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Английский язык. Транспорт технологические машины и оборудование Ч.2

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Федеральное агентство по образованию
Государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Т.В. Коновалова Т.Н. Таранцева Л.В. Зайцева
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Транспорт, технологические машины и оборудование
Учебное пособие
Часть 2
Воронеж 2009
2
ББК 81.432.1
К64
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета ГОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА»
(протокол № 10 от 18 июня 2008 г.)
Рецензенты: кафедра иностранных языков ВГИФК МГАФК,
заведующий кафедрой иностранных языков ВГИФК МГАФК
д-р пед. наук, доц. Т.В. Чепрасова
Коновалова, Т. В.
К64 Английский язык. Транспорт, технологические машины и оборудование.
[Текст] : учеб. пособие. В 2 ч. Ч. 2 / Т. В. Коновалова, Т. Н. Таранцева,
Л. В. Зайцева ; Фед. агентство по образованию, ГОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». –
Воронеж, 2009. – 75 с.
ISBN 978-5-7994-0386-7 (в обл.)
Учебное пособие способствует качественному, эффективному, рациональному
обучению чтению и профессионально-ориентированной речи на учебных занятиях по курсу
«Английский язык».
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов лесомеханического факультета
специальностей 190601 – Автомобили и автомобильное хозяйство, 150405 – Машины и
оборудование лесного комплекса. Рекомендовано для студентов специальности 190603 –
Сервис транспортных и технологических машин и оборудования (автомобильный
транспорт).
ББК 81.432.1
ISBN 978-5-7994-0386-7
© Т.В. Коновалова, Т.Н. Таранцева,
Л.В. Зайцева, 2009
© ГОУ ВПО «Воронежская государственная
лесотехническая академия», 2009
3
Оглавление
Введение..................................................................................................................4
1. Text № 1 Wheels and tyres.................................................................................4
2. Text № 2 Fuel system and lubrication. Fuel system........................................10
3. Text № 3 Fuel system and lubrication. Lubrication.........................................15
4. Text № 4 Cooling system.................................................................................20
5. Text № 5 Springs..............................................................................................25
6. Text № 6 Body.................................................................................................30
7. Text № 7 Car body accessories........................................................................33
8. Text № 8 Types of engines..............................................................................36
9. Text № 9 Power train. Clutch...........................................................................39
10. Text № 10 Change-speed gear.........................................................................47
11. Text № 11 Universal shaft...............................................................................52
12. Text № 12 Differential gear.............................................................................57
13. Text № 13 Axle drive.......................................................................................63
14. Text № 14 Chases............................................................................................68
15. Библиографический список...........................................................................74
4
Введение
Данное учебное пособие предназначается для студентов 2 курса
лесомеханического факультета специальностей 190601 – Автомобили и
автомобильное хозяйство, 150405 – Машины и оборудование лесного
комплекса, а также рекомендовано для студентов специальности 190603 –
Сервис
транспортных
и
технологических
машин
и
оборудования
(автомобильный транспорт). Основные цели пособия:
1.
Способствовать выработке умения и навыков перевода с
английского языка на русский оригинальной литературы по
специальности при помощи словаря.
2.
Способствовать развитию навыков самостоятельной работы
над английской и американской литературой по специальности.
3.
Дать возможность студентам закрепить полученные ими в
школе
знания
по
английскому
языку
на
текстах
по
специальности.
Тексты в пособии базируются на приобретенных студентами в средней
школе и на первом курсе вуза знаниях английской грамматики и лексики.
TEXT № 1
WHEELS AND TYRES
5
The wheel is composed of wheel hub, wheel body and rim. A principal difference
is made between traveling wheel and driving wheels. While the traveling wheels are
not arranged on the axle shaft, the driving wheels are firmly attached to the axle shaft
by key-ways and keys. The detachable wheel body is bolted to the wheel hub or
attached by means of a special mounting hub.
The tyre assembly comprises the tyre and the tube with valve. Tubeless tyres are
frequently used. They are convenient for the motorist. Depending on the air pressure
in the tube, a difference is made between high-pressure tyres and low-pressure tyres.
The wear of the tyres is influenced by the driving speed and by overloading of the
vehicle. In case of a 25-per cent overload, the tyre service life is reduced to 65 per
cent.
The tread pattern has an essential influence on the driving properties and
readability. The tread patterns are designed to meet the particular requirements of the
vehicles. Highly worn tyres increase the hazards of skidding and, especially on wet
roads, lead to side-slipping and don’t provide reliable braking.
Good care of the tyres is decisive for their long service life.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. You are going to read the text about wheels and tyres.
2. What do you know about wheels?
3. What do you know about tyres?
4. Make a list of word you hope to find in the text (in English or in Russian).
5. Compare your predictions with the text after reading it.
6
II. While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
wheel hub – ступица колеса
rim – обод, реборда, бандаж (обода)
traveling wheels – ходовые колеса
driving wheels – ведущие колеса
key-ways – шпоночные колеса, шпоночный паз, гнездо под шпонку
key здесь -n. – шпонка, гека; v- сажать на шпонку, заклинивать
detachable wheelbody – съемочное колесо
tread pattern – рисунок протектора
VOCABULARY
1. Make a list of the unknown words.
2. Read the text and guess the meaning of the following words and word
combinations:
wheel, wheel body, difference, traveling wheel, driving wheel, axle, axle shaft, keys,
to bolt, tyre, motorist, air pressure, tube, high-pressure tyres, low-pressure tyres,
speed, to design, vehicle, increase, wet roads.
3. Answer the questions by choosing the correct noun.
1. What can be traveling? (hub, motor, engine, wheel)
2. What can be detachable? (body, speed, vehicle, wheel body)
3. What can be principal? (traveling, axle, difference)
4. Here are some words and phrases from the text. Can you guess how they are
used in the text? (Tell your ideas in Russian or in English).
The wheel
The detachable wheel body
The tyre
The wear of the tyres
25 percent overload
7
5. Find answers to the following questions:
1. What is the wheel composed of?
2. What part is the detachable wheel body bolted to?
3. What does the tyre comprise?
4. What is the difference between high-pressure tyres and low-pressure tyres?
5. What is the wear of the tyres influenced by?
6. What increases the hazards of skidding especially on wet roads?
6. Here are the answers to the questions. Write the questions (depending on the
answers, put general or special questions).
Answers
Questions
1. A principle difference is made
between travelling wheel and
driving wheel.
2. By keyways and keys.
3. The detachable wheel body is
4. The tyre and the tube with the valve.
5. The tyre service life is reduced to 65 percent.
6. The tread patterns are.
7. By the driving speed.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Pay attention to the Passive Voice.
Example: is made
Pay attention to the Participles I in the function of attribute.
Example: driving speed
Adverb
Example: constantly
8
7. Reproduce the sentences from these prompts.
1. The wheels is … of …, …, … .
2. The tyre … comprises …, …, and … .
3. The wear of tyres is … by the … and by … the vehicle.
4. Highly worn … are … to meet the particular requirements on the… .
5. Good … of the … is … for their service.
8. Fill in the gaps with correct verb tense.
1. The wheel … composed of wheel hub, wheel body, and rim (is, are, was,
were).
2. The tyre assembly … the tyre, the tube with valve and the shafting strips (to
comprise).
3. The wear of the tyres … by the driving speed and by overloading the vehicle
(to influence).
3. The tread pattern … an essential influence on the driving properties (have, has,
had, has been).
4. Worn tyres … the hazards of skidding on wet roads. (to increase).
5. Good care of the tyres … decisive for their service life (is, are, was).
9. Here are sentences about wheels and tyres. Are they true or false? Correct the
false sentences.
An example:
The wheel is composed of only wheel hub.
No, it is not. The wheel is composed of wheel hub, wheel body and rim.
1. There is a difference between traveling wheel and driving wheel.
2. The driving wheels are attached to the body.
3. The tyre assembly comprises wheel hub, wheel body and rim.
4. A difference is made between high-pressure tyres and low-pressure tyres.
5. The wear of the tyres is influenced by the steering wheel.
6. The tread pattern has an essential influence on the body.
7. Good care of the tyres is decisive for their service life.
9
III. Post-reading activity:
1. Read the text for the second time and group the words according to the
chart.
The wheel
The tyre
Example:
The tread
pattern
Hub
Tube
Driving
properties
2. Find in the text Participles in the function of attribute.
3. Find verbs in Present Simple Active.
4. Find verbs in Present Simple Passive.
5. Find adverbs in the text. Pay attention to the position of the adverb.
6. Find adjectives in the text.
7. Make a plan of the text. Name each passage.
8. Make a list of keywords.
9. Compose a short summary of the text according to the plan you have made.
Use the following useful phrases:
The heading of the text is…
The bulk of the material is devoted to…
The text runs/comments on…
The text goes on to say that…
In conclusion it should be said that…
10. Use in your summary the following constructions:
There is the X in the X
The X is Xed by the X
The X X the X
The X is the X
10
TEXT № 2
FUEL SYSTEM AND LUBRICATION
FUEL SYSTEM
The fuel system of a carburetor engine comprises the following components:
fuel tank, fuel filter, carburetor, fuel-supply lines, sometimes a fuel feed pump, shutoff cock and a fuel gauge.
The fuel tank in the motor vehicle is located either at the dashboard in the
engine compartment or in the rear end of the vehicle; in lorries (trucks), it is arranged
at the right or left frame side member or underneath the seats in the driver's cab.
