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Базарская Н. И. Getting Ready for the Mot (Готовимся к техосмотру)

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Н.И. Базарская И.Б. Минаева
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
GETTING READY FOR THE MOT
ГОТОВИМСЯ К ТЕХОСМОТРУ
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2013
1
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Н.И. Базарская И.Б. Минаева
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
GETTING READY FOR THE MOT
ГОТОВИМСЯ К ТЕХОСМОТРУ
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2013
2
ББК 81.432.1-923
Б17
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА» (протокол № 5 от 26 апреля 2013 г.)
Рецензенты: кафедра английского языка естественно-научных
факультетов ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГУ»;
доц. Н.В. Костенко
Базарская, Н. И.
Б17 Иностранный язык. Getting ready for the MOT. Готовимся к техосмотру
[Текст] : учебное пособие / Н. И. Базарская, И. Б. Минаева ; М-во образования и
науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». – Воронеж, 2013. – 84 с.
ISBN 978-5-7994-0552-6 (в обл.)
Учебное пособие состоит из текстов и подборки упражнений к каждому тексту.
Тексты содержат рекомендации по эксплуатации и ремонту важнейших узлов автомобиля.
Каждый текст сопровождается подборкой упражнений, имеющих своей общей целью
выработку навыков чтения и говорения, слушания и письма.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1-2 курсов по направлению
подготовки 190600 – Эксплуатация транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов;
специальностей 190601 – Автомобили и автомобильное хозяйство, 190603 – Сервис
транспортных и технологических машин и оборудования (автомобильный транспорт).
ББК 81.432.1-923
ISBN 978-5-7994-0552-6
© Базарская Н.И., Минаева И.Б., 2013
© ФГБОУ ВПО «Воронежская государственная
лесотехническая академия», 2013
3
Оглавление
Введение...................................................................................................................4
Texts
Text 1. When the Car won’t Start......................................................................... 5
Text 2. Fuel System Faults.................................................................................... 8
Text 3. Testing the Fuel Pump.............................................................................. 10
Text 4. Stopping the Engine Overheating............................................................. 13
Text 5. Fitting a New Clutch Cable...................................................................... 15
Text 6. Refitting the Cable.................................................................................... 16
Text 7. Car Wiring Basics..................................................................................... 19
Text 8. Going round Lightning............................................................................. 21
Text 9. Getting Ready for the MOT...................................................................... 23
Text 10.Checking Headlight Alignment............................................................... 24
Text 11. Testing Horn,Wipers and Washers......................................................... 25
Text 12.Examining the Tyres................................................................................ 27
Text 13.Inspecting the Wheels.............................................................................. 29
Text 14.Checking the Seat Belts........................................................................... 30
Text 15. Going round the Exhaust........................................................................ 32
Text 16. Inspecting the Bodywork........................................................................ 34
Text 17. Checking the Handbrake........................................................................ 38
Text 18. Examining the Hydraulics...................................................................... 40
Text 19. Testing the Brakes.................................................................................. 42
Text 20. Testing the Driveshafts........................................................................... 44
Text 21. Checking the Steering............................................................................. 46
Text 22. Checking Wheel Bearings...................................................................... 48
Text 23. Testing the Drive Train........................................................................... 50
Text 24. Bounce Testing the Shock Absorbers..................................................... 51
Reference Grammar...........................................................................................
Глагол To be......................................................................................................... 52
Видовременные формы английского глагола в активном залоге.................. 53
Passive Voice........................................................................................................ 57
Infinitive................................................................................................................ 59
Participles (I and II).............................................................................................. 60
The Complex Subject............................................................................................ 62
The Gerund........................................................................................................... 62
The Modal Verbs and their Equivalents............................................................... 64
Word-building....................................................................................................... 73
Singular and Plural of Nouns................................................................................ 76
Degrees of Comparison......................................................................................... 79
List of Irregular Verbs.......................................................................................... 80
Библиографический список............................................................................ 83
4
ВВЕДЕНИЕ
Предполагается, что работе с данным учебным пособием предшествует
интенсивное изучение грамматики английского языка с помощью метода
В.В.Милошевича в течение 1-го семестра. Учебное пособие состоит из текстов
и подборки упражнений к каждому тексту. В качестве материала для чтения
используются аутентичные рекомендации по эксплуатации автомобиля,
изданные в Великобритании в 1991 году. Тексты имеют различный объем от
700 до 1500 знаков и содержат рекомендации по эксплуатации и ремонту
важнейших узлов автомобиля (подвески, ходовой части, двигателя, тормозов и
т.д.). Первые два текста даны с синхронным переводом. Цель такой необычной
подачи материала заключается в том, чтобы ввести студента в круг проблем,
касающихся будущей профессии, ознакомить с наиболее часто употребляемой
лексикой. Каждый текст сопровождается подборкой упражнений.
