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Английский язык. Транспорт технологические машины и оборудование Ч.1

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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Т.В. Коновалова Т.Н. Таранцева Л.В. Зайцева
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Транспорт, технологические машины и оборудование
Учебное пособие
Часть 1
Воронеж 2009
2
ББК 81.432.1
К64
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета ГОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА»
(протокол № 10 от 18 июня 2008 г.)
Рецензенты: кафедра иностранных языков ВГИФК МГАФК,
заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков ВГИФК МГАФК
д-р пед. наук, доц. Т.В. Чепрасова
Коновалова, Т. В.
К64 Английский язык. Транспорт, технологические машины и оборудование
[Текст] : учеб. пособие. В 2 ч. Ч. 1 / Т. В. Коновалова, Т. Н. Таранцева,
Л. В. Зайцева ; Фед. агентство по образованию, ГОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». –
Воронеж, 2009. – 75 с.
ISBN 978-5-7994-0385-0 (в обл.)
Учебное пособие способствует качественному, эффективному, рациональному
обучению чтению и профессионально-ориентированной речи на учебных занятиях по курсу
«Английский язык».
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 курса лесомеханического факультета
специальностей 190601 – Автомобили и автомобильное хозяйство, 150405 – Машины и
оборудование лесного комплекса. Рекомендовано для студентов специальности 190603 –
Сервис транспортных и технологических машин и оборудования (автомобильный
транспорт).
ББК 81.432.1
ISBN 978-5-7994-0385-0
© Т.В. Коновалова, Т.Н. Таранцева,
Л.В. Зайцева, 2009
© ГОУ ВПО «Воронежская государственная
лесотехническая академия», 2009
3
Оглавление
Методический комментарий по переводу технической литературы
с английского языка на русский.................................................................................4
Text № 1 Technical design of the motorcar (part I)....................................................10
Text № 2 Technical design of the motorcar (part II)...................................................14
Text № 3 Technical design of the motorcar (part III).................................................19
Text № 4 The working method of a four-stroke cycle carburetor engine (part I).......24
Text № 5 The working method of a four-stroke cycle carburetor engine (part II)......29
Text № 6 The working method of a four-stroke cycle carburetor engine (part III)....33
Text № 7 The working method of a four-stroke cycle carburetor engine (part IV)....38
Text № 8 The working method of a four-stroke cycle carburetor engine (part V).....42
Text № 9 Steering system............................................................................................47
Text № 10 Suspension system.....................................................................................53
Text № 11 Axles..........................................................................................................60
Text № 12 Brakes........................................................................................................67
Библиографический список......................................................................................74
4
Методический комментарий по переводу технической литературы с
английского языка на русский
Данное учебное пособие предназначается для студентов 2 курса
лесомеханического факультета специальностей 190601 – Автомобили и
автомобильное хозяйство, 150405 – Машины и оборудование лесного
комплекса, а также рекомендовано для студентов специальности 190603 –
Сервис
транспортных
и
технологических
машин
и
оборудования
(автомобильный транспорт). Основные цели пособия:
1.
Способствовать выработке умения и навыков перевода с
английского языка на русский оригинальной литературы по
специальности при помощи словаря.
2.
Способствовать развитию навыков самостоятельной работы
над английской и американской литературой по специальности.
3.
Дать возможность студентам закрепить полученные ими в
школе
знания
по
английскому
языку
на
текстах
по
специальности.
Тексты в пособии базируются на приобретенных студентами в средней
школе и на первом курсе вуза знаниях английской грамматики и лексики.
В работе над переводом технического текста необходимо пользоваться
словарями, рекомендованными кафедрой иностранных языков. Следует также
иметь в виду пояснения к некоторым текстам – они даны в помощь студентам
при переводе наиболее трудных слов, терминов, а также выражений, которые
обычно вызывают затруднения при переводе их на русский язык. Например:
1.the conducting medium – отводящее средство
2. compression ratio – степень сжатия
3.As the piston moves upward - В то время как поршень идет вверх.
4. Connecting rods from opposite cylinders are attached to the same crankpin,
two rods being attached to each pin. – Шатуны противоположных цилиндров
5
прикреплены к одной и той же шейке коленчатого вала, причем два шатуна
прикреплены к каждой шейке.
5.To reduce damage from this cause – Чтобы уменьшить вызванные этим
повреждения.
6. …the filter to remove foreign particles – фильтр, который удаляет
инородные частицы масла.
7. are bathed – омываются.
8. This would cause, at the least… - это вызвало бы по меньшей мере…
9.Lettering-rod jet – калибровочный жиклер.
10. to be off – выйти из гнезда, отойти. Предлог off придает оттенок
движения в сторону смещения.
Студентам следует хорошо помнить, что правильный перевод с
английского языка на русский должен удовлетворять следующим требованиям:
1.Текст оригинала должен быть передан правильно и точно, без каких
либо добавлений от себя.
2. Свою мысль следует излагать ясно и в сжатой форме, присущей стилю
технической литературы.
3.Перевод должен быть литературным с точки зрения русского языка. Не
следует забывать, что то, на чем концентрируется внимание, в русском языке
стоит на последнем месте в предложении, а в английском предложении – на
первом.
Работая над переводом технического текста с английского на русский,
очень важно обращать внимание на часто встречающиеся грамматические
явления, которые представляют определенные трудности при их переводе на
русский
язык.
Необходимо
усвоить
следующие
грамматики:
1.Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice).
2. Причастие I и II (The Participle I and II).
3. Герундий (The Gerund).
разделы
английской
6
4. Отглагольное существительное (The Verbal Noun).
5. Инфинитив (The Infinitive).
6. Сослагательное наклонение (The Subjunctive Mood).
7. Многофункциональные глаголы: be, do, have, should, would.
Здесь уместно подчеркнуть, что правильность перевода зависит не только
от знания грамматической системы языка, но также (а это не менее важно) и от
умения правильно анализировать английское предложение: определять члены
предложения и части речи, которые определяются местом в предложении.
Существует шесть основных видов перевода слов, а именно:
1. Перевод с помощью использования русских эквивалентов.
2. Перевод с помощью аналогов (слов синонимического ряда). В данном
случае
одному
английскому
слову
соответствует
несколько
русских
эквивалентов.
3. Калькирование. Это дословный перевод (motor convector = двигатель,
преобразователь). Когда он невозможен, следует выбрать одно из возможных
лексических соответствий. Например: steel shapes («стальные формы») следует
перевести – («стальной прокат»).
4. Описательный перевод. Его следует применять в тех случаях, когда
для перевода английских слов нет лексических соответствий в русском языке.
5. Транслитерация, т.е. передача буквами русского алфавита букв
английского письма, независимо от произношения английского слова (laserлазер).
6. Транскрибирование – это передача произношения английского слова
русскими буквами (fan- фэн).
Процесс перевода технического текста на русский язык – сложный
творческий процесс. Различные пособия предлагают различные методы
перевода и вспомогательные средства. Однако никто не может претендовать на
однозначность рекомендаций.
7
Мы рекомендуем следующую последовательность работы над переводом
английского текста на русский язык.
1. Попытайтесь перевести заголовок.
2. Прочитайте абзац или весь отрывок текста без словаря и постарайтесь
охватить общий смысл.
3. Приступайте к письменному переводу первого предложения. Если
трудно сразу перевести предложение, то необходимо сделать
следующее: 1). Определить простое это или сложное предложение.
2). Сложноподчиненное предложение необходимо разбить на главное и
придаточное (придаточные) и сразу же найти сказуемые в этих
предложениях. Сложносочиненное предложение разбить на простые
предложения и найти в них сказуемые. 3). По личной форме глагола
определите в каждом предложении группы подлежащего, сказуемого,
дополнения и обстоятельства.
4. Отыщите в словаре все незнакомые вам слова первого предложения,
предварительно уяснив, какой частью речи они являются в данном
предложении. Сразу не берите первое значение слова в словаре, а посмотрите
все значения, которые даны для данной части речи, и выберите наиболее
подходящее по содержанию переводимого текста.
5. Прочтите переведенное предложение вслух, прислушайтесь, как оно
звучит по-русски. Если нужно, измените порядок слов, замените отдельные
слова.
6. Затем таким же образом переведите второе предложение, третье и т. д.
7. Вернитесь к заголовку и проверьте, соответствует ли ваш перевод
данного заголовка содержанию всего текста.
Примечание: Незнакомые слова выписывайте в свой словарь в начальной
форме (существительное – в именительном падеже ед. числа, глагол – в
инфинитиве, прилагательное – в положительной степени). Неправильные
глаголы выписывайте в трех формах.
8
При превращении английских мер в метрическую систему мер и весов
следует помнить, что:
1in. (inch) – 1 дюйм= 25,4 мм.
1 ft. (foot) – 1фут = 305 мм.
1lb. (libra) – 1фунт = 0,453 кг.
Иногда одно и то же понятие в Англии и в Америке обозначается поразному. Например:
Бензин
в Англии – petrol.
в Америке – gasoline, gas.
Грузовик
в Англии – lorry.
вАмерике – truck.
