen?
We pulled together a panel of experts from
different disciplines, as well as people
from the community, and came up with an
enormous list of around 250 objects. Then
there were lots of discussions along the lines
of ‘what constitutes an object?’, because, for
example, a street can’t really be classed as
an object.
Then off we went again and narrowed the
options down to a much smaller list and
then discussed whether each of the potential
objects was accessible and whether it would
be possible to make each object tell its
own story.
What is it about Edinburgh and its
history which particularly lends itself to
this type of project?
Edinburgh has a deep and rich history
which has had, and has, so many amazing
people and the city has not only shaped
the history of Scotland and of the UK, but
also of Europe. Edinburgh seems to have it
all, with history in a compact space, and it
is easy to get around and explore on foot,
which would not always be the case in a city
such as Paris.
We were quite keen to get people to
explore the areas away from the Old Town
and New Town, places which perhaps get
less attention from visitors. So whilst all of
the objects are within the boundaries of the
city, there are some great sites to see in the
suburbs too.
And can you tell us about one or two of
your favourites from the project?
A personal favourite is Hutton’s Section,
which is part of Salisbury Crags. This is
a volcanic intrusion named after James
Hutton, the ‘father of geology’. Hutton
observed that this rock formation wasn’t
just laid down over time but that greater
forces were at work. This observation was
part of a way of thinking which concluded
that the Biblical narrative of time was
completely wrong.
This was part of a long line of thought
beginning with Gallileo which questioned
orthodox beliefs. Hutton carried on the
grand tradition of questioning established
thought and he had a tremendous
correspondence with Charles Darwin, as the
two were working on big questions such as
how the human race came to be here. And
happily, Hutton’s Section is also part of
my daily life, as I visit every day for a
lunchtime walk!
Another favourite is Deacon Brodie’s
Cabinet, an 18th-century red wood cabinet
made by William Brodie, which is often
thought of in gruesome terms because of
its association with The Strange Case of Dr
Jekyll and Mr Hyde.
However, many people don’t realise
that the Brodies were respected cabinet
makers in Edinburgh and along with
people like William Mathie, made some of
the finest furniture of the day. So to me,
with an interest in furniture, this history
takes us beyond Jekyll and Hyde and into
the reality of people making money in a
city which produced items of furniture
for grand houses around the country,
alongside well-known makers from further
south, such as Thomas Chippendale and
Thomas Sheraton.
Edinburgh in 101 Objects is not just the
work of Edinburgh World Heritage, there
is a group of 44 different partners who
have worked together as a city to make this
project happen and have really got on board
with the idea. It has been over a year in the
preparation and now I would encourage
everyone to take a look at our website,
decide what they would like to see and then
start exploring.
Website: http://edinburgh.org/101
H I S TO RY SC OT LA ND - NOV E MB E R/D E C E MB E R 2013
__________________
62
31/07/2017 10:22
History Scotland competition
WIN a two-night stay in
INVERNESS
for two people
This is your chance to win a trip for two to Inverness, courtesy of Serviced Apartments by
Mansley Group. Our lucky winners will stay in style at Inverness’ most luxurious serviced
apartments, enjoy free entry to the Viewpoint and receive a three-day ‘Discover Ticket’ –
the passport to ninety of Scotland’s attractions. For your chance to win just visit
the History Scotland website and answer the following question:
In which year was the Battle of Culloden fought?
Mansley Serviced Apartments’ award-winning properties are full of character, with their own
individuality and style, reinforced with friendly and professional front of house staff and a top class
housekeeping service. The unrivalled services and hotel-like amenities include free wifi, and offer
more space, privacy and comfort than a traditional hotel.
Inverness Castle Viewpoint is the region’s newest visitor attraction, located in the North Tower, it
offers fabulous 360 degree views of the city and River Ness and is the first phase in transforming
the Castle into a major tourist attraction.
ENTER ONLINE AT:
http://scot.sh/inverness-win
Closing date is 1 September 2017. Editor’s decision is final. Winner will be picked at random from all correct entries.
Good luck! Find out more about Mansley Serviced Apartments at: www.bymansley.com
p57 Competition advert.indd 8
31/07/2017 11:06
Документ
Категория
Журналы и газеты
Просмотров
3
Размер файла
20 719 Кб
Теги
History Scotland, journal
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа