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Technological machines and equipment (учебное пособие)

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ Г.Ф. МОРОЗОВА»
Ю.Ю. Киселева И.В. Милованова
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT
ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ МАШИНЫ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2016
1
МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ Г.Ф. МОРОЗОВА»
Ю.Ю. Киселева И.В. Милованова
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT
ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ МАШИНЫ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2016
2
УДК 543.3 : 574(075)
К44
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ» (протокол № 6 от 3 июня 2016 г.)
Рецензенты: кафедра иностранных языков и деловой международной
коммуникации ФГБОУ ВО Воронежский ГАУ;
канд. филол. наук, доц. кафедры английского языка
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГПУ» В.В. Безрукова
Киселева, Ю. Ю.
К44 Иностранный язык. Английский язык. Technological machines and
equipment. Технологические машины и оборудование [Текст] : учебное пособие
/ Ю. Ю. Киселева, И. В. Милованова ; М-во образования и науки РФ, ФГБОУ
ВО «ВГЛТУ». – Воронеж, 2016. – 116 с.
ISBN 978-5-7994-0759-9 (в обл.)
Учебное пособие знакомит студентов с терминологией по направлениям подготовки
15.03.02, 15.04.02 – Технологические машины и оборудование, а также с грамматическими
явлениями, характерными для английской научно-технической литературы, развивает
навыки работы с аутентичными журналами по данным направлениям, оно состоит из
текстов, взятых из оригинальных английских и американских периодических изданий,
адаптированных для понимания студентами I-II курсов, а также магистров. Послетекстовые
упражнения направлены на закрепление лексического и грамматического материала текстов.
Учебное пособие будет способствовать формированию и совершенствованию навыков
чтения, письма, говорения и перевода технической литературы.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов по направлениям подготовки 15.03.02,
15.04.02 – Технологические машины и оборудование.
УДК 543.3 : 574(075)
ISBN 978-5-7994-0759-9
© Киселева Ю. Ю., Милованова И. В., 2016
© ФГБОУ ВО «Воронежский государственный
лесотехнический университет
имени Г.Ф. Морозова», 2016
3
Оглавление
GRAMMAR ................................................................................................................ 4
Nouns in plural ............................................................................................................ 4
The degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs ................................................ 6
Глагол То be ............................................................................................................... 9
Present ....................................................................................................................... 11
Past ........................................................................................................................... 14
The Passive voice ...................................................................................................... 20
The Infinitive ............................................................................................................. 22
Participles (1 and 2 .................................................................................................... 24
The Gerund ................................................................................................................ 26
The Complex Subject ................................................................................................ 29
The Modal Verbs ....................................................................................................... 31
Тексты для бакалавров............................................................................................ 42
Text 1. The crawler type-tractor................................................................................ 42
Text 2. Development of the tractor ........................................................................... 45
Text 3. Classification of tractors ............................................................................... 48
Text 4. Human engineering and tractor design ......................................................... 50
Text 5. About tractors................................................................................................ 52
Text 6. Wheeled skidder LKT80 design ................................................................... 56
Text 7. Wheeled skidder LKT 80 application ........................................................... 59
Text 8. Fiskars hydraulic log loader (Finland ........................................................... 61
Text 9. Combination processor OSA250 (Sweden production) ............................... 64
Text 10. OSA 250 (continued) .................................................................................. 68
Text 11 ....................................................................................................................... 71
Text 12. Thinning processor...................................................................................... 74
Тексты для магистров ............................................................................................. 78
Text 13. Bruunett Mini .............................................................................................. 78
Text 14. Mechanization of off-road transport ........................................................... 80
Text 15. Organization and Infrastructure for Logging .............................................. 81
Text 16. Multi-function machines (part I)................................................................. 82
Text 17. Multi-function machines (part II) ............................................................... 83
Text 18. Farm tractors ............................................................................................... 84
Text 19. Small tree harvesting technology ................................................................ 85
Text 20. Logging machine industry (Part I) .............................................................. 86
Text 21. Logging machine industry (Part II) ............................................................ 87
Деловой английский язык ...................................................................................... 88
Resume in English ..................................................................................................... 88
Formal Letters ........................................................................................................... 96
Telephone conversation........................................................................................... 110
Библиографический список.................................................................................. 115
4
GRAMMAR
Nouns in plural
(множественное число имѐн существительных)
Правила образования множественного числа существительных в
английском языке достаточно разнообразны. Основные из них сводятся к
следующим:
1)
Множественное число существительных (кроме тех, у которых основа
оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -x), образуется путем прибавления к основе
окончания -s:
a cat – cats
a trick – tricks
2)
Множественное число существительных, основа которых оканчивается на -ch,
-s, -ss, -sh, -х,- z образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -es:
a bench — benches
a bus — buses
При чтении формы множественного числа этих существительных произносится
редуцированная [I]: [boksiz].
3) Существительные, оканчивающиеся на –y (после согласной), во
множественном числе имеют окончание -ies:
an army – armies
a fly – flies
4) Существительные, имеющие окончание –о, как правило, образуют
множественное число путем прибавления к основе окончание –es:
a potato – potatoes
НО: Некоторые существительные, оканчивающиеся на -о, принимают
окончание –s:
Piano – pianos photo – photos
5) В форме множественного числа существительных, оканчивающихся на
–f (-fe), конечная согласная, как правило, меняются на –v, давая окончание
–ves:
a calf – calves
a knife – knives
5
НО: Ряд существительных, оканчивающихся на –f, образуют
множественное число прибавлением окончания –s:
roof – roofs
chief – chiefs
handkerchief – handkerchiefs
5) Ряд существительных образуют множественное число не по общим
правилам:
а) у некоторых существительных во множественном числе изменяется
корневая гласная:
a man – men
a goose – geese
a woman – women
a mouse – mice
a foot – feet
a tooth – teeth
б) у ряда существительных к форме единственного числа добавляется
окончание -еn;
an ox — oxen
a child — children
в) некоторые существительные, заимствованные из латинского и
греческого языков, образуют множественное число следующим образом;
an index — indices
a crisis — crises
a criterion — criteria
a bacterium — bacteria и др.
6) Некоторые существительные имеют одну форму для единственного и
множественного числа:
a deer — олень deer — олени
a sheep — овца sheep — овцы
a fish — рыба fish — рыбы
7) Некоторые существительные имеют форму только единственного числа
или только множественного числа:
advice
information
knowledge
furniture
luggage
6
НО:
News, clothes, damages, goods, looks, riches, manners, thanks.
8) Некоторые неисчисляемые или абстрактные существительные могут
образовывать форму единственного или множественного числа в идиоматических
выражениях : a piece of music, a piece of luggage, two pieces of equipment, three
pieces of advice:
A folk song is a piece of popular music. - Народная песня – популярное
музыкальное произведение.
I ordered twelve bars of soap. - Я заказал двенадцать кусков мыла.
I. Переведите на английский и затем поставьте существительные во
множественное число:
Ручка, класс, история, дорога, день, кот, куст, стол, лиса, комната, нож,
стул, герой, матч, путь, дом, автобус, семья, город, волк, страна, парк, словарь,
ключ, растение, персик, банан, щѐтка, звезда, гора, дерево, мужчина, женщина,
глаз, полка, коробка, мальчик, часы, мышь, платье, игрушка, овца, зуб, младенец,
ребѐнок, олень, жизнь, томат, магазин, трагедия, яйцо, комедия, фотография,
крыша, бабочка, церковь, жена, тело, муха.
DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS
СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ ИМЕН ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ
И НАРЕЧИЙ
Adjective or
The comparative
The superlative
adverb
degree
degree
Нулевая
Сравнительная
Превосходная
степень
степень
степень
сравнения
ОдноBig+er =bigger
Big
двухсложные
Big+est=the biggest
большой
больше
прилагательные и
самый большой
наречия
Многосложные
More+beautiful=
Most+beautiful=
Beautiful
прилагательные и красивый
more beautiful
the most beautiful
наречия
красивее
самый красивый
7
СЛОЖНЫЕ СЛУЧАИ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ФОРМ СРАВНИТЕЛЬНОЙ И
ПРЕВОСХОДНОЙ СТЕПЕНЕЙ СРАВНЕНИЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ
Положительная
степень
Сравнительная
степень
Превосходная
степень
Перевод
bad
worse
the worst
Плохой - более плохой
- хуже - худший самый плохой
far
farther
the farthest
further
the furthest
Далеко - дальше самый далекий (o
расстоянии)
далее - дальнейший (о
времени, о работе
и т. д.)
good
better
the best
Хороший - лучше лучший
little
less
the least
маленький - меньший
- самый маленький
much
more
the most
old
older
the oldest
elder
the eldest
много - больше больше всего
Старый - старше самый старший
старше, самый
старший (о
родственниках)
I. Дополните предложения, используя сравнительную степень.
1. Sue’s car isn’t very big. She wants a bigger car.
2. This house isn’t very modern. I prefer more modern houses.
3. You’re not very tall. Your brother is …
8
4. Bill doesn’t work very hard. I work …
5. My chair isn’t very comfortable. Yours is …
6. Jill’s idea wasn’t very good. My idea was …
7. These flowers aren’t very nice. The blue ones are …
8. I’m not very interested in art. I’m … in history.
9. It isn’t very warm today. It was … yesterday.
10. Britain isn’t very big. France is …
11. London isn’t very beautiful. Paris is …
12. This knife isn’t very sharp. Have you got … one?
13. People today are not very polite. In the past they were …
II. Дополните предложения, используя превосходную степень.
1. This building is very old. It’s the oldest building in the town.
2. It’s was a very happy day. It was … day of my life.
3. It’s a very good film. It’s … film I’ve ever seen.
4. She’s a very popular singer. She’s … singer in our country.
5. It was a very big mistake. It was … mistake I’ve ever made.
6. It’s a very pretty village. It’s … village I’ve ever seen.
7. It was a very cold day. It was … day of a year.
8. He’s a very interesting person. He’s … person I’ve ever met.
9
POSITIVE
Present
I am
He
She } is
It
Past
We
You } are
They
I
He
She } was
It
Future
We
You } were
They
I
He
She
It } will be
We
You
They
Глагол То be (быть)
NEGATIVE
QUESTION
I am not
Am I?
He
She } is not (isn’t)
It
He
Is { She?
It
We
You } are not (aren’t)
They
We
Are { You ?
They
I
He
She } was not (wasn’t)
It
I
He
Was { She ?
It
We
You } were not (weren’t)
They
I
He
She
It } will not be (won’t be)
We
You
They
We
Were {You ?
They
I
He
She
Will { It } be ?
We
You
They
I. Put in am/is/are/was/were/will be. Some sentences are present and some are
past.
1. Last year she was 22, so she is 23 now.
2. Today the weather … nice, but yesterday it … cold.
3. I … hungry. Can I have something to eat?
10
4. I … hungry last night, so I had something to eat.
5. She … in Paris next summer.
6. Where … you at 11 o’clock last Friday morning?
7. Don’t buy those shoes. They … too expensive.
8. Why … you so angry yesterday?
9. We must go now. It … very late.
10. This time last year I … in Paris.
11. Tomorrow at 10 o’clock I … at work.
12. We … tired when we arrived home, so we went to bed.
13. ―Where … the children?‖ – ―I don’t know. They … in the garden ten
minutes ago.‖
14. Bill … 24 years old now. Last year he … 23. Next year he … 25.
15. They travels a lot. Yesterday they … in London. Today they … in Rome.
Next week they … in Tokyo.
II. Write positive or negative sentences. Use am/am not/is/isn’t/are/aren’t/ will
be/won’t be.
1. (Paris / the capital of France) Paris is the capital of France.
2. (I / interested in football) I’m not interested in football.
3. (I / hungry) ……………………………………………
4. (It / warm today) ……………………………………
5. (Rome / in Spain) …………………………………
6. (I / afraid of dogs) …………………………………
7. Don’t telephone me this evening. (I / at home) ………………
8. (My hands / cold) ……………………………………………
9. (Canada / a very big country) …………………………………
10. (Diamonds / cheap) ……………………………………………
11. (Motor-racing / a dangerous sport) …………………………
12. (Cats / big animals)…………………………………………
11
PRESENT (на примере глагола To work - работать)
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
Ключевые
слова
Indefinite (Simple)
Usually, often,
Now, at the moment,
seldom, always,
Look!, Listen!
sometimes, every day
(month, year)
I
I am working
We
You } work
We
They
You } are working
They
He
She } works
He
It
She } is working
It
I
I am not working
We
He
You } don’t work
She } is not (isn’t) working
They
It
He
She } doesn’t work
It
I
QUESTION
Continuous
We
Do { You } + work?
They
He
Does {She} + work?
It
We
You }aren’t working
They
Am I working ?
He
Is { She } working?
It
We
Are { You } working?
They
Perfect
Ever, never, just, yet,
already, since, for
I
You
We } have worked
They
He
She } has worked
It
I
You
We } haven’t worked
They
He
She } has not worked
It
I
We
Have { You } worked?
They
He
Has {She} worked?
It
12
I. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs (Present Simple).
1. He (work) in a bank.
2. They (live) in England.
3. I (watch) TV every day.
4. My brother (watch) TV every day too.
5. She (like) English?
6. Alex (go) to computer club on Sundays.
7. You (live) in London?
8. I (speak) not French.
9. He (like) not History.
10. They (hate) Math.
II. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs (Present
Continuous).
1. She (not read now). She (write) a letter.
2. You (watch) TV. You (not listen) to me!
3. I (spend) a day at the seaside. The sun (shine) brightly.
4. Please, be quiet. I (work).
5. You (stand) on my foot. – Oh, I’m sorry.
6. Look! Somebody (swim) in the river.
7. You can turn off the television. I (not watch) it.
8. Bob (work) now?
9. What’s the matter? Why you (cry)?
10. Don’t go out. It (rain) hard.
11. You can’t listen to music because the stereo (not work).
12. We don’t want to go for a walk. We (watch) a very interesting film.
III. Present Simple or Present Continuous?
1. The shops (open) at 9 o’clock and (close) at 5.30.
2. She (speak) four languages.
3. They (not listen) to music now.
4. Listen! The phone (ring).
5. I (not play) tennis very well.
6. He (read) a book at the moment?
13
7. Look! It (snow).
8. It (snow) every year in this country.
9. Listen! Somebody (sing).
10. ―Excuse me, but you (sit) in my place.‖ – ―Oh, I’m sorry.‖
11. ―Where is Paul?‖ – ―In the kitchen. He (cook) something.‖
12. He (not like) coffee. He (prefer) tea.
13. She (hate) history.
14. He (not drive) usually to work. He usually (walk).
15. Excuse me, you (speak) English?
16. ―Have a cigarette.‖ – ―No, thank you. I (not smoke)‖.
17. I can’t talk to you at the moment. I (work).
IV. Present simple or Present Continuous? Correct wrong sentences.
1. She is liking pop music.
2. John is having dinner at the moment.
3. She hates classical music.
4. He is having two brothers.
5. We are loving ice-cream.
6. He is taking photos at the moment.
7. I don’t understand you.
V. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs (Present Perfect).
1. ―What’s the news?‖ – ―We (win) the tennis competition.‖
2. ―Where is Ann?‖ – ―She (go) out‖.
3. Mary is having a party on Saturday. She (invite) a lot of people.
4. You (be) ever to London? - ―Yes, I (be) several times‖.
5. You (write) to John? – ―Yes, I (finish) just a letter to him‖.
6. My aunt (live) in Paris for 15 years.
7. I (not meet) him since January.
8. She (know) me for a long time.
9. We (live) in Moscow since I was ten.
14
QUESTION
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE
Ключевые слова
PAST (на примере глаголов to work – работать и to write - писать)
Indefinite (Simple)
Yesterday, the day
before yesterday, last
month (week, day,
year), in…,
a week (month, year)
ago
I
He
She
It } worked / wrote
We
You
They
Continuous
Perfect
At … o’clock yesterday, By … o’clock yesterday,
from
…
till
… already, before, by the
yesterday, at this time time
yesterday
I
He
She } was working
It
We
You } were working
They
I
I
He
He
She
She } wasn’t working
It } didn’t work / write It
We
You
We
They
You }weren’t working
They
I
I
He
He
She
Was { She } working?
Did { It }+ work / write?
It
We
You
We
They
Were { You } working?
They
I
He
She
It } had worked / written
We
You
They
I
He
She
It }hadn’t worked /written
We
You
They
I
He
She
Had { It } worked/
written?
We
You
They
15
Сравните употребление Past Indefinite и Past Continuous.
Обратите внимание на следующие два предложения:
We played chess in the evening (вечером) - Past Indefinite
We were playing chess the whole evening (весь вечер) - Past Continuous
Обратите внимание на следующие предложения:
Father was reading at 7 o'clock yesterday. Действие в процессе Past
Continuous.
Father came home at 7 o'clock yesterday. Однократное действие Past
Indefinite
Сравните также:
I have bought a book today (this week, this month) - неистекший отрезок
времени - Present Perfect.
I bought a book yesterday (last week, last month) - истекший отрезок
времени - Past Indefinite.
Запомните также следующие предложения: I have never been to France.
I haven't seen you for ages. Have you ever been to London? I haven't met him for
a long time. I haven't been to London since last year.
I. Write the past simple of these verbs.
1. get
2. eat
3. pay
4. make
5. give
6. leave
7. see
8. go
9. hear
10. find
11. buy
…….12. know …….23. study …
…….13. stand …….24. travel …….
…….14. take …….25. cry …….
…….15. do …….26. open …….
…….16. put …….27. win …….
…….17. tell …….28. plan …….
…….18. lose …….29. stay …….
…….19. think ……
…….20. speak ……
…....21. stop …….
…….22. write …….
16
II. Write sentences about the past (yesterday, last week etc.).
1. He always goes to work by car. Yesterday he went to work by car.
2. They always get up early. This morning they …
3. Bill often loses his keys. He …
4. I write a letter to Jane every week. Last week …
5. She meets her friends every evening. She … yesterday evening.
6. I usually read two newspapers every day. I … yesterday.
7. They come to my house every Friday. Last Friday …
8. We usually go to the cinema on Sunday. We … last Sunday.
9. They buy a new car every year. Last year …
10. Ann often takes photographs. Last weekend …
11. We leave home at 8.30 every morning. We … this morning.
III. Put the verb in the correct form of the past (positive, negative or question).
1. I (play) tennis yesterday but I (not win).
2. We (wait) for a long time, but the bus (not / come).
3. That’s a nice shirt. Where (you / buy) it?
4. She (see) me, but she (not / speak) to me.
5. (it / rain) yesterday? – No, it was a nice day.
6. That was a stupid thing to do. Why (you / do) it?
7. You (have) a nice weekend? – Yes, I (play) tennis with my friends
8. We (go) to the cinema, but the film (not / be) very good. We (not enjoy) it.
9. You (phone) Ann? – No, I (forget).
10. Tom (buy) some new clothes yesterday.
11. The party wasn’t very good, so we (not stay) long.
12. Is Peter here? – No, he (arrive) five minutes ago.
13. I wasn’t well last week, so I (not go) to university.
14. He (spend) his summer holiday in this country.
15. She (come) to your party? – No, we (invite) her, but she (not come).
16. Yesterday I (get) up early.
IV. Put the verb in the correct form of the past simple or present simple (positive,
negative or question).
1. Now I (live) in London and my brother (live) in Scotland.
2. Ten years ago my parents (live) in London.
17
3. The Earth (go) round the Sun.
4. Ann (to be) at home yesterday.
5. I usually (go) to work by car but I sometimes (walk).
6. What you usually (do) at weekends?
7. Father (come) home at 8 o’clock yesterday.
8. Last summer I (go) to Great Britain.
9. The Chinese (invent) printing.
10. I (watch) TV every day.
11. My brother (watch) TV every day too.
12. Where you (go) last Sunday?
13. Alex (go) to computer club on Sundays.
14. The Vikings (come) to England a thousand year ago.
V. Put the verb in brackets in the Past Continuous.
1. Kate was at home at 6 o’clock yesterday. She (watch) TV.
2. At 4 o’clock she was at the sports club. She (play) tennis.
3. What you (do) at 11.30 yesterday? – I (work).
4. What did he say? – I don’t know. I (listen / not).
5. It (rain), so we didn’t go out.
6. In 1980 they (live) in Canada.
7. I woke up early yesterday. It was a beautiful morning. The sun (shine) and
the birds (sing).
VI. Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple.
1. When we (go) out, it (rain).
2. Jane wasn’t at home when I went to see her. She (work).
3. I (get) up early this morning.
4. The boys (break) the window when they (play) football.
5. I was late but my friends (wait) for me when I (arrive).
6. I (get) up at 7 o’clock. The sun (shine) and I (go) for a walk.
7. He (not/drive) fast when the accident (happen).
8. Margaret (not/go) to work yesterday. She was ill.
9. What (you/do) on Saturday evening? – I went to the cinema.
18
10. What (you / do) at 9.30 on Saturday evening? – I (watch) a film in the
cinema.
11. What you (do) at 11.30 yesterday?
12. Father (come) home at 8 o’clock yesterday.
13. When we (leave) house, it (rain).
14. It (rain) a lot last year.
15. At this time yesterday I (talk) to my friends.
16. How fast you (drive) when the police (stop) you? – I don’t know exactly,
but I (not drive) very fast.
17. Your team (win) the football match yesterday? - No, the weather was very
bad, so we (not / play).
18. What you (do) at 10 o’clock on Sunday? – I still (sleep).
VII. Put the verb in brackets in the Past Perfect.
1. My best friend was no longer there. He … (go) away.
2. I didn’t recognise Mrs. Johnson. She (change) a lot.
3. Bill no longer had his car. He (sell) it.
4. When I arrived at the party, Tom wasn’t there. He (go) home.
5. George didn’t want to come to the cinema with us because he (see) already
this film.
6. It was his first driving lesson. He was very nervous and didn’t know what to
do. He (not/ drive) before.
VIII. You have to make sentences using the words in brackets.
1. I wasn’t hungry. (I / just / have / lunch) I had just had lunch.
2. Tom wasn’t at home when I arrived. (he / just / go / out).
3. We arrived at the cinema late. (the film / already / begin).
4. They were not eating when I went to see them. (they / just / finish / their /
dinner).
5. I invited Ann to dinner last weekend but she couldn’t come. (She / already /
arrange / to do / something else).
6. I was very pleased to see her again after such a long time. (I / not / see / her
for five years).
19
IX. Past Simple, Past Continuous or Past Perfect?
1. Last summer I (go) to Great Britain.
2. When we came to the station, the train (leave) already. We were late.
3. Tom burnt his hand while he (cook) dinner.
4. They (go) out after lunch.
5. She said that she (not / see) this man before.
6. What you (do) at 6 o’clock yesterday?
7. The Chinese (invent) printing.
8. The film (start) before we arrived.
9. Where you (go) last Sunday?
10. By 3 o’clock yesterday John … his car.
11. I didn’t go to the cinema because I (see) already this film.
12. The Vikings (come) to England a thousand year ago.
13. We (discuss) this question from 3 till 5 o’clock yesterday.
X. Past Simple or Present Perfect?
1. My father is a writer. He (write) many books.
2. I (play) football yesterday afternoon.
3. What time (go) to bed last night?
4. You (meet) a famous person?
5. The weather (be) good yesterday.
6. My hair is wet. I (wash) it.
7. Kate travels a lot. She (visit) many countries.
8. William Shakespeare (live) from 1564 to 1616.
9. How long you (be) in Moscow?
10. When you (go) to Great Britain?
20
The Passive voice
Спряжение глагола to take (брать, отводить) во временах группы
Indefinite в Passive Voice
Present Indefinite Passive
I am taken
I am not taken
Am I taken?
He is taken
He is not taken
Is he taken?
She is taken
She is not taken
Is she taken?
It is taken
It is not taken
Is it taken?
We are taken
We are not taken
Are we taken?
You are taken
You are not taken
Are you taken?
They are taken
They are not taken
Are they taken?
I was taken
He was taken
She was taken
It was taken
We were taken
You were taken
They were taken
I shall be taken
He will be taken
She will be taken
It will be taken
We shall be taken
You will be taken
They will be taken
Past Indefinite Passive
I was not taken
He was not taken
She was not taken
It was not taken
We were not taken
You were not taken
They were not taken
Was I taken?
Was he taken?
Was she taken?
Was it taken?
Were we taken?
Were you taken?
Were they taken?
Future Indefinite Passive
I shall not be taken
Shall I be taken?
He will not be taken
Will he be taken?
She will not be taken
Will she be taken?
It will not be taken
Will it be taken?
We shall not be taken
Shall we be taken?
You will not be taken Will you be taken?
They will not be taken
Will they be taken?
Сравните:
I take (я отвожу) - I am taken (меня отводят)
I took (я отвел) - I was taken (меня отвели)
I shall take (я отведу) - I shall be taken (меня отведут)
21
Perfect
Continuous
Perfect Continuous
Indefinite
Таблица всех времен в Passive Voice
Present
Past
Future
Letters
are The letter was The letter will
written every day written
be
written
yesterday
tomorrow
Future in the Past
(He said that) the
letter would be
written the next day
The letter is being The letter was
written now
being written
at 5 o'clock
yesterday
-
-
The letter has The letter had
already
been been written
by 5 o'clock
written
yesterday
The letter will
have
been
written by 5
o'clock
tomorrow
(He said that) the
letter would have
been written by 5
o'clock the next day
I. Translate into Russian.
1. The interior of the car will be changed most.
2. Of course water is not used in automotive conditioning systems.
3. Before the car is put into mass production all its units and mechanisms are
subjected to test.
4. The driver of the car was seriously injured in the accident.
5. My car was stolen a few weeks ago.
6. The weight, number and size of the brakes components are considerably
reduced.
7. Suzuki Grand Vitaras are often bought as family vehicles.
8. At Chrysler, our products are built by people who know and love automobiles.
9. Riders of horses and other animals are entitled to share the road with you.
10. Many motorcycles are operated with the headlight on, even during the
daytime hours.
11. Signs will tell you which lanes are closed.
12. If your driving license is lost or damaged, you pay the required fee for a
duplicate.
13. My bike is being repaired now by my friends.
22
II. Complete the sentences using a suitable passive form of the verb in brackets.
1. Mercedes cars (make) in Germany.
2. Skiing (invent) in Norway.
3. It (recognize) that smoking is bad for you health.
4. The first car (power) by steam.
5. The first car (invent) by Nicolas Cugnot in France.
6. The first car (consider) to be noisy and dangerous.
7. The production of steel (increase) in the future.
8. Gunpowder (discover) in China.
9. English (speak) all over the world.
10. The results (announce) tomorrow morning.
11. Coca-cola (produce) since 1895.
12. Your car (repair)?
III. Turn from Active into Passive.
1. They speak English in the USA.
2. Bell invented the telephone.
3. The police arrested him.
4. Baird invented TV.
5. Egyptians built Pyramids.
6. He invited Mike to the party.
7. They will translate this article in time.
8. Somebody has stolen my car.
The Infinitive
Запомните случаи, в которых инфинитив употребляется без частицы "to":
- после модальных глаголов;
- после глаголов to let и to make;
- в сложном дополнении после глаголов восприятия: to see, to hear, to feel,
etc.
- после выражений: I would rather ..., you had better...
23
Формы инфинитива
Active
Passive
Indefinite
to write
to be written
Continuous
to be writing
-
Perfect
to have written
to have been written
Perfect Continuous
to have been writing
-
Что значат эти формы? Рассмотрите предложения, иллюстрирующие
значение разных форм инфинитива.
Active
Чему я рад?
Indefinite
I am glad to speak with рад поговорить с вами
you
(всегда радуюсь, когда
говорю)
Continuous
I am glad to be speaking рад,
что
with you
разговариваю
Perfect
I am glad to have spoken рад, что поговорил
with you
сейчас
Passive
Perfect Continuous I am glad to have been рад, что уже давно (все
speaking with you
это время) разговариваю
Indefinite
I am (always) glad to be всегда рад, когда мне
told the news
рассказывают новости
Perfect
I am glad to have been рад, что мне рассказали
told the news
Сравните употребление:
Сравните употребление:
Active Infinitive и Passive Infinitive Indefinite Infinitive и Perfect Infinitive
to write - to be written
to write - to have written
I am glad to help you - рад помочь I am glad to see you - рад видеть вас
(рад, что я помогаю)
(рад, что вижу)
I am glad to be helped - рад, что мне I am glad to have seen you - рад, что
помогают
повидал вас
24
I. Find the infinitives and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. Engineers plan to exploit special properties of ceramics in gas-turbine engines.
2. The function of the controller is to control electric vehicle speed.
3. To stop the car it is necessary to push down on the brake pedal.
4. Of course, BMWs are designed not only to excite, but also to protect.
5. Motorcyclers often use hand signals to make themselves more visible.
6. Remember, your first responsibility is to pay attention to the road.
7. Engineers are experimenting with a system that enables drivers to see better
after dark.
8. It is usually difficult to find a place to park in the city center.
9. To clear rain from the windscreen you use a windscreen wiper.
10. Chrysler designers wanted to create a technologically advanced vehicle.
11. PT Cruiser offers safety and security features to help drivers and passengers
feel safe and secure.
12. Jill has decided not to buy a car.
13. I prefer to travel by car.
14. It seems the car to have broken down.
The Participle (I and II)
Present
Perfect
Past
Формы причастия Participle I и Participle II
Active
Passive
writing
being written
having written
having been written
written
Сравните употребление Participle I ("ing'' форма) и Participle II (III форма
глагола):
taking - берущий, беря
taken - взятый
doing - делающий, делая
done - сделанный
Сравните употребление Present Participle и Perfect Participle:
buying - покупая
having bought - купив
25
Past Participle = Participle II (III форма глагола):
written - написанный
The dictation written the day before was corrected.
Как переводить разные формы причастия на русский язык
Формы
причастия
reading
Как их переводить
Причастием
Деепричастием
читающий
читая
having read being read
читаемый (т.е. который будучи читаемым (т. е. когда его
читают)
читали)
будучи
прочитанным
(т. е. когда его прочитали)
having been read
read
прочитав
прочитанный
будучи прочитанным (т. е. когда его
прочитали)
-
I. Find the Participles I and translate them into Russian
1. Recent surveys show that increasing numbers of drivers say that they use
safety belts.
2. Most windshield of today is made of "safety" glass, consisting of a layer of
plastic between two sheets of glass.
3. An electronic system automatically selects and controls the running mode
according to driver demand.
4. The instrument measuring the speed of the car is speedometer.
5. Many cars have a fuel light warning the driver about the level of petrol in the
tank.
6. A car exceeding its speed, the indicators show in on display.
II. Find the Participles II and translate them into Russian.
1. During this experiment a piston made of aluminum and a ceramic one were
heated side by side.
26
2. General Motors, Ford and Chrysler have introduced electronically controlled
carburetors, combining the best feature of the carburetor and a fuel injector.
3. A program in the computer calculates the amount of fuel needed to give
perfect combustion.
4. The new system developed increased the safety and efficiency of a car.
III. Find the Participles I and II and translate them into Russian.
1. There is very little petrol left in the tank.
2. When I arrived, there was a big car parked outside the house.
3. All the cars in this car park belong to people working here.
4. In racing, a well-known material used for brake rotors is carbon.
5. This car is a marked improvement on a very good predecessor.
6. The Mazda Miata is a purpose-built sports car, not a modified coupe or
based on a sedan.
7. The Mazda Miata remains the most satisfying roadster on the market.
8. Higher prices will reduce sales, causing some motorists to keep driving their
older, higher-polluting cars.
9. Opel is the second oldest surviving car company, beaten only Daimler-Benz.
10. High speed increases your stopping distance.
11. Trees, bushes, buildings, or parked cars at intersection block your view of
cars coming from the side.
12. In some countries, yellow lines mark the center of a two-way road used for
two-way traffic.
13. Many roads have two or more lanes going in your direction.
The Gerund
Seeing a good film is a pleasure
We thought of seeing a film after supper.
He went home without seeing the film.
27
Indefinite
Формы герундия
Active
Passive
Indefinite
writing
being written
Perfect
having written
having been written
Что значат эти формы?
Рассмотрите предложения, иллюстрирующие значение разных форм
герундия
Что он любит?
Active
He likes telling fairy-tales.
рассказывать
Passive
He likes being told fairy-tales
чтобы ему рассказывали
Perfect
Чем он гордится?
Active
He is proud of having spoken to this outstanding person
что поговорил
Passive
He is proud of having been spoken to.
что с ним поговорили
Запомните следующие глаголы и выражения, требующие после себя
герундия:
to avoid
to mind
to give up
to excuse
cannot help
to put off
to keep (on)
to forgive
to enjoy
to burst out
to postpone
to go on
to finish
to deny
to stop
Запомните следующие глаголы и выражения, требующие после себя
герундия с определенными предлогами:
to accuse of
to give up the
to rely on
to agree to
idea of
to succeed in
to approve of
to insist on
to suspect of
to be afraid of
to look forward to
to thank for
to complain of
to object to
to think of
to depend on
to persist in
to feel like
to prevent from
28
Сравните:
I don't mind opening the window. - I don't mind his opening the window.
She did not object to doing the room. - She did not object to my doing the
room.
She insisted on being allowed to go home. - She insisted on her son being
allowed to go home.
I. Translate the Gerunds into Russian.
1. Mercedes would like to continue making big cars.
2. Getting rid of the spare tire is a big goal of car companies.
3. The system offers additional protection against uncontrollable skidding.
4. Modern engineers develop up-to-date methods of designing cars.
5. Renting a car is a good idea if you want to travel.
6. Driving offers flexibility - you stop and start when you feel like it.
7. Bad driving causes many accidents.
8. They were warned against buying the car.
9. There is no point in having a car if you never use it.
10. Since he closed the garage in 1990, he spent much of his time consulting to
Detroit car manufacturers.
11. On May 31, 1927, the Ford Motor Company stopped producing the Model
Tafter building 15.007.033 of them.
12. Driving faster than the speed limit on any road is dangerous and illegal.
13. After starting your turn in the far right lane, you may use any lane open to
traffic, if safe to do so.
14. Constantly staring at the road just in front of your car is dangerous.
15. The use of seat belts reduces the chance of being thrown from your vehicle
in case of accident.
II. Find the Gerunds and translate them into Russian, paying attention to the
prepositions (for, in, without, from, by, on).
1. The plastic serves as a soft barrier that prevents the driver's head from
penetrating the windshield during a crash.
2. The horsepower of the engine is effectively increased by compressing the
air.
29
3. The automotive air conditioner is a mechanical system designed for moving
heat.
4. Specialists in automobile industry deal with designing and manufacturing
cars.
5. The car is put into mass production after undergoing a rigid quality control
in road tests.
6. The engine is the source of power for making the wheels rotate and the car
move.
7. The mechanism used for changing the speed is gearbox.
8. The driver of the car was taken to the police station for dangerous driving.
9. I think of selling my car and a friend of mine is interested in buying it.
10. Seatbelt use increases your chances of surviving in an accident.
11. In a narrow traffic lane, wait until the traffic is clear in the opposite lane
before passing a bicyclist.
12. Before turning a corner, watch for people who are about to cross the street.
13. The best advice for driving in the fog is DON'T.
The Complex Subject
He is said to know six languages. – Говорят, что он знает шесть языков.
Не was said to know six languages. – Говорили, что он знает шесть языков.
Не is said to have gone to London. – Говорят, что он уехал в Лондон.
Не was said to have gone to London. – Говорили, что он уехал в Лондон.
Обратите внимание, что сказуемое выражено глаголом в Passive Voice.
Следующая таблица поможет вам переводить предложения, содержащие
Complex Subject:
Не was said to work a lot. - Говорили, что он много работает.
.... was said to ...
- Говорили, что ...
.... was seen to ...
- Видели, что ...
.... was heard to ...
- Слышали, что ...
.... was supposed to ...
- Предполагали, что ...
.... was believed to ...
- Полагали, что ...
.... was expected to ...
- Ожидали, что ...
.... was reported to ...
- Сообщали, что ...
30
.... was considered to ...
.... was thought to ...
.... was fount to...
.... was announced to ...
.... was known to ...
- Считали, что ...
- Думали, что ...
- Обнаружили, что ...
- Объявили, что ...
- Было известно, что
I. Find the verbs in the Passive Voice and point out the Complex Subjects in the
sentences. Translate them.
1. The company was expected to sell about 4.000 air-bag-equipped cars last
year.
2. At Ford, the turbo is believed to be a part of "the engine of the future".
3. The fuel system was said to be electronically controlled in this model.
4. Computer science is intended to shorten the time between designing and
manufacturing cars.
5. The automobile is supposed to have high efficiency, long service life,
driving safety and ease of maintenance.
6. The automobile is known to consist of three parts: the engine, the chassis
and the body.
7. The accessories of the car are believed to be the heater, lights, radio,
speedometer and other devices.
8. Most car engines are known to be cooled by water.
9. This new automobile system is thought to be too complicated and costly.
10. Trucks are known to transport products and they are not as maneuverable
as passenger vehicles.
11. A large tractor-trailer often appears to be traveling at a slower speed
because of its large size.
12. Accidents tend to happen when one driver is going faster or slower than
other cars on the road.
II. Translate into Russian, pay attention to sure, likely, seem, appear, unlikely:
1. This lubrication system is sure to grease all critical chassis components.
2. Your car is likely to be comfortable and have all conveniences.
3. Any engine is sure to have electric, fuel, cooling and lubricating systems.
4. The other car seemed to be coming straight towards him.
31
5. It is dangerous to pass another vehicle where someone is likely to enter or
cross the road.
6. The Porsche Boxster seats only two, but it is sure to provide ample space in
the cabin for the lucky occupants.
The Modal Verbs
CAN – Возможность сделать что-нибудь (могу, умею)
I can play the piano.
I cannot swim.
(умею)
(не умею)
He can answer the question.
He cannot understand.
(может)
(не может)
Can you sing? (умеете?)
Can you help me? (можете?)
I could not ski when I was little. (не умел)
She could not jump so high. (не могла)
MAY
Разрешение
(можно)
You may take my pen. You may not touch it. May I come in?
(можете)
(нельзя)
(можно)
В косвенной речи: Mother said that I might play. (сказала, что можно)
Предположение (может быть)
It may rain soon. (может быть пойдет дождь)
Take care: you may fall.
(можешь упасть)
MUST
Должествование
You must respect your parents. You must not go there. Must I learn it by heart?
(должны)
(нельзя)
(должен?)
Предположение (должно быть)
It must be cold outside. (должно быть)
32
ТО HAVE ТО – ТО BE TO
ТО HAVE TO - вынужденная необходимость
ТО BE TO - необходимость по договоренности, плану или приказу
I have to go there
I had to go there
должен (вынужден)
пришлось
I am to go there
I was to go there
должен, предстоит
предстояло
Модальные глаголы и конструкции
Модальные глаголы и конструкции сами действия не выражают. Они
обязательно имеют при себе смысловой глагол:
I can`t + do that. – Я не могу это сделать.
You must + do that. – Вы должны это сделать.
Сами модальные глаголы не имеют всего набора глагольных форм, т. е.
это глаголы дефектные или неполные:
саn – мочь /смочь
Past
Present
Future
I couldn`t do that. – Я не I can`t do that. – Я не
(с)мог этого сделать.
могу этого сделать.
нет формы
must
-должен/ должна/должно/должны
Past
нет формы
Present
Future
You must do that. – Вы должны это
нет формы
сделать.
Окончание -s не прибавляется:
I саn do that. –
Я могу это сделать.
=
Natasha саn do that.
Наташа может это
сделать.
33
После модальных глаголов частица to не ставится.
сравните:
I don`t want to do that. – You must do that.
Я не хочу это делать. – Вы должны это сделать.
В вопросах и отрицательных предложениях модальные глаголы ведут
себя как «силачи»: т. е. для образования отрицания и вопроса им не требуются
вспомогательные глаголы:
I can do that. – Я могу это сделать.
I cannot do that. – Я не могу этого сделать.
Can you do that? – Ты можешь это сделать?
Модальные глаголы могут придать речи на английском языке
эмоциональность, правильное употребление поможет передать тонкие оттенки
нашего отношения к тому или иному предмету разговора, выразить состояние
своей души, показать вежливое, почтительное или грубое отношение к комулибо или чему-либо.
Для того, чтобы правильно выбрать нужный нам модальный глагол,
необходимо прежде всего подумать о смысле всей фразы, о том, какую цель мы
хотим достичь. Лишь после этого подобрать именно тот, который необходим
нам именно сейчас.
Если говорить в общем, то модальные глаголы служат для выражения:
- способности / неспособности выполнять то или иное действие;
- разрешения; запрета; намерения;
- возможности того или иного действия;
- вероятности;
- желания;
- правильности/неправильности действия;
- одобрения/ неодобрения;
- необходимости;
- уверенности;
- предчувствия или предсказания событий.
Модальный глагол CAN
Общее значение:
быть способным или в состоянии что-то делать / сделать, иметь
возможность или шанс что-то делать / сделать.
34
1) глагол – can (could)
2) конструкция – be able to
Глагол
Present
Past
сan
can
could
to be able to
выражает
реальную
возможность,
физическую
или
умственную
способность
am (is, are) able
to
I can do it.( I am
able to do it). Я
могу
(в
состоянии,
умею)
делать
это.
was ( were) able
to
I could do it ( I
was able to do it).
Я мог (был в
состоянии, умел)
сделать это.
Future
will (shall) be
able to
I shall be able to
do it .
Я смогу (буду в
состоянии,
сумею)
это
сделать.
Глагол can (could) употребляется, когда мы говорим об
интеллектуальных возможностях или способностях человека, навыках и
умениях (или их отсутствии).
I can read English, but I can`t speak it. - Я читаю по-английски, но я не
могу говорить.
I can`t swim. - Я не умею плавать.
I can`t drive a car. - Я не умею водить машину.
Bопросы:
Can you play chess? - Вы умеете играть в шахматы?
My father could play the guitar. - Мой отец раньше играл на гитаре.
Во многих случаях глагол can, could на русский язык не переводится.
Глагол can (could) может употребляться, когда сообщают о
возможности или невозможности совершить действие в конкретной
ситуации или выясняется эта возможность:
1. События относятся к настоящему и будущему:
Can you come ? - Ты придѐшь? (Ты можешь прийти?)
I can`t answer this question. - Я не могу ответить на этот вопрос.
We can go to the disco tonight. - Сегодня можно сходить на дискотеку.
35
2. События относятся к прошлому:
We couldn`t park there, it was prohibited. - Мы не могли там поставить
машину: там запрещена стоянка.
Maradona was ill, so he couldn`t play yesterday. - Марадона заболел,
поэтому он вчера не играл.
Глагол can (could) употребляется при характеристике предмета,
животного, вещества:
This car can go very fast. - Эта машина развивает (может развить)
большую скорость.
Cats cannot swim. - Кошки не умеют плавать.
Глагол
can
(could)
используется,
когда
физические
или
интеллектуальные способности человека проявляются в конкретной
ситуации полностью, частично или совсем не могут проявиться:
настоящее время
It`s too dark. I can`t see anything. - Слишком темно, я ничего не вижу.
I can smell gas. - Я чувствую запах газа.
прошедшее время
I couldn`t see anything. - Ничего не было видно.
I couldn`t understand what was going on. - Я не мог понять, что
происходит.
Примеры употребления конструкции be able to
Present Indefinite
Natasha is able to memorize 30 new words at a time. - Наташа может за один
раз запомнить 30 новых слов.
Past Indefinite
I wasn`t able to lift my suitcase. It was too heavy. - Я не смог поднять свой
чемодан, он оказался слишком тяжѐлым.
I wasn`t able to meet you at the airport, I had too much work. - Я не смог
встретить вас / тебя в аэропорту потому, что у меня было очень много работы.
Future Indefinite
I think Natasha won`t be able to get to the university this year. - Я думаю, что
Наташа не сможет поступить в университет в этом году.
If you go to Britain or America, you will be able to learn English very soon. Если ты поедешь в Англию или в Америку, тебе довольно быстро удастся
выучить английский язык.
36
Модальный глагол MAY
Если что-то разрешается, позволяется , то употребляются:
can
may
более
официально,
встречается
реже
You may use this phone. - Вы можете воспользоваться этим телефоном.
Если что-то запрещается, то употребляются:
cannot
must not
самая
частая
и
жѐсткая
нейтральная форма
запрета
запрета
may not
форма
более
официальная
форма
may not
You may not telephone from here. - Этим телефоном пользоваться не
разрешается.
You may not leave earlier. = You are not allowed to leave earlier. – Я не
разрешаю вам уходить раньше. / Вам не разрешается уходить раньше.
Глагол
may
Present
Past
Future
may
might
am (is, are ) allowed
will
(shall)
be
to be allowed to
was (were) allowed to
to
allowed to
You
will
be
He said I might go to
выражает
You may / are
allowed to watch
here. Он сказал, что
допущение
allowed to go to the
TV
after
10.
я могу идти туда.
возможности, movies.
Вы
сможете
I was allowed to go to
разрешение
Вы можете / вам
смотреть
(вам
the
movies.
совершить
разрешено
теперь
разрешат)
Мне разрешили идти
действие
пойти в кино.
телевизор после 10
в кино.
часов.
37
Модальный глагол MUST
Мы используем must и его эквивалент have to, когда нам нужно выразить
необходимость сделать что-либо. Но между ними есть разница:
Общее значение: необходимое, неизбежное или вынужденное действие.
1. глагол – must
2. конструкция – have to
Past Indefinite
Present Indefinite
Future Indefinite
had to
have to / has to
will have to
3. конструкция – have got to / has got to
Примеры:
must
You must stop smoking. - Вы должны бросить курить.
You must do your homework. - Вы должны делать
домашнее задание.
You must phone home at once. - Ты должен
немедленно позвонить домой.
We really must do something about the stray dogs. Нужно что-то делать с бродячими собаками
конструкция have to
I have to study a lot. - Мне надо много заниматься.
I had to study last night. - Мне надо было заниматься
вчера вечером. / Мне пришлось заниматься вчера вечером.
I will have to study a lot this summer. - Этим летом мне придѐтся много
заниматься.
Must we leave at once? - Нам что, надо немедленно выезжать?
38
Do I have to do this work again? - Мне что, придѐтся второй раз делать эту
работу?
Did you have to work last Saturday? - Тебе что, пришлось работать в прошлую
субботу?
Will you have to work next Saturday? - Тебе что, придѐтся работать в
следующую субботу?
How long did you have to wait? / What time did you have to wait? - Сколько
времени тебе пришлось ждать?
How many exams will you have to take? - Сколько тебе придѐтся сдавать
экзаменов?
You don't have to do that!
You mustn't do that!
Вам (и) не нужно этого
Вам нельзя этого
делать!
делать!
Глагол
- Must I memorize this poem?
- Yes, you must.
must
- Должен ли я выучить это должен обязательно
стихотворение?
что-то сделать
- Да, обязательно.
Present
Past
Future
must
- Do we have to wait long?
have (have got) to
- Yes, you do.It's raining hard
должен, приходится
and the flaight is delayed.
have
поневоле, вынужден
- Нам придется долго ждать?
(has) to
(в
силу
- Да. Идет сильный дождь, и
обстоятельств)
рейс откладывается.
had to
will (shall)
have to
39
Глагол
Present
Past
- I am to meet her in the
library
today.
- Я должен (мне предстоит,
мы
договорились,
я
обещал) встретиться с ней в
библиотеке сегодня.
be
to
должен (я обещал,
am (are, was
запланировал
по
is) to
(were) to
расписанию,
по
договоренности)
-You should study English
words before you go to bed.
- Вам следует (вы должны
по моему мнению) учить
английские слова перед
сном.
should
должен (следует по
should
моему
мнению,
совету)
You ought to return the book
to me on time.
Ты должен (это твой долг)
возвратить
мне
книгу
вовремя.
ought to
следует, должен
(это твой моральought to
ный долг, когда
мы говорим о
законе, правилах)
You needn't clean the
needn't
windows. They are clean
нет
никакой
already.
необходимости
Тебе не нужно мыть окна.
(нужды)
Они чистые.
need
I. Find the modal verbs and translate the sentences.
1. Children must not play in the street.
2. May I close the window? – Yes, you may.
3. He can play football.
4. He asked for a book and she said that he might take it.
5. I can’t go to the cinema today.
6. Can you tell me what the time?
7. Mary must be at the sports camp now.
8. She may come on Sunday.
Future
40
9. He must be at home now. He always comes home at that time.
10. I could skate when I was seven.
11. Can she have done such a thing? I cannot believe it.
12. Could I have lost my book? I can’t find it.
13. He must be a good sportsman.
14. He may know the truth.
15. You must be hungry. Sit down to dinner.
16. ―Susan, you must return home not later than six‖ – her mother said.
17. Where is Susan? – She must be late.
II. Ask someone if he or she can do these things?
1. Can you swim?
2. Ski
3. play chess
4. drive
5. run ten kilometers
6. ride a horse
III. Complete these sentences. Use can, can’t or couldn’t + one of these verbs.
come
hear
speak
go
see
understand
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
find
see
eat
go
sleep
I’m sorry but I can’t come to your party next Saturday.
She spoke very quickly. I … her.
She got the job because she … five languages.
You are speaking very quietly. I … you.
Have you seen my bag? I … find it.
He … to the concert next Saturday. He’s working.
He … to the meeting last week. He was ill.
41
8. I like this hotel room. You … the mountains from the window.
9. I was tired but I …
10. His eyes are not very good. He … very well.
11. I wasn’t hungry yesterday. I … my dinner.
IV. Complete the sentences. Use must + one of these verbs.
be
go
help
learn
phone
win
buy
go
hurry
meet
read
1. We must go to the bank today. We haven’t got any money.
2. I … I haven’t got much time.
3. She is a very interesting person. You … her.
4. I forgot to phone Dave last night. I … him today.
5. You … to drive. It’s very careful.
6. This is an excellent book. You … it.
7. We … some food. We’ve got nothing for dinner.
8. I … to the post office. I need some stamps.
9. I have a big problem. You … me.
10. The game tomorrow is very important for us. We …
11. You can’t always have things immediately. You … patient.
42
Тексты для бакалавров
TEXT 1
THE CRAWLER-TYPE TRACTOR
ГУСЕНИЧНЫЙ ТРАКТОР
I. Pre-reading exercises:
1. Answer the questions:
a) Do you know what tractor is? (vehicle, machine, machine component)
b) What do you think: Has tractor got wheels?
c) Have you ever worked (operated) with a tractor?
2. Guess the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
maneuverability, operation, mechanisms, design, to stop, to convert, a prototype,
modifications.
Text
ГУСЕНИЧНЫЙ ТРАКТОР
THE CRAWLER-TYPE
Гусеничный
трактор
TRACTOR
сконструирован для работы в
The crawler-type tractor is
условиях, которые требуют большей designed for conditions and operations
маневренности, чем та, которую which require more maneuverability
демонстрирует колесный трактор. than it is provided by the wheel tractor.
43
Принципиальное
отличие
гусеничных тракторов от колесных
заключается
в
механизмах
управления и подвески. Конструкция
подвески
гусеничного
трактора
такова, что она удобна для работы на
мягкой и необработанной почве.
Управление гусеничным трактором
осуществляется замедлением или
остановкой одного звена гусеничной
цепи, в то время как другие звенья
работают. Максимальная скорость
гусеничных
тракторов
приблизительно составляет 16 миль в час.
Вот
почему
большая
часть
выполняемых гусеничным трактором
работ осуществляется на небольшой
площади – в таких условиях
маневренность
намного
важнее
скорости.
Конструкция
всех
гусеничных
тракторов
почти
однотипна. Гусеничный трелевочный
трактор можно легко преобразовать в
лесохозяйственный
трактор.
Их
также можно считать прототипом
других модификаций.
II.
The principal difference between the
crawler and wheel tractors are in
steering
mechanisms
and
the
suspension. The design of the
suspension of the crawler tractor is
such that it is suited for operation in
soft and rough ground. Steering
crawler tractor is accomplished by
slowing down or stopping one track
while the other proceeds. The
maximum speed of crawler tractors is
approximately 16 miles per hour. That
is why the greater part of the operation
conducted with crawler tractors is done
in a small area so that maneuverability
is much more important than speed.
The design of all the crawler tractors is
almost similar. Crawler skidding
tractor can be easily converted into a
forestry tractor. It may be regarded as a
prototype for other modifications as
well.
Post-reading exercises:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
A crawler-type tractor, to require, a wheel tractor, steering mechanisms, soft
and rough ground, a track, important, a forestry tractor.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Условия, обеспечивать, различие, подвеска, замедлять, максимальная
скорость, трелѐвочный трактор.
44
3. Answer the questions:
1. What conditions is the crawler-type tractor designed for?
2. How is the steering of the crawler tractor accomplished?
3. What can crawler skidding tractor be easily converted into?
4. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. The principal difference between the crawler and wheel tractors are in
steering mechanisms and the suspension.
2. The maximum speed of crawler tractors is approximately 180 miles per
hour.
3. The design of all the crawler tractors is different.
5. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. The design of the suspension of the a) … it is suited for operation in soft and
crawler tractor is such that…
rough ground.
2. The greater part of the operation b) … a prototype for other modifications
conducted with crawler tractors is done… as well.
3. Crawler skidding tractor may be c) … in a small area.
regarded as…
6. Разбейте текст по абзацам.
7. Придумайте заголовки к каждому абзацу текста, соответствующие
содержанию абзаца.
8. Сформулируйте основную мысль по каждому абзацу.
9. Выпишите ключевые слова по каждому абзацу.
10. Выделите главную мысль текста.
45
ТEXТ 2
DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRACTOR
РАЗВИТИЕ (СОЗДАНИЕ) ТРАКТОРА
I.
Pre-reading exercises:
1. Do you know the history of a tractor?
2. Do you know when the tractors got their first impetus?
3. Ask your friend if he knows when the term "tractor" appeared.
4. Guess the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
Materials, evolution of the tractor, technology, to progress, original, to design,
climate-controlled cabs, efficiency, a modern tractor, a synonym, a mule, a farm,
popularity.
РАЗВИТИЕ ТРАКТОРА
Русский вариант
Хотя тракторы существуют больше века, они нашли свое первое
применение во время первой мировой войны и в полную силу стали
применяться во время Второй мировой войны в связи с увеличением спроса на
древесину, древесное волокно и другие материалы. Эволюция трактора
сопровождалась изменениями в технологии. Трактор был усовершенствован по
сравнению с первоначальным применением как заменитель лошадиной силы до
современных деталей (узлов), проектируемых для многих целей. Гусеничная
тяга, ременная тяга (передача), крепежные элементы, а также кабины с
искусственным климатом и система управления – все служит для увеличения
эффективности современного трактора.
46
Слово "трактор" относится к различным источникам, но, согласно
Оксфордскому словарю, это слово впервые было использовано в 1856 году как
синоним "тягового двигателя". Термин "трактор" появился в 1890 году в
американском патенте для гусеничного парового тягового двигателя.
Быстрое увеличение количества тракторов и их разнообразия
сопровождалось соответствующим уменьшением количества лошадей и мулов
на фермах Соединенных Штатов. К началу 1980-х годов к дизельным
двигателям добавились турбо-нагнетатель и охладители. Все новые трактора
снабжены кабинами. Сейчас полноприводный трактор очень популярен, и
процентное соотношение тракторов с мощностью свыше 75 KW (100 h.p.)
продолжает увеличиваться.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRACTOR
English variant
Although tractors have been in existence for over a century, they got their first
impetus during World War I and really came into their own during World War II, in
each case because of the enormous increase in demand for wood, fiber and other
materials. Evolution of the tractor has accompanied changes in technology. The
tractor has progressed from its original primary use as a substitution for animal power
to the present units designed for multiple uses. Tractor power, belt power, mounted
tools, as well as climate-controlled cabs and power steering, all serve to extend the
usefulness and efficiency of the modern tractor.
The word "tractor" has been attributed to various sources, but according to the
Oxford Dictionary the word was first used in 1856 in England as a synonym for
"traction engine". The term "tractor" appears in 1890 in US patent for a track-laying
steam traction engine.
The rapid increase in numbers and versatility of tractors has been accompanied
by a similar decrease in numbers of horses and mules on farms of the United States.
By the beginning of 1980's turbocharger and intercoolers added to diesel engine. All
new tractors are equipped with cabs. Now four-wheel drive tractors increase in
popularity and percentage of tractors over 75 KW (100 h. p.) continues to increase.
47
II.
Post-reading activity:
1. Find the synonym and antonym with the same root in the text.
2. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Development, an enormous increase, wood, a primary use, power, multiple
uses, mounted tools, to serve, usefulness, traction engine, to increase, turbocharger,
intercooler, four-wheel drive tractor.
3. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Применение, спрос, волокно, замена, современные детали, ременная тяга,
рулевое управление, увеличивать эффективность, пар, универсальность,
снижение, дизельный двигатель, быть оборудованным чем-либо.
4. Answer the questions:
1. When did tractors get their first impetus?
2. Why did tractors really come into their own during World War II?
3. What serves to extend the usefulness and efficiency of the modern tractor?
4. When did turbocharger and intercoolers add to diesel engine?
5. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. Evolution of the tractor has accompanied changes in technology.
2. The word "tractor" was first used in 1956 in the USA.
3. The term "tractor" appears in 1890 in US patent for a track-laying steam
traction engine.
4. New tractors are not equipped with cabs.
5. Percentage of tractors over 100 h. p. continues to decrease.
6. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. The tractor has progressed from…
a) … a synonym for "traction engine".
2. The word "tractor" was first used as… b) … a similar decrease in numbers of
3. The rapid increase in numbers and horses and mules on farms of the United
versatility of tractors has been States.
accompanied by…
c) …its original primary use.
7. Разбейте текст на абзацы и составьте план текста.
8. Выпишите ключевые слова по каждому абзацу.
9. Сформулируйте главную мысль по каждому абзацу.
10. Составьте аннотацию к тексту.
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TEXT 3
CLASSIFICATION OF TRACTORS
I.
Pre-reading exercises:
1. Guess the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
Classification of tractors, method, to classify, a type, transmission, stability, a
problem, universal, hydraulic, to convert, special.
2. Do you know on what base all modern tractors are classified?
3. Which is more useful (important): tractor or automobile? (It depends...)
CLASSIFICATION OF TRACTORS
There are several recognized classifications. American classification is based
on steering method, the arrangement of the frame and traction members. All modern
tractors are classified on the base of their purpose, the type of traction members, the
type of power plant and transmission and the arrangement of the frame. Forest
industry mostly uses crawler tractors and wheel tractors of special purpose. The
crawler tractor is used on very soft boggy soils or where stability of a wheel tractor is
a problem. So each of them is quite important in a certain place and conditions of
work. Some of the types of one of the classifications are crawler, universal, treeskidder, skid-steer loader and about four types of four-wheel drive tractors. Specialpurpose crawler tractor is intended for skidding piles of logs. With aid of a hydraulic
operated pusher, the tractor can be used for butts equalizing, preparing the packages
for loading and clearing the loading areas. Skidding tractor can be converted into a
forestry tractor by mounting the rear hitch and by replacing the loader with a tipping
body.
49
II.
Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Steering method, traction members, power plant, crawler tractors, wheel
tractors of special purpose, conditions of work, loader, skidding piles of logs, butts
equalizing, clearing the loading areas, a forestry tractor, a rear hitch, a tipping body.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Устройство рамы, цель (назначение), лесная промышленность,
использовать, мягкая болотистая почва, устойчивость, полноприводный
трактор, гидравлически-управляемый подъѐмник, пакетируемые материалы,
трелѐвочный трактор, монтировать.
3. Answer the questions:
1. What is American classification based on?
2. What is used on very soft boggy soils?
3. What can be converted into a forestry tractor by mounting the rear hitch and
by replacing the loader with a tipping body?
4. How are all modern tractors classified?
4. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. Forest industry mostly uses skidding tractors.
2. The wheel tractor is used on very soft boggy soils or where stability of a
crawler tractor is a problem.
3. Special-purpose crawler tractor is intended for skidding piles of logs.
5. Разбейте текст на абзацы и составьте план текста.
6. Выпишите ключевые слова по каждому абзацу.
7. Сформулируйте главную мысль по каждому абзацу.
8. Составьте аннотацию к тексту.
50
TEXT 4
HUMAN ENGINEERING AND TRACTOR DESIGN
I. Pre-reading exercises:
1. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
Tractor design, human factors, comfort, design for thermal comfort, an
operator, geographical, climatic, temperature, effective, a model, physiological,
individuals, comfortable, filtrations, components, chemicals.
HUMAN ENGINEERING AND TRACTOR DESIGN
It should be mentioned that human engineering influences the tractor design.
When designing modern tractors the influence of human factors is taken into
consideration, but not equally everywhere. In general, human factors include such
items as riding comfort, visibility, location hand arrangement of controls, easy of
operating controls, design for thermal comfort, and sound control. A lot of extensive
researches have been done to evaluate thermal comfort of an operator, and the same
about seat suspension design. Environmental factors are of great importance too,
because tractors are used under varied geographical and climatic conditions. Direct
exposure to temperature, humidity, wind, thermal radiation, dust and chemicals are
taken into ac-count. Tractor’s cab is considered as a protective device because of a
greater use of chemicals. The new effective temperature scale is based on a simple
model of human physiological response. Most individuals will be comfortable when
the temperature is between 23,9 and 27,7 оС. So operator’s cab design must include
cab pressurizing, filtrations, air movement, heating, cooling and window defrosting.
These factors must be considered in order to provide clean air and proper air velocity,
temperature and humidity for human thermal comfort. Operator’s seat is also of great
importance. A tractor can be considered as a spring damper system. The base of an
operator’s seat consists of vertical, lateral, longitudinal, roll and other components.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Underline (write out) the verb "to be" in its different forms.
51
2. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
To take into consideration, riding comfort, location hand arrangement of controls,
thermal comfort, sound control, extensive researches, seat suspension design, dust, a
protective device, heating, window defrosting, proper air velocity, a spring damper
system.
3. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Видимость, оценивать, факторы окружающей среды, использовать,
различные климатические и географические условия, прямое влияние,
влажность, давление в кабине, движение воздуха, охлаждение, обеспечивать.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What influences the tractor design?
2. What is taken into consideration when designing modern tractors?
3. Why are environmental factors of great importance?
4. Why is tractor’s cab considered as a protective device?
5. What must operator’s cab design include?
5. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. Tractor’s cab is considered as…
a) .… vertical, lateral, longitudinal, roll
2. Most individuals will be comfortable and other components.
when…
b) … the temperature is between 23,9 and
3. The base of an operator’s seat consists 27,7 С.
of…
c) … a protective device
6. Разбейте текст на абзацы и составьте план текста.
7. Выпишите ключевые слова по каждому абзацу.
8. Сформулируйте главную мысль по каждому абзацу.
9. Составьте аннотацию к тексту.
52
TEXT 5
ABOUT TRACTORS
I. Pre-reading exercises:
1. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
Agricultural, industrial, transportation, special, classification, method,
standard, universal tractor, a problem, hydraulic, to characterize, a centre of gravity,
to design, typical, a combination, mechanical power, manufacturer.
ABOUT TRACTORS
All modern tractors may be divided into agricultural, industrial, transportation
and special. One descriptive classification, listed below, is based on steering method,
the arrangement of the frame, and traction members.
1. Crawler tractor;
2. Standard;
3. High clearance tractor;
4. Utility tractor;
5. Universal tractor;
6. Tree skidder;
7. Skid-steer loader;
8. Four-wheel drive tractor with smaller front steering wheels;
9. Four-wheel drive tractor with equalized front and rear steering wheel;
10. Four-wheel drive tractor with equalized wheels and articulated frame steering.
53
THE CRAWLER TRACTOR is rather important today. It is usually used on a
very soft soil or where stability of a wheel tractor is a problem. For example, it may
be a special-purpose crawler tractor intended for skidding piles of logs partially
loaded with either tops or butts upon the loader plate for further transportation. With
aid of a hydraulic operated pusher the tractor can be used for butts equalizing,
preparing the packages for loading areas.
THE STANDARD TRACTOR was developed primarily for traction. It is
characterized by a drive through the two rear wheels, with a centre of gravity located
at approximately one third of the wheel base ahead of the rear axles. The standard
tractor is sometimes called a western tractor. In many cases, it does not differ from a
row-crop tractor.
HIGH CLEARANCE TRACTORS are designed especially for crops that require
extra clearance.
UTILITY TRACTORS generally have less clearance than standard tractors.
They are used for many jobs and are often equipped with a front loader. A typical use
for such a tractor is cleaning.
UNIVERSAL TRACTORS are designed for many jobs. The universal tractor not
only carries the implements but also furnishes the power.
THE TREE-SKIDDER is a four-wheel drive tractor developed especially for
moving tree trunks out of the forest to an area where they can be loaded onto trucks.
The tree skidder is a combination of an agricultural and industrial tractor.
THE SKID-STEER TRACTOR was developed especially for industrial use. The
name "skid-steer" comes from the method of turning, which is exactly like that of a
crawler tractor. The wheels on one side are braked causing the tractor to skid in order
to turn.
A FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE TRACTOR with smaller front wheels is simply a
standard tractor with the front wheels being driven by mechanical or hydraulic power.
This type of tractor falls between the standard and the four-wheel-drive tractor. Fourwheel-drive tractor or simply 4WD tractor has been developed so as to be able to
produce more drawbar power. The power output of 4WD tractor varies in USA 300
kw (133-400 h/p). Four-wheel-drive tractor can be steered by pivoting the tractor in
the centre (frame steer) or steering wheels. This 4WD tractor shows such features as
articulated frame steering, wet disk brakes, power steering, 12-speed transmission
and special type cab. The design and performance of tractors have changed
54
considerably since the first tractor tests. Modern tractors continue to have a greater
power-to-mass ratio, which results in the tractors traveling faster. It is also clear that
the power output of tractors has continued to increase. Tractor manufacturers
continue to increase the size and power of their tractors.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
To divide, steering method, the arrangement of the frame, traction members,
tree skidder, four-wheel drive tractor, a crawler tractor, to use, stability, skidding
piles of logs, butts equalizing, traction, a wheel base, to differ, implements, to furnish
the power, forest, to brake, to skid, drawbar power, power output, high-clearance
tractor.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Сельскохозяйственный трактор, промышленный трактор, трактор общего
назначения, погрузчик, передние ведущие колѐса, задние ведущие колѐса,
важный, мягкая почва, колѐсный трактор, гидравлически-управляемый
подъѐмник, разрабатывать, привод, задняя ось, требовать, быть оборудованным
чем-либо, перемещать стволы деревьев, грузовик, поворачивать, кабина,
увеличиваться.
3. Answer the questions:
1. What groups are modern tractors divided into?
2. What was the standard tractor developed primarily for?
3. What are high-clearance tractors designed for?
4. What is a typical use for utility tractors?
5. What is the tree-skidder developed for?
6. What was the skid-steer tractor developed for?
7. How can four-wheel-drive tractor be steered?
8. What do tractor manufacturers continue to increase?
4. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. The wheel tractor is usually used on a very soft soil.
2. The standard tractor is characterized by a drive through the four front
wheels.
55
3.
4.
5.
6.
Utility tractors generally have less clearance than standard tractors.
Universal tractors are designed for many jobs.
The tree-skidder is a four-wheel drive tractor.
The method of turning of the skid-steer tractor is exactly like that of a wheel
tractor.
7. The power output of 4WD tractor varies in USA 133-400 h/p.
5. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. The crawler tractor is used where… a) … stability of a wheel tractor is a
2. The standard tractor is sometimes problem.
called…
b) … a front loader.
3. Utility tractors are often equipped c) … a western tractor.
with…
d) …… the tractor to skid in order to
4. The universal tractor not only turn.
carries the implements but also…
e) … furnishes the power.
5. The tree skidder is a combination f) … to be able to produce more
of…
drawbar power.
6. The wheels on one side are braked g) … an agricultural and industrial
causing
tractor.
7. Four-wheel-drive tractor has been
developed so as…
6. Translate from Russian into English.
1. С помощью гидравлически-управляемого подъѐмника гусеничный
трактор может использоваться для выравнивания брѐвен.
2. Стандартный трактор не отличается от пропашного трактора.
3. Трактор общего назначения используется для многих работ.
4. Сила тяги тракторов продолжает увеличиваться.
7. Cоставьте план текста.
8. Выпишите ключевые слова по каждому абзацу.
9. Сформулируйте главную мысль по каждому абзацу.
10. Составьте аннотацию к тексту.
56
TEXT 6
WHEELED SKIDDER LKT 80 DESIGN
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. Have you ever seen wheeled skidder LKT 80?
2. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
Diesel, transmission, special cardan shaft, to form, a mechanical efficiency, to
stop, automatically, hydraulic system, operator's comfort, vertically, elastic,
comfortable, to control.
WHEELED SKIDDER LKT 80 DESIGN
The articulated frame of a wheeled skidder LKT 80 with oscillating front axle
provides the skidder mobility and large stability in the terrain.
Diesel engine is adapted for great inclinations. The up-to-date synchronized
transmission and special cardan shafts form a reliable drive system with a mechanical
efficiency. Both the front and rear axles are equipped with differential locks.
The hydraulic winch drive cannot be overloaded. In case when maximum
pulling power is surpassed, the safety valve is opened and the winch stops to avoid
the strain of other parts of transmission. The dry plate winch brake is engaged by
pres-sure of spring and released automatically by pressure of oil in hydraulic system.
This brake is very reliable, has long service life, works without any adjusting in the
time of operation.
The robust frame of the cab protects the driver against tumbling trees or in case
of vehicle overturning. The driver’s compartment with sliding and lockable doors is
thermally and sound insulated. The efficient water heating with fan improves the
operator's comfort. The seat is adjustable longitudinally and vertically: it can be
57
adjusted also according to operator's weight by springing-up rubber silent block. Its
frequency is low not to cause the driver's fatigue.
Due to elastic fitting of power train, heat and sound insulation, the noise level
in the cab of LKT 80 skidder is relatively low. The servo hydraulic steering with a
steering wheel is very accurate and makes the drive comfortable. All operations of
skidder controls require only small efforts.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Put in pairs words from the columns A and B
A
B
skidder
differential
axles
cardan
mobility
skidder
engine
tumbling
shaft
articulated
trees
sound
doors
hydraulic
system
great
locks
diesel
frame
sliding
stability
large
valve
safety
insulation
mechanical
efficiency
sound
winch
wheeled
front (rear)
reliable
robust
2. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
The articulated frame, a wheeled skidder, the skidder mobility, the terrain,
great inclinations, a reliable drive system, rear axles, differential locks, to overload,
pulling power, to avoid the strain, the dry plate winch brake, to engage, to release, an
adjusting, operation, a robust frame of the cab, vehicle overturning, compartment,
58
sound, water heating, to improve, springing-up rubber silent block, the fitting of
power train, a steering wheel.
3. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Мост с независимой передней подвеской, обеспечивать, устойчивость,
дизельный двигатель, современная синхронизированная коробка передач,
передняя ось, быть оборудованным чем-либо, гидравлическая лебѐдка,
предохранительный клапан, давление масла, пружина, надѐжный, срок службы,
защищать, водитель, падающие деревья, раздвижные двери, блокируемые
двери, изолировать, вентилятор, место сидения, уровень шума, привод, рулевое
колесо.
4. Answer the questions:
1. What is diesel engine of a wheeled skidder LKT 80 adapted for?
2. What happens when maximum pulling power is surpassed?
3. What does the robust frame of the cab protect the driver against?
4. How is the seat of the operator adjustable?
5. What makes the drive comfortable?
5. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. The articulated frame of a wheeled skidder LKT 80 with oscillating front
axle provides the skidder mobility and large stability in the terrain.
2. The hydraulic winch drive can be overloaded.
3. The driver’s compartment with sliding and lockable doors is thermally and
sound insulated.
4. The noise level in the cab of LKT 80 skidder is very high.
6. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. The up-to-date synchronized transmission a) … the operator's comfort.
and special cardan shafts form…
b) … a reliable drive system with a
2. The brake works without…
mechanical efficiency.
3. The efficient water heating with fan c) … small efforts.
improves...
d) … any adjusting in the time of
4. All operations of skidder controls operation.
require…
59
7. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Передние и задние колѐса оборудованы устройством блокировки
дифференциала.
2. Тормоза очень надѐжные и имеют долгий срок службы.
3. Место сидения рабочего может регулироваться в соответствии с его
весом.
8. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
9. Compose a short summary of the text, using the following phrases:
The title of the text is........
The text gives a detailed account of......
The text deals with.......
It should be noted that.......
Much attention is paid to.....
The text carries the information about.......
TEXT 7
WHEELED SKIDDER LKT 80 APPLICATION
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
To design, a cable, types, modern, comfort.
60
The wheeled skidder LKT 80 is designed for logs skidding, including removing
them out of underbrush and piling them at landing. The skidder works by cable
skidding of logs or trees by means of rope binders passing through sliding shoes. It is
well equipped with necessary implements such as rope binders, row bars and rope
binders extractors. The dozen blade upstroke is sufficient for stacking timber to piles
1,5 m high. This dozen blade is also suitable for simple earth-moving works such as
trench backfilling, forestry road dressing, snow scraping. The low pressure tyres enable skidder to pass through all types of a terrain: stones, sands, earth, ice, slopes.
The output of the skidder is increased when tyre chains are mounted on. LKT 8O
with excellent properties of articulated skidder successfully meets all requirements of
modern age for comfort as well as for operator's safety in action.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
The wheeled skidder, underbrush, landing, sliding shoes, rope binders, earthmoving works, trench backfilling, forestry road dressing, a terrain, slopes, to increase,
properties, an operator's safety.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Трелѐвка брѐвен, укладка в штабеля, дерево, быть оборудованным,
инструмент, пиломатериалы, лезвие, уборка снега, шины с низким давлением,
песок, камни, выходная мощность, монтировать, соответствовать.
3. Answer the questions:
1. What is the wheeled skidder LKT 80 designed for?
2. What is the dozen blade upstroke sufficient for?
3. What enables skidder to pass through all types of a terrain?
4. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. The skidder is well equipped with…
a) … necessary implements.
2. The dozen blade is suitable for…
b) … tyre chains are mounted on.
3. The output of the skidder is increased c) … all requirements of modern age.
when…
d) … simple earth-moving works
4. LKT 80 successfully meets…
61
5. Make a list of words characterizing types of terrain.
6. Find a word or expression in the text which has a similar meaning to the
following:
- help;
- locality;
- is constructed;
- present time;
- area for loading;
- correspond to;
- with help of;
- is used for;
- power;
- give an opportunity.
7. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
8. Compose a short summary of the text, using the following phrases:
The title of the text is........
The text gives a detailed account of......
The text deals with.......
It should be noted that.......
Much attention is paid to.....
TEXT 8
FISKARS HYDRAULIC LOG LOADER (FINLAND)
I. Pre-reading activity
1. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
A crane, the advanced design, the advanced design, manufacture, product, a
base, hydraulic, a system, a filter, special, compact design, ideal, construction, a
constant use.
62
The success of Fiskars cranes is based on the advanced design and manufacture
backed by long experience, painstaking product development and a reliable service
and sales network. The base of the hydraulic log loader is made of cast steel. The
crane has a single pump drive system protected by a pressure filter and all necessary
relief valves. ET outrigger legs can be turned forwards or backwards when not in use.
SY outrigger legs are turned outwards and upwards when not in use. Special attention
has been given to ensure that high power is provided when it is required and that the
control of the crane is easy and reliable. Steering control valves provide flexible and
accurate control and system is equipped with pressure gauge nipples. The grab has a
very compact design and is ideal for handling logs or pulpwood. The booms of
Fiskars hydraulic log loader are very strong, made of special high-quality steel being
used for the box type construction. For its size and weight, the F65 has great power
and lifting capacity. It has been designed for long life in constant use, with provision
for easy maintenance.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
A reliable service, sales network, the hydraulic log loader, a single pump drive
system, a pressure filter, relief valves, to turn, to ensure, to provide, reliable, pressure
gauge nipples, a grab, handling logs, lifting capacity, maintenance.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Опыт, развитие, литая сталь, защищать, необходимый, дополнительные
боковые опоры, использование, высокая мощность, требовать, быть
63
оборудованным
чем-либо,
мягкие
высококачественная сталь, размер, вес.