В английской и американской технической литературе очень часто
встречаются различные формы страдательного залога. Здесь также
наблюдаются различия. Например :
Сейчас строятся
в Англии – are being built
в Америке – are building
Приступая к переводу любой текст необходимо помнить и о так
называемых «ложных друзьях переводчика», т.е. о словах, сходных по
форме с русскими словами, но отличающихся по значению. Например:
1. Accurate – точный (а не аккуратный).
2. Ammonia – аммиак (а не аммоний).
3. Ammunition –боеприпасы (а не амуниция).
4. Artist – художник (а не артист).
5. Cartoon – карикатура (а не картон).
6. Clay – глина (а не клей).
7. Compositor – наборщик (а не композитор).
9
8. Data – данные (а не дата).
9. Decade – десятилетие (а не декада).
10. Fabric – фабрикант, ткань (а не фабрика).
11. Family – семья (а не фамилия).
12. Genial – добрый (а не гениальный).
13. Honorary – почетный (а не гонорар).
14. Intelligence – ум; разведка (а не интеллигенция).
15. List – список (а не лист).
16. Magazine – журнал (а не магазин).
17. Mark – метка, пятно (а не марка).
18. Matrass – колба (а не матрац).
19. Mayor – мэр города (а не майор).
20. Momentum – инерция, толчок (а не момент).
21. Null – недействительный, не существующий (а не нуль).
22. Potassium – калий (а не поташ).
23. Prospect – перспектива (а не проспект).
24. Principal – главный, основной (а не принципиальный).
25. Radio-set – радиоприемник (а не радиосеть).
26. Replica – точная копия (а не реплика).
10
TEXT № 1
TECHNICAL DESIGN OF THE MOTORCAR
Part I
There are numerous types of motorcars. It is impossible to describe their
particular construction in detail. But the classification into groups with respect to
their general construction may be undertaken. These are motorcars with carburetor
engines and motorcars with diesel engines.
Every motorcar has the following components: engine, power train, chassis and
body.
ENGINE
The engine is the power plant of the vehicle. In general, internal-combustion
engines are used operating with some fuel (petrol, benzol, diesel oil). Depending on
their combustion process, the engines are fundamentally classified as
11
carburetor engines and
diesel engines.
Sometimes, the carburetor engines are called light-oil engines and the
dieselengines are called heavy-oil engines.
Another difference results from the working method of the internal-combustion
engine. A difference is made between
four-stroke cycle engines and
two-stroke cycle engines.
The engine is assembled of various cast pieces: its foundation and main
stationary body is formed by the cylinder block with the top portion of the crankcase
to which the cylinder heads and the bottom portion of the crankcase are bolted. The
crankcase with its main bearings houses the crank-drive assembly, comprising the
pistons, the wrist-pins, the connecting rods and the crankshaft. Besides, the valves,
valve-operating mechanism with camshaft, control gears and valve tappets, ignition
system, carburetor, water pump, fan, fuel feed pump and oil pump are parts of the
engine.
Arrangement and number of cylinders in the engine are decisive for its external
shape. There are motorcar engines with two, three, four, six, eight, twelve and more
cylinders arranged in various forms to each other. In most cases they are arranged in
one block (cylinder block).
I. Pre-reading activities:
1. You are going to read about engines. What kinds of engines do you know?
2. Do you know what parts the engine consists of?
3. Numerize the parts of the engine and put them down (in Russian or in
English).
4. After reading the text compare your answers with the text. Were you
right?
12
II. While-reading activities:
1. Read the text and find the answers to the questions in pre-reading
activities.
2. Write out the special terms while reading the text.
3. Find out the verbs in present Simple Active.
4. Find out the verbs in Present Simple Passive.
5. Find out the sentences corresponding to the structures:
a) the X is the X
b) the X X the X
c) the X is Xed by the X
d) There is the X in the X
III. Post-reading activities:
1. Answer the questions:
1. Are there numerous types of motorcars?
2. What kinds of engines do the motorcars have?
3. What components does every motorcar have?
4. What is the engine?
5. What kind of fuel do internal-combustion engines operate with?
6. What are the carburetor engines sometimes called?
7. What are the diesel engines called?
8. What are the main parts of the engine?
9. What can you say about the arrangement of the cylinders in the engine?
10. How many cylinders are there in the motorcar engine?
13
VOCABULARY
1. Find out the verbs denominating the arrangement of the engine.
2. Make a list of words describing the main parts of the engine.
3. Underline verbs in the first 2 passages.
4. Write out the modal verb in the first passage.
5. Which words below can you make into adverbs by adding “ly”?
general
fundamental
various
respective
impossible
working
main
internal
following
particular
6. Complete the following sentences:
1. It is impossible to describe … .
2. These are motorcars with … .
3. In general, internal-combustion engines are … .
4. Depending on their combustion process … .
5. Another difference results from … .
6. A difference is made between … .
7. Remember the following phrases:
The title of the text is … .
The text gives a detailed account of … .
The text deals with … .
It should be noted/said/mentioned/summarized … .
Much attention is paid to … .
The text carries information about … .
8. Compose a short summary of the text using these phrases.
14
TEXT № 2
TECHNICAL DESIGN OF THE MOTORCAR
Part II
The chemical energy stored in the fuel is converted into mechanical energy by
the expansion of the gases and by the interaction of the various engine components.
The piston sliding in the cylinder under the impulse of the expanding gas exerts a
pressure and transmits it to the crankshaft via the connecting rod, converts the
reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotating motion of the crankshaft. The
pistons are equipped with piston rings for better sealing between pistons and cylinder
wall and in order to prevent any seizing of the pistons. The small end of the
connecting rod is rotatably connected to the piston by the piston pin. The big end of
the connecting rod is also relatable connected with the crankshaft. The fly wheel is
located on the rear end of the crankshaft. It is equipped with a toothed him for
meshing with the starter pinion. Piston with piston pin, connecting rod and crankshaft
with flywheel are called crank-drive assembly.
Inlet of the fuel-air mixture into the cylinder and outlet of the burned gases are
controlled by valves. The valves are actuated by the camshaft generally supported in
the crankcase. Valves, camshaft and camshaft drive are forming the control
mechanism of the engine.
15
The crankcase bottom is closed by the oil pan holding the oil required for lubrication.
The oil pan is connected to the crankcase.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. Do you know anything about the chemical energy?
2. What energy does it convert into?
3. Why is the chemical energy converted into mechanical energy?
II.
While-reading activity:
1. Read the text for the first time and find the verbs characterizing the work
of the piston.
2. Find out the words characterizing the arrangement of the piston.
3. Find the answers to the following questions:
1. By means of what is the chemical energy converted into mechanical energy?
2. How does the piston run (act, work) in the cylinder?
3. What are the pistons equipped with?
4. What are the pistons equipped with piston rings for?
5. What is the small end of the connecting rod rotatably connected to the piston
with (by)?
6. Where is the flywheel located?
7. What is the flywheel equipped with?
8. What is a crank-drive assembly called?
9. What controls the inlet and outlet of the fuel-air mixture?
10. What forms the control mechanism of the engine?
4. Read the text for the second time.
16
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Present Simple
Present Simple
Active
Passive
exerts
is converted
transmits
are equipped
converts
is connected
Participle I
Participle II
the connecting rod
stored
Pay attention to
the letter “s”
1. Find out the verbs in Present Simple Active.
2. Find out the verbs in Present Simple Passive
3. Find out Participle I in the function of attribute before the noun
determined.
4. Find out Gerund.
VOCABULARY
1. Find out in the text all the unknown special terms.
2. Make a list of words characterizing the arrangement of the connecting
rod.
3. Write out all the adjectives in the function of attribute.
4. Write out the nouns in the first passage.
5. Translate the terms given below into Russian and then read the sentences
where these terms are used.
the expansion
the liquid
the interaction
to vaporize
the piston
combustion chamber
the crankshaft
valves
17
the connecting rod
crankcase
sealing
the flywheel
the camshaft
the inlet
the oil pan
the outlet
the fuel-air mixture
III. Post-reading activity:
1. Complete the following sentences:
1. The small end of the connecting rod is … .
2. The piston sliding in the cylinder under … .
3. The pistons are equipped with … .
4. The flywheel is located … .
5. Inlet of the fuel-air mixture … .
6. The crankcase bottom is closed … .
2. Look at the following sentences. Which of them sound “right” and which
of them sound "wrong”? Correct those that fall into the second category
and compare them with the text.
1. The mechanical energy stored in the fuel is converted into the chemical energy.
2. The cylinder sliding in the piston exerts speed.
3. The pistons are equipped with engine components.
4. The flywheel is located on the rear end of the crankshaft.
5. Inlet of the fuel-air mixture into the cylinder is controlled by the piston-pins.
6. The oil pan is connected to the crankshaft.
3. Find out Russian equivalents to the following words and word phrases.
the piston
a crank
the fuel
a combustion chamber
18
the expansion
a valve
the impulse
a flywheel
connecting rod
a spark
rotatably
to ignite
4. Find out the English equivalents to the following words and word
expressions:
аккумулировать
зубчатое колесо
расширение газов
кривошипно-шатунный механизм
передавать (давление)
поршневой палец
вращательное движение
сцепление
заклинивание
стартерная шестерня
шатун
впуск
коленчатый вал
масло
маховик
топливно-воздушная смесь
5. Reproduce the sentences from these prompts:
1. The piston sliding in the … under … gas exerts … and … to the … via … .
2. … are equipped with … for better … between … in order … any … .