Motor vehicles with the fuel tank located lower than the carburetor have to be
equipped with a fuel pump. Generally, it is a diaphragm-type pump driven by the
camshaft via an eccentric.
In case of "gravity feed fuel supply", a fuel shut-off cock is required. This cock
is not required for feed pump operation since the fuel supply is automatically
interrupted with the engine at standstill.
"Fuel filters" are vessels with a screen through which the fuel must pass to
collect any dirt. The bottom of the fuel filter vessel is formed by a sump to collect
11
any water likely to be found in the fuel, since water has a higher specific gravity than
fuel.
In systems operating with a pump, the top portion of the feed pump is designed
as a fuel filter.
In order to protect pistons and cylinders from excessive wear resulting from
dust and dirt drawn into engine, air filters are attached to the air intakes of the
carburetor. Two general types are in current use: the oil-saturated air filter and the oil
- bath air filter.
The oil-bath air filter is used for vehicles required to operate in extremely dusty
districts, in agriculture, etc. Its casing is equipped with a large metal inset and its
bottom portion is filled with a small quantity of motor oil. The larger dust and
particles are collected on the surface of the oil in the oil compartment. The remaining
dust particles are caught by the oil-saturated metal-gauze inset. Depending on the
particular operating conditions of the vehicle, frequent cleaning is required.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. Guess the meaning of the following terms:
the fuel system, carburetor engines, fuel tank, fuel filter, fuel feed pump, fuel gauge,
vehicle, compartment, frame, driver’s cab, to be equipped, diaphragm-type pump,
eccentric, fuel filters, pistons.
2. Read the title of the text and think what the text will tell you about.
3. Which components does the fuel system of a carburetor engine comprise?
Make a list of words in English or in Russian.
4. What do you know about fuel filters?
5. Read the text and compare it with your predictions.
12
II.
While-reading activity:
1. Give answers to the questions.
1. What components does the fuel system of a carburetor engine comprise?
2. Where is the fuel tank located?
3. Where is the fuel tank arranged in trucks?
4. Must motor vehicles have a fuel pump?
5. What is a fuel pump like?
6. What are fuel filters?
7. Does water have a lower specific gravity or a higher gravity in comparison with
the fuel?
8. Where are air filters located?
9. What kinds of vehicles is the oil-bath air filter used for?
2. Make sentences negative and interrogative.
1. The fuel system comprises fuel tank, fuel filter, fuel pump, fuel gauge.
2. The fuel tank is arranged at the right or left frame side member.
3. Motor vehicles are equipped with a fuel pump.
4. Fuel filters are vessels through which the fuel passes and collects dirt.
5. Air filters are attached to the air intakes of the carburetor.
6. The oil-bath air filter is used in vehicles operating in dusty districts.
7. The oil-bath filter is equipped with a large metal inset.
8. The casing of the oil-bath air filter is filled with motor oil (its bottom portion).
3. Think: what could be the answer to the following question? Choose the
correct one.
Where is the fuel tank located?
Versions: 1. The fuel tank is located at the rear end of the crankshaft.
2. The fuel tank is located under the seat in the driver’s cab.
3. The fuel tank is located at the flywheel.
4. The fuel tank is located in the piston.
5. The fuel tank is located in the combustion chamber.
13
VOCABULARY
Find in the text the English equivalents to the following special terms:
1. машина (транспортное средство)
10. распределительный вал
2. кабина водителя
11. топливный фильтр
3. топливная система
12. удельный вес
4. карбюраторный двигатель
13. поршень
5. топливный бак
14. впуск (приток) воздуха
6. топливный насос
15. цилиндр
7. топливный фильтр
16. фильтр с масляной ванной
8. кран для впуска топлива
17. моторное масло
9. указатель уровня топлива
18. отсек для масла
5. Find in the text the words similar to meanings of the following terms:
the house
action
pieces (parts, details)
lower part
motor car
higher portion
cock
litter (garbage)
compartment
inlet
back end
oil-moistured
lorry
clearing
to be mounted
6. Cross the odd word out:
fuel tank, fuel filter, fuel feed pump, fuel gauge, shut-off cock, power train.
7. Give the opposites to the following terms:
front, higher, run (work), lower, outlet, top portion, smaller, littering, pure
substances.
8. a) Match the following attributes and nouns.
Attributes
air
fuel
Nouns
vehicle
frame
14
carburetor
motor
left
specific
higher
excessive
general
current
bottom
metal
operating
conditions
supply
gravity
wear
types
portion
system
use
gauge
lines
filter
inset
Note: the term “fuel” may be used twice.
b) Select nouns that work as attributes.
c) Select Participle I that works as attribute.
d) Select adjectives that work as attributes.
9. Correct the order of the members of the sentences:
a) Is designed in systems with a pump operating as a fuel filter of the top feed pump
portion.
b) Located lower than motor vehicles the fuel tank with the carburetor to be have
equipped with a fuel pump.
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Group the words you find in the text according to the spheres they belong. Fill
in the chart.
fuel system
fuel tank
fuel filters
Example: fuel gauge
under the seats
vessels
2. Which words belong to the fuel system?
15
3. Which words belong to the location of the fuel tank?
4. Which words belong to fuel filters?
5. Compare your predictions in the pre-reading activity. Were you right?
6. Give a name to each passage of the text.
7. Make a plan of the text.
8. Compose a short summary of the text. Use the structures:
The X is the X.
The X X the X.
The X is Xed by the X.
There is the X in the X.
TEXT № 3
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
Since there are many moving parts within the engine, a system by which oil is
constantly supplied to these parts is necessary to prevent excessive wear. The
lubrication system may be of several types that splash or force (or both splash and
force) oil into all sliding or rolling metal surfaces. The full-pressure system consists
of oiling the crank and connecting rod bearings, piston pins, camshaft, etc. Holes are
drilled through crankshaft and connecting rods and a stream of oil is forced through
16
these holes by the oil pump. The oil is fed onto the bearing surfaces and is thrown out
in a spray that effectively covers the cylinder walls. In addition, the oil is forced
through drilled leads to the camshaft bearings and valve mechanisms. The oil drains
off the various engine parts into the oil pan in the bottom of the engine. The oil pump
continually forces the oil back through the oil passages and reticulates it through the
engine.
The oil forms a protective film or coating that clings to the surface of the metal
and prevents direct metal-to-metal contacts. The sliding parts are, in effect, floating
on films of oil. Modern lubrication systems on automotive engines provide adequate
oil to all moving parts.
In addition to providing lubrication, the oil also carries away from the moving
parts some of the heat that the engine creates in operation. The heat is transferred to
the oil pan and from there to the surrounding air.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
1. to prevent excessive wear – чтобы предотвратить излишний износ (инфинитив
цели).
2. splash lubrication – смазка разбрызгивателем.
3.
force-feed lubrication – смазка под давлением, принудительная система
смазки.
4. to drain off – стекать выпускать, сливать.
5. metal-to-metal contact – контакт металлических поверхностей.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. What do you know about lubrication system? Tell in Russian.
2. May it be of several types? Answer in Russian.
3. Make a list of words you hope to meet in the text. (in Russian or in English).
4. Compare your predictions after reading the text.
17
II. While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
To prevent excessive wear – предотвратить излишний износ
Splash lubrication – смазка разбрызгиванием
Force-feed lubrication – смазка под давлением, принудительная система
смазки
To drain off – стекать, выпускать
Metal-to-metal contact – контакт металлических поверхностей
VOCABULARY
1. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following special terms:
двигатель
кулачковый вал
масло
коленчатый вал
износ
масляной насос
система смазки
стенки цилиндра
скользящая поверхность
клапанно-распределительный механизм
вращающаяся поверхность
масляной поддон
давление
нижняя часть двигателя
подшипники
предохранительная пленка
шатун
тепло
поршневые пальцы
воздух
подвижные детали
2. Cross the odd word out:
lubrication system, oil, oil pump, oil drains, films of oil, adequate oil, lubrication, oil
pan, cooling system.
3. Which words are characteristic features of lubrication system. Choose them
from the following list of words.
cooling system
protective film
oil pan
the sliding parts
18
carburetor
system of oiling
chassis
splash
power train
force
oil pump
to drill
lubrication
timber
to supply oil
holes
oiling the crank
films of oil
truck
the cylinder walls
connecting rod
camshaft bearings
piston pins
fork
camshaft
maneuverability
body
area
tree
4. Put general questions to the following sentences:
1. The lubrication system may be of several types.
2. A stream of oil is forced through the holes by the oil pump.
3. The oil is fed onto the bearing surfaces.
4. The oil pump forces the oil back.
5. The oil forms a protective film on metal surfaces.
6. The sliding parts are floating on films of oil.
7. The oil carries away some of the heat from the moving parts.
8. The heat is transferred to the oil pan.
5. Make the sentences negative.
1. There are many moving parts within the engine.
2. Oil is constantly supplied to moving parts.
3. Oil is forced from the holes of the crankshaft and connecting rods.
4. The oil is forced through drilled holes to the camshaft bearings.
5. The oil drains off the various engine parts into the oil pan.
6. The oil pump forces the oil back.
19
7. Thy oil forms a protective film.
8. The sliding parts floating on films of oil.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Participle I in the function of attribute – driving gear
Participle I in the function of adverbial modifier – covering the surface
Gerund – on supplying
7. Pay attention to Grammar Focus and make a list of Participle I in the
function of attribute, adverbial modifier and Gerund in the function of object.