породы
древесины,
стрела,
3. Answer the questions:
1. What is the success of Fiskars cranes based on?
2. Outrigger legs are turned outwards and upwards when not in use, aren’t they?
3. What is the grab ideal for?
4. What has the F65 been designed for?
5. What has a single pump drive system?
6. What is a single pump drive system protected by?
7. What provides flexible and accurate control?
4. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. The base of the hydraulic log loader is made of cast steel.
2. The control of the crane is difficult and not reliable.
3. The system is equipped with pressure gauge nipples.
4. For its size and weight, the F65 has not great power and lifting capacity.
5. The grab has a very compact design.
5. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Дополнительные боковые опоры можно повернуть вперѐд или назад,
если они не используются.
2. Стрелы гидравлического погрузчика брѐвен очень прочные.
3. Стрелы сделаны из специальной высококачественной стали.
6. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
7. Compose a short summary of the text, using the following phrases:
The title of the text is........
The text gives a detailed account of......
The text deals with.......
It should be noted that.......
Much attention is paid to.....
The text carries the information about.......
64
TEXT 9
COMBINATION PROCESSOR OSA 250
(Sweden production)
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. Remember the words and word combinations:
Combination processor – совместимый процессор (машина, выполняющая
работы, как по прореживанию леса, так и рубки главного пользования);
traction – тяга, сила сцепления;
to scarify – рыхлить;
harvester – уборочная машина;
articulated frame steering – система управление (транспортной машины с
разрезной шарнирной рамой) поворотом задней полурамы;
bonnet – капот (двигателя), крышка, кожух.
2. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
A debut, to combine, an operation, economy, to design, a hydraulic
construction, ideal, driver’s comfort, a version, a front section, a model, asymmetrical
halogen lamps, equal, effectively, hydraulic transmission, vibration, a minimum,
a cylinder, to produce, a hydraulic pump, to transfer, a period, a hydraulic system,
a really modern transport machine, an operator’s comfort, principles, a service, to
guarantee, a temperature, an air conditioning, standard, mechanized, serious mobility,
final, a diesel engine.
COMBINATION PROCESSOR OSA 250
When OSA made its debut on the market in 1979 the main objective was to
combine the small machines, advantages in thinning operations with larger machines'
capacity and economy in final felling. It was therefore designed with small outer
dimensions, considerable traction and low weight as well as a load capacity of
10 tons. The rear frame support loader, timber or various attachments are heavily
dimensioned and have a distinctive, obstacle deflecting construction. Due to the
framework and hydraulic construction of the new OSA 250 is ideal as a carrier for
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processors /harvesting/scarifies/ tree part forwards etc. making the machine versatile,
increasing utilization and economy.
For driver’s comfort it also can be supplied with eight, six or four wheels. It
has all wheels drive, and articulated frame steering. The six wheel version has bogies
on the load bearing section, the eight wheel version also has bogies on the front
section. All models can be equipped with several different wheel alternatives all
round. The new OSA 250 can operate efficiently in the dark due to 20 asymmetrical
halogen lamps. The bonnet is short and sloping so that visibility is almost equal to
that of the front built trucks. The cab and engine are effectively suspended on rubber
mountings, which together with hydraulic transmission, reduce vibration and jerking
to a minimum. Power is provided by a 6 cylinder Perkina diesel engine which
produces 83 kw at 40 rps. It drives two hydraulic pumps, one supplying the working
hydraulics and the other a hydraulic engine which transfers torque through a drop box
to the wheels. Due to hydraulic transmission, which provides full traction and braking
power from a standstill, the new OSA 250 can operate on very steep slopes as well as
operating for lengthy periods in compact, deep snow without overheating the
hydraulic system.
The OSA 250 is a really modern, thoroughly developed transport machine. It
has hydrostatic transmission with power control. This reduces fuel consumption and
improves operator’s comfort.
With considerable experience from several thousand logging machines
delivered to different countries throughout the world OSA has established certain
princi-ples with regard to service which guarantee a quick service wherever the
machine might be. No machine is delivered without first making arrangements with a
local service agent.
An important feature for health, comfort and high performance is that the cab is
supplied with fresh air at the right temperature. Therefore all OSA machines are
equipped with air conditioning as a standard fitting, which means to warm or cool air
according to your own needs all the year round.
OSA 250 AS A CARRIER
The OSA 250 is carrier for various units and equipment within the range of
OSA machines for mechanized logging. Its versatility increases the possibility of using the machine throughout the year, which is naturally more economical. Serious
mobility in cross country conditions makes it ideal as a forward or clam bunk skidder.
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The considerable traction power and hydraulic transmission make it also
suitable as a carrier of scarifying equipment as well as OSA 706 processing unit and
harvester.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
The main objective, thinning operations, small outer dimensions, low weight,
the rear frame support loader, attachments, obstacle deflecting construction, а tree, to
increase, а wheel, to be equipped, visibility, а cab, rubber mountings, power, to
supply, a drop box, braking power, overheating, to reduce fuel consumption, to
improve operator’s comfort, to establish, a standard fitting, versatility, suitable.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Преимущество,
рубка,
значительная
тяга,
грузоподъѐмность,
пиломатериалы, рыхление, заготовка, универсальный, гусеница, капот,
грузовик, уменьшать вибрацию, рывки, обеспечивать, передавать, крутящий
момент, тяга, состояние покоя, разрабатывать, лесозаготовительные машины,
поставлять, важное приспособление, оборудование, условия пересечѐнной
местности.
3. Answer the questions:
1. What was the main objective when OSA made its debut on the market in
1979?
2. What was a load capacity of the first OSA250?
3. The rear frame support loader, timber or various attachments are heavily
dimensioned, aren’t they?
4. What has a distinctive, obstacle deflecting construction?
5. What makes the machine versatile and increases its utilization and economy?
6. What helps to reduce vibration and jerking to a minimum?
7. What drives two hydraulic pumps?
8. What makes it ideal as a forward or clam bunk skidder?
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4. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. The first OSA250 was designed with small outer dimensions, considerable
traction and low weight.
2. The eight wheel version has bogies on the load bearing section.
3. The bonnet of the carrier is short and sloping.
4. The diesel engine of the carrier produces 38 kw at 40 rps.
5. A hydraulic engine transfers torque through a drop box to the wheels.
6. The OSA 250 is a really modern, thoroughly developed transport machine.
7. Hydrostatic transmission with power control reduces fuel consumption and
improves operator’s comfort.
5. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. For driver’s comfort it also can be a) … eight, six or four wheels.
supplied with…
b) … full traction and braking power.
2. All models can be equipped with… c) … that of the front built trucks.
3. The visibility is almost equal to…
d) … several different wheel
4. The cab and engine are effectively alternatives all round.
suspended…
e) … the cab is supplied with fresh air
5. Hydraulic transmission provides… at the right temperature.
6. The OSA 250 has hydrostatic f) … on rubber mountings.
transmission with…
g) … power control.
7. An important feature for health,
comfort and high performance is
that…
6. Translate from Russian into English.
1. Транспортѐр является полноприводным.
2. Новый транспортѐр может эффективно работать в темноте, благодаря
галогеновым лампочкам.
3. Мощность обеспечивается шестицилиндровым дизельным двигателем.
4. Гидравлический насос обеспечивает работу гидравлики.
5. Транспортер может работать на очень крутых склонах и в глубоком
снегу без перегрева гидравлической системы.
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6. OSA250 оборудован кондиционером воздуха в качестве стандартной
детали.
7. Универсальность увеличивает возможность использования машины в
течение всего года, что является более экономичным.
7. Find in the text the words and phrases with similar meaning:
aim
to generate
version
it was constructed
to connect
long time period
to work
external
power
to do better
perfect
to provide
can be equipped
with demands
8. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
9. Compose a short summary of the text, using the following phrases:
The title of the text is........
The text gives a detailed account of......
The text deals with.......
It should be noted that.......
Much attention is paid to.....
The text carries the information about.......
TEXT 10
OSA 250 (continued)
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. Do you know how transmission works? Tell in Russian.
2. Remember the words and word combinations:
drop box - редуктор, коробка передач
power take off - отбор мощности
traction - 1.тяга 2. сила сцепления
torque - крутящий момент
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3. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
To transfer, a diesel engine, hydraulically, mechanically, a hydraulic pump,
machine speed, to control, to regulate, automatically, constantly.
TRANSMISSION
This is how it works
Power is transferred from the diesel engine, hydraulically to the drop box, from
there it is mechanically transferred to the driving gear. The diesel engine is driven by
a power take-off, two hydraulic pumps (axle piston) with adjustable oil flow. One of
these pumps supplies the working hydraulics while the other foods oil to a hydraulic
engine which also has an adjustable displacement. The oil flow in the hydraulic engine rotates, and this torque is then transferred mechanically through a drop box to
the front axle and rear bogies.
Speed and traction
Machine speed is controlled by the rate of oil flow from the hydraulic pump.
The oil flow direction can also be changed altering the driving direction forward and
reverse. The oil flow speed and direction are regulated by a control lever beside the
driver. In order to vary traction, which, through pump-hydraulic engine-gear box is in
direct proportion to the oil pressure max 42 MPa (420 bar), the gear box is provided
with high and low gears, providing maximum speed of 29 km/h in high gear and a
maximum of 9250 KP in low gear.
Power control
Briefly it works like this:
1. Select direction switch for forward or reverse.
2. Pressing down the accelerator, the machine begins to move at the same pace
the pressure exerted on the accelerator.
3. If driving resistance suddenly increases the hydraulic drive changes automatically to gear ratio which corresponds to the increased driving resistance.
4. When driving resistance is reduced point 3 applies in reverse and speed increases despite maintained engine revs.
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Resulting in an extremely simple driving technique smooth, safe movement is
provided even in difficult terrain. Correctly adjusted gearing to the engine torque at
all times provides a constantly low fuel consumption in all situations.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Power, a driving gear, adjustable oil flow, to supply, a displacement, a
direction, a driver, to provide, to increase, to reduce, a safe movement.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Вращать, крутящий момент, передняя ось, задние гусеницы, тяга, рычаг,
давление масла, двигаться, сопротивление, низкое потребление топлива.
3. Answer the questions:
1. How power is transferred?
2. The oil flow in the hydraulic engine rotates, doesn’t it?
3. How is machine speed controlled?
4. How are the oil flow speed and direction regulated?
5. What happens if driving resistance suddenly increases?
4. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. The diesel engine is driven by…
a) … a drop box to the front axle and rear
2. The torque is transferred mechanically bogies.
through…
b) … the driving direction forward and
3. The oil flow direction can also be reverse.
changed altering…
c) … a power take-off, two hydraulic
4. The gear box is provided with…
pumps with adjustable oil flow.
5. Correctly adjusted gearing to the d) … a constantly low fuel consumption
engine torque at all times provides…
in all situations.
e) … high and low gears.
5. Complete the sentences with the correct word. The number of letters in each
word is given in brackets.
1) Power is transferred from the d.... engine (6).
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2) From the drop b.... it is mechanically transferred to the driving g.... (3), (4).
3) The oil f....in the hydraulic engine rotates (4).
4) Machine is controlled by the r.... of oil flow (4).
5) The oil flow s.... is regulated by a control l….(5), (5).
6) The gear box id provided with high and low g.... (5).
6. Rearrange the letters:
reag, lowf, mupp, veler, xob, scahsis, kant.
7. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
8. Compose a short summary of the text, using the following phrases:
The title of the text is........
The text gives a detailed account of......
The text deals with.......
It should be noted that.......
Much attention is paid to.....
TEXT 11
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
To plan, to guide the machine, comfortably, ergonomically designed,
a specialist, minimal vibration, regulations, transport.
OSA 250 (continued)
Working environment
The driver's cab is your place of work. Here you plan and guide the machine so
that the greatest possible returns can be achieved. Your working environment must
therefore be such that you can comfortably achieve this. In the new 250 cab your
place of work is both comfortable and ergonomically designed by specialists for
specialists.
Minimal vibration and noise
The cab itself is mounted on strong flexible rubber mountings which, together
with the hydrostatic transmission, reduce jerking and vibration to a minimum. Sound
is achieved according to regulations with a noise level.
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Spacious - excellent visibility
Your working space is well designed and spacious with a flat floor. Through
large windscreens of safety glass you have an excellent view whether you are facing
forwards or backwards. There are large windscreen wipers for front and rear windscreens.
Comfortable driver's seat
Here you quickly and easily adapt and change your working position which is
often the right treatment for drivers with arm and back trouble. The electrically
heated seat cushion, back support and wide arm rests are adjustable.
Comfortable direction selector
Comfortable direction selector is positioned on an adjustable lever beside the
right-hand loader control. A simple rocker switch operated by the thumb guides the
machine to the right or left in off road conditions where quick steering movements
are required. Forward and reverse speed is controlled by a foot pedal. Power assisted
steering is used for road transport and where greater speeds are required.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Working environment, to achieve, to mount, a noise level, safety glass, a seat,
adjustable, to operate, steering movements, a foot pedal, to require.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Кабина водителя, сокращать рывки, звук, лобовое стекло,
стеклоочистители, дорожные условия, передняя и задняя скорость, мощность,
использовать, дорожный транспорт.
3. Match the words:
1. driver's cab
2. working environment
3. to mount
4. jerking
5. sound
6. noise level
7. spacious
8. windscreen wipers
a) крепить, монтировать
b) рывок, толчок
c) уровень шума
d) просторный
e) стеклоочиститель
f) рабочие условия
g) кабина водителя
j) звук
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4. Make a list of words characterizing the driver's cab.
5. Make a list of words characterizing the driver's seat.
6. Find antonyms to the following words:
To increase, complicated, maximum, left, badly, right, mounted, strong,
uncomfortable, small, weak, wrong, rear
7. Answer the questions:
1. Why must your working environment be comfortable?
2. Where are quick steering movements required?
3. Where is power assisted steering used?
4. In the new 250 cab is comfortable and ergonomically designed, isn’t it?
8. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. The cab is mounted on…
a) … to the right or left.
2. Comfortable direction selector is b) … strong flexible rubber
positioned on…
mountings.
3. A simple rocker switch guides the c) … a foot pedal.
machine…
d) … front and rear windscreens.
4. Forward and reverse speed is e) … an adjustable lever beside the
controlled by…
right-hand loader control.
5. There are large windscreen wipers
for…
9. Find the sentences with modal verbs.
10. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
11. Compose a short summary of the text, using the following phrases:
The title of the text is........
The text gives a detailed account of......
The text deals with.......
It should be noted that.......
Much attention is paid to.....
The text carries the information about.......
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TEXT 12
THINNING PROCESSOR
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. Remember the words and word combinations:
Thinning areas – площади для прореживания
Tree stand – лесонасаждение
2. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
Specially, mechanical, basic machinery, construction, efficiency, hydraulic
pump, power transmission, a tractor, an alternative, the basic machine, the hydraulic
system, to design, a hydraulic motor, a cylinder, components, to minimize, to
regulate, diameter, automatically controlled, automatically, to start, the programmed
limit, an impulse, to stop, information.
PIKA 35
THINNING PROCESSOR (Finland)
The Pika 35 processor has been specially developed for the mechanical
harvesting of thinning areas and clean cuttings of small-trunk areas. The main
objectives of the Pike 35 processor have been to offer:
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- a light-weight processing unit, which is easily mounted to various basic
machinery;
- speed and efficiency in small-trunk;
- an extensive range of application, handling which is ensured by simple
construction, reliable operation and easy maintenance;
- minimum damage to the terrain and the remaining tree stand.
The Pika 35 processor consists of two main units: base unit and processor.
The base unit works as the machine assembly of the processor containing
hydraulic pump, relief and free flow valves, oil cooler and hydraulic oil tank. Power
transmission is performed from the tractor through the propeller shaft. An alternative
of the assembly base is a base unit of a turning type. It allows a wider wheel track for
the basic machine and has been designed to be mounted on a forest tractor or a threepoint lifting equipment. Driving power for the processor is taken from the hydraulic
system installed in the basic machine.
The processor unit is mounted on bearings on top of the base. An angle turning
is 270° and it can be + 15°...-30°. The flow of hydraulic fusser and return oil is performed through rotating passage.
The processor frame is a box type construction containing hydraulic motors,
cylinders, limit switches and other components. The box keeps well protected components and still they are easily accessible.
The hydraulic components are all close to the pump, which will minimize
pusher loss. The processor tools: delimiting knives, feed rollers and the crosscutting
saw are of a practical, heavy-duty construction. The hydraulic tubes are muterchangeable. Two of the three delimbing knives are morale. The knife pressure is
regulated by a relief valve. The diameter of the feed rollers is 40 cm. The pressure of
the rollers against the frame is automatically controlled. The ejection of the tree top
due to the speed of the rollers will double. A separate measuring wheel is used to
measure the length of the logs. The choice is between 10 different lengths. All the
movements are controlled by electro-hydraulics.
The Pika 35 processor works on each side of the drag rod. The trunks can be
fed into the processor. While the processor is handling the trunk , the operator can go
for the next one with the loader.
The processor prepares wood automatically to the requested length. The
handling starts when the feed switch is pressed, whereby the delimiting knives and
76
the feed rollers are closed. As soon as the pressure of the rollers exceeds the
programmed limit, the traction rollers start moving. At the correct length the feeding
stops for the time of crosscutting.
The processor unit is equipped with a top diameter sensor. When it receives the
information of top diameter, the processor completes the handling of the log, opens
the delimbing knives, ejects the top, opens the feed rollers and stops to wait for the
next impulse.
The Pika 35 processor opens a new outlook on mechanical wood harvesting.
II. Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
To develop, thinning, a trunk, to mount, application, to ensure, easy
maintenance, terrain, relief and free flow valves, oil cooler, the propeller shaft, to
install, to protect, tools.
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Заготовка, рубка, основная цель, скорость, управление, надѐжный,
повреждение, дерево, топливный бак, колесо, грузоподъемное оборудование,
угол поворота,
3. Answer the questions:
1. What has the Pika 35 processor been specially developed for?
2. What have the main objectives of the Pike 35 processor been to offer?
3. What is taken from the hydraulic system installed in the basic machine?
4. What is the processor frame?
5. What will minimize pusher loss?
6. What is the processor unit equipped with?
4. Are these sentences true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. The Pika 35 processor consists of four main units.
2. Power transmission is performed from the tractor through the propeller shaft.
3. The diameter of the feed rollers is 4 cm.
4. A separate measuring wheel is used to measure the length of the logs.
5. The processor frame is a knife type construction.
77
5. Complete the sentences and translate them.
1. The Pika 35 processor consists of …
2. An alternative of the assembly base is…
3. The processor unit is mounted on…
4. The knife pressure is regulated by…
5. The pressure of the rollers against the
frame is…
6. The processor prepares wood
automatically to…
7. The handling starts when…
a) … the requested length.
b) … base unit and processor.
c) … automatically controlled.
d) … bearings on top of the base.
e) … a base unit of a turning type.
f) … the feed switch is pressed
g) … a relief valve.
6. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
7. Compose a short summary of the text, using the following phrases:
The title of the text is........
The text gives a detailed account of......
The text deals with.......
It should be noted that.......
Much attention is paid to.....
The text carries the information about.......
78
Тексты для магистров
TEXT 13
BRUUNETT MINI
I.
Pre-reading activity
1. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations:
Ideal machine, chassis, a crane, to function, operating characteristics,
hydraulics, system, vibration, economical, standard, climate, air conditioning, the
revolution of the mechanism, temperature, to control, indicating lamps, the
instrument panel, to group, to service, a cab, a base, a pump, a driver.
BRUUNETT MINI 678F (Sweden)
Bruunett mini 678F is ideal machine for thinning and small clear-cuttings,
thanks to the light weight chassis and low ground pressure. Crane is above cab. From
there, it can reach down in front of the machine as well as rear. It makes the machine
shorter and results in better weight distribution than a conventionally located crane.
The base, which is attached to the frame, also functions as a roll bar. Crane has a high
capacity and good operating characteristics. The working hydraulics has a variableflow pump in a pressure-relieved constant-pressure system. The driver can operate
several functions simultaneously. The Lexan windows provide a good visibility and a
good protection without visibility-obstructing griller. No vibrations reach the driver –
both the engine and the cab are rubber-mounted. This also contributes to an
extremely low sound level. The Bruunett’s inward-curved stakes reduce the risk of
timber damages. The low machine height also reduces rocking and gives a more
stable ride. The Bruunett is equipped with standard load carrier with movable
headboard for 3m pulpwood or timber, turbo-engine and foot throttle. Good speed,
economical fuel consumption and higher power with power-regulated transmission
meet various demands. Bruunett mini 678 F provides less damage to the ground and
remaining trees. Centrally located articulation joint means that the front and rear
wheels always run in the same track. Low ground pressure with the wide lowpressure tyres is the same on all wheels. Interchangeability and low price also mean
good tyre economy. Comfort-able working climate is all year round. Air conditioning
79
is standard. The revolution of the mechanism and hour counting, fuel, engine
temperature and hydraulic oil temperature are easily controlled. Indicating lamps are
available for all essential functions. The instruments are tightly grouped and easy to
service - the instrument panel can be opened out. As for armrests they are
individually adjustable. Front and rear differential locks are operated by electric
switch. Driver’s seat is of very high standard due to a very low sound level in the
cab – 76 dBA. Parking brake is for both hand and foot operation.
II.
Post-reading activity:
1. Give Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Thinning, weight distribution, to attach to the frame, a high capacity, visibility,
rubber-mounted, sound level, to reduce the risk of timber damages, to be equipped,
foot throttle, fuel consumption, front and rear wheels, low-pressure tyres, adjustable,
an electric switch
2. Give English equivalents for the following words and expressions from the text:
Давление, управлять, окно, обеспечивать, защита, двигатель, высота,
мягкие породы древесины, скорость, дерево, масло, доступный, сиденье,
стояночный тормоз.
3. Complete the sentences with the correct word. The number of letters in each
word is given in brackets.
1. Bruunett mini 678F is an i..... machine for thinning and clear-cuttings (4).
2. It makes the machine s..... and results in better w..... distribution (7),(6).
3. Crane has high ..... and good operating characteristics (8).
4. The d..... can operate several f..... simultaneously (6),(9).
5. No vibrations reach the driver-both the e... and the c... are rubber mounted
(6), (3).
6. The Bruunett is equipped with standard load c..... (7).
7. The base attached to the f..... , also f.....as a roll bar (5),(9).
8. Low ground p..... with the wide low-pressure f..... is the same on all wheels
(8), (5) .
9. Comfortable working c..... is all year round (7).
10. Front and rear differential 1..... are operated by electric switches (5).
80
4. Answer the questions.
l. What is Bruunett mini 678F like?
2. What is it intended for?
3. Where is the crane located?
4. How does the base function?
5. How many functions can the drive operate?
6. What do the Lexan windows provide?
7. What reduces rocking and gives a more stable ride?
8. What is the Bruunett equipped with?
9. What does centrally located articulation joint mean?
5. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
6. Compose a short summary of the text, using the following phrases:
The title of the text is........
The text gives a detailed account of......
The text deals with.......
It should be noted that.......
Much attention is paid to.....
The text carries the information about.......
TEXT 14
MECHANIZATION OF OFF-ROAD TRANSPORT
1. Read the text and make up a short summary.
Off-road transport of timber was traditionally based on use of the horse and
sledge in winter. When the mechanization in forestry began, farm tractors were tried
in off-road transport of timber. The farm tractor, however, required the opening and
leveling of a strip road. In horse transport, the sledge was taken right up to the stump,
whereas in tractor transport, it became necessary to carry pulpwood manually or
winch by tractor to strip road.
The farm tractor needed accessory equipment to perform off-road transport.
The most important were half-tracks, powered semi-trailers, winches and winchdriven boom loaders.
81
The four-wheel-drive cable skidders proved to be far superior to the farm
tractor. However, skidders were designed for the tree-length harvesting system, and
they were inefficient in transporting small-sized stems bucked timber.
Soon work began to develop a tractor better suited to forest management
systems and thinning operations. In the mid-1960s, a large-wheeled, load-car ring
forwarder, typically equipped with a hydraulic knuckle-boom loader, was created.
The forwarder, solved the problem of mechanization of off-road transport. Today
most limber is brought to the road side by medium-sized 10-12t forwarders. In the
late 1980s, lighter forwarders and light rubber-tracked, load-carrying crawlers were
developed primarily for peat land logging and for early commercial thinnings.
The forwarder has become an internationally recognized forest machine. It is
characterized by high productivity, flexible mobility from site, and is
environmentally considerate.
TEXT 15
ORGANIZATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE FOR LOGGING
1. Read the text and make up a short summary.
Forest industry companies purchase most of their timber standing. The
purchasing forest industry is responsible for the planning and organization of the
logging operations. The manual labour, forest machine contractors, and truckers are
hired separately. The other part of the wood raw material is delivered as timber
assortments at the road side by small forest owners.
Traditionally and still today, sub-operations of a logging system are kept
independent of each other by using buffer storage at the stump or road side. This cold
decking helps to increase the operational ability and system productivity. Hot logging
schedules are avoided.
The tree-length method today represents little of the off-road transport of
timber. The log-length method and load-carrying tractors have proved their
superiority. Due to the small size of the forest holdings there is generally a shortage
of landing areas.
Forwarders are capable of storing the timber with the crane in up to 4m high
piles thus reducing the landing area requirement radically. In the long length method
the load-carrying tractors sort the timber and pile it in conjunction with unloading site
82
according to assortment. This cold decking makes it easy for the trucks to deliver
different assortments to different mills. Thus, loading time is decreased, criss cross
transport is reduced, and handling of timber at the mill yard becomes easier.
Modern logging machines apply advanced technology and require high
operator skills and careful maintenance. The operators must be able to carry out
emergency repairs.
The long-distance transport always starts with a truck, generally equipped with
a full trailer. When the hauling distance is long, the truck transport often continues by
rail or floating.
TEXT 16
MULTI-FUNCTION MACHINES
Part 1
1. Read the text and make up a short summary.
In motor-manual methods the tree is felled, delimbed and bucked in to final
lengths with a chainsaw at the site in accordance with the quality requirements
applied, and small-sized pulpwood logs are bunched. The length of pulpwood varies
usually between 3-5m and that of sawlogs between 4-5m.
In mechanized methods multi-function machines which are classified in three
main groups replace chainsaw operators: feller-bunchers, processors, and harvesters.
The feller-bunchers perform only felling and bunching. Processors carry out
delimbing and bucking, thus chainsaw operators or feller-bunchers are required for
felling. Harvesters are also of felling the trees.
The first generation of these multi-function machines were double-grip
harvesters, which first sever the tree from the stump with a crane-mounted felling
head and then transfer it for further processing to a separate mechanism mounted on
the base carrier. A more common option is presently the single-grip harvester, which
uses a relatively light, crane-mounted head for both felling and bucking. The majority
of the new machines are crane-mounted single-grip harvesters. Double-grip
harvesters have their primary application in larger trees because of their robust
structure and higher productivity.
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Compared to motor-manual methods, multi-function machines are
economically competitive particularly in final fellings, in large-scale operations, for
large trees, and especially for trees with a long live crown such as spruce. However,
light multifunction machines, designed for smaller trees and thinning conditions, are
also becoming more competitive.
TEXT 17
Multi-function machines
Part 2
1. Read the text and make up a short summary.
The productivity and cost-competitiveness of multi-function machines are
typically very sensitive to tree size. The productivity of forest tractor-mounted
harvesters in late thinnings and clear cuttings varies between 15-50 m timber
operating hour depending on tree size and the type of machine. The smallest
harvesters mounted on light rubber-tracked vehicles may produce 4-5 m timber per
operating hour under difficult conditions of early thinnings.
Haulage to the road side is performed with a load-carrying forwarder, equipped
with a long-reach hydraulic crane. Except early thinnings, typical logging operations
produce pine sawlogs, spruce sawlogs, birch veneer logs, and pulpwood from each of
the three tree species. The forwarder sorts different timber assortments to their own
piles at the landing site. Depending on the hauling distance, terrain, site conditions,
type of equipment, and the skill of the driver, the output varies generally from 8 to
15 m per operating hour. For small rubber-tracked vehicles the transport output
remains significantly lower.
The most common type of off-road transport machine is a six-wheel 10-12 t
forwarder. Due to their better environmental properties, the number of eight-wheel
forwarders is increasing. The newest forwarders are light and have a long crane
reach.
Long-distance transport is done with a self-loading truck-trailer unit. To
increase the load capacity, the truck's own crane is usually detached and left at the
landing site after completing the loading.
The most common timber haulage combination is composed of a three-axle
truck, equipped with a three-axle full-trailer and a detachable grapple loader.
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TEXT 18
FARM TRACTORS
1. Read the text and make up a short summary.
Farm tractor can participate in harvesting of timber. New tractors are
commonly with a turbocharged engine, a power shift transmission, large wheels,
four-wheel-drive, and a safety cabin. Substantial improvements in the base machine
and auxiliary equipment have made farm tractor-based logging systems much more
effective than before. Their forestry use is not necessarily restricted to off-road
haulage of timber. Modern farm tractors also make a suitable prime mover for
processors, harvesters, debarker, chippers, and fuel wood splitters.
When used for off-road haulage, a farm tractor is usually equipped with a bogie
trailer or sledge. Loading is carried out with a simple cable-operated boom loader or
with a hydraulic crane. In case of small-diameter pulpwood, manual loading is not
uncommon.
A hydraulic crane can be attached to the three-point linkage of the tractor, or it
can be fixed directly to the tractor, or it can be mounted on the cabin top. The power
to the crane is supplied by the tractor hydraulics, and the control levers are installed
in the tractor cabin. Hydraulically operated support legs give extra stability to the
unit.
Farm tractors are frequently equipped with a skidding winch coupled to threepoint linkage mechanism. The use of a winch allows wide spacing of strip roads in
thinnings. Winches are used either for skidding timber over a short distance to the
strip road only, or for cable-skidding the timber with the tractor to the road side. The
winch is always remote-controlled either by radio or by a coil carried by the operator
in a back- pack. With the remote control the operator no longer needs an assistant.
Farm tractors are used also as a prime mover of a multi-function machine for
mechanized cutting. One of the main problems in professional cutting with the farm
tractors is that controlling the crane requires sitting backwards, but this cannot be
done in farm tractors.
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TEXT 19
SMALL-TREE HARVESTING TECHNOLOGY
1. Read the text and make up a short summary.
Mechanization of thinnings is always difficult on account of the risk of damage
to the growing trees, and due to the small size of the trees. The average volume of
trees removed in the first commercial thinning is small, which results in a great
proportion of residual biomass and low productivity of work. The preparation of
small-sized trees to timber assortments is always costly.
A proven alternative for raising productivity in early thinnings is based on
whole-tree logging. The most laborious work phase of manual cutting, delimbing, is
abandoned. The chainsaw operator only fells the trees, bucks them into sections and
bunches them to ease the loading of a forwarder. To prevent excessive loss of
nutrients from the forest soil, trees may be topped and the tops left on the site.
Forwarders with standard equipment, including a long-reach crane, are suitable
for hauling unlimbed tree-sections to the road side. The chipping is performed in
small-scale operations with farm tractor-driven and in larger operations with truckmounted chippers. It is technically possible to produce high-quality pulp and board
products from whole-tree chips. However, costly process disturbance make this noneconomic.
In the tree-section method, the unlimbed raw material is hauled to the pulp mill
by truck instead of being chipped at the landing site. At the mill, the raw material is
delimbed and debarked in long drums, specially adapted for tree sections. The main
product from the process, bark-free stem and branch wood, is reduced to clean chips
for sulfate pulping. The residue from the bark and crown mass is recovered as a byproduct and burned to produce process energy for the mill.
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TEXT 20
LOGGING MACHINE INDUSTRY
Part 1
1. Read the text and make up a short summary.
When forestry began its process of mechanization, development of machines
and technology more appropriate to the requirements of forest owners was considered
necessary.
The first steps of the forest machine industries were taken in the second half of
the last century. The farm tractor was adapted to forest use with the aid of accessory
equipment. Simultaneously, the farm tractor proved to be a suitable prime mover for
transportable debarking machines. Initially logs were fed into the debarking machines
manually, but later on with a hydraulic crane. At the same time, the farm tractor came
into use as a prime mover for hand-fed transportable chippers. Chips made from
small-sized wood attained a permanent status as an indigenous fuel source. When the
forest industry began to show interest in whole-tree chips as a raw material for pulp
and composite boards, larger chippers appeared on the market. Several chipper types,
mounted either on their own chassis or on farm tractors, forwarders, or trucks were
developed.
The manufacture of cable skidders was commenced in the countries where
timber was traditionally bucked at the stump. However skidding of whole trees or
stems is not applicable to the forest management system, which is characterized by
small-owner-ship and repeated selective thinnings. For these reasons, it was
necessary to develop a forest tractor more suitable to these conditions. The solution
was found in the four-wheel-drive, load-carrying forwarder, which was equipped
with a hydraulic knuckle boom loader. The development of forwarders, was
characterized by a need of higher reliability and productivity and focused on making
it more environmentally considerate. Significant improvements were brought about
by adjusting the mass distribution, increasing the number of driving wheels, widening
the tires, and using new materials. Compared to the first forwarders, present
equipment has a greater power, a larger carrying capacity, a longer crane reach, and a
smaller ground pressure.
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TEXT 21
LOGGING MACHINE INDUSTRY
Part 2
1. Read the text and make up a short summary.
Mechanization of timber preparation began with the creation of the multifunction machines. At first the focus was on processor type equipment, for which
timber had to be felled with a chainsaw or feller-buncher. Then, the development
turned definitely towards harvesters, which also fell trees, thus representing fully
mechanized cutting with a single machine.
The first generation of multi-function machines often caused damage to the
timber, and the accuracy of bucking selection was unsatisfactory. They were also
clumsy and heavy, which resulted in excessive compaction of forest soil. Today,
modern harvesters produce better quality timber, usually fit in to the low size class,
and are applicable not only in clearcuts but also in late thinnings.
Effective multi-function machine combinations can also be built from lighter
carriers: small forwarders, farm tractors and light rubber-tracked crawlers. The
placement of a light felling-processing head on to the tractor's crane creates a
competitive alternative to heavier double-grip harvesters.
The single-grip concept has had a definite effect on the recent direction of
development. This principle has been applied in the cycle-feed harvester and
continuous roll-feed processor, which are world wide spread and recognized.
In addition to ordinary forest machines, an excavator can also be used as prime
mover for a crane-mounted harvester head.
The manufacture of forwarders and multi-function machines has moved from
small machine shops to large international companies, who make use of top
technology and engineering skills. Modem forest technique is typically light,
environmentally considerate and ergonomically advanced.
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Деловой английский язык
Resume in English
Отличное резюме на английском – это один из основных факторов,
который позволяет получить желаемую позицию, а непривлекательное резюме
отталкивает работодателя, а значит, это потерянная возможность. Учитывая
современное международное распространение английского языка и большое
количество представительств зарубежных компаний в нашей стране, важно
преподнести свою кандидатуру работодателю на соответствующем уровне.
Резюме, составленное на родном русском и английском языках, будет выгодно
отличать вас на фоне остальных претендентов, а также понадобится вам при
поиске работы за рубежом.
Итак, поскольку само по себе резюме - это первая информация, которую о
вас получает работодатель, то оно должно быть составлено соответствующим
образом.
Резюме не должно быть длиннее одной страницы, иначе внимание
читающего рассеивается из-за большого количества, возможно, лишней
информации. Кроме того, в 90 % случаев со вторым листом может произойти
следующее: второй лист не пройдет по факсу и будет выброшен в мусорную
корзину секретарем; его забудут подколоть к первому листу и потеряют; его
приколют, но к чужому резюме. Если же вся информация не умещается на один
лист, то, по крайней мере, на каждой странице напишите свои имя, фамилию и
контактную информацию.
Существуют 2 термина:
1.
Resume
2.
CV
Так, в США (USA) и в Канаде (Canada) преимущественно употребляется
слово "Resume" (Резюме) - документ содержит краткую информацию о
кандидате на 1, максимум 2 страницах.
CV - curriculum vitae - используется в Северной Америке (North America)
в области искусства, науки, образования. Более развернутое описание ваших
достижений, биографии с указанием наград и другого рода отличительных
особенностей.
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Основные составляющие резюме на английском языке
Основными составляющими резюме, или пунктами, являются.
•
личные данные – PERSONAL INFORMATION
•
цель – JOB OBJECTIVE
•
образование – EDUCATION
•
опыт работы – EXPERIENCE
•
навыки – SKILLS
•
дополнительные сведения, увлечения – EXTRACURRICULAR
ACTIVITIES
•
рекомендации – REFERENCES
Резюме всегда начинается с предоставления ЛИЧНЫХ ДАННЫХ: ФИО
(вначале пишется имя, затем первая буква отчества и фамилия), адрес
(в формате – улица, дом, квартира, город, область, страна), e-mail и номер
телефона (вместе с кодом страны и города - код России +7). Иногда указывают
возраст, дату рождения и семейное положение, которые помещаются, как
правило, вверху страницы.
Затем описывается ЦЕЛЬ. С самого начала ее необходимо основательно
продумать, так как дальнейшая информация резюме будет зависеть именно от
поставленной цели. Цель не должна носить обобщенный характер, например,
«То obtain managerial position in an American company». Продумайте цели
поиска работы и построения карьеры настолько тщательно, чтобы работодатель
при чтении это увидел.
Например, «Objective: То obtain a position in information technologies that
will allow me to use my knowledge of programming and take advantage of my desire
to work in IT».
«Objective: То obtain a position service engineer that will allow me to use my
knowledge of mechanic and take advantage of my desire to work in ВР».