3. … is … on … end … of … .
4. … of the … into … and …of the … are … valves.
5. … camshaft and camshaft … forming … of the … .
6. The crankcase … is … by the … holding … lubrication.
7. The … enters the … and … .
6. Fill gaps with correct verb voice (Active or Passive).
1. The chemical energy … (to convert) into mechanical energy.
2. The piston sliding in the cylinder … (to exert) a pressure.
19
3. The small end of the connecting rod … (to connect) to the piston by the piston
pin.
4. The big end of the connecting rod … (to connect) with the crankshaft.
5. The fuel-air mixture … (to enter) the cylinder and combustion chamber.
7. Compose a short summary using the following phrases:
The heading of the text is … .
The bulk of the material is devoted to … .
The substance of the text is that … .
The text runs/comments on … .
In conclusion it should be mentioned … .
TEXT № 3
TECHNICAL DESIGN OF THE MOTORCAR
Part III
20
The liquid fuel is mixed with air and vaporized in the carburetor. This fuel-air
mixture enters the cylinder and the combustion chamber. Inside the combustion
chamber, the fuel-air mixture is ignited and burned by a spark jumping at the
electrodes of a spark plug.
The generator is located at and driven by the engine. When the engine is
running at sufficient speed, the generator supplies the ignition current and charges the
storage battery.
The starting motor is a small electric motor. When it is actuated, a driving
pinion is shifted and meshes with the toothed rim of the flywheel. Thus the crankdrive assembly begins cranking (working).
The highest position of the piston in the cylinder is called "top dead centre",
the lowest – "bottom dead centre". The path covered between these two positions is
called the "piston stroke", the place cleared in this travel is called "piston
displacement". The motion of the piston from dead centre to dead centre is called
"stroke". The "combustion space" is the space between the piston in top dead centre
and the cylinder head. In the combustion space, the fuel-air mixture is compressed by
the upward movement of the piston, and ignited by the electric spark.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. Answer the questions:
1. What do you know about generator?
2. What does generator supply and change?
3. Ask your friend if he knows something about the starting motor?
2. Guess the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
storage battery
electrodes
the generator
spark plug
the engine
the starting motor
21
the liquid fuel
toothed rim
to vaporize
top dead centre
the carburetor
bottom dead centre
combustion chamber
to mix, to compress
3. Repeat the following words and word combinations after the teacher:
Liquid fuel, to mix, to vaporize, combustion chamber, to ignite, to burn, spark,
spark plug, to supply, ignition current, storage battery, to actuate, driving
pinion, to mesh, top dead centre, bottom dead centre, piston stroke.
II.
While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
spark – искра
spark plug – запальная свеча цилиндра
storage battery – аккумулятор
to shift – смещаться, передвигаться
toothed rim – зубчатое колесо
to crank – работать
piston stroke – рабочий ход
“combustion space” – камера сгорания
1. Find in the text English equivalents to the words given below:
жидкое топливо
зубчатое колесо
испаряться
маховик
камера сгорания
верхняя мертвая точка
воспламеняться
нижняя мертвая точка
приводить в движение
движение
стартер
камера сгорания
ведущая шестерня
22
2. Make a list of words characterizing the generator.
3. Make a list of words characterizing the starting motor.
4. Find out a word or a word expression in the text or remember a similar
meaning to the following:
the fluid
enough
to come in
gear
a cell
a wheel
to situate
a way
to work
to pass
the velocity
movement
5. Find the answers to the questions given below:
1. What is the liquid fuel mixed with?
2. Where is the liquid fuel vaporized?
3. Where is the fuel-air mixture ignited?
4. What mechanism is located at the engine?
5. What is the function of the generator?
6. What is the starting motor?
7. What happens to a driving pinion?
8. What is the highest position of the piston called?
9. What is the lowest position of the piston called?
10. What is “the combustion space”?
11. Where is the fuel-air mixture compressed?
12. What is the fuel-air mixture compressed by?
13. What is it ignited by?
6. Cross the odd word out:
fuel, to vaporize, carburetor, fuel-air mixture, cylinder, combustion chamber,
to ignite, spark, to mix, skidding.
23
7. Put down all the terms given above if you meet them in the text
8. Give synonyms to the following words:
to enter
top
to locate
bottom
speed
the path
to actuate
to cover
a driving pinion
the motion
to crank
to ignite
9. Here are the answers to the questions. Write down the questions.
Answers:
Questions:
1. The liquid fuel is mixed with air.
2. The fuel-air mixture enters the cylinder.
3. The generator is located at the engine.
4. The highest position of the piston in the
cylinder is called “top dead centre”.
5. The lowest position of the piston in the
cylinder is called “bottom dead centre”.
6. The fuel-air mixture is compressed
by the upward movement of the piston.
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Comment on grammar patterns used in the text.
2. Write out Participle I.
3. Write out Participle II.
4. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the text.
5. Compose a short summary of the text using the following expressions:
24
The text informs/reports… .
The text dwells upon … .
The text runs/comments on … .
In conclusion it should be noted … .
TEXT № 4
THE WORKING METHOD OF A FOUR-STROKE CYCLE
CARBURETOR ENGINE
Part I
LET us analyze the working method of a four-stroke cycle carburetor engine, as
an example.
WITH All the carburetor engines, the fuel-air mixture is sucked into the cylinder
by the downward movement of the piston. The fuel-air mixture is broken up and
partially vaporized in the carburetor; then, it is ignited by an incorporated ignitionsupplying device, the spark plug.
In case of the four-stroke cycle engine, the path covered between top dead
centre and bottom dead centre and vice versa is a stroke. Each stroke is accompanied
25
by one-half of a crank-shaft evolution. The complete cycle requires the following
four strokes.
Suction stroke: the piston moving downward takes in fuel-air mixture through
the open intake valve, while the exhaust valve is closed. Immediately after the piston
has reached the bottom dead centre, the intake valve is closed. The first stroke has
been finished. The crankshaft has turned one-half of a revolution.
Compression stroke: with the valves closed the fuel-air mixture is compressed
by the upward stroke of the piston toward top dead centre. The crankshaft has
finished one full revolution.
Power stroke: before the piston has reached the upper dead centre, ignition is
performed. The compressed fuel-air mixture burns, the gases expand due to the heat
of combustion and force the piston go downward. The valves are still closed. The
crankshaft has turned one and one half of a revolution.
Exhaust stroke: after it has been finished, the-piston moves upward to the top
dead centre and pushes the burned gases out of the cylinder through the open exhaust
valve. As soon as the piston has reached the top dead center, the exhaust valve is
closed and the intake valve is opened. Now, the crankshaft has completed two
revolutions. The next cycle can begin.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
You are going to read about four strokes of the piston.
1. What would you like to know about the working method of a four-stroke
cycle engine?
2. Do you know how the fuel-air mixture is sucked into the cylinder?
3. Write down at least 5 questions, which you hope the text will answer.
(After reading the text discuss the answers to the questions).
26
4. Write down some special terms, which you hope to meet in the text. (After
reading compare your terms with the terms from the text. Were you
right?).
II.
While-reading activity:
1. Read and guess the meaning of the following words and phrases:
to analyze, the working method, cycle, fuel-air mixture, the path, top dead
centre, bottom dead centre, one-half, revolution, ignition, the gases, force.
2. Give synonyms to the next words:
to suck
top
intake valve
combustion
movement
bottom
exhaust valve
to push
to break up
to accompany
to finish
burned gases
the path
complete
to perform
3. Give opposites to the following words:
downward movement
open
partially
upper
top
closed
bottom
to finish
to take in
4. Correct the statements which are wrong (use “false” or “true”).
1. The fuel-air mixture is sucked into the cylinder by the upward movement of
the piston.
2. Each stroke is accompanied by one-half of a crankshaft revolution.
3. The piston moving upward takes in a fuel-air mixture through the closed intake
valve.
27
4. The exhaust valve is opened at this time.
5. During compression stroke the crankshaft has finished two full revolutions.
6. As soon as the piston has reached the top dead center, the exhaust valve is
closed and the intake valve is opened.
5. Choose the right Voice of the verb.
1. The fuel-air mixture (sucks, is sucked) into the cylinder by the downward
movement of the piston.
2. The fuel-air mixture (is broken, breaks).
3. The path covered between top dead center and bottom dead center (is called,
calls) the piston stroke.