Fill in the chart.
Participle I in Participle I in the Participle II
the function of function
attribute
Gerund
of
adverbial modifier
Which of X-ing form do you meet more frequently?
8. Compose the sentences according to the structures given in the following
chart.
The X is the X The X X the X
There is the X in the X
Choose the most common structure.
9. Find the answers to the questions.
1. Are there many moving parts in the engine?
2. What are the holes drilled through the crankshaft for?
3. Where is the oil fed onto?
4. In what form is the oil thrown out?
5. What are the functions of the oil pump?
6. What forms a protective film?
7. What are the sliding parts doing?
8. What does the oil carry away?
9. Where is the heat transferred to?
The X is Xed by the X
20
10. Where does the heat go from the oil pan?
10. Make a list of adverbs you meet in the text.
11. Find in the text the sentence with modal verb.
III. Post-reading activity:
1. Look through the text again. Make a plan of the whole text.
2. Write out the key words.
3. Compose a short summary of the text using the following phrases:
The title of the text is … .
There are some parts in the text … .
The first one deals with … .
In the second part we find that … .
Besides we learn from the third part that … .
TEXT № 4
COOLING SYSTEM
21
The burning of the fuel-air-mixture in the engine cylinders produces a great
deal of heat. Temperatures of several thousand degrees Fahrenheit are generated in
the cylinder during each combustion process. Some of this heat is carried away from
the engine by the lubricating oil.
The cooling system provides a means of carrying the excessive heat away from
the engine and exhausting it into the air. Circulating water is used as the conducting
medium. The combustion chambers of the engine are surrounded with water jackets
through which water can flow.
A water pump pumps the water from the bottom of the radiator, through the
water jackets, and back to the radiator. The radiator has numerous small water
passages through which the water must flow. The water, being hotter than the
surrounding metal of the radiator, gives up part of its heat to the radiator. An engine
fan pulls a powerful blast of air through the many air passages in the radiator, and the
heat that is absorbed by the metal shell of the radiator is thus transmitted to the
passing air. After the water has been cooled by its passage through the radiator, it is
pumped back through the water jackets around the combustion chambers in the
engine, where it absorbs more heat. The water is kept in continual circulation, so that
it is constantly transferring heat from the engine to the air.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. Do you know how cooling system works?
2. Put down a list of words you hope to meet in the text (in Russian or in
English).
3. Guess the meaning of the following words:
fuel-air mixture, engine cylinders, temperature, heat, Fahrenheit, combustion process,
lubricating oil, the cooling system, water pump, radiator, metal, to transmit, air.
22
II.
While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
a great deal of – много, множество
The cooling system provides a means of carrying the excess heat away from the
engine – Система охлаждения обеспечивает отвод излишнего тепла в воздух.
the conducting medium – здесь: отводящее средство
a powerful blast of air – сильный поток воздуха
water jacket – водяная рубашка
degree – здесь: градус
Fahrenheit – шкала по Фаренгейту
1. Make a list of unknown words while reading the text.
2. Find the answers to the following questions:
1. What happens when the fuel-air mixture is burning in the engine cylinder?
2. What is the temperature in the cylinder?
3. What does lubricating oil carry away from the engine?
4. How is circulating water used?
5. What are the combustion chambers surrounded with?
6. Where does a water pump pull the water from?
7. What does the radiator have?
8. What pulls a powerful blast of air?
3. Make a list of verbs in Present Simple Active.
4. Make a list of verbs in Present Simple Passive.
5. Write out Participle I.
6. Write out Participle II.
7. Find in the first passage the sentence corresponding to the structures:
The X X the X
The X is Xed by the X
8. Write them out in your note-books.
9. Put all possible questions to these sentences.
23
10. Find in the 2nd and 3d passages the sentences with use of modal verbs.
11. Find the comparatives in the 3d passage.
VOCABULARY
12. Give synonyms to the next special terms given in the text:
the burning
to carry away
to produce
to pump
a great deal of
bottom
each
numerous
during
small
combustion process
to pull
the combustion chamber
passage
13. Give antonyms to the next special terms given in the text (if you need the
Russian – English dictionary will be of help to you):
the burning
to carry away
hotter
many
exhausting
to give up
much
to pump … from
powerful
a great deal of
numerous
to pull
small
shell
14. Remember the structure the X X the X and put down the sentences using the
verbs: produces, provides, pumps, has, gives up, pulls.
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Finish up the sentences and try to translate them into Russian:
1. Temperatures of several thousand degrees … .
2. Some of this heat … .
3. The cooling system provides … .
4. the combustion chambers of the … .
24
5. A water pump pumps the water from … .
6. The radiator has numerous … .
7. An engine fan pulls … .
2. Tick the sentences corresponding to model structures.
The X X the X
The X is Xed by the X
3. Make a list of words characterizing the work of the cooling system
4. What would be the questions to the next answers. Write down the questions.
Answers
1. A great deal of heat.
Questions
E.g.: What does the burning of the
2. During each combustion process.
fuel-air mixture in the engine
3. By the lubricating oil.
cylinders produce?
4. The cooling system does.
5. As the conducting medium.
6. With water jackets.
7. From the bottom of the radiator.
8. Numerous small water passages.
9. The water does.
10. A powerful blast of air.
5. Write out all the key words.
6. Make a plan of the text.
7. Give names to each passage of the text. Translate the 2d passage.
8. Compose a short summary using the following phrases:
The title of the text is … .
The text consists of … .
We learn about … .
The text dwells upon … .
The text gives a detailed account of … .
In conclusion I’d like to summarize that … .
25
TEXT № 5
SPRINGS
The wheels are suspended оn springs that support the weight of the vehicle.
The springs absorb road shock as the wheels encounter holes or bumps.
Springs may be of the coil type or of the leaf type. The coil type springs makes use of
a heavy steel coil that is assembled between the frame and wheel in such a way that
the spring supports the weight of the frame. This weight puts the spring under an
initial compression. The spring will further compress as the wheel passes over an
obstruction in the road, or it will expand if the wheel encounters a hole in the road.
The leaf spring has been made in a number of forms, including the elliptic, halfelliptic, three-quarter-elliptic, half- elliptic cantilever, an so on. All consists of a
series of flat steel plates (leaves) of graduated length assembled together. The spring
assembly acts as a flexible beam and is usually fastened as the two, to the car frame,
and at the center to the wheel axle. Some cars with leaf springs use only one spring at
the rear and another at the front, each spring supporting two wheels. On this design,
the center of the spring is attached to the frame with each end of the spring
supporting a wheel. The action is similar on all leaf springs. When the wheel
encounters a bump, the spring bends upward to absorb the blow. As the wheel drops
26
into a hole, the spring bends downward. Thus, in effect, the leaf spring performs the
same job as the coil spring.
Both types of springs are usually mechanically insulated from the frame by
means of rubber bushings and pads so that vibration is absorbed and is thus not
transmitted from the wheels to the frame and body.
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. Do you know anything about the purpose of the springs?
2. Make a list of words you hope to find in the text.
GLOSSARY
springs – рессоры
to suspend – подвешивать
beam – брус; коромысло
pump – удар, толчок
body – кузов
channel section – швеллерное сечение
cross members – поперечины
fastening lug – лапа для крепления
to make use – использовать
half-elliptic cantilever – полуэллиптическая консольная форма
Some cars with leaf springs … , each spring supporting two wheels. – зд.: В
некоторых автомобилях с листовыми рессорами применяется только одна
рессора сзади и другая спереди, причем каждая рессора поддерживает два
колеса.
27
II. While-reading activity:
1. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following words:
поддерживать
брус
вес
центр
транспортное средство, машина
работа
катушка; спираль, змеевик
быть изолированным
абсорбировать; амортизировать
вибрация
сталь
передавать
колесо
кузов
компрессия
эллиптический
пластина
2. Find in the text the words similar to meanings of the following words and
phrases:
to hang up
to work
motor car
to apply
kind
back
hard
construction
to compact
to fit (to mount)
to go over
same
to meet
to do
number
3. Give the opposites to the following:
heavy
rear
to assemble
front
initial
unlike
further
upward
flat
downward
usually
same
28
GRAMMAR
Noun in the function of attribute – steel coil
Present Simple Active – The coil type spring makes use.
Present Simple Passive – The wheels are suspended.
Present Perfect Passive – The leaf spring has been made.
4. Match the following attributes and nouns:
Attribute
Noun
road
compression
coil
spring
leaf
axle
initial
job
leaf
bushings
wheel
type
same
shock
rubber
type
5. Write down the nouns in the function of attribute.
6. Correct the order of the sentences:
1. The wheels on springs suspended that support are the weight of the vehicle.
2. The springs shock as the wheels absorb road holes or bumps encounter.
7. Choose the right form of the verb “to be”:
1. The wheels (is, are) suspended on springs that support the weight of the
vehicle.
2. The action (is, are) similar on all leaf springs.
3. Both types of springs (is, are, will be) usually insulated from the frame.
4. Vibration (is, are) absorbed and (is, are) transmitted from the wheels to the
frame and body.
5. The centre of the spring (is, are) attached to the frame with each end of the
spring supporting a wheel.