Предполагается, что в ходе занятий студенты смогут выполнить не менее
7 видов различных упражнений, имеющих своей общей целью выработку
навыков чтения и говорения, слушания и письма. Все упражнения делятся на
три блока: упражнения, выполняемые до чтения; упражнения, выполняемые во
время чтения; упражнения, выполняемые после чтения.
Задачей первого блока заданий является возбудить интерес студентов к
изучаемой проблеме, мобилизовать их предшествующие знания о предмете.
Чтение и перевод текста с позиций коммуникативной методики преподавания
английского языка представляет собой не самоцель, а средство извлечения
информации, необходимой для решения практических задач. Каждый раздел
начинается с проблемы, которую студенты должны решить, прочитав текст и
выполнив упражнения. Большинство заданий направлено на выработку
устойчивого терминологического аппарата и овладение грамматическими
структурами. Третья группа заданий выполняется на завершающем этапе
работы с текстом. Цель этих заданий – помочь студентам передать содержание
прочитанного текста, составить краткую аннотацию текста на иностранном
языке. В качестве задания, подводящего итог работе, предполагается объяснить
по-английски, как студент будет решать обозначенную проблему.
При создании учебного пособия учитывались рекомендации типовой
программы по иностранному языку. Кроме того, мы стремились к тому, чтобы
данное учебное пособие явилось органичной частью учебного материала,
разрабатываемого для программы непрерывного обучения иностранному языку
в ВГЛТА.
5
TEXT 1
WHEN THE CAR WON'T
START
TЕКCT 1
КОГДА АВТОМОБИЛЬ
НЕ ЗАВОДИТСЯ
Occasionally a car will not start
because of fundamental problems like
burnt valves or a blown head gasket but
most of the time, the problems are pretty
minor.
Bad starting is one of the most
annoying car faults. Nine times out of
ten the ignition system is the culprit, so
check this before looking further.
The ignition system provides the
sparks that ignite the fuel in the
cylinders. Power from the battery to the
coil is interrupted by a contact breaker
in the distributor. This makes the coil
act as a transformer -changing the
battery's volts to a high voltage pulse
which is sent to each cylinder,
producing a spark at the spark plug.
This voltage is so high that it leaks,
away to earth if it is given a chance.
Иногда
автомобиль
не
заводится из-за фундаментальных
проблем,
например,
сгоревших
клапанов
или
поврежденной
прокладки головки цилиндров, но
чаще всего проблемы бывают менее
сложными.
Плохой запуск – одна из наиболее неприятных поломок автомобиля. В девяти случаях из десяти
виновата система зажигания, поэтому
проверьте ее прежде, чем идти
дальше.
Система зажигания обеспечивает искру, которая зажигает топливо
в цилиндрах. Энергия от батареи к
катушке зажигания прерывается
контактным
прерывателем
в
распределителе.
Это
заставляет
катушку
вести
себя
как
трансформатор, изменяя 12-вольтное
напряжение,
поступающее
от
батареи, в высоковольтный импульс,
который посылается в каждый
цилиндр, производя искру в свече.
Это напряжение такое высокое, что
оно может уходить в землю, если
дать ему такую возможность.
6
ПРОБЛЕМА: К Вам в мастерскую обратился клиент-иностранец: у него
не заводится двигатель. Вы должны ему помочь. Текст, который Вы читаете,
содержит информацию по данному вопросу.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
Look at the picture at p. 4.
Do you know these parts?
Can you explain their usage?
WHILE-READING
ACTIVITY
Comprehension questions.
What is the most common cause of bad starting?
Why is the ignition system so important?
VOCABULARY:
In the Russian text find words which tell about starting
problems.
1. Put them down into your notebooks.
In the English text find English equivalents to the
words.
2. In the description of the ignition system find the
verbs of the major importance identifying the main
process in the system.