Обратите внимание, что в данном пункте не нужно описывать желание
получить хорошо оплачиваемую работу, так как акцент на деньги в первом
предложении резюме оставит не лучшее впечатление как у российского
работодателя, так и у работодателя любой другой страны.
Следующим пунктом необходимо описать ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ. Здесь
90
следует перечислить университеты, институты, колледжи, которые вы
окончили, в обратном хронологическом порядке (т.е. начиная с последнего).
Также стоит включить пройденные курсы и заграничную стажировку, если
таковые имеются. Если у вас есть дипломы с отличием, то это обязательно
нужно указать (необходимые термины см. в небольшом глоссарии в конце
статьи). Если у вас есть ученая степень, напишите об этом.
Следующим пунктом выступает ОПЫТ РАБОТЫ. Перечислите места
работы, начиная с самого последнего (или текущего). Обязательно укажите
даты, с какого по какое число вы находились на той или иной должности,
занимаемую позицию и название компании. Кроме того, опишите ваши
должностные обязанности, сделав особый акцент на тех функциях, которые
соответствуют цели, поставленной в начале резюме. При перечислении
избегайте слов «я» («I»), «мой» («mу»).
После этого следует перейти к перечислению ваших особых НАВЫКОВ
и УМЕНИЙ: знание языков - укажите родной и иностранные языки, которыми
владеете и на каком уровне, умение работать на компьютере (программы,
уровень владения) и другие навыки, которые соответствуют поставленной
цели. При указании уровня владения иностранным языком не следует завышать
свои способности (возможные варианты записи см. в глоссарии в конце статьи).
Далее - ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ. Здесь укажите ваши
увлечения, любимые занятия, которые представят вас как разностороннего и
интересного человека (также не преувеличивайте). Это могут быть занятия
спортом, путешествия и др. Не указывайте в качестве увлечения «чтение книг»,
так как предполагается, что данным видом деятельности занимается каждый
человек, имеющий высшее образование.
В последнем пункте вашего резюме РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ перечислите не
менее двух человек (не родственников), которые могут предоставить сведения о
вас как о работнике. Необходимо написать ФИО, должности, места работы и
номера телефонов. Если на страничке не осталось места, вместо данных можно
указать «могут быть предоставлены по запросу» (см. глоссарий).
Стиль и формат резюме играют очень важную роль. Резюме должно быть
в печатном виде (на компьютере), не должно содержать ошибок
(орфографических и пунктуационных). Только в таком случае работодатель
составит о вас мнение как о внимательном и аккуратном человеке.
91
Сделайте ваш документ удобным для чтения. Верхнее и нижнее поля
должны быть не менее 1.5 сантиметров высотой, а боковые поля не менее 2.
Между отдельными частями резюме оставляйте пробелы. Жирным шрифтом
выделяйте названия пунктов, а также названий компаний и имена. Если ваше
резюме будет неудобно для чтения, не многие захотят с ним ознакомиться, а
значит, продолжить общение с вами. Не подчеркивайте слова и не используйте
курсив, для придания выразительности - это снижает общее впечатление от
прочитанного.
Пример 1
Personal information
Name: Andrew Pronin
Date of birth: 17 Sep 1980 Currently reside in Novosibirsk, Russia
Phone number:
Email:
Skype (MSN):
Education
Novosibirsk State University, Telecommunications department, graduate (19982003)
Programming courses in Novosibirsk Business College (2002-2004)
Working skills
C++, Perl, Java, MySQL, PHP — professional level.
Windows, Linux, Unix — professional level.
Local network and server administration — advanced level.
Working experience
BestHostPro 2005 — today
Head of the programming department, 6 subordinates.
Managing the team of programmers and analysts, supervising the development and
testing of Internet applications.
UniSoft
2002-2005
Programmer
Developing of software architecture and various PHP and Java PC applications.
92
Пример 2
Elena Serova
Born on 24 Nov 1980
Email:
Phone number:
IM:
Education
Moscow State University, foreign languages department, graduate (1998-2003) Moscow
State University, foreign languages department, postgraduate studies, PhD (2003-2005)
Courses of simultaneous and consecutive interpretation, Moscow Interpretation Center,
(2004-2006)
Known languages and certificates
Russian — mother tongue
English — native speaker level, TOEFL certificate French
— advanced level, DALF certificate B4.
Working skills
Written translation (Eng <> Ru, Fr <> Ru) — professional level Consecutive
interpretation (Eng <> Ru, Fr <> Ru) — professional level Simultaneous
interpretation (Eng <> Ru) — advanced level Specialized oil and gas
terminology (Eng) — advanced level
Working experience
Russian Oil & Gas LTD 2004
— present time Translator and
Interpreter
Romashka Publishing house
2000-2004
Books translator
GoTrans Translation agency
1999-2000
Translator
93
Пример 3
Personal data
Tigran Gavrilov
Gercena str. 28-29, Town of Oktyabrskiy,
Respublika Bashkortostan, Russian Federation
+7 906 38198754632
tigrangavrilov@gmail.com
Date of Birth: 25.08.1972
Marital Status: married
Objective
To obtain a position service engineer that will allow me to use my knowledge and take
advantage of my desire to work in Sulzer Ltd.
Education
Ufa State Oil Technical University Oktyabrskiy Branch (OF UGNTU) 08.2002 - 06.2007
Specialty: Engineer mechanic
Work experience
10.2011 - till now ОАО "Rosneft"
Position: Head of Service of Manufacturing Custom Equipment.
Activities and responsibilities: Manage the production of service of manufacturing custom
equipment. Control and technical maintenance of production metal parts 03.2010 - 10.2011
- ОАО "Rosneft"
Position - Engineer-constructor
Activities and responsibilities: Schematic drawing metal parts for different equipment,
technology of metal processing for the manufacture of metal parts.
Employment history
06.2007- 03.2010
Gazprom:
Position: Engineer-constructor
Activities and responsibilities: constructor documentation of Installation Electric
Submersible Pumps - Electric Submersible Pumps (18-400 cubic meters per day), electric
asynchronous motors, protector.
Skills
MS Word, Excel Typing, Compas 3d.
Russian: native
English: Fluent reading, writing and speaking ability
Interests
Football, Volleyball, Basketball, Reading, Internet.
References
Available upon request
94
Глоссарий
безработный – unemployed
вакансия – vacancy
возраст – age
гонорар – fee
дарования, способности – abilities
дата рождения – date of birth
должность – position
дополнительная информация, увлечения – extracurricular activities
достижения, успехи – accomplishments
занятость – employment
заполнить вакансию – fill a position
заработная плата – salary
качества (образование + опыт работы, которым должен обладать
претендент) – job qualification
квалифицированный – qualified
личные данные – personal information
место рождения – place of birth
место, на котором не требуется особая квалификация – non-skilled position
мне ... лет – I am ... years old
могут быть предоставлены по запросу – applied upon request
назначить встречу – to make an appointment
найти место работы – find a position
образование – education
обращаться за работой – apply
объявление – advertisment
обязанности – responsibilities, duties
окончен с красным дипломом – graduated with high honors
опытный – experienced
отдел – department
отменить встречу – to cancel an appointment
по настоящее время – till present
поиск работы – job hunting
95
поступить на работу в компанию – join the company
претендовать – claim
призвание – calling
работа – job
работа на полный рабочий день – full-time employment
работа по совместительству – part-time employment
работать в качестве – work in the capacity of
работодатель – employer
резюме – resume, CV (Curriculum Vitae), the letter of application
рекомендатель – referee
рекомендации – reference
руководитель – head
с заработной платой – at a salary of
семейное положение – marital status
женат/замужем – married
холост – single
разведен – divorced, separated
овдовевший – widowed
сильные стороны, талант – personal strengths
служащий – employee
страховка – insurance
умения – skills
условленная встреча – appointment
ФИО – full name
цели, которые ставит претендент при получении работы – career goals
цель – objective, goal
язык – language
беглый английский – fluent English
хороший уровень французского – good French
начальный французский – beginning French
средний уровень немецкого – intermediate German
продвинутый уровень английского – advanced English
родной русский – native Russian
96
FORMAL LETTERS
ДЕЛОВОЕ ПИСЬМО
Составление любого делового письма на английском языке подчиняется
общим правилам:
1. Весь текст разделяется на абзацы без использования красной строки.
2. В верхнем левом углу письма указывается полное имя отправителя или
название компании с адресом.
3. Далее указывается имя адресата и название компании, которой письмо
предназначено, а также ее адрес (с новой строки).
4. Дата отправления указывается тремя строками ниже или в верхнем
правом углу письма.
5. Основной текст должен быть помещен в центральной части письма.
6. Главная мысль письма может начинаться с причины обращения: "I am
writing to you to…
7. Обычно письмо заканчивается высказыванием благодарности ("Thank
you for your prompt help...") и приветствием "Yours sincerely," если автор знает
имя адресата, и 'Yours faithfully', если нет.
8. Четырьмя строками ниже ставится полное имя автора и должность.
9. Подпись автора ставится между приветствием и именем.
ВИДЫ ДЕЛОВЫХ ПИСЕМ
Деловое письмо – Благодарность (партнеру за хорошую работу,
постоянному клиенту, клиенту за предложения и советы, потенциальному
клиенту после встречи, СМИ за благоприятную статью, СМИ за помощь в
привлечении спонсоров, за предоставление информации, за рекомендательное
письмо, после встречи, сотруднику за ценное предложение, соискателю работы
за обращение в компанию).
Деловое письмо – Запрос (цен; цен и скидок; каталога и цен; сведений,
цен и условий; стоимости страхования; сведений (рекомендаций) о заказчике
(подрядчике); списка производителей; новому клиенту об ответственных
(контактных) лицах; об условиях обучения).
Деловое письмо – Заказ (заказ; заказ и просьба о скидке; заказ и условия
сделки; заказ на размещение рекламы; изменение заказа; ошибка в заказе).
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Деловое письмо – Извинение (за задержку оплаты; за задержку поставки;
за неучѐт платежа; за излишнюю отгрузку; за низкий уровень обслуживания; за
ошибку с заказом; извинение и замена испорченного товара; извинение и
просьба о продлении срока доставки; извинение после отмены заказа
клиентом).
Деловое письмо – Напоминание (об оплате).
Деловое письмо – Объявление (для сотрудников о собрании; для
сотрудников о месте для курения; для сотрудников о проведении учебы; о
вакансии; для сотрудников с разъяснениями).
Деловое письмо - Организация деловой поездки, бронирование отеля,
билетов (бронирование отеля; запрос в отель; ответ отеля на просьбу о
бронировании; просьба подтвердить регистрацию участника конференции;
просьба встретить в аэропорту; уведомление о задержке прибытия на
конференцию; подтверждение прибытия на съезд; подтверждение
бронирования...).
Деловое письмо – Ответ (на заказ; на запрос цен и информации о товаре;
на запрос каталога и цен; на просьбу о снижении цены; на просьбу о кредите;
ответ на напоминание об оплате, ответ на претензию и отмену заказа; на
сообщение о поставке поврежденного товара...).
Деловое письмо – Подтверждение (заказа; получения письма; готовности
оказать услугу; назначения представителем фирмы; готовности предоставления
агентских услуг и выставление условий...).
Деловое письмо – Поздравление (в связи с расширением бизнеса; с
праздником; новым владельцам о предложение услуг; с выдающимися
достижениями; с окончанием учебы; с увеличением продаж...).
Деловое письмо – Предложение (купить товар; своей продукции;
сотрудничества; агентских услуг; о совместном участии в тендере; услуг после
ознакомительной встречи...).
Деловое письмо – Представление (в СМИ с представлением компании;
нового торгового представителя; новой компании потенциальному клиенту;
самопредставление нового торгового представителя...).
Деловое письмо – Претензия, рекламация, жалоба, требование
(о повреждении поставленного товара; к качеству товара; по составу партии
товара; в связи с нарушением условий контракта; в связи с неисполнением
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гарантийных обязательств; рекламация; в связи с нарушением сроков
поставки...).
Деловое письмо – Приглашение (на день «открытых дверей»;
приглашение СМИ на конференцию; на презентацию...).
Деловое письмо – Просьба (о встрече; о повторной отправке документа по
факсу; о предоставлении товара; об оказании услуги; об отсрочке платежа; о
направлении специалистов и оказании помощи в подготовке кадров...).
Деловое письмо – Сообщение (о слиянии; о задержке платежа; об оплате
заказа; о проблемах с таможней; об исполнении заказа; сообщение торгового
представителя клиенту об уходе с должности...).
Деловое письмо – Разное (заинтересованность в проекте; приветствие
новому клиенту; попытка вернуть потерянного клиента; сопроводительное
письмо к отправляемым документам; знакомство с новым контактным лицом в
компании-клиенте...).
Термин «Деловое письмо» заставляет людей нервничать. Многие люди,
изучающие английский язык вторым после родного, беспокоятся, что их речь в
деловой переписке недостаточно разнообразна. В этом случае нет повода для
беспокойства. В реальных письмах в бизнесе используют короткие, простые
предложения с легко понимаемыми словами. Чем легче прочитать письмо – тем
лучше. Вам нужно будет использовать плавные переходы между
предложениями, что бы они были связаны между собой по смыслу.
Обращение в деловом письме
Прежде всего, убедитесь, что Вы правильно пишете имя получателя. Вы
также должны корректно указать пол и положения. Используйте для женщин
обращение Ms., а для мужчин — Mr. Используйте Mrs. для женщин только,
если Вы на 100 % уверены, что она состоит в браке. В менее официальной
обстановке или после длительного периода переписки допустимо обращаться к
человеку по имени. Если Вы не знаете имени человека и не можете узнать эту
информацию, то Вы можете написать «То Whom It May Concern». Существует
стандарт использовать запятую (двоеточие в Северной Америке) после
обращения. Кроме того, допустимо вообще не использовать знаки пунктуации.
Вот некоторые наиболее часто встречающиеся способы обращения:
Dear Mr Gates,
Dear Ms Froster,
Dear Steve Jobs:
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Dear Editor-in-Chief: (главный редактор)
Dear Valued Customer (уважаемый клиент, стандартная форма обращения
к клиенту)
Dear Sir or Madam: (уважаемые господа, употребляется в при вежливом
или официальном обращении к мужчинам в привилегированной среде, а также
к незнакомым собеседникам, публике, аудитории)
Dear Madam (Уважаемая мадам / госпожа)
Dear Sir, (Уважаемый сэр / господин)
Dear Sirs (Если вы обращаетесь к компании в целом, а не к
определенному человеку в компании.)
Gentlemen: (формальное обращение к двум и более мужчинам)
Первый абзац в деловом письме
В большинстве деловых писем обычно используется дружеское
обращение в первом предложение. Вот несколько примеров:
I hope you are enjoying an excellent winter. (Я надеюсь, Вы наслаждаетесь
отличной зимой)
I am appreciated sincerely your kind letter of March 2d. (Я искренне оценил
Ваше любезное письмо от 2 марта)
I met an advertisement of your company in the Internet. (Я обнаружил
рекламу Вашей компании в интернете)
It was a delight meeting you at the congress this year. (Для меня было
радостью встретить Вас на съезде в этом году)
I appreciate your tolerance in waiting for an answer (спасибо за ваше
терпение при ожидании ответа)
После Вашего короткого вступления, укажите основную цель Вашего
письма в одном или нескольких предложениях:
I’m writing to enquire about... (Я пишу Вам, что бы выяснить о...)
I’m interested in the position posted on your company website, (я
заинтересован в открывшейся вакансии на должность..., которую нашел на веб
сайте компании)
We’d like to invite you to a members only luncheon on May 4th. (Мы бы
хотели пригласить Вас на официальный ланч членов клуба, который состоится
4-го мая)
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Второй и третий абзац в деловом письме
Используйте несколько коротких абзацев, чтобы описать более подробно
цели Вашего письма. Если Вам достаточно одного абзаца, не пишите
дополнительных только для того, чтобы письмо смотрелось длиннее. Если Вы
предоставляете информацию, требующую деликатного обращения, такую, как
отказ от предложения, информирования работника об увольнении, лучше
вставляйте это предложение во втором абзаце, а не начинайте с него. Вот
несколько общих правил для выражения неприятных обстоятельств:
We regret to inform you... (Мы сожалеем сообщить вам)
It is with great sadness that we... (Мы с грустью)
After careful consideration we have decided... (После тщательного рассмотрения
мы решили)
Заключительный абзац делового письма
В Вашем заключительном абзаце должны содержаться запросы,
напоминания и заметки. При необходимости также в этом абзаце следует
указать Вашу контактную информацию. Вот несколько общих фраз
используемых при завершении делового письма:
I look forward to. (Жду с нетерпением)
For father details (Для более подробной информации)
If you require more information (Если Вам требуется больше информации)
Enclosed you will find (К настоящему письму прилагается)
Please respond at your earliest convenience. (Пожалуйста, ответьте, как
только появится возможность)
I should also remind you that the next meeting is on June 11th. (Также должен
вам напомнить, что следующая встреча состоится 11 -го июня)
Feel free to contact me by phone or email. (Вы можете свободно связаться
со мной по телефону или электронной почте)
Thank you for taking this into consideration. (Спасибо за то, что приняли это
во внимание)
I appreciate any feedback you may have.(Я признателен за любой Ваш
отзыв)
Окончание делового письма
Вот несколько распространенных способов для окончания делового
письма на английском. Используйте запятую между прощанием и Вашим
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именем, написанным от руки (или напечатанным в электронном письме). Если
Вы не используете запятую или двоеточие в Вашем обращении, тогда не
ставьте запятую и после прощания:
Thank you, (спасибо)
Warm regards,
Sincerely,
Sincerely yours
Yours sincerely, (искренне Ваш...)
Best wishes (с наилучшими пожеланиями)
Yours truly, (Ваш)
All the best, (всего наилучшего)
Best of luck (успехов)
Советы при написании делового письма на английском языке
Используйте разговорный тон.
Задавайте вопросы прямо.
Дважды проверьте правильность пола и написание имен и фамилий.
Используйте по возможности действительный залог.
Используйте вежливые формы (would вместо will).
Всегда упоминайте себя как «I» (Я).
Не используйте ―we‖ (мы) до того момента, пока не ясно кто под этим
подразумевается.
Перепишите любое предложение или вопрос, который звучит
неопределенно.
Не забудьте указать дату. Форма День-Месяц-Год является обычной во
многих странах, однако, чтобы избежать путаницы, напишите название месяца
вместо указания номера месяца (например, June 4th, 2011).
Стандартные фразы для начала, продолжения и завершения
делового письма на английском
Благодарю Вас за Ваше письмо... Thank you for your letter ...
Благодарим Вас за Ваше письмо (запрос) от 15-го мая ... We thank you for
your letter (inquiry) of the 15th of May ...
Благодаря тому, что ... Due to the fact that...
В дополнение к нашему письму от 15-го мая ... In reply (answer) to your
letter of (the) 15th of May ...
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В ответ на Ваше письмо от 15-го ... Further to our letter of (the) 15th ...
В ответ на Вашу телеграмму/телекс ... In response to your cable/telex ...
Всем, кого это может касаться ... All whom it may concern ...
В соответствии с Вашими указаниями, мы ... In conformity with your
instruction we...
В соответствии с условиями нашего соглашения ... In accordance with the
terms of our agreement...