29
8. Find in the text the sentences corresponding to the model structures:
The X X the X
The X is Xed by the X
9. Answer the questions:
1. Where are the wheels suspended?
2. What do the springs absorb?
3. What are the springs like?
4. What will the spring do as the wheel passes over an obstruction in the road?
5. How does the spring act?
6. How many springs do some cars with leaf spring use?
7. What is the centre of the spring attached to?
8. What happens with the spring when the wheel encounters a bump?
9. What are both types of springs insulated from?
10. What are bushings made of?
11. Why is vibration not transmitted from the wheels to the frame and body.
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Write out all the key words.
2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Give the main idea of the text using model constructions.
The X is the X
The X X the X
The X is Xed by the X
There is the X in the X
30
TEXT № 6
BODY
The body is designed to contain and protect not only the engine and frame but
also the passengers in the car. Much is done to make the body sturdy and thus safe.
Also, since the appearance of the body is one of the important factors, an attempt has
been made to shape the contours so that the external structure could have a pleasing
appearance and at the same time could provide an ample room for the driver and his
passengers. It should be noted that most modern cars have flowing lines with few
evident sharp angles. Curves are more pleasing to the human eye than sharp angles.
One factor that has received much attention in recent years is stream line. This
involves shaping the car in such a manner as to offer less resistance to the passage of
the body through air. As car speed increases, the resistance of the air also increases.
The air resistance increases approximately as the cube of the car speed. Thus, as car
speed increases, a larger and a larger part of the total driving power is being used to
overcome the effects of air resistance.
Streamlining helps to reduce this air resistance so that greater power economy
could be achieved at higher speeds. The body is made up of a basic framework of
rigid members onto which metal panels are fastened. It is usually supported on the
31
frame by rubber-insulated bolts that prevent vibration and noise from traveling to the
car body and hence to the passengers.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. What do you know about body? Can you guess the meaning of this word?
2. Put down the words you hope to find in this text (in Russian or in English).
3. Compare your list of words after reading the text. Did you meet these words?
II. While-reading activity:
1. Read the text.
2. Find the answers to the next questions:
1. How is the body designed?
2. Is the appearance of the body one of the important factors?
3. What do most modern cars have?
4. What factor has received much attention in recent years?
5. What does the stream line involve?
6. Why is the resistance of the air increase?
7. What does stream lining help to reduce?
8. What is the body made of?
9. What details prevent vibration and noise from?
GRAMMAR
2. Put general questions to the sentences:
1. The body is designed to protect the passengers from noise in the roads.
2. The external structure of the body must be attractive.
3. Most modern cars have flowing lines.
4. Curves are more pleasing to the human eye.
32
5. Stream line of the body involves the shape of the car.
6. The resistance of the air increases as car speed increases.
7. Stream line helps to reduce air resistance.
8. At high speeds the great power economy is achieved.
9. The body is made of a framework of rigid members.
10. Metal panels are fastened to rigid members.
11. Rubber-insulated bolts protect the passengers from vibration and noise.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Present Perfect Active – has done
Present Perfect Passive – has been done
Future Simple Passive– will be done
3. Find in the text verbs in Present Simple Active. Make a list of them.
4. Find in the text the verbs in Present Simple Passive. Make a list of them.
5. Find the verbs in Present Perfect Active. Make a list of them.
6. Find the verbs in Present Perfect Passive. Write out these sentences and
translate them.
7. Find the verbs in Future Simple Passive.
8. Write out the sentences according to the model structures:
The X X the X
The X is Xed by the X
VOCABULARY
9. Give synonyms to the following words. Find them in the text.
to construct
nice
to maintain (to keep)
to ensure
to defend (to prevent)
spacious
strong
to include
shape (form, look)
to decrease
outer (exterior, outward)
to enlarge (to enhance, to extend)
10. Fill in the gaps in the following sentences:
33
1. As car … increases, … of the air also … .
2. … helps to reduce the air … .
3. The … made of a basic … of … .
4. It is usually supported on the … by … bolts.
III. Post-reading activity:
1. Make a list of key words.
2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Translate the last passage into Russian.
4. Compose a short summary using the following phrases:
The title of the text is … .
The text deals with … .
The text gives a detailed account of … .
The text goes on to say that … .
In conclusion it should be mentioned that … .
TEXT № 7
CAR BODY ACCESSORIES
34
The heater, lights, radio, and other accessories, while not essential to the
operation of the car, do contribute to the comfort and safety of the driver. The lights,
in particular, make possible car operation at night. The lighting system consists of a
switch and wiring to connect the lamps to the battery. The lamps are made of glassenclosed filaments that are heated to incandescence by electric current passing
through them. The accessories will be considered in detail in later chapters.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. What mechanisms belong to car body accessories?
2. Put down a list of words you hope to find reading the text.
3. Remember the following words and word combinations. Do you know their
meanings?
The heater, lights, radio, comfort, safety, driver, the lighting system, switch, wiring,
lamps, battery, electric current.
II. While-reading activity:
1. Read the text for the first time.
2. Put down all the unknown words. With the help of dictionary know their
meanings.
3. Finish up the sentences:
1. The lights make possible … at night.
2. The lighting system consists of a … and … to connect … to the… .
3. The … are made of … that are … to … by electric … passing through them.
4. Translate these sentences into Russian.
5. Make these sentences negative and interrogative.
6. Find out the predicates and define their Voice (Active or Passive).
7. Find out the verb in Future Simple Passive.
35
8. Find out the verbs in the form of Infinitive with particle “to”. Put down them
in your note-books.
9. Numerize all car body accessories. Make a list of them.
10. Fill in the chart with the words referring to their construction and purpose.
Lights
Lamps
comfort of the driver
III. Post-reading activity:
1. Put special questions to the marked words:
1. The heater, lights, radio contribute to the comfort and safety of the driver.
2. The heater, lights, radio contribute to the comfort and safety of the driver.
3. The lights make possible car operation at night.
4. The lights make possible car operation at night.
5. The lighting system consists of a switch and wiring to connect the lamps to the
battery.
6. The lighting system consists of a switch and wiring.
7. The lighting system consists of a switch and wiring to connect the lamps to the
battery.
2. Write out the key words.
3. Give the main idea of the text in 2 sentences.
36
TEXT № 8
TYPES OF ENGINES
Most automotive engines are of the gasoline burning four stroke OTTO-cycle
type, containing from 4 to 16 cylinders and, using poppet valves. Other types of
engine have been designed and used, notably two-stroke-cycle and diesel-type
engines, the latter of which have come into, widespread use for power plants, marine
applications, trucks and buses.
Of all the various designs of engines that have been used, only the four-strokecycle gasoline engine and the diesel engine, either four-stroke-cycle or two-strokecycle, are now in common use.
The poppet valve, because of its simplicity, has been almost universally
adopted for both gasoline and diesel engines.
ПОЯСНЕНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ
1. Otto engine – четырехтактный карбюраторный двигатель, работающий по
циклу Отто.
2. Прилагательное "the latter" означает "последний из двух вышеупомянутых".
По значению противоположно "the former" .
37
3. Слово "truck" имеет несколько значений; напр. ВАГОНЕТКА, тележка. В
данном тексте – ГРУЗОВОЙ АВТОМОБИЛЬ. В Англии грузовой автомобиль
принято называть – "lorry".
4. “either ... or” – парный союз, переводится на русский язык как «или … или».
5. poppet – тарельчатый клапан; задняя бабка.
I.
Pre-reading activity:
1. What types of engines do you know?
2. How many cylinders do most automotive engines of Otto-cycle type consist of?
3. Make a list of unknown words in Russian.
II.
While-reading activity:
1. Guess the meaning of the following words:
engine
valve
automotive
poppet
gasoline
two-stroke cycle engine
burning
diesel engine
stroke
truck
type
bus
cylinder
gasoline engine
2. Cross the odd word out:
engine, burning, poppet valves, two-stroke cycle engine, cylinder, diesel-type engine,
Otto-engine, tree.
3. Find a word or expression in the text which has a similar meaning to the
following:
38
majority
mainly
combustion
widely applied
kind
lorry
to consist
different
to apply
popular (every day use)
to construct
automatic (self-acting)
4. a) Match the following attributes and nouns:
Attribute
Nouns
automotive
valve
common
engine
various
plant
poppet
applications
four-stroke cycle
burning
widespread
design
power
engine
marine
use
gasoline
b) Select nouns that work as attributes.
5. Find in the text opposites to the following words and phrases:
a few
unnotably
in rare use
mechanical
complexity (complication)
insignificantly (inconspicuously)
use in sea
come out
putting out
6. Think what could be the answer to the following question. Choose the correct
one.
What mechanism has been almost universally adopted for both gasoline and diesel
engines?
1. carburetor
39
2. crankshaft
3. connecting rod
4. poppet valve
If your choice is correct, explain why?
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Translate the 2nd and the 3d passages into Russian.
2. Make a list of key words.
3. Give the main idea of the text in two sentences using the model constructions:
There is the X in the X.
The X is Xed by the X.
TEXT № 9
POWER TRAIN CLUTCH
The internal-combustion engine is not a self-starting type. If has to be started
and only after its speed has been increased it develops a sufficient torque. For putting
the vehicle in motion, all internal-combustion engine require some disengage able
connection between engine and axle drive. This disengage able connection is
designed as a friction clutch.
40
The disk clutches are built as multiple-disk and single-disk clutches. A
difference is made between dry clutches and oil-batch clutches.
The motorcar clutch is required to engage smoothly and to transmit full engine
torque without any slippage when completely engaged. Since the clutch is footoperated, the (pedal force) required for its disengagement should be as possible.