3. Look at the scheme of the ignition system.
Give the names of the points in Russian.
Match the English equivalents.
4. Answer the questions:
What can we check in the system?
What can we lubricate?
What can we clean?
What can we renew? What can we set?
5. Divide the text into meaningful parts.
Make a plan (in Russian first, then in English).
6. Compose a short summary in Russian using the set
phrases:
Текст называется ... .
7
В тексте говорится ... .
Автор рассказывает ... .
Рекомендуется ... .
7. Give a summary in English, beginning each sentence
with one of the phrases:
The title of the text is ... .
It is said that ... .
It is recommended to ... .
In this text we read about ... .
8. Using the information of the text try to help your
overseas customer to start his car. (in Russian first, then
in English).
8
TEXT 2
FUEL SYSTEM FAULTS
While you were checking the
ignition, you mау have started to
suspect problems in the fuel system but
before you go any further, make sure
there is petrol in the tank.
The car's engine needs a constant
supply of clean petrol if it is to run
smoothly. All cars have a fuel pump
which moves petrol from the petrol tank
towards the engine. Some pumps are
electric but most modern cars have
mechanical fuel pumps which are driven
by the engine. Your car's handbook will
tell you which type of pump you have
and where it is mounted. Fuel pumps are
pretty reliable but they do need attention
from time to time.
ТЕКСТ 2
ПОЛОМКИ ТОПЛИВНОЙ
СИСТЕМЫ
Проверяя систему зажигания,
вы можете заподозрить нарушения в
топливной системе, но прежде, чем
идти дальше, проверьте, есть ли
бензин в баке.
Двигатель
автомобиля
нуждается в постоянной подаче
топлива, чтобы работать плавно. Все
автомобили имеют топливный насос,
который перегоняет бензин из
топливного бака к двигателю.
Некоторые насосы бывают электрическими, но большинство автомобилей имеют механические топливные насосы, которые приводятся в
действие двигателем. Инструкция
вашей машины расскажет вам о том,
какой насос в вашей машине и где он
установлен. Топливные насосы очень
надежны, но все же время от времени
требуют внимания.
PROBLEM:
You have checked the ignition system. It is O.K. But the
engine still does not start. You want to check the fuel system.
The customer does not understand why. Explain to him.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Do you know any faults of the fuel system?
Do you know how these faults maу affect the
starting?
9
2. Look at the picture and try
parts, what system they belong to.
to
explain
the
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Find the words which tell you about the work of the fuel
pump. (In Russian text first – then in the English text).
2. Read the text for the second time and answer the
questions:
What unit is responsible for the constant supply of clean
petrol?
What types of fuel pumps are mounted on the modern
cars?
Where can you find information about the type of your
pump?
VOCABULARY:
3. In the Russian text find the terms:
a) of the fuel system, match English equivalents:
(petrol, fuel pump, petrol tank, engine, electric/mechanical
fuel pump).
b) Find the verbs describing the process of fuel pumping:
(to move, to drive, to mount, to run).
In the Russian text choose the nouns which match these
verbs.
c) From the list of words given below choose those
belonging to the fuel system:
coil, cam, spark plugs, petrol tank, oil, petrol contact
breaker, cylinder, fuel pump, battery, manual, capacitor,
points, electric pump.
4. Draw the easiest scheme of the fuel system.
5. Finish the sentences:
The text tells about ... .
The author explains ... .
6. Explain to the customer why you insist on checking the
fuel system.
10
TEXT 3
TESTING THE FUEL PUMP
Tracking down any fault when the car is not running well can be a difficult job
but there is one difference between fuel supply problems and electrical faults which
will often point you in the right direction.
If the fault causes the engine to stop dead, it is likely to be electrical. If,
however, the car splutters to halt, it may well be a fuel problem.
To see whether any petrol is reaching the engine, take off the end of the fuel
line where it joints the carburetor. It will either be held on by a hose clip or else
clamped in place with a nut.
If your car has an electric fuel pump, hold the end of the fuel pipe in a jar and
ask a friend to turn on the ignition but not to operate the starter. If the fuel supply
system is working properly you will hear the fuel pump ticking rapidly and petrol
will pour into the jar.
If you have a mechanical fuel pump, hold the end of the fuel pipe in a jar and
ask a friend to turn the engine over with the starter. Petrol should pour out of the pipe.