4. The complete cycle (is required, requires) the following four strokes.
5. The piston (takes, is taken, are taken) in the fuel-air mixture.
6. The exhaust valve (is closed, closes, closed).
7. The first stroke (has been finished, finishes, finished).
8. The crankshaft (has finished, has been finished).
6. Find the answers to the following questions:
1. Where is the fuel-air mixture sucked into?
2. What happens to the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber?
3. What is a stroke?
4. What is each stroke accompanied by?
5. How many strokes does the complete cycle require?
6. Is the exhaust valve closed during the suction stroke?
7. What is the fuel-air mixture compressed by?
8. When is ignition performed?
9. Why do the gases expand?
10. What forces the piston to go downward?
11. When can the next cycle begin?
28
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Discuss the answers to the questions given in while-reading activity.
2. What do you remember about four strokes of the piston?
3. Write out the verbs in Present Simple Active.
4. Write out the verbs in Present Simple Passive.
5. Write out the verbs in Present Perfect Active.
6. Write out the verbs in Present Perfect Passive.
7. Find in the text the words and phrases with similar meaning:
downward motion
in the direction to
the way
takes place
the highest position of the piston
push
the lowest position
to revolve
inlet valve
spent gases
outlet valve
as soon as
full cycle
8. Correct the mistakes in the sentences given below.
1. The fuel-air mixture is sucks into the cylinder.
2. The fuel-air mixture broken up.
3. Each stroke is accompany by one-half of a crankshaft revolution.
4. The piston moves downward takes in the fuel-air mixture.
5. The first stroke been finishing.
6. The fuel-air mixture be compress by the upward stroke of the piston.
9. Give a short summary of the text using the following phrases:
The text deals with …
We learn from the text that …
In conclusion it should be noted that …
29
TEXT № 5
THE WORKING METHOD OF A FOUR-STROKE CYCLE
CARBURETOR ENGINE
Part II
The crankshaft converts the up-and-down (reciprocating) motion of the piston
to a rotary movement. The flywheel is located at the rear end of the crankshaft. The
purpose of the flywheel is to balance the impacts resulting from the permanent
reversal of piston direction by its rotating mass, thus giving the engine a smooth
running. In addition, it overcomes the dead centers of the pistons. The toothed rim for
meshing with the starter pinion is located on the flywheel.
The lower part of the connecting rod (the big end) is supported by the crankpin:
its small end is connected with the wrist pin. The wrist pin transmits the piston power
to the connecting rod. Modern design has a “floating” pin moving free in both the
piston and the connecting rod. The wrist pin ends are secured against lateral motion
either by soft metal buttons or by lock rings.
30
Cylinders and cylinder heads of the engine are made either of grey cast iron or
cast light metal. In general, the combustion chamber is located in the cylinder head to
permit an objectionable and continuous machining of combustion space and working
surface of the cylinder. In case of valve-in-head engines, the cylinder supports the
valves and the valve operating mechanism. In addition, the cylinder head comprises
the induction and exhaust ducts.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. What do you know about the flywheel?
2. Where is it located?
3. What is the purpose of the flywheel?
4. Is the purpose of the flywheel to convert the up-and-down motion of the
piston to a rotary movement or not?
5. Where is the toothed rim located?
II.
While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
reciprocating motion – возвратно-поступательное движение
toothed rim – зубчатое колесо
“floating” pin – «плавающий палец»
are secured – защищены
impact – толчок, удар
1. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following words. You have
already known them.
коленчатый вал
шатун
вращательное движение
поршневой палец
толчок, удар
серый литой (кованый) чугун (железо)
31
верхняя мертвая точка
камера сгорания
нижняя мертвая точка
рабочая поверхность
стартерная шестерня
клапанно-распределительный механизм
2. Write out the key words.
3. Make a list of words characterizing the work of the crankshaft.
4. Make a list of words characterizing the purpose of the flywheel.
5. Find out the sentence which says about the location of the toothed rim.
6. Find out the sentence dealing with the location of the flywheel.
7. Find out the sentence dealing with cylinders and cylinder heads.
8. Write out all the unknown words.
9. Group the terms given below dealing with the mechanisms given in a
chart.
CRANKSHAFT
FLYWHEEL
WRIST-PIN
TOOTHED RIM
To balance, the impacts, to convert, up and down motion, the piston, rotary
movement, to transmit, piston power, to mesh, starter pinion, a smooth running, to
overcome, permanent reversal, piston direction, connecting rod, lateral motion, lock
rings, flywheel
10. Find a word or expression in the text which has a similar meaning to the
following words:
to transform
to be situated
reciprocating motion
to fix
movement
piston pin
back
“swimming” pin
aim
to allow
to make soft
finishing
constant
to hold
change
to house
revolving mass
inlet
32
working
outlet
pinion
exhaust
gear
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Look through the text again. Match the attributes from the list below with
each of nouns chosen.
Attributes
reciprocating
end
rear
movement
permanent
pinion
rotating
mass
dead
rim
toothed
buttons
starter
part
piston
power
lower
pin
diesel
duct
small
heads
lock
iron
lateral
work
Nouns
metal
mechanism
cylinder
reversal
grey
centres
cast
motion
light
direction
continuous
design
working
power
operating
metal
induction
rings
exhaust
surface
soft
engine
modern
33
2. Cross the odd word out.
Flywheel, crankshaft, toothed rim, pistons, starter pinion, connecting rod,
camshaft, valves, body.
3. Give a name to each passage of the text.
4. Make a plan of the text.
5. Compose a summary of the text using the following phrases:
The bulk of the material is devoted to …
The text comments on … .
The text goes on to say that … .
Much attention is devoted to … .
The text deals with … .
TEXT № 6
THE WORKING METHOD OF A FOUR-STROKE CYCLE
CARBURETOR ENGINE
Part III
Since the working surface of the cylinders is a subject to wear in the course of
operation due to the side pressure of the pistons the cylinder block is enlarged. In
order to avoid the subsequent replacement of the cylinder block, liners are pressed
into the cylinders to be worked in the same way as the original cylinder.
34
Modern constructions are designed for cylinder liners from the beginning.
There are either dry cylinder liners surrounded by a grey-cast iron or light-metal
jacket, or wet liners, the centre of which is surrounded by the cooling water.
A copper-asbestos or iron-asbestos gasket is placed between the surfaceground cylinder block and cylinder head. The gasket is required to seal all the holes
such as an overflow opening for the cooling water, attachment bolts and the
compression spaces from each other.
If a defective gasket is used, the combustion gases will enter adjacent cylinders.
Instead of the fuel-air mixture produced in the carburetor, gases from the adjacent
cylinders are sucked in during the intake stroke and the mixture ratio becomes,
unfavorable. The service life of the engine becomes shorter.
In the gasket is leaky and the cooling water enters the cylinder space there may
be serious damages or total destruction of the engine.
Engine control comprises all the parts of an internal-combustion engine
controlling the cycle of the strokes. Depending on the type of the control members, a
difference is made between valve timing gear and port control (for the two-stroke
cycle system only).
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. Remember the terms:
working surface, pistons, liner, dry liners, wet liners, cooling water, gasket, to
seal, hole, overflow opening, combustion gases, mixture ratio, the service life,
leaky, valve timing gear, port control.
2. Write out the terms unknown to you.
3. What do you know about cylinder liners?
35
II.
While-reading activity:
1. Find out the attributes to the following nouns:
surface, pressure, cylinder, constructions, liners, iron, jacket, water, opening,
water, bolts, spaces, gases, mixture, stroke, ratio, engine.
2. Make a list of words unknown to you.
3. Write out the sentences according to the structures:
1. The X is the X
2. The X X the X
3. There is the X in the X
4. The X is Xed in the X.
4. Which construction is more frequent?
5. Write out all the verbs in the text in Present Simple Active.
6. Write out all the verbs in Present Simple Passive.
7. Find out the Infinitive in Passive Voice.
8. Find out the Modal Verb in the text. Define its form.
9. Find out the Participle II and write out them.
10. Find out the verb in Future Simple Active.
11. Make these sentences negative:
1. Modern constructions are designed for cylinder liners from the very
beginning.
2. The working surface of the cylinders is subject to wear.
3. The center of liners is surrounded by the cooling water.
4. A copper-asbestos gasket is placed between the surface-ground cylinder
block and cylinder head.
5. The gasket is required to seal all the holes in overflow opening,
attachment bolts, and compression spaces.
6. The mixture ratio becomes unfavorable.
7. There may be serious damages or total destruction of the engine.
36
8. Engine comprises all the parts of an internal-combustion engine.
9. A difference is made between valve timing gear and port control.
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Answer the questions:
1. What can be worn?
2. What can be enlarged?
3. What can be wet and dry?
4. Why is the working surface of the cylinder the subject to wear?
5. What are the liners pressed into the cylinders for?
6. What are cylinder liners are?
7. What are cylinder liners made of?
8. In what case will the combustion gases enter the adjacent cylinders?
9. What may happen if the gasket is leaky?
10. What parts of an internal-combustion engine does engine control comprise?
2. Reproduce the sentences from these prompts.
1. Since … surface … is … to wear in the course of operation due to the … of the
pistons, the cylinder … is enlarged.
2. There are either … cylinder … surrounded by a … iron, or wet … , the center
of which is … by the … water.
3. The gasket is … to seal all the holes such as … for the … water, … bolts and
the … spaces from … .