Coupling is performed by friction, i.e., the friction surfaces of disks alternately
connected with the engine and the change-speed gear to be driven are forced together
by spring pressure.
They have been replaced by the single-disk clutch after wear-resistant clutch
linings with high friction values had been developed. In modern automotive
engineering it is used almost exclusively.
Nearly the whole diameter of the flywheel is employed for its housing resulting
in maximum friction surface area. It has only one clutch disk whose hub rests in the
splines of the gear shaft, and it is forced between the clutch pressure plate and the
flywheel by the spring-loaded pressure plate. The elastic force is acting
concentrically.
Six pressure springs are located at the circumference of the clutch in height of
the clutch bolt. The springs are supported by a spring cage toward the outside and by
the clutch pressure plate toward the inside, and they push the clutch disk against the
flywheel.
Disengagement of the clutch is performed by slip ring connected with the
clutch pedal via the throttle lever; in some models, this slip ring corresponds to a
thrust ball bearing. This slip ring made of hard graphite pushes against the pressurring when the clutch is disengaged. The three clutch levers actuated by the pressure
ring are lifting the clutch pressure plate from the clutch disk by the adjusting screw.
As a result the contact pressure of the clutch spring has no effect on the Clutch disk
and the flow of power from the flywheel to the clutch shaft is interrupted.
41
Since only two friction surfaces have to be separated in this case, the space of
separating amounts to 2 or 3 mm. The pedal path is approx. 100 mm so that the
reduction ratio is high and the exertion required by the driver is little.
In lorries (trucks) and buses equipped with air brakes, the clutch is sometimes
operated by compressed air, i.e. not directly. Recently, the use of hydraulic clutches,
has gained ground.
Instead of the mechanical friction clutches, automotive engineering uses fluid
flywheel clutches (automatic transmission). The clutch housing is filled with oil.
When driven by the engine and beginning with a certain speed, the oil in the primary
wheel is pushed toward the outside by the centrifugal force and receives a rotary
motion. As a result, the vanes of the secondary wheel are dragged along. Due to the
low energy of flow of the oil when idling, no dragging is occurring. The more the
speed is increased, the higher will be the dragging force acting on the secondary
wheel. Thus, this type of clutch result is smooth starting, and it works nearly without
any slippage in the higher speed range.
I.
Pre – reading activity:
1. Read the title of the text and think about the words you hope to meet in it.
Numerize them in Russian or in English.
2. Answer the questions:
a) Is the clutch necessary in a motorcar?
b) Do you know how clutch works?
c) Is there clutch pedal in the driver’s compartment?
d) Do you know what the clutch consists of?
After reading the text compare your answers with the text.
42
II.
While – reading activity:
While reading the text pay attention to Glossary.
GLOSSARY
power train – силовая передача, трансмиссия
clutch – сцепление
internal – combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания
torque – крутящий момент
disengageable connection – разъемное соединение
axle drive – осевой привод
friction clutch – фрикционное сцепление
oil-bath clutch – сцепление работающее в масляной ванне
slippage – проскальзывание, буксование
coupling – сцепление (синоним clutch)
change-speed dear – коробка передач
clutch gear – механизм сцепления
single-disk clutch – однодисковое сцепление
multiplate – многодисковое сцепление
lining – накладка
hub – ступица, втулка
spline – шлиц, паз
gear shaft – вал зубчатой передачи
cage – корпус, кожух (синоним housing )
slip ring – выжимное кольцо сцепления
vane – лопасть
drag – задержка движения, торможение, прихватывание дисков
сцепления, сопротивление в сцепление
throttle lever – рычаг управления, пусковой рычаг
VOCABULARY
1. Find in the text English equivalents to the words and word combinations
given below:
самоуправляемый
максимальная площадь трения
43
скорость
движение
двигатель
дисковые сцепления
сухие диски сцепления
работать ногой
сила педали
поверхности трения
давление пружины
маховик
диаметр
кожух
пластина
упругий, эластичный
высота
болт
кольцо
графит
поднимать
контактное давление
мощность (энергия)
педаль
тормоза
сжатый воздух
2. Find in the text the sentences telling you about:
a) How blow the engine has to be started.
b) How the coupling is performed.
c) Location of six pressure springs.
d) Disengagement of the clutch.
e) The pedal path.
f) Automatic transmission.
g) The dragging force.
Translate these sentences.
3. Find in the text the opposites to the following words and words expressions
to decrease
external-combustion engine
engageable
wet
unevenly
incompletely
impossible
low values
minimum
inside
light (graphite)
to reduce
small
end
secondary
high (energy)
the lower
primary
44
GRAMMAR
1. Match the following attributes and nouns. Select nouns that work as
attributes.
Attribute
Noun
internal – combustion
clutch
self – starting
surface
disangageable
force
multiply disk
springs
friction
graphite
elastic
pressure
pressure
connection
hard
type
contact
engine
2. Comment on grammar patterns in the text.
3. Find in the text Passive verb forms.
4. Find the answers to the following questions:
1. Is the internal – combustion engine a self – starting type?
2. What do all internal – combustion engines require?
3. How is coupling (the mechanism of clutch) performed?
4. Where does clutch disk hub rest?
5. How is the electric force acting?
6. Where are six pressure springs located?
7. What are the springs supported by?
8. What lifts the clutch pressure?
9. What is the pedal path like?
10. What brakes are lorries equipped with?
5. Correct the statements which are wrong (Use «false» or «true»).
1. The internal – combustion engine is a self - staring type.
2. For putting the vehicle in motion, all the internal - combustion engine requires
some disengageable connection between engine and axel drive.
45
3. The clutch in the hand - operated.
4. Coupling is performed by steering wheel.
5. Six pressure springs are located under instrument panel.
6. The space of separating amounts 10 - 15 mm.
7. The clutch is sometimes operated by compressed air.
8. Automotive engineering uses fluid flywheel clutches.
9. The clutch housing is filled with water.
10. This type of clutch works nearly without any slippage.
6. Complete the missing forms:
adjectives
Adverbs
nouns
verbs
prepositions
multiple
exclusively
engine
are forced
of
……………..
……………..
connection
had
……………..
……………..
……………..
developed
……………
……………..
……………..
……………..
…………….
……………
……………..
……………..
……………..
…………….
……………
……………..
……………..
……………..
…………….
……………
……………..
……………..
……………..
…………….
……………
dry
recently
……………..
…………….
……………
clutches
…………….
by
been at
can develop
is
III. Post - reading activity:
Read the text once again.
Comprehension check:
1. Complete the sentences with the correct word. The number of letters in each
word is given in brackets:
4. The ………. clutches are built as multiple - disk and single ……….clutches. (4)
46
5. The motorcar ………..….. is required to run smoothly. (6)
6. Coupling is ……………….by friction. (9)
7. The …………is acting concentrically. (7)
8. The …………are supported by a spring cage. (7)
9. In lorries and busses the clutch is ……………by compression air. (8)
10. …………….engineering uses fluid flywheel clutches.(10)
11. The clutch is …………..with oil.(7)
12. This type of clutch …………..in smooth starting. (7)
13. The vanes of the ……………wheel are dragged along. (9)
2. Write the comparatives of the adjectives:
1. dry
7. hard
2. full
8. mechanical
3. high
9. little
4. modern
10. automatic
5. elastic
11. low
6. automatic
12. smooth
13. automotive
3. Here are some words and phrases from the text. Can you tell how they are
used in the text?
self - starting type
flywheel
disengageable connection
throttle lever
the disk clutches
the elastic force
foot - operated
friction surfaces
coupling
compressed air
pressure springs
oil
slip ring
vanes
4. Cross the odd word out:
springs, friction, vanes, surfaces, clutch, window, lever, screw
5. Compare the text with your list of words written in «Pre - reading activity».
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6. Compare your answers in Pre - Reading activity with the text.
7. Write out all the key words from the text.
8. Make a plan of the text.
9. Compose a short summary of the text using the constructions:
The X is X ed by the X.
The X is the X.
TEXT № 10
CHANGE-SPEED GEAR
It is the purpose of the change-speed gear to adapt the movement of the car to
the particular conditions. The internal combustion engine can develop the desired
power only within a specified speed range. Therefore, the change-speed gear is meant
to the driving speed to the particular situations with the engine operating at uniform
speed as much as possible and to permit to back up the car. The particular ratio is
called "gear" and, depending on the number of ratios, the change-speed gear or
transmission is called a three-speed, four-speed, or five-speed gear or transmission.
Every change-speed gear or transmission has two gear shafts. The upper shaft
is the main or sliding shaft, the lower shaft is the countershaft or layshaft. The clutch
or drive shaft transmits the engine torque to the transmission via the clutch its one
48
end is supported in the transmission housing and the other end in the crankshaft. It
carries the clutch thrust plate causing the shaft to follow and the main drive gear,
located inside the transmission housing and constantly in mesh with a gear on the
countershaft. The main shaft is supported in the drive shaft and has longitudinal
grooves carrying the individual gear clusters to be shifted in longitudinal direction by
shifter forks. In addition to these two shafts, the reverse idler gear shaft is laterally
supported in the housing it carries also the reverse idler gear for changing the
direction of rotation when backing up. The gears of the countershaft are firmly
connected to it and are permanently rotating due to the gears constantly in mesh.
In modern motorcars, especially in passenger cars, the "steering column gearshift mechanism" is preferred to the "stick control" arranged in the centre of the car.