В этом письме мы хотим сообщить Вам ... We are writing to inform you ...
Заметьте, пожалуйста, что ... Kindly note that...
К сожалению, должен сообщить Вам ... I regret to inform you ...
Мне сообщили, что ... I have been informed that...
Мы вынуждены сообщить Вам ... We are forced to inform you ...
Мы должны обратить Ваше внимание на следующее: We wish to draw
your attention to the following:
Мы обращаем Ваше внимание на тот факт ... We draw your attention to the
fact ...
Мы подтверждаем, что ... We confirm that...
Мы подтверждаем получение ... We acknowledge the receipt of...
Мы получили Ваше письмо от ... We have received your letter of...
Мы с сожалением узнали о ... We learn with regret of (about) ...
We regret to hear of (about) ...
Мы с удивлением узнали, что ... We are surprised to learn that...
Мы с удовольствием сообщаем Вам о ... We are pleased to inform you of
(about) ...
Мы спешим ответить на Ваше письмо от ... We (are) hasten to reply to your
letter of...
Мы хотим сообщить Вам, что ... We wish to advise you that ...
Мы хотели бы напомнить Вам, что ... We would like to remind you that...
Нам хотелось бы сообщить Вам о ... We should like to inform you of
(about)...
Настоящим довожу до Вашего сведения, что ... This is for your kind
information that...
Настоящим мы подтверждаем ... We hereby confirm ...
Настоящим сообщаю Вам, что ... This is to inform you that...
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Настоящим мы подтверждаем получение... We
hereby
acknowledge
receipt of...
Настоящим ставим Вас в известность, что ... This is to inform you that...
Настоящим удостоверяется, что ... This is to certify that...
Относительно Вашего письма от ...Regarding your Letter of...
Просим Вас заметить, что ... Will you please notice that...
Просим заметить, что ... Please note that...Please take notice that ...
Просим принять к сведению, что ... Please note that ...
Просим сообщить нам о ... Please inform us about ...
С благодарностью подтверждаем ... We acknowledge with thanks ...
Следуя Вашим указаниям, мы ... Following your instructions we ...
Согласно Вашей просьбе ... As requested ...
Согласно договору ... As per agreement ...
Ссылаясь на Ваш запрос ... With reference to your inquiry ...
Ссылаясь на Ваше письмо ... With reference to your letter ...
Ставим Вас в известность, что ... Please be informed th a t . ..
Я должен сообщить Вам ... I have to inform you ...
Я имею удовольствие сообщить Вам ... I have the pleasure to inform you ...
Подтверждение получения делового письма
Благодарим Вас за Ваше письмо, датированное 15 мая. We thank you for
your letter dated (the) 15th May.
Мы получили Ваше письмо от 15 мая. We have received your letter of (the)
15th May.
Мы своевременно получили Ваше письмо от ... We duly received your
letter of ...
Мы спешим подтвердить получение Вашего письма ... We hasten to
acknowledge receipt of your letter ...
Мы признательны за Ваше письмо от ... We are obliged for your letter o f . . .
Мы получили подтверждение ... We have received confirmation ...
Мы подтверждаем, что ... We confirm that ...
Мы с благодарностью подтверждаем получение Вашего письма ... We
acknowledge with thanks receipt of your letter ...
Настоящим мы подтверждаем получение ... We hereby acknowledge receipt
o f . ..
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Подтверждаем получение Вашего письма от ... We acknowledge (the)
receipt of your letter o f . ..
Ссылка на предыдущую переписку
Поэтому, мы возлагаем на Вас ответственность за ... We are, therefore,
holding you responsible for ...
Мы высоко ценим Ваше товарищеское сотрудничество. We appreciate
very much your friendly cooperation.
Мы ожидаем Вашего скорейшего ответа. We are awaiting your reply as
soon as possible.
Мы просили бы Вас ускорить ответ. We would ask you to accelerate your
reply.
Мы просили бы Вас подтвердить получение ... We would ask you to
acknowledge the receipt o f . . .
Мы просили бы Вас ускорить ответ на наше письмо ... We would ask you
to accelerate your reply to our letter ...
Мы просили бы Вас информировать нас своевременно о ... We would
request you to inform us in due time of the ...
Мы хотели бы, чтобы Вы сделали все возможное, чтобы ... We should like
you to do the best to ...
Надеемся на Ваш скорый ответ ... We trust to get an early reply ...
Остаемся с совершенным почтением ... We remain, yours faithfully ...
Очень просим ответить немедленно ... We request the favor of a very early
reply ...
Пожалуйста, известите нас своевременно о ... Please let us know in due time
o f . ..
Прилагаем при сем ... Please find herewith ...
Принимая во внимание вышеизложенное, мы ... In view of the foregoing we
are...
Просим передать всем наши поздравления и приветствия ... Our
compliments and greetings to one and all ...
При этом отправляем Вам ... We are to rewarding to you here with ...
Я буду держать Вас в курсе дальнейших событий ...I shall keep you well
informed of further developments ...
Я приму все меры, которые сочту необходимыми ... I’ll take all the steps
that I consider necessary...
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Я сделал все, что в моих силах (все, что мог) ... I did my very utmost ...
Я сохраняю за собой право принять решение ...I reserve the right to reach a
decision
Я с нетерпением и интересом жду Вашего ответа...I look forward with
interest to your answer.
В дополнение к нашему письму от 15-го февраля ... Further to our letter of
the 15th February ...
В соответствии с Вашими указаниями ... In conformity (accordance) with
your instructions ...
В соответствии с условиями нашего соглашения ... In accordance with the
terms of our agreement...
Мы ссылаемся на наше (Ваше) письмо от... We refer to our (your) letter of...
Из Вашего письма явствует, что ... It appears from your letter t h a t .. .
Относительно Вашего письма от ...This has reference to your letter of ...
Ссылаясь на Ваше письмо от ... Referring to your letter o f . . .
Ссылаясь на Ваш запрос ...With reference to your inquiry ...
В ответ на Ваше письмо от ... In reply (In answer) to your letter o f .. .
Мы возвращаемся к нашему письму от ... We revert to our letter o f .. .
Заключительные фразы
Благодарим Вас и надеемся на Ваш скорый ответ…We thank you and hope
to hear from you soon.
В заключение мы с удовольствием прилагаем при сем копии ... Finally we
are pleased to attach herewith copies o f . . .
В ожидании ваших сообщений ... Hoping to hear from you ...
В свете вышеизложенного, мы ... In the light of the above we are ...
Вы меня очень обяжете подтверждением получения ... You will greatly
oblige me by acknowledging the receipt o f . . .
Заранее благодарим ... Thanks beforehand ...
Заранее благодарим Вас.. . Thanking you in advance ...
К сему прилагаем копии ... We attach hereto copies o f .. .
Мы будем делать все возможное ... We should have done our b e s t .. .
Мы будем благодарны за Ваше содействие в этом вопросе. We shall
appreciate your cooperation in this matter.
Мы будем Вам благодарны за Ваш скорый ответ. An early reply will be
much appreciated.
Мы будем признательны за скорый ответ. An early reply will oblige.
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Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык письмо.
Clarke & Sims Ltd.
High Street
Ellingham
Suffolk
Telephone Ellingham 6708
FH/MC
17th January, 20..
The Sales Manager,
Motorheat Ltd.
Walker Road,
Coventry
Dear Sir,
We are interested in increasing our range of car heaters and should like to
receive information about the various models you are at present producing.
We should be obliged if you would send us your catalogue and price list,
together with details of the CX4 heater advertised in the current issue of the Motoring
Monthly.
Yours faithfully,
Clarke & Sims Ltd.
F. Henley
Manager
К какому виду делового письма относится данное письмо? (Выберите один
вариант ответа. Переведите на русский язык названия видов писем).
1. Memo
3. Contract
2. CV
4. Letter of enquiry/request
107
Задание 2. Определите, к какому виду делового письма относится
представленный ниже отрывок.
We are a large record store in the center of Manchester and would like to know
more about the CDs and DVDs you advertised in last month’s edition of Hi Fi. Could
you tell us if the products are leading brand names, or made by small independent
companies, and if they would be suitable for recording classical music, games and
video?
We would appreciate it if you send us some samples.
1. Memo
3. Contract
2. CV
4. Letter of enquiry/request
Задание 3. Определите, к какому виду делового документа относится
представленный ниже отрывок.
I wish to complaint in the strongest terms about the treatment I received from a
member of your staff. I was billed the wrong amount of money and when I pointed to
that fact I was rudely interrupted…
a) Resume
c) Letter of Complaint
b) Inquiry Letter
d) Memo
Задание 4. Определите вид делового письма.
Dear Sirs,
We are indebted to ―Kelly’s Directory‖ for your name and address and take the
liberty to introduce ourselves as motor cycle importers in Moscow.
We should be very pleased if you would kindly let us have by return of mail
your prices for the various types of motor cycles you can offer, together with the
delivery dates.
We thank you in anticipation of a prompt reply.
Yours faithfully,
a) Resume
c) Memo
b) Enquiry
d) CV
108
Задание 5. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке.
1) Dear Mr. Sawyer,
Thank you for your letter. I am afraid that we have a problem with your order.
2) Unfortunately, the manufacturers of the part you wish to order have
advised us that they cannot supply it until November. Would you prefer us to supply
a substitute, or would you rather wait until the original parts are again available.
3) Yours sincerely,
Simon Tramp
Sales Manager
4) 6 Pine Estate, Bedford Road, Bristol, UB28 12BP
Telephone 9036 174369 Fax 9036 36924
6 August 2005
5) James Sawyer, Sales Manager, Electric Ltd, Perry
Road Estate,
Oxbridge UN54 42KF
Задание 6. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения пропусков так,
чтобы они отражали особенности оформления служебной записки.
To
: Secretarial Supervisor
(1)_________ : Claire McElroy
(2) _________ : Demonstration of new office equipment
The (3) ____ of Smart Equipment will visit us on 28 April to demonstrate
their new computer and fax-machine which you are sure to be interested in.
Please arrange the time to meet him so that all your staff could be present.
(4) ____
a) Subject
c) Sales manager
b) C.M.
d) From
Задание 7. Выберите слова или словосочетания для заполнения пропусков так,
чтобы они отражали особенности оформления служебной записки.
109
To
: (1) Katherine Chu,______
From
: (2) ______, Sales
Subject
: (3)_______
(4)______
: 24 November 2009
I am writing to inform you of my intention to resign from G & S Holdings.
I would like to leave, if possible, in a month’s time on Saturday,26 December.
This will allow me to complete my current workload. I hope that this suggested
arrangement is acceptable to the company.
Once again, thank you for your support.
Stephen Yu
(a) Notification of My Resignation
(b) Date
(c) Stephen Yu
(d) Regional Manager
Задание 8. Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на конверте с
тем, что она обозначает.
New Jersey Power Company
5695 South 23 Road
(1) Ridgefield, (2) NJ 0887
590 Mr. Frederick Wolf
(3) Director of Marketing
(4) Smith Printing Company
590 (5) Sixth Avenue
Milwaukee, (6) WI 53216
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
the street name in the mailing address
the ZIP Code in the mailing address
the addressee
the town the letter comes from
the addressee’s company name
the ZIP Code in the return address
110
Задание 9. Соотнесите информацию под определенным номером на конверте с
тем, что она обозначает.
(1) Horizons Books, Inc.
(2) 24 Harrison Road
Cleaveland, Ohaio 36879
Canada
(4) Victor Sharp, Personnel Manager
Eamst & Young
(5) 23 Rachelle Avenue
Dallas,Texas (6)14336
USA
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
the ZIP Code in the mailing address
the addressee’s house number
the country the letter comes from
the house number in the return address
the addressee
the sender
Telephone conversation
Разговор по телефону
- Hello! Good morning (evening, afternoon)! Привет! Доброе утро (день, вечер)!
- Bye.
Пока.
- I’d like to speak to…
Я хотел бы поговорить с…
- This is…
Это…
- Speaking.
Говорите. Я вас слушаю.
- Just a minute. I’ll put you through.
Минуту. Я вас соединю.
- Who is calling, please?
Извините, кто звонит?
- …is calling (is here, is speaking).
…звонит.
- Could / Can I speak to…, please?
Могу ли я поговорить с…?
- I’m phoning about…
Я звоню по поводу…
- I’ll call back later.
Я перезвоню позже.
- Thanks for your help.
Спасибо за помощь.
111
- Could you give a message to…?
Не могли бы вы передать
сообщение…?
- Hold on. I’ll get him (her).
Не вешайте трубку. Я его (еѐ)
сейчас позову.
- I’m sorry. (S)he is not in.
Извините. Его (еѐ) нет.
- Nice to hear from you.
Рад вас слышать.
- I’ll leave him (her) a message.
Я оставлю ему (ей) сообщение.
- Is this 12345678?
Это номер 12345678?
- You’ve dialed (got) the wrong number.
Вы ошиблись номером.
- Thanks for your calling.
Спасибо за ваш звонок.
- Would you ask him to call me back when Не могли бы вы попросить его
he gets back?
перезвонить
мне,
когда
он
вернѐтся?
- I can’t hear you.
Я вас не слышу.
- I’m putting… on the line.
Передаю трубку…
- There is a telephone call for you.
Вам звонят (вас к телефону).
- Could you speak up?
Не могли бы вы говорить громче?
- Can I take a message?
Что передать?
- Please, tell him (her) Mr. Smith called.
Пожалуйста, передайте ему (ей),
что звонил мистер Смит.
Задание 1. Read and translate the dialogues.
Dialogue 1
- Good morning. Can I help you?
- Good morning. Could I speak to Mr. Roberts, please?
- Who is calling, please?
- It’s James Larry from ABN, New York.
- Hold on. I’ll put you through.
- Speaking.
- Hello, Mr. Roberts. Nice to hear from you.
- Me too.
- I offer to carry on a business talk with you on Thursday at 6 p.m.
112
- Just a moment. I’ll look at my schedule. That’s all right.
- Thank you. I’m looking forward to meeting you.
- Me too.
- Goodbye, Mr. Roberts.
- See you, Mr. Larry.
Dialogue 2
- ―Universal Systems‖. Can I help you?
- This is John White. I’d like to speak to Mary Brown.
- I’m afraid she is not in at the moment.
- I’ll call back later.
- Mr. White, hold on, please. Can I take a message?
- Well? All right. Please, write down. ―Send us the invoice of the 20th of Febrary with
the stamp and all the signatures by fax as soon as possible. John‖.
- All right. I’ll tell her you called and I’ll give her the information.
- Thanks for your help.
- Not at all.
- Goodbye.
- Bye.
Dialogue 3
– Hello, is this 950684?
- Yes, who’s speaking?
- David here. Could I speak to Mary please?
- Hold the line. I’ll just see if she is in.
- All right.
- Sorry, but she’s out. I think she’ll come back soon.
- Could you take a message?
- Yes, of course.
Dialogue 4
– Hello! May I speak to Mrs. Green?
- Who is calling?
- Mr. Black is here.
- I’m putting Mrs. Green on the line.
113
Dialogue 5
– Hello! May I have a word with John?
- Sorry, but you’ve got the wrong number.
- Is this 890678?
- No, you’ve got the wrong number.
- Sorry to have troubled you.
Dialogue 6
– Hello! May I have a word with Mr. Roberson?
- Who is calling?
- Mrs. Green is speaking.
- Hold the line. I’ll just see if he is in.
- Ok.
- Sorry, but he is out.
- Would you ask him to call me back when he gets back?
- Of course. What’s your number?
- My number is 305698.
- Ok. Buy.
Dialogue 7
– May I speak to Mary?
- Sorry, I can’t hear you.
- Can I speak to Mary?
- Ah! Mary! Hold on. I’m putting her on the line.
-
Dialogue 8
Hello! Can I speak to Mr. Roberson?
Speak louder, please.
May I speak to Mr. Roberson?
Hold on. Sorry to kept you waiting, but Mr. Roberson is not available. Is there
any message?
- No. Thank you. I’ll call back later.
- Ok. Bye.
114
Dialogue 9
- Hello! May I speak to Mr. Black?
- Who is calling?
- Mrs. Green is here.
- Speak louder, please.
- Mrs. Green is speaking.
- Hold the line. I’ll just see if he is in. Sorry, but he’s out
- Could you take a message?
- All right.
Задание 2. What will you say if you make a phone call and:
- You have to speak to Mr. Petrov;
- The person you’d like to spear to is absent;
- The person on the other side doesn’t know who is calling;
- You are not sure you’ve dialed the right number;
- You don’t hear the words of your colleague.
Задание 3. What will you say if you receive a phone call and:
- The person needed is absent;
- You don’t know who is phoning;
- Somebody has dialed the wrong number;
- You are glad somebody has phoned;
- You have to tell your colleagues they are called to the phone.
115
Библиографический список
1. Андрианова, Л. Н. Курс английского языка для вечерних и заочных
технических вузов [Текст] : учеб. / Л. Н. Андрианова, В. П. Ершова. – Изд. 5-е,
перераб. и доп. – М. : Высш. шк., 2002. – 464 с.
2. Гинзбург, Ю. В. Современный англо-русский автомобильный словарь
[Текст] / Ю. В. Гинзбург. – М. : ЗАО «КЖИ «За рулем», «Иврус», 2003. – 488 с.
3. Голицынский, Ю. Б. Грамматика [Текст] : сб. упражнений /
Ю. Б. Голицынский. – СПб. : Каро, 1999. – 475 с.
4. Гольд, Б. В. Англо-русский словарь по автомобильной технике и
автосервису [Текст] / Б. В. Гольд, Р. В. Кугель, С. А. Шершер. – Минск : Новая
звезда Лтд., 1999. – 704 с.
5. Кузьмин, Ю. А. Краткий англо-русский технический словарь [Текст] /
Ю. А Кузьмин, В. А. Владимиров, Я. Л. Гельман. – М. : ЧеРо, 1998. – 416 с.
6. Можаев, Д. В. Англо-русский и русско-английский лесотехнический
словарь [Текст] / Д. В. Можаев, Б. Н. Новиков, Д. М. Рыбаков. – М. : РУССО,
1998. – 864 с.
7. Орловская, И. В. Учебник английского языка для студентов
технических университетов и вузов [Текст] : учеб. / И. В. Орловская,
Л. С. Самсонова, А. И. Скубриева. – М., 1999. – 310 с.
8. Auto & Truck International [Text]. – London PH, 1999. – № 1-6.
9. Journal of Forestry [Text]. – Washington DC, 2001. – № 1-12.
10. Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use [Text] : a practice book for
intermediate students / R. Murphy. – M. : Open Doors, 1999. – 328 ps.
116
Учебное издание
Юлия Юрьевна Киселева
Ирина Вячеславовна Милованова
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
TECHNOLOGICAL MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT
ТЕХНОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ МАШИНЫ И ОБОРУДОВАНИЕ
Учебное пособие
Редактор Е.А. Богданова
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ФГБОУ ВО «Воронежский государственный лесотехнический университет
имени Г.Ф. Морозова»
РИО ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». 394087, г. Воронеж, ул. Тимирязева, 8
Отпечатано в УОП ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ»
394087, г. Воронеж, ул. Докучаева, 10
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