4. If a … gasket is … , … gases will … cylinders.
5. The … life of the … becomes … .
6. A difference is … between … timing … and … control.
37
3. Fill gaps with correct verb tense.
1. The cylinder block (to enlarge).
2. Liners (to press) into the cylinders.
3. Modern constructions (to design) for cylinder liners from the very beginning.
4. The combustion gases (to enter) the adjacent cylinders.
5. Gases from the adjacement cylinders (to suck in) during the intake stroke.
6. The mixture ratio (to become) unfavourable.
7. If the cooling water (to enter) the cylinder space, there (to be) serious damages
of the engine.
VOCABULARY
1. Cross the odd word out:
cylinder head, working surface, cylinder block, liners, cooling water, holes,
gasket, terrain.
2. Give synonyms to the next words:
defective, combustion gases, to suck in, intake, stroke, gear, overflow opening.
3. Make a plan of the text.
4. Compose a short summary of the text using the next phrases:
The text informs about …
From the text we learn that … .
It should be mentioned … .
The text runs about … .
In conclusion it should be summarized that … .
38
TEXT № 7
THE WORKING METHOD OF A FOUR-STROKE CYCLE
CARBURETOR ENGINE
Part IV
The valve timing gear of the four-stroke cycle engine operating with vertical
valves comprises the following components: camshaft, tappets, valves with springs,
spring plates and valve cones .
In case of the valve-in-head engine the following components are additionally
required: the valve push rods and the rocker arms with the rocker bearings. If the
camshaft is arranged above the valves, the tappets and the valve push rods are not
required.
The port control used for two-stroke cycle engines is based on the opening and
closing of ports in the cylinder wall by means of the top or bottom edge of the piston.
In contrast to the valve timing gear, this type of control is not requiring any parts
additionally to be moved.
Main component of the valve timing gear is the valve. It is a plate-like
blocking device equipped with a valve face, valve disk and a valve stem. Opening of
39
the valve is forcibly actuated by lifting its stem via the tappet by the cam of the
camshaft. The valve is closed by the valve spring.
The filling rate of the cylinders and the engine are subject to the design and
mode of operation of the valve mechanism. In order to achieve a leak proof seal of
the valve, the entire actuating mechanism of the valve timing gear must have a
clearance. For clearance adjustment, either the tappets or the rocker arms are
equipped with adjusting screws or eccentrics. The extent of the clearance is a subject
to the degree of heating and the length of the valve stem.
The valve mechanism, with vertical valve arrangement is the most simple,
because it is operating with a minimum of components. The camshaft is supported in
the crankcase actuates the valve tappet guide in a bushing arranged in the crankcase.
The tappet movement is transmitted to the valve stem. The valve stem moves in the
valve guide forced into the cylinder block with good fit and is held by the valve
spring.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. Repeat the words and word combinations after a speaker:
gear, valve timing gear, four-stroke cycle engine, camshaft, tappets, springs, plates,
cones, push rod, rocker arm, bearings, rocker bearings, edge, device, valve face,
actuated, forcibly, via, rate, clearance, seal, adjustment, screw.
2. Guess the meaning of the words and word combinations given below:
four-stroke cycle engine, vertical, components, cones, valve-in-head engine, push
rod, port control, opening, closing, bottom, top, blocking device, valve face, valve
disk, lifting, mode, valve mechanism, actuating mechanism, clearance, eccentrics.
II.
While-reading activity:
1. Underline all the verbs in the first passage.
2. Make a list of regular verbs and give their 3 forms.
40
3. Make a list of irregular verbs and give their 3 forms.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Participle I
requiring
Gerund
on opening, on closing
blocking device
4. Underline all the Participles I and Gerund.
5. Make a list of attributes before the noun determined.
6. Pay attention to the nouns in the function of attribute.
Example: the valve mechanism, intake stroke, power stroke.
7. Make sentences negative and interrogative.
1. The tappets and the valve push rods are not required.
2. Camshaft is arranged above the valves.
3. The port control is based on the opening and closing of ports.
4. The main component of the valve timing gear is the valve.
5. A blocking device is equipped with a valve face, a valve disk and a valve stem.
6. The valve is closed by the valve spring.
7. The actuating mechanism must have a clearance.
8. The valve mechanism is operating with a minimum of components.
9. The camshaft is supported in the crankcase.
VOCABULARY
1. Make a list of special terms you have already known.
2. Make a list of special terms unknown to you.
3. Give synonyms to the next words:
to operate, to comprise, components, to require, push rod, top, bottom, edge, device,
to equip, to lift, rate, design, entire, screw.
41
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Read the text for the second time and find the answers to the next questions:
1. What components does the valve timing gear compose of?
2. What components are required in case of the valve-in-head engine?
3. What is not required if the camshaft is arranged above the valves?
4. What is the port control used for two-stroke cycle engines based on?
5. What mechanism is the main component of the valve timing gear?
6. What does a blocking device look like?
7. What is a blocking device equipped with?
8. How does opening of the valve perform?
9. What is the valve closed by?
10. What are the tappets or the rocker arms equipped with?
2. Put general questions to the sentences.
1. The valve timing gear comprises the following components: camshaft, tappets, and
valves.
2. The tappets and the valve push rods are not required.
3. The port control is based on the opening and closing of ports in the cylinder wall.
4. Main component of the valve timing gear is the valve.
5. The valve is closed by the valve spring.
6. The actuating mechanism of the valve timing gear must have a clearance.
7. The valve mechanism is operating with a minimum of components.
3. Which words belong to the valve timing gear:
push rod, ports, camshaft, rate, cylinder, tappets, springs, crankcase, valve cone.
4. Write out the sentences with adverbs.
5. Make a plan of the text.
6. Write out all the key words.
7. Compose a short summary of the text using the following phrases:
42
The text gives a detailed account of … .
The text deals with … .
Much attention is paid to … .
The text carries the information about … .
In conclusion it should be noted that … .
TEXT № 8
THE WORKING METHOD OF A FOUR-STROKE CYCLE
CARBURETOR ENGINE
Part V
The valve control with vertical valve arrangement is simple in its design but it
has the disadvantage that the filling rate of the engine is reduced due to the change in
the direction of gas flow.
This disadvantage is avoided with inverted valve arrangement and the filling
rate is considerably improved. However, this way of valve arrangement requires a
great number of components, and two types are to be distinguished: inverted valves
with the camshaft in the crankcase and with overhead camshaft. While the leaves
with push-rod control are arranged in line side by side in longitudinal direction of the
43
cylinder head the valves operating with overhead camshaft are generally arranged in
inclined position.
The camshaft is driven either by gears, a chain or a vertical shaft: latter
transmits the drive from the crankshaft by means of bevel gears or helical gears.
The valve spring is the only component limiting the increase of speed above
8,000 r.p.m. In case of higher speeds it comes to natural vibrations; the valve is not
closed in the proper way and there is a chance of spring facture in this speed range.
The camshaft indicates already that it is a shaft carrying a number of cams. The
cams provide a lifting or closing movement to the valve depending on the shape of
the cam. One cam is provided for each valve and its position corresponds to the
timing of the intake and exhaust valve respectively.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. Think about the words you will meet in the text. Make a list of these words in
Russian or in English.
2. Answer the questions and try to guess the answer. When reading the text
check if you were right.
1. Is the camshaft driven by gears?
2. What does a vertical shaft transmit the drive from?
3. What mechanism limits the increase of speed?
4. What do the cams provide?
3. Repeat the words and word combinations after a speaker:
valve control, valve arrangement, rate, filling rate, to reduce, to avoid, inverted valve
arrangement, to be distinguished, overhead, longitudinal, inclined, chain, bevel gears,
helical, fracture.
44
II.
While-reading activity:
1. Find in the text Russian equivalents to the words given below. Make a list of
them.
the valve
gear
vertical valve
chain
filling rate
drive
gas flow
spring
camshaft
speed
crankcase
vibration
push rod
intake valve
cylinder head
exhaust valve
cam
2. Find in the text English equivalents to the words given below. Make a list of
them.
клапан
головка цилиндра
вертикальное положение клапана
наклонное положение
скорость накопления
шестерни
двигатель
цепь
поток газа
вал
компонент (деталь)
коленчатый вал
распределительный вал
передача
картер двигателя
пружина
кулачок
скорость
впускной клапан
выпускной клапан
3. Find attributes to the following special terms:
control
gears
valve
spring
rate
vibration
45
camshaft
range
direction
movement
position
shaft
4. Match the attributes from the list below associated with each of nouns chosen.
Pay attention to the nouns in the function of attribute.
Attributes
Nouns
vertical
rate
cylinder
flow
overhead
control
inverted
direction
filling
valve arrangement
longitudinal
gears
closing
camshaft
gas
vibration
push rod
valves
intake
position
bevel
fracture
exhaust
movement
natural
head
inclined
shaft
spring
5. Differentiate adjectives, Participle I, Participle II and Nouns in the function of
Attribute in the exercise given above.