The gear-shift lever is mounted on the steering column underneath the steering wheel
and its operation is very convenient since it is within easy reach. Besides, the passage
from the left seat toward the right side-is free. The hand brake is not arranged in the
conventional way next to the gear-shift lever but it is located underneath the
instrument panel.
In some cars the gear-shift handle is located in the centre of the instrument
panel and this is also a very convenient arrangement. In this case, the motion of the
gear-shift handle is transmitted to the shitting lever of the transmission via some pipe
passed through the instrument panel.
The torque delivered by the transmission shaft has to be transmitted to the
driving wheels. The drive of a motorcar can be performed both by the front wheels or
rear wheels. In either case, some construction elements have to be incorporated
between the transmission and the drive wheel, namely:
1) the cardan or universal shaft, required only for rear wheel drive from the
engine arranged in the front end of the car;
2) the final drive and the differential or differential gear;
3) the axle shafts.
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I.
Pre – reading activity:
A. You are going to read a text about "Change - speed gear." What would you
like to know about it? Write down at least 6 questions you hope the text will tell
you about.
B. Try to imagine what the text will tell you about:
a. design of change - speed gear
b. universal shaft, may be it plays a decisive role in the work of change - speed
gear
c. change - speed gear in tractors the arrangement of change - speed gear
d. the purpose of change - speed gear in motorcars
After reading the text compare it with your ideas. Read the text.
II. While reading activity:
GLOSSARY
Change - speed gear - коробка передач, реверсивный механизм
the internal combustions engine - двигатель внутреннего сгорания
range - диапазон, радиус действия
is meant - здесь - предназначается
to back in the car - давать задний ход, двигаться в обратном направлении
gear - шестерня
gear shaft - вал зубчатой передачи, вал с нарезанными шестернями
counter shaft=lay shaft - промежуточный вал
clutch - сцепление
drive shaft - ведущий (приводной) вал
torque - крутящий момент
thrust plate - упорный диск, упорная шайба
groove - желобок, паз
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gear clusters - блок шестерен
to shift - смещается
shifter fork - вилка переключения передач
idler shaft - вал холостого хода
within easy reach - сподручное расположение (рулевой колонки)
gear-shift mechanism - механизм переключения передач
the gear-shift lever- рычаг управления
VOCABULARY
2. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following words:
1. коробка передач
1. скользящий вал
2. двигатель внутреннего сгорания
2. сцепление
3. радиус действия
3. крутящий момент
4. ведущий вал
4. корпус (кожух)
5. упорный диск
5. коленчатый вал
6. ведущая скорость
6. упорный диск
7. равномерная скорость
7. входить в сцепление
8. давать задний ход
8. промежуточный вал
9. вал зубчатой передачи
9. продольные желобки
10. шестерни
10. вилка для переключения передач
11. направление вращения
11. механизм переключения передач
3. Find in the text sentences with the words given above and try to translate
them. Guess the meaning of the following words:
1. to adapt
15. engine
2. particular conditions
16. end
3. power
17. to locate
4. driving speed
18. longitudinal direction
5. particular situations
19. forks
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6. to operate
20. to change direction
7. transmission
21. permanently
8. three speed transmission
22. constantly
9. the upper shaft
23. passenger car
10. sliding shaft
24. center of the car
11. the lower shaft
25. operation
12. motorcar
26. hand brake
13. front wheels
27. instrument panel
14. rear wheels
28. driving wheels
4. Group the terms given below according to the chart:
The purpose of the
Arrangement of
Gear-shift
The drive of
change - speed gear
the change - speed
mechanism
motorcar
gear
gear shaft, upper shaft, sliding shaft, lower shaft, movement, car, conditions, internal
combustion engine, range, driving speed, uniform speed, countershaft, clutch,
crankshaft, thrust plate, grooves, stick control, passenger cars, steering column,
steering wheel easy reach, hand brake, gear shift lever, gear clusters, idler gear shaft,
shifting lever, front wheels, rear wheels, drive wheels, cardan shaft, final drive.
GRAMMAR
5. Find in the text adverbs.
6. Find the sentences with modal verbs.
7. Find the answers to the questions:
1. What in the purpose of the change - speed gear?
2. What can the internal combustion engine develop?
3. What is called the particular ratio?
4. How many shaft does every change - speed gear have?
5. What are they?
6. Where is the main shaft supported?
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7. What are gear clusters shifted by?
8. Where is the steering column gear shift mechanism arranged?
9. Where is the hand brake located?
10. Where does the torque delivered by the transmission shaft have to be
transmitted?
11. How can the drive of a motorcar be performed?
III. Post - reading activity:
1. Comprehension check. It’s up to the teacher to decide what to check.
2. Compare the text with you ideas in activates A and B.
3. Compose a short summary of the text using the phrases:
The heading of the text is …
The text informs about …
The text also runs about …
The text goes on to say that
Much attention is devoted to …
TEXT № 11
UNIVERSAL SHAFT
53
In most vehicles with rear-wheel drive and with the engine arranged in the
front end of the chassis, a propeller shaft is required leading the rear end. It is flexibly
connected to permit the upward and downward movement of the rear axle casing.
The flexibility of this shaft is achieved by the cardan of universal joint; it is a
joint permitting the transmission of a rotary motion while simultaneously vibrating.
Universal joints made of metal, are placed in sleeves or metal housings to be
filled with special grease.
Instead of the universal joint it is possible to use rubber-vulcanized fabric
disks, the so-called dry-disk joints (hardy disks) especially in lorry (Truck)
manufacture. For lorries (trucks) with a long wheel base, the universal shaft is
frequently subdivided. Its front part is supported in the frame and in line with the
transmission: its rear part is designed as an oscillating universal, shaft in dry-disks or
universal joints. The rear end of the universal shaft is connected with the drive shaft
of the rear-axle drive (rear-axle step-up gearing) by a universal or dry-disk joint.
I.
Pre - reading activity:
Speech work
1. Look at the title of the reading text. What sorts of things do you want to know
about the universal shaft?
2. Translate the following words and word combinations into Russian:
most, vehicle, wheel, chassis, universal, transmission, to vibrate, metal,
rubber, fabric disks, lorry manufacture, front, line, dry.
3. Pronounce these words after the speaker. Pay attention to the pronunciation
of words:
Vehicle - do you hear the letter "h"?
Wheel - do you hear the letter "h"?
Chassis a) how are the letters "c" and "h" (ch) pronounced?
b) do you hear "s" at the end?
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What about universal? How is the "u" pronounced?
Transmission - do you hear "s". How is the suffix "sion" pronounced?
Vibrate - do you hear [1] [21] is this word?
Fabric - do you hear [c] at the end?
Manufacture - how is the suffix "ture" pronounced?
3. Make a list of words you hope to meet in the text. After reading compare the
text with your predictions.
II. While – reading activity:
GLOSSARY
Rear-wheel drive –привод на задние колеса, передача на ведущие колеса
Chassis – шасси
Propeller shaft – карданный вал
Rear axel – задняя ось
Casing = case – кожух, корпус, картер
Rear axel casing – картер заднего моста
Flexibility – приспособляемость, гибкость, эластичность
Universal-joint shaft – карданный вал
Universal-joint – универсальный шарнир, карданный шарнир с крестовиной
Sleeve - 1) гильза, втулка 2) трубка 3) муфта 4) гулок (полуоси)
Grease – смазка
1. Guess the meaning of the following words:
rear, wheel, drive, chassis, propeller (shaft), cardan, universal joint, to vibrate, metal,
special, rubber-vulcanized, fabric disk, dry disk, wet disk, oscillating, base, wheel
base.
55
VOCABULARY
2. Find a word of expression in the text, which has a similar meaning to the
following:
great number of vehicles
to allow
at the sometime
is fitted (mounted)
to be situated
movement to the top part (portion)
to be located
back part
to need
movement to the bottom part (portion)
to apply
to construct
elastically (movably)
often
3. Put in pairs words from the column A and B
A
B
axel
base
upward
front
shaft
joint
universal
propeller
end
movement
downward
special
grease
motion
metal
rubber
disks
housing
rear
wheel
4. Cross the odd word out:
rear, wheel, drive, chassis, flexibility, joint, transmission, sleeve, wheel base, driver,
dry disk.
GRAMMAR
5. Make a list of regular verbs.
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6. Make list of irregular verbs.
7. White down all the adverbs you find in the text.
8. Put a word from the box into each gap.
The flexibility required isn't made placed what are shaft where is end
1. What is...............in most vehicles?
2. It is flexibility connected,...............it?
3..............of this shaft is achieved by the cardan of universal shaft?
4. Universal joints are............of metal?
5. Where are universal joints.............?
6. Instead of............is it possible to use rubber-vulcanized fabric disks?
7. What............rubber-vulcanized disks called?
8. The universal............is frequently subdivided.
9.............is its front part supported?
10.Its rear............of the universal shaft is connected with the drive shaft.
11. The rear............of the universal shaft is connected with the drive shaft.
9. Choose the correct sentence. One sentence is correct. Which one?
1. a) A propeller shaft is required in most vehicles.
b) A propeller shaft required in most vehicles.
2. a) It is flexibly connect to permit the upward and downward movement of the rear
axle casing.
b) It is flexibly connected to permit the upward and downward movement of the
rear axel casing.
3. a) The flexibility of the shaft achieves by the cardan of universal joint.
b) The flexibility of the shaft is achieved by the cardan of universal joint.