6. Find a word or expression in the text which has a similar meaning to the
following:
location (position)
transmission
ordinary
with help of
construction
possibility
46
speed
damage
decreased
to show
greatly
to make possible
details (pieces, parts)
from
working
inlet
in general (mainly)
outlet
track
7. Read and translate the first paragraph.
8. Cross the odd word out:
valve, valve spring, gas flow, camshaft, truck, crankshaft, cylinder head.
9. Put down all the special terms you meet in the text.
10. Here are the answers to the questions. Write down the questions.
Answers
Questions
1. Yes, it is. The valve control with vertical
valve arrangement is simple in its design.
2. The disadvantage is that the filling rate
is reduced due to the change in the direction
of gas flow.
3. This way of valve arrangement does.
4. By gears.
5. Vertical shaft does.
6. The cams provide a lifting or closing
movement to the valve.
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Comment on grammar patterns used in the text.
2. Find in the text Participle I, Participle II, Passive Voice forms.
3. Make a plan of the text.
47
4. Compose a short summary of the text.
TEXT № 9
STEERING SYSTEM
The steering system of a motor vehicle is composed of the following
components: steering wheel, steering column and steering gear case, the steering
control arms at the steering knuckles, the drag rod, and the tie rod.
The mechanism for transmitting the rotary motion of the steering wheel to the
steering-gear arm is arranged in the steering-gear case. It is bolted to the frame; in
case of a frameless construction, it is attached to a member of the body.
Many motor vehicles, especially passenger cars, are now equipped with the
rack-and-pinion steering. It consists of a straight-guided rack arranged at right angles
to the driving direction, and a spur-gear pinion, attached to the end of the steering
column, engaged with the rack.
This type of steering requires a minimum of joints; as a result, it has a long
service life and minimum steering slack. It is especially used in case of axle less
48
front-wheel suspension. A friction shock absorber is arranged behind the spur-gear
pinion to prevent road shocks from being transmitted to the steering wheel.
The operation of the steering system should not require great effort. The force
to be applied to the steering wheel depends on the load of the front wheels. In some
special cases it is required to assist the driver's effort by means of a pneumatic or
hydraulic servo-steering unit. Generally, this unit consists of a compressed-air
cylinder; by means of the piston rod, its piston acts directly on the steering control
arm of the front axle, while turning if the steering wheel guides the front wheels and
additionally actuates the control valves of the compressed-air cylinder. Thus, rather
effortless steering is achieved.
Furthermore, adherence to the specified tyre pressure is important for a good
steering. Besides, troubles in the steering system may be explained by wrong position
of the front wheels.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
Speech work
1. Pronounce after the speaker the following words:
vehicle – Is the letter “h” pronounced?
wheel
Is the letter “w” pronounced?
wrong
knuckles – Do you hear “k”?
adherence – Do you hear “h”?
friction
suspension
How do endings “tion”, “sion”, “cial” sound?
special
column – Do you hear “n”?
pneumatic – Do you hear “p”?
49
unit – How is “u” is pronounced?
cylinder – What about “y”?
to guide – Do you hear “u”?
to achieve – How are letters “ch” pronounced?
Please, pay attention to the pronunciation of these words.
2. Work in pairs. Ask your friends questions. The unknown words are to be
explained by the teacher. Use the following prompts:
1. … the steering system … of the … ? (is, steering wheel, steering column, etc.)
2. Where is the mechanism for … motion of the steering wheel to the …
arranged? (transmitting, the rotary, the steering-gear arm)
3. It … bolted to … , … it? (is, the frame, isn’t it)
4. What … many motor … equipped … ? (are, vehicles, with)
5. Does this type … steering … a minimum of … ? (require, joints, of)
3. Make a list of words in Russian or in English dealing with the steering system.
4. What do you know about the steering system of the motor vehicle?
5. Give your ideas how the steering wheel works.
II.
While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
the steering knuckle – поворотный кулак, поворотная цапфа
rack-and-pinion steering – рулевой механизм
further more – более того, кроме того
drag rod – продольная рулевая тяга; тяга, приводимая в движение от рулевой
сошки
steering-gear case – картер рулевого механизма
steering-gear arm – рулевая сошка; рычаг управления
piston rod – шток плунжера
50
VOCABULARY
1. Read the text for the first time. Find the words, which are the components of
the steering system of a motor vehicle (the 1st passage).
2. Find the words from the 2nd passage telling you about the arrangement of the
mechanism transmitting the rotary motion to the steering-gear arm.
3. Translate the 1st, 2nd passages.
4. Read the text for the second time.
5. Write out all the key words.
6. Give English equivalents to the following words and word combinations:
система управления, руль, рулевая колонка, картер рулевого механизма,
продольная рулевая тяга, безрамная конструкция, рулевой механизм, легковые
машины, рейка, долгий срок службы, амортизатор, толчки (удары) на дороге,
работа (действие), нагрузка, гидравлический (пневматический) блок.
7. Guess the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
vehicle
driving direction
motor vehicle
long service life
steering column
front wheel
components
suspension
mechanism
shock absorber
to transmit
operation
steering wheel
force
to bolt
load
frame
pneumatic
frameless construction
servo-steering unit
angle
compressed-air cylinder
to turn
51
8. The terms given below should be translated into English and grouped into
3 columns of the chart.
mechanisms
of
steering system
the mechanisms
of
rack- the
and-pinion steering
operation
of
the
steering system
Steering wheel, steering control arms, steering-gear case, rotary motion, rack-andpinion steering, rack, angles, driving direction, spur-gear pinion, steering column,
force, require, driver’s effort, pneumatic servo-steering unit, cylinder, piston rod, tyre
pressure, front wheels.
Note! The same words may be placed in columns twice or more.
9. Give synonyms to the following words. Find them in the text:
to consist
to need
to revolve
to be located (to be situated)
revolving
work (action)
movement
to help
to mount
with help of
to fix
to work (to crank, to run)
kind
problems
10. Give opposites to the following words and word expressions. Find them in
the text:
maximum
to counteract
short service life
right (position)
in front
back (wheels)
small
52
III. Post-reading activity:
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Infinitive in Passive Voice
E. g.: The force to be applied – сила, которая применяется
to be applied – infinitive in the function of attribute
Participle I – X-ing
E. g.: steering system
Gerund – X-ing
E. g.: … for placing
…of steering
…on parking
Position of adverbs
1. If you unsure, put the adverb at the end of the sentence.
2. always, often,
usually, sometimes,
these adverbs of frequency (adverbs of time)
usually come after “be” or after the first auxillary
never, already
E. g.: You must always lock your car.
3. very, too, so,
rather, really,
they come in front of the adjective or adverb;
adverbs take place between the noun and the verb.
quite, extremely
E. g.: This car really runs too quickly.
4. ever – in questions
E. g.: Have you ever driven the car?
1. Make a list of attributes to the following nouns:
wheel, column, system, unit, gear case, control arms, knuckles.
2. Write out the Gerunds. Translate the sentences where they are used.
3. Make a list of adverbs. Translate the sentences where they are used.
53
4. Give the name to each passage.
5. Compose a short summary using the constructions:
The X X the X.
The X is the X.
The X is Xed by the X.
There is the X in the X.
TEXT № 10
SUSPENSION SYSTEM
For dampening the road shocks otherwise transmitted to frame and body as
much as possible, springs have to be arranged between axles and frame. Spring
suspension of motor vehicles is performed in various ways.
The type of spring is most frequently used if the leaf spring designed either as a
"semi elliptic leaf spring" or one-quarter elliptic leaf spring. Leaf springs are
composed of a number of flat spring leaves arranged one upon another. Depending on
the load of the axles, springs of different strength for front and rear axle are used.
54
Since the length of the spring varies with the load, one of the spring eyes has to
be suspended in swinging condition by means of a shackle. The spring is attached to
the axle by U-bolts, and the centre bolt connecting the leaves secures the spring
assembly against shifting on the axle by its pin. Rebound clips are located at
intermediate positions in the length of the spring to prevent any shifting of the leaves.
Another type of leaf-spring suspension is the cantilever with the spring
incorporated upside down. Lighter vehicles are frequently equipped with the quarter
elliptic leaf spring with its thick end firmly connected to the frame,
Reduction of the "unsparing weight" - comprising wheels, rims, tires, axles,
steering and driving components attached to the axles - has led to the application of
the transverse leaf spring. Either arranged as a single spring or in pairs, the transverse
leaf spring takes the function of the front axle. The rear-axle suspension of floating
half-axles is likewise performed by a transverse leaf spring. In these cases, the
transmission of the driving and braking thrust and torque cannot be performed by the
spring but by special rods connecting axle and frame.
Spring bolts are supported in a bushing in the spring eye. Frequently,
intermediate rubber bushings (silent blocks) are used. They have long service life.
In case of the cantilever, the spring is placed on the rear axle. Generally, it
rests on a spring roller riding on the deflecting spring leaf.
For heavy Lorries (trucks), one spring alone cannot be expected to meet all the
requirements. A supplementary spring is arranged above the normal car spring.
A special type of rear-axle suspension is the torsion bar spring. It is fixed at
both ends. This type of suspension is very simple.