4. a) Universal joints makes of metal are placed in sleeves.
b) Universal joints made of metal are placed in sleeves.
5. a) Instead of the universal joint possible to use rubber-vulcanized fabric disks.
b) Instead of the universal joint it is possible to use rubber-vulcanized fabric
disks.
57
6. a) The rear end of the universal shaft connecting with the drive shaft.
7. b) The rear end of the universal shaft is connected with the drive shaft.
III.
Post-reading activity:
1. Make a list of key words.
2. Make a plan of the text.
3. Give a name to each passage of the text.
4. Compare the text with your ideas in "Pre-reading activity".
5. Compose a short summary of the text using the useful phrases:
The heading of the text is...
The text dwells upon.
The text goes on to say that... Besides
In addition it should be said that...
In conclusion it should be mentioned that...
Use in your summary constructions:
The X is the X
The X X the X
The X is Xed by the X
There is the X in the X
TEXT № 12
DIFFERENTIAL GEAR
58
Since the crankshaft of the engine rotates in the longitudinal axis of the vehicle
it is required to turn this sense of rotation at right angles for the driving wheels. In
most cases, this is performed by a bevel-gear drive. A small bevel gear - the driving
pinion - is connected to the short shaft of the final drive and it meshes with a large
bevel gear, the so-called spur bevel gear. The permanent step-up ratio between these
two bevel gears ranges from approx. 1:4 to 1:6 for passenger particular from 1:5 to
1:12 for lorries (trucks) depending on the particular size of the vehicle.
The so-called differential gear is housed in the final and it is connected to the
spur bevel gear. It has been provided to accomplish the following purpose.
When a car travels around curves the distance traveled by the outside wheel is
greater than traveled by the inside wheels; i.e. the outside wheels revolve faster than
the inside wheels. This, however, would not be possible if the driving wheels were
attached to a one-piece axle. Therefore, the two wheels are attached to separate axles
but they are connected to each other by the differential gear in such a way turn at
different speeds and even in opposite directions. If one driving wheel is turned
toward the front with the drive shaft jacked up and the engine at stand-still, the other
heal turns in opposite direction via the differential gear at the same angle. Locking
one of the two wheels with the engine running, causes the other wheel to rotate at
twice the speed.
In order to avoid wheel spinning and to ensure the drive under all
circumstances, especially the drives of cross-country, cars are equipped with a
differential action is temporarily eliminated and the rigid drive of the two wheels
made possible. The locking device can be operated either manually or become
effective automatically whenever considerable differences in speed occur.
I. Pre-reading activity:
A. You are going to read a text « Differential Gear ». What would you like to
know about it? Write down at least 4 questions which you hope the text will
answer.
59
B. Try to imagine what the text will tell you about:
engine
speed
bevel-gear drive
differential gear location
the purpose of the differential gear
After reading the text compare it with your predictions. Before reading the text
look through the Glossary. It may be of use for you.
II. While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
crankshaft – коленчатый вал
sense of rotation – направление вращения
bevel-gear drive – передача коническими шестернями
driving pinion – ведущая шестерня
final drive – главная передача, конечная передача
to mesh – входить в сцепление
spur bevel gear – передача прямозубыми шестернями
drive shaft – ведущий вал
to jack – поднимать домкратом, поддомкратить
stand-still – простой, остановка
to lock – блокировать
wheel spinning – вращение колеса, буксование колес
VOCABULARY
1. Find in the text the English equivalents to the following words:
коленчатый вал
скорость
вращаться
простой двигателя
ПРОДОЛЬНАЯ ОСЬ
ПОД УГЛОМ
60
ведущие колеса
замыкать, блокировать
дифференциал
бездорожье
конечная передача
механизм блокировки дифференциала
внешнее колесо
жесткое движение
внутреннее колесо
2. Guess the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
differential
effective
differential gear
size
longitudinal
curves
rotation
distance
driving wheels
outside wheel
short shaft
inside wheel
final drive
different speed
permanent
opposite direction
step-up ratio
engine running
passenger car
locking device
to be housed
lorry
3. Find synonyms in the text to the following words:
to revolve (to spin)
quicker
to need
internal
direction
to be located (to be situated)
revolution (spinning)
to finish
small
to drive
pinion
to mount
constant
to attach
internal
same
external
to provide
4. Find antonyms to the following words and word combinations:
cross axis
inside (internal)
61
wrong
outside (external)
initial
slower
small
same
various (variable)
engine running
to begin
other angle
smooth drive
constantly
5. Which words, phrases or sentences in the text will tell you the following?
1) What is performed by a bevel - gear drivel
2) Which job is performed by a small bevel gear
3) Where the differential gear is situated
4) What happens when a car travels around curves
5) What happens to the other wheel if one driving wheel is turned towards the front
wheel
6) Why cars are equipped with differential lock
GRAMMAR
6. Find in the text adjectives in the function of attribute.
7. Find in the text nouns in the function of an attribute.
8. Find in the text participles in the function of an attribute.
9. Write out all the adverbs you meet in the text.
10. Find the answers to the following questions:
1. What is required for the driving wheels since the crankshaft of the engine rotates
in the longitudinal axis of the vehicle?
2. What is performed by a bevel – gear drive?
3. What is the driving pinion connected with?
4. Where is the differential gear situated?
5. What happens when a car travels around curves?
6. How do the outside wheels revolve (rotate)?
7. What causes the other wheel to rotate at twice the speed?
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8. What are cars equipped with a differential lock for?
9. How can the locking device be operated?
III. Post-reading activity:
1. Read the text once again. Discuss the answers to your questions in activities A
and B.
2. Make a list of key words in the text.
3. Match these sentences with the text. Agree or disagree with them. Work in
pairs or small groups. Use “true” or “false’.
1. A small bevel gear is connected with the wheel.
2. The driving pinion meshes with a body.
3. The differential gear is housed in the final drive.
4. When a car travels around curves the distance traveled by the outside wheel is
greater than the distance traveled by the inside wheel.
5. The two wheels are attached to separate axles.
6. The two wheels are not connected to each other by the differential gear.
7. Locking one of two wheels with the engine running, causes the other wheel to
rotate slower.
8. The locking device can be operated either manually or automatically.
4. Give a name to each passage.
5. Make a plan of the whole text.
6. Compose a short summary of the text using the following phrases:
The title of the text is … .
The substance of the text is that … .
The text also deals with … .
The text dwells upon … .
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TEXT № 13
AXLE DRIVE
The axle shafts are half-axle with their front ends supported in hall bearings in
the housing. The rocking lever for the torsion bar suspension acts on the external side
of the axle bracket; here, the torsion bar suspension is located in the longitudinal
direction of the car and contains simultaneously the shock absorber in the rear torsion
bar bearing.
The front-wheel drive offers advantages with respect to construction and
driving technique. The whole driving unit, i.e. engine, transmission, drive shafts and
wheels, has to be arranger on anal lest space. Due to the fact that a universal shaft is
not required, it is possible to built the chassis very low, resulting in a very low
position of the centre of gravity and in good road - holding properties. On slippery
roads and in curves the car jelled by the front wheels tends less to swerving than the
car pushed by the rear wheels. The wheels are suspended independently. At the top
the wheel is help by the transverse spring and at the bottom by a wishbone. The drive
shaft is located in the centre between two wheel suspension components.
64
I. Pre-reading activity:
1. A. You are going to read the text about axle drive. What would you like to
know about it? Write down at least 4 questions, which you hope the text will
answer.
B. Try to imagine what the text will tell you about:
a) design of axle drive
b) about axles (front axles and rear axles)
c) about independent wheel suspension
d) the axle shafts
e) chassis
f) the drive shaft
j) components of axle drive
2. Think about the words you hope to meet in the text. Numerize them in
Russian or in English.
II. While-reading activity:
1. Read the text attentively so that you could discuss activities A and B after
reading.
GLOSSARY
axle drive – ведущий мост
axle shaft – полуось; вал колеса
ball bearings – шариковые подшипники
housing – кожух; корпус
rocking lever – качающийся рычаг; коромысло
torsion bar suspension – торсионная подвеска
axle bracket – консоль; кронштейн на оси
front-wheel drive – передний привод; передача на передние ведущие колёса
65
drive shaft – ведущий вал
good road-holding properties – способность автомобилей сохранять заданное
направление движения
curves – здесь: повороты
swerving – сворачивание в сторону; отклонение
transverse spring – поперечная рессора
wishbone – вильчатый рычаг
VOCABULARY
1. Find in the text English equivalents to the following words:
передние края
пространство
внешняя сторона
низкий
консоль
центр силы тяжести
продольное направление
скользкие дороги
амортизатор
толкать
передний привод
быть подвешенным
двигатель
верхняя часть колеса
трансмиссия
поперечная рессора
ведущий вал
нижняя часть, днище
колёса
вильчатый рычаг
подвеска
2. Find in the text the words characterizing the axle-shafts.
3. Answer the questions using prompts in brackets. Choose the correct one.
1.
What are the axle shafts like? (the rocking lever, torsion bar suspension, halfaxles)
2.
Does the rocking lever act on the internal side of the axle bracket? (Yes, no)
3.
Where is the torsion bar suspension located?(in the cross direction, in the
longitudinal direction)
4.
What does the torsion bar suspension contain? (the front wheel, the rocking
lever, the shock absorber)
66
5.
Does the front-wheel drive offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to
construction?
6.