Pneumatic cushioning is used in modern automotive engineering replacing the
mechanical suspension by a compressed-air cushion.
55
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. Do you know what suspension system is used in cars for?
2. Where are springs arranged?
3. What types of springs do you know?
4. What do the springs depend on?
Try to answer these questions (in English or in Russian) and compare your ideas
with the text after reading.
II.
While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
Remember these words and word combinations!
otherwise – иначе, так или иначе
spring eye – ушко рессоры
swinging condition – качающееся состояние
shackle – серьга, сжимающая рессору
rebound clips – зажимы, скобы, имеющие обратное действие
cantilever – консоль; кронштейн; укосина; стрела
unsparing weight – нерезервный вес
likewise – подобно чему-то, также, тоже
silent block – резино-металлический шарнир, резино-металлическая втулка
rim – обод; реборда; бандаж (обода)
torsion bar spring – пружина, работающая на кручение
pneumatic cushioning – система пневматических подушек; брекер шины
56
VOCABULARY
1. Pronounce these words and word combinations after the speaker:
dampening
shifting
road shocks
cantilever
frame
rim
springs
tires
leaf springs
steering
axle
steering component
rear axle
transverse
front axle
floating half-axles
suspension
thrust
semi elliptic leaf spring
braking thrust
swinging
spring eye
shackle
rubber bushings
cushioning
2. Read the text and write out all the unknown words.
3. With the help of a dictionary find their meanings.
4. Translate the first three passages.
5. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following words:
демпфирование (заглушение)
колеблющееся состояние
удары
У-образные болты
рама
смещение
кузов
предохранять
рессора
кронштейн (консоль)
ось
жесткое
задняя ось
соединенный)
передняя ось
колеса
рессорная (пружинная) подвеска
шины
соединение
(или
жестко
57
листовая рессора
обод
ушко рессоры
поперечная листовая рессора
толчок при торможении
«плавающие» полуоси
крутящий момент
пружина, работающая на кручение
смазка
система пневматических подушек
тяжелый грузовик-тягач
6. Guess the meaning of the following words and read the sentences where these
words are used. Translate these sentences.
shock
U-bolts
road shock
centre
to transmit
spring assembly
frame
function
body
rear axle
spring
front
suspension
axle
motor vehicle
half-axles
semi elliptic leaf spring
transmission
one-quarter elliptic leaf spring
lubrication
spring eye
long service life
length
torsion
special type
end
compressed-air cushion
7. Rearrange the letters in the words:
oshkcs, rfmae, ydob, spirgns, fael, daol, lobts, pilcs, sionsuspen, iclesve, shingbu.
8. Give synonyms to the following words. Find these synonyms in the text.
to change
to rock
58
to prevent
to be situated
kind
in general (mainly)
lorry
to mount
rubber bushing
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Passive Voice
E. g.: is made
Participle I
E. g.: driving component
Participle II
E. g.: made, arranged
Gerund
E. g.: for driving(обращайте внимание на предлоги перед Xing)
Remember!
Глагол “to have” имеет 3 функции:
1. Функция смыслового глагола.
E. g.: Every car has wheels.
2. Функция заменителя модального глагола “must”. Обращайте внимание
на частицу to+infinitive
E. g.: The lorry has to stop.
Перевод: Грузовик должен остановиться.
3. Функция вспомогательного глагола для образования времен группы
Perfect.
E. g.: This car has been modern for many years.
59
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Give attributes to the following nouns:
shock, suspension, vehicle, spring, strength, axle, condition, position, components,
thrust, lorry, cushion.
Which of the attributes you found in the text: adjectives, nouns, Participle I?
2. Make a list of the verbs in Passive Voice.
3. Write out Gerund. Translate these sentences.
4. Answer the questions:
1. Where are springs situated?
2. Which type of springs is most frequently used?
3. What are leaf springs composed of?
4. Depending on what are springs of different strength used?
5. Why must one of the spring eyes be suspended in swinging condition?
6. What is the spring attached to the axle by?
7. What does the centre bolt secure the spring assembly against?
8. Where are rebound clips located?
9. What leaf spring in lighter vehicles equipped with?
10. What does the “unsparing weight” compose?
5. Give the main idea of the text using the following phrases:
The substance of the text is … .
Much attention is given to … .
The bulk of the material is devoted to … .
In conclusion it should be summarized that … .
60
TEXT № 11
AXLES
The axles of the motor vehicle are chiefly meant for supporting the wheels and
for holding the drive and steering systems. Depending on their location on the motor
vehicle, a difference is made between front and rear axles.
The rigid front axle of a motor vehicle is designed as a single member. Its ends
are formed by the axle beads and the king pins for the pivoted suspension of the front
wheels; between the axle ends are the spring seats.
For smaller motor vehicles tubular axles are frequently used; their beads are
suitably connected to the tube. Front axles are nearly always cranked to achieve the
location of the chassis as low as possible.
Modern automotive engineering developed axleless wheel suspension, floating
half-axles or independent wheel suspension. In these cases, the rigid single member
for front and rear wheel suspension is eliminated.
In case of the independent wheel suspension, the cross connection for the two
front wheels is frequently formed by the transverse front spring using only one
61
transverse spring, in combination with control arms for guiding the wheels, or the
wheel is supported by one transverse spring each at top and bottom.
Similar to the front axle, the rear axle, too, had been designed as a single
member-carrying axle. In case of rear-wheel drive, it serves to support this drive, i.e.
bevel-gear reduction, differential gear and axle shafts are attached to it. Accordingly,
the rear-axle bracket has the form of a housing. The single-member axle bracket is an
integral steel casting. The annular centre portion is meant to house the axle drive with
differential gear; its front end forms the flared tube of axle for supporting the pinion
and its rear end is closed by a cover. For passenger cars, the rear axle-box body is
considerably reduced in weight. It is formed by two sheet-metal drop stampings
welded together. This type of axles is called "banjo axles".
As in case of the front axles, the rear axles have to meet the same requirements
with respect to the reduction of the unstrung weight. Since the rear axle has to
support the entire drive mechanism (bevel gears, differential gear, drive shafts), its
weight is often rather high.
In case of front-wheel drive, the rear axle functions as a carrying axle; and it
can be constructed as a light tubular axle. However, it is also possible to support the
rear wheels in suspension arms at the frame omitting the axle. In this case, the
suspension arms are suspended either in the convectional manner or by torsion bar
springs transversely arranged.
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. What do you know about the axles?
2. What are they used for?
3. Make list of words you hope to meet in the text (in English or in Russian).
While reading the text pay attention to Glossary.
62
GLOSSARY
axle – axis - ось
are meant- from the verb to mean – означать, здесь- предназначены для…
axle beads – осевые борта шины
king pin – поворотный шкворень, шкворень поворотного кулака
to pivot – вращаться
transverse spring – поперечная рессора
bevel gear – коническая передача
rear-axle bracket – кронштейн (консоль) задней оси
flared tube – труба с раструбом
stamping – штампованное изделие
string – шлейф, шнур
to string – завязывать
suspension arms – рычаг подвески
torsion bar springs – пружины, работающие на кручение
II.
While-reading activity:
VOCABULARY
1. Read the text and guess the meaning of the following words and word
combinations:
axles
top
motor vehicle
bottom
to support
drive
wheels
differential gear
steering system
integral
location
steel
front axle
portion
rear axle
centre
63
end
body
suspension
weight
bead
drive mechanism
tube
front-wheel drive
chassis
rear-wheel drive
spring
function
to guide
light
2.Make a list of the unknown words.
3.Find in the text English equivalents to the words given below:
оси
шасси
сочетание (комбинирование)
приводной механизм
транспортное средство
безосевая подвеска колеса
управление колесами
высокий
главным образом, в основном
полуоси
верхняя часть
функция (функционировать,
расположение
работать, действовать)
нижняя часть
поперечная рессора
передняя ось
легкий
дифференциал
рама
задняя ось
вес
4.Make a list of words characterizing the design of the front axle.
5.Group the terms according to the headings of the chart and fill in the chart:
Purpose
Design
of Suspension
axles
Rear-wheel
Front-wheel
drive
drive
Example:
Single
Half-axles
Bevel-gear
Carrying
Wheels drive
member
floating
reduction
axle
64
6. Cross the odd words out:
wheel, suspension, transverse, spring, bevel-gear reduction, differential gear, logs,
integral, steel casting, flared tube, front wheel drive, forest, rear wheel drive.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Passive voice – is Xed
Example: is closed
Gerund – Xing
Example – for driving
on returning
Adverbs – Xly (X – прилагательное, adjective)
Example- greatly
Has to –заменитель модального глагола “must”
(перевод: должен что-то сделать)
7. Find the answers to the questions:
1. What serves for supporting the wheels?
2. What is the design of the rigid front axle?
3. What is used for smaller motor vehicles?
4. Did modern automotive engineering develop less wheel suspension?
5. What axle had been designed as a single member-carrying axle?
6. What does the rear-axle bracket look like?
7. Why is the weight of the rear axle often rather high?
8. What is the function of the rear axle?
9. How can the rear axle be constructed?
10. How is it possible to support the rear wheels?
11. In what way are the suspension arms suspended?
65
8. Correct the mistakes in the following sentences. Each sentence has a mistake.
Find it and correct.