What does the whole driving unit comprise? (steering, wheel, body,
windshield, engine, transmission, wheels)
7.
How does the car run on slippery roads? (tends less to swerving, tends more to
swerving pushed by the front wheels, pushed by the rear wheels)
8.
Are the wheels suspended independently? (Yes, no)
4. Find in the text the words and phrases with a similar meaning:
edge
location
work (actuate)
proper roads
exterior
upper part (high part)
to be situated
to support
in regard to
low part
to need
mechanisms
5. Group the terms given below according to the headings of the chart.
Fill in the chart.
The axle shafts
The whole driving unit
Wheel suspension
Half-axle, front ends, engine, transmission, the rocking lever, drive shafts, wheels,
suspension components, axle bracket, to suspend, independently, shock absorber, rear
torsion, bar bearing, transverse spring, wishbone.
GRAMMAR
6. Correct the errors in the following sentences. Make sure you use the correct
verb form.
1. The axle shafts is half axle.
2. The rocking lever acted on the external side of the axle bracket.
3. The torsion bar suspension was locate in the longitudinal direction of the car.
4. It possible to built the chassis very low.
5. On slippery roads the car pulls by the front wheels tend less to swerving.
67
6. The wheels is suspend independently.
7. The drive shaft are located in the centre between two wheel suspension
components.
7. Write out all the nouns in the function of attributes.
8. Write out some verbs in Present Simple Active.
9. Write out some verbs in Present Simple Passive.
10. Write out all the adverbs you found in the text.
III. Post-reading activity:
1. Discuss the answers to the questions in pre-reading activity A. Were you
wrong?
2. Compare the text with your predictions in pre-reading activity B. Were you
right?
3. Make these sentences negative:
1. The rocking lever acts on the external side of the axle bracket.
2. The torsion bar suspension is located in the longitudinal direction of the car.
3. The torsion bar suspension contains the shock absorber in the rear torsion bar
bearing.
4. The front-wheel drive offers advantages with respect to construction and driving
technique.
5. It is possible to built the chassis very low.
6. The wheels are suspended independently.
7. The drive shaft is located in the centre between two wheel suspension
components.
4. Write out all the key words from the text.
5. Make a plan of the text.
6. Give a short summary of the text using the following phrases:
The heading of the text is … .
68
The bulk of the material is devoted to … .
The substance of the text is that … .
The text runs comments on … .
In conclusion it should be noted that … .
TEXT № 14
CHASSIS
FRAME
The frame of the motorcar supports all the driving units such as engine
transmission and rear axles: besides, it is meant for the attachment of the spring
system, front axle and steering system. In assembled condition, all these components
are called the "chassis". The body is placed on the frame and tightly bolted. The most
simple type of motorcar frame has two side members made of cold-rolled channelsection steel. They are connected by a number of crose members which support the
radiator and the engine.
The most important requirement of the frame that it shall be stiff and strong
enough to resist the twisting and bending forces to which it is subjected, particularly
when the vehicle is traveling over rough roads. Since the introduction of the
69
independent wheel suspension by transverse springs etc. The shapes of the frames
have been changed considerably.
For some modern passenger cars and buses, the frame less construction, the socalled "chassis less body" is not used. In this case the body is designed so stiff that it
replaces the frame. All the units, such as engine, transmission, axle casing, spring and
steering, otherwise arranged on the frame, are attached to the body. Therefore, only a
limousine or bus body can be used for a chassis less construction since only these
bodies may be built sufficiently resistant to torsion due to their particular type of
construction.
I.
Pre- reading activity:
Speech work
1. Ask and answer the questions. Work in pairs. (The unknown words are to be
explained by the teacher).
a) Ask your friend how a frame of the motorcar works?
b) Ask your friend if he knows the driving elements.
c) Ask your friend what a frame is like?
d) Ask your friend if he knows anything about the frameless construction.
2. Tell your ideas about a frame.
3. Make a list of words you hope to find in the text dealing with a frame (in
Russian).
4. Compare your predictions with the text after reading it.
II. While-reading activity:
GLOSSARY
It is meant - здесь – она (рама) предназначена для...
cold-rolled channel – section still – холодно – катанная сталь
to be subjected – быть подверженным чему-то
in assembled condition – в сборке
70
cross members – крестообразная поперечина
twisting forces
torsional forces
(синонимы) скручивающие усилия
bending forces – изгибающий усилия
since – союзное слово – так как, вводит придаточное предложение
corrugated continuous pottomblate – нижняя рефленая металлическая
пластина (плитка)
Speech work
1. Listen to the following words and underline the stressed syllable or word
(stressed syllable – слог на который падает ударение):
frame, motorcar, engine, transmission, attachment, assemble, components,
connected, radiator, requirement, twisting, bending, forces, subjected, particularly,
introduction,
independent,
suspension,
trasverse,
construction,
frameless,
corrugated, continuous, lightweight.
2. Pronounce these words after the speaker.
3. Role play
1. Two friends are repairing the car. They are speaking about the frame. Act out
their conversation.
Note: auxiliary verb is necessary in question.
Questions: (The words must be rearranged).
a) Does/the frame/driving/support/all/the/units/?
b) What/called/components/the driving?
c) What/frame/like?
What/strong/be/stiff/shall/for/and/the frame?
Responses:
1. Yes, it … .
2. The frame/very important/is/.
71
3. it…all…units…system,…axle,…axle,…are…chassis….shall…stiff and... .
4. The frame shall…and…to…resist…and bending….
Note: 1. Before doing this work unknown words should be explained by the teacher.
2. The words to be filled in the gaps: is, supports, driving, spring, front,
steering, frame, be, strong, to resist, the twisting, forces, units, called/are.
VOCABULARY
4. While reading make a list of unknown words.
5. Give English equivalents to the following words.
рама
боковые элементы
машина
прочная
движущиеся (подвижные) блоки
противостоять (быть устойчивым
(элементы)
к чему-то)
передняя ось
неровный, шероховатый
задняя ось
подвеска
соединение
поперечная рессора
сборка
привод на передние колеса
соединять болтами
независимая подвеска колес
6. Guess the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
motorcar
fameless construction
driving units
body
engine
chassisless body
system
transmission
axle
spring
front axle
torsion
chassis
construction
to bolt
a special type
cold-rolled steel
platform construction
radiator
front-wheel drive
shape
rear-mounted engine
72
to combine
dirt
lightweight construction
clearing
good protection
7. Find in text the answers to the questions:
Answers
Questions:
What does the frame support?
What components are called chassis?
Where is the body placed?
What is the most important requirement of
the frame?
What shall the frame be stiff and strong?
Why have the shapes of the frames been
changed considerably?
In what cases is the body designed stiff.
III. Post – reading activity:
1. Make a list of regular verbs.
2. Make a list of irregular verbs.
3. Write out the attributes to the following nouns:
……. transmission
……. axles
……. system
……. members
……. steel
……. frame
…….. forces
…….. roads
…….. suspension
73
…….. construction
…….. plate
…….. drive
Which of the attributes are adjectives, nouns, Participle I?
4. Rearrange the letters in the following words
Mafre
Arcrotom
alex
leest
5. Compose a short summary of the text.
74
Библиографический список
1. Агабекян, И. П. Английский для технических вузов [Текст] : учеб.
пособие / И. П. Агабекян. – Ростов н/Д : «Феникс», 2000. – 352 с.
2. Полякова, Т. Ю. Достижения науки и техники XX века [Текст] : учеб.
пособие по английскому языку для студентов технических вузов /
Т. Ю. Полякова. – М.: Высш. шк., 2004. – 287 с.
3. Шляхова, В.А. Английский язык для студентов автомобилестроительных
специальностей [Текст] : учеб. пособие / В. А. Шляхова. – М. : Высш. шк.,
2005. – 198 с.
4. Дубровская, Т. В. Автомобиль AUDI V8 [Текст] : учеб. пособие по
английскому языку / Т. В. Дубровская, Т. П. Седова ; Пензенская гос.
архитектур.-строит. акад. – Пенза, 2000. – 31 с.
5. Елисеева, В. В. Лексикология английского языка [Текст] : учеб.
/В В. Елисеева. – СПб : СПбГУ, 2003. – 68 с.
6. Ионина, А. А. Английская грамматика: Теория и практика [Текст] :
учебник / А. А. Ионина, А. С. Саакян. – 4-е изд., испр. – М. : Айрис-пресс,
2003. – 448 с.
7. Moжаев, Д. В. Англо-русский и русско-английский лесотехнический
словарь [Текст] / Д. В. Можаев, Б. Н. Новиков, Д. М. Рыбаков. – М. :
РУССО, 1998. – 864 с.
8. Гольд, Б. В. Англо-русский словарь по автомобильной технике и
автосервису [Текст] / Б. В. Гольд, Р. В. Кугель, С. А. Шершер. – Минск :
Новая звезда Лтд., 1999. – 704 с.
9. Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use [Текст] : a practice book for intermediate
students / R. Murphy. – M. : Open Doors, 1999. – 328 ps.
10. Голицынский, Ю. Б. Грамматика [Текст] : сб. упражнений /
Ю. Б. Голицынский. – СПб. : Каро, 1999. – 475 с.
75
Учебное издание
Татьяна Васильевна Коновалова
Татьяна Николаевна Таранцева
Людмила Вячеславовна Зайцева
Английский язык
Транспорт, технологические машины и оборудование
Учебное пособие
Часть 2
Редактор Е.А. Попова
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