Example: The axles of the motor vehicle are used for supporting the wheels and for
holding the drive and steering system.
1. The rigid front axle is done designed as a single member.
2. For smaller motor vehicles round axles are used.
3. The rear-axle bracket has the form of a circle.
4. The single member axle bracket is an integral copper casting.
5. In case of front-wheel drive has the function of carrying passengers.
6. The suspension arms are suspended in the conventional manner.
III. Post-reading activity:
1. Read the text once again.
2. Write out modal verbs.
3. Find the attributes to the following nouns:
system
suspension
drive
cars
axle
wheels
reduction
body
member
spring
gear
stampings
beads
arms
shaft
weight
pins
shaft mechanism
end
66
4. Which attributes work as adjectives, nouns? Are there Participles I and
Participles II in the function of an attribute?
5. Make a plan of the text.
6. Translate the first 3 passages.
7. Compose a short summary using the following constructions:
There is the X in the Y
The X is the X
The X is Xed by the X
The X X the X
Don’t forget about useful phrases:
The title of the text is…
The text gives a detailed account of …
The text deals with …
Much attention is paid to …
The text carries the information about…
Choose any phrase you like.
67
TEXT № 12
BRAKES
Every motor vehicle is to be equipped with two independent brakes. Each
brake must be able to stop the vehicle within the shortest distance. Above all, braking
of a vehicle depends on the friction between tyres and road surface. Brakes operate
efficiently when they are applied so that the wheels do not quite lock but continue to
turn without slipping on the road. The force of the slipping friction between tyres and
road is much smaller than the brake power. In addition, the wheel loses all of its roadholding ability and tends to skidding. In order to utilize the whole wheel load, i.e. the
total ground adhesion of a vehicle for its braking, all vehicles are now equipped with
all-wheel brakes.
Almost without any exception, motor vehicle brakes are "shoe-type brakes".
Depending on their actuation, a difference is made between foot brakes and hand
brakes. The foot brake is also called, service brake, while the hand brake is called
68
parking brake. However, the parking brake should not be considered as an interior
brake.
According to their mode of operation, the brakes are classified as mechanical
(rod-linkage and cable-operated) brakes, hydraulic brakes (oil brakes), air brakes.
Depending on their action on the front or rear wheels, the brakes are classified
as front-wheel brakes, rear-wheel brakes or transmission brakes respectively.
Besides, brakes are classified as external-contracting or internal-expanding
brakes.
Modern motor vehicles are almost exclusively equipped with internalexpanding brakes acting on all the wheels of the car.
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. What do you know about brakes?
2. What are the brakes for?
3. Is there a need in brakes?
4. What may happen if the brakes are broken down?
5. Pronounce the following words after the speaker:
vehicle, independent, brakes, exception, surface, efficiently, slipping, skidding,
exception, foot brake, parking brake, road linkage, hydraulic brakes, externalcontracting, internal- expanding.
6. What you hope the text will tell you?
7. Will the information be useful? Ask your friend.
69
II. While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
slipping – скольжение, буксование (не путайте со словом sleeping – спящий)
in addition – в дополнение к чему-то сказанному, кроме того above all –
устойчивое выражение – более того (вышеуказанного)
i.e. - то есть
ground adhesion - сцепление с дорогой
mode of operation – вид работы
road-linkage - сцепление с дорогой – синонимичное выражение – ground
adhesion
internal wheel brake -
колесный тормоз с колодками внутри тормозного
барабана
external contracting brake – тормоз с наружными зажимными колодками
shoe-type brakes – тормоза колодочного типа
1.Guess the meaning of the following words and word expressions:
motor vehicle
to operate
brake power
ground
brake
to lock
skidding
“shoe- type brakes”
distance
road
to utilize
foot brake
friction
force
load
hand brake
tyres
total
70
2. Make a list of the unknown words.
3. Look at the following phrases. Which of them sound “right” and which of
them sound “wrong”? (Correct those that fall into the second category and
compare them with the text).
every motor distance
independent brakes
brake of a steering wheel
friction between tyres and body
the expander of the sleeping
to utilize the whole wheel capacity
vehicles are equipped with one wheel brake
vehicle brakes are “shoe-type brakes”
the hand brake is called parking brake
intermediate brakes
internal-contracting brakes
external-expanding brakes
4. Give English equivalents to the following words and word-combinations:
транспортное средство
вращаться
способность «держать» дорогу
ручной тормоз
быть оборудованным
сила
(сцепление с дорогой)
механические тормоза
самое короткое расстояние
тормоз заднего колеса
тормоза на всех колесах
гидравлические тормоза
шина
тормоз с усилителем
тормоза колодного типа « башмаки»
тормоз переднего колеса
поверхность дороги
тормоз с пневматическим
ножной тормоз
приводом
блокировать, сцеплять
парковочный тормоз
71
5. Find in the text the synonyms to the following words. Pay attention to
synonyms used in the text.
motor car
skidding
rear
hydraulic brakes
to be mounted
total
power train
pneumatic brakes
to work
to fit
outer-constricting
oil
to use
brakes
inner widening
action
to go on
mechanical
6.Find in the text the words similar to the meaning of the following words and
phrases:
dependent, longest distance, inefficiently, stop to turn, force, fail to skidding, whole,
total, similarity (equality), rear, internal, front, outer, external, contracting brakes,
widening brakes.
7. Cross the odd words out (there are two of them in the text):
independent brakes, friction, tyres, camshaft, road surface, sleeping, ground adhesion,
foot brake, piston, hand brake.
8.Put down all the terms you meet in the text.
9.Make a list of words characterizing the brakes.
72
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Modal verbs
Example: can
1. Modal verbs are never about facts. They are about the speaker’s
opinion at the moment of speaking.
2. Could refers to past time.
Adjectives
They give more information about a noun.
Comparative
small
smaller
Superlative
the smallest
10. Find modal verbs in the text.
11. Find comparatives and superlatives in the text.
III. Post – reading activity:
1. Here are the answers to the questions. Write different types of questions
depending on the answers.
Answers
1. Every motor car is.
2. Each brake must be able to stop.
3. On the friction between tyres and road surface.
4. Its road-holding ability.
5. Yes, it is.
6. Service brake.
7. Mechanical, hydraulic and air brakes.
8. With internal – expanding brakes.
2. Comment on grammar patterns in the text.
3. Find in the text passive verb forms.
4. Write out Participles I.
Questions
73
5. Look through the text once again. Make a plan of the whole text.
6. Compose a short summary of the text using the following expressions:
The heading of the text is…
The text runs about …
Much attention is devoted to …
The text goes on to say that …
In conclusion it should be summarized…
74
Библиографический список
1. Агабекян, И. П. Английский для технических вузов [Текст] : учеб.
пособие / И. П. Агабекян. – Ростов н/Д : «Феникс», 2000. – 352 с.
2. Полякова, Т. Ю. Достижения науки и техники XX века [Текст] : учеб.
пособие по английскому языку для студентов технических вузов /
Т. Ю. Полякова. – М. : Высш. шк., 2004. – 287 с.
3. Шляхова, В. А. Английский язык для студентов автомобилестроительных
специальностей [Текст] : учеб. пособие / В. А. Шляхова. – М. : Высш. шк.,
2005. – 198 с.
4. Дубровская, Т. В. Автомобиль AUDI V8 [Текст] : учеб. пособие по
английскому языку / Т. В. Дубровская, Т. П. Седова ; Пензенская гос.
архитектур.-строит. акад. – Пенза, 2000. – 31 с.
5. Елисеева, В. В. Лексикология английского языка [Текст] : учеб. /
В. В. Елисеева. – СПб : СПбГУ, 2003.– 68 с.
6. Ионина, А. А. Английская грамматика : Теория и практика [Текст] : учеб. /
А. А. Ионина, А. С. Саакян. – 4-е изд., испр. – М. : Айрис-пресс, 2003. –
448 с.
7. Moжаев, Д. В. Англо-русский и русско-английский лесотехнический
словарь [Текст] / Д. В. Можаев, Б. Н. Новиков, Д. М. Рыбаков. – М. :
РУССО, 1998. – 864 с.
8. Гольд, Б. В. Англо-русский словарь по автомобильной технике и
автосервису [Текст] / Б. В. Гольд, Р. В. Кугель, С. А. Шершер. – Минск :
Новая звезда Лтд., 1999. – 704 с.
9. Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use [Текст] : a practice book for intermediate
students / R. Murphy. – M. : Open Doors, 1999. – 328 ps.
10. Голицынский, Ю. Б. Грамматика [Текст] : сб. упражнений /
Ю. Б. Голицынский. – СПб. : Каро, 1999. – 475 с.
75
Учебное издание
Татьяна Васильевна Коновалова
Татьяна Николаевна Таранцева
Людмила Вячеславовна Зайцева
Английский язык
Транспорт, технологические машины и оборудование
Учебное пособие
Часть I
Редактор Е.А. Попова
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