If no petrol comes out or if only a trickle comes through, the problem is likely
to be a blocked fuel filter or a faulty fuel pump. Do not be deceived by a few splutters
of petrol, it should be pumped out in regular bursts and fill the jar very quickly.
This test is quite dangerous as there is always a chance that a stray spark might
ignite the petrol vapour. Always disconnect one side of the coil before you turn the
engine over and pour the petrol back into the tank as soon as you have finished.
PROBLEM: Your car does not start. You suspect something is wrong with the
fuel system. Evidently it is a fuel pump. The text will help you to solve your problem.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
1. Look at the picture below. How would you explain it?
2. Please, try to give Russian names of the part shown in
the scheme.
3. Look at the picture at the top and give explanation of
the activity.
Words to be explained before reading:
to stop dead – резко остановиться
11
to splutter to a halt – чихать, запинаться прежде, чем
остановиться
to tick – стучать
trickle – тонкая струйка
bursts – толчки
splutter – брызги
in-line filter – фильтр грубой очистки
tubular gauge filter – фильтр тонкой очистки
glass dome – отстойник
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Read the text and find the words explaining:
a) What can help you to state the difference between
electrical fault and fuel problem.
b) What you should do to avoid ignition of the petrol or
petrol vapour.
2. Read the text once again and find answers to the
questions:
1) What are two different causes of bad running?
2) What should you do to see if any petrol is reaching
the engine.
3) What should you do if you have an electric fuel
pump/ mechanical fuel pump?
4) Why should you not be deceived by a few splutters
of petrol?
3. From the list of the words given below choose those
describing the fuel system.
pump, fuel line, carburetor, engine, coil, spark plugs,
ignition, fuel system, petrol, vapour, battery, earth,
cam, capacitor, starter, pipe, nut, hose clip, tank,
coolant, timing, thermostat, liquid, airflow, fuel filter.
4. Finish the sentences in the logics of the author.
Your car has an electric fuel pump.
1) Take off ... .
12
2) Hold ... .
3) Ask a friend ... .
4) You will hear ... .
Your car has, a mechanical, fuel pump.
1) Take off ... .
2) Hold ... .
3) Ask a friend ... .
4) You will see ... .
5. Give a list of verbs characterizing the work of
the fuel pump.
6. Model structure theX X theX.
Using this structure make up sentences with the
following words.
car, in a jar, to stop dead, ask, petrol, friend, to pour, to
pump out, fuel pipe, in regular bursts, to take off, the
end of the fuel line.
6. Finish the sentences in your own logics:
My car splutters to a halt, it may be ... .
I want to see if ... .
I take off ... .
My car has ... .
I hold ... .
My friend ... .
I see a trickle coming through, but no ... .
The cause of the stoppage is... .
8. Divide the text into logical parts.
9. Give a short resume of the text, using your plan.
13
TEXT 4
STOPPING THE ENGINE OVERHEATING
Switch off the engine and stop if you ever notice symptoms of overheating,
whether it be smoke or steam rising from the engine, the heater going hot or the
temperature gauge needle climbing.
Most cars use liquid to keep the engine at the correct temperature. But,
occasionally, something goes wrong which prevents the cooling liquid from doing its
job. Leaks and blockages are the most common causes of overheating only rarely
does a key component break down.
The coolant is circulated around the engine by a water pump which is driven
from the engine by a flexible drive belt.
When the engine is cold the thermostat stops coolant from getting to the
radiator.
As the engine warms up, the thermostat opens and allows the hot coolant
through to the radiator where it is cooled by the airflow.
If the car is stationary or moving only slowly, the airflow through the radiator
is increased by a mechanical or electrical fan. Connecting parts of the system are
rubber hoses.
There are, therefore, many areas where a fault could arise. But often there are
tell-tale symptoms which will help pinpoint the exact cause. If the car is sluggish or
pinks for example, as well as overheating, then the tiling may be wrong – so if you
already have a clue follow the step which tells you how to check it. If you have no
idea what the problem is, follow the steps in sequence until you find the fault.
PROBLEM: You are running along a highway. Your speedometer points 120
кm/h. Suddenly you see a smoke coming from under the bonnet of your car. What's
the matter? This text will help you.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
1. How can you guess that your engine is overheated?
2. Do you know the names of the parts in the picture?
3. Please, put them down in your notebook.
14
WHILEREADING
ACTIUITY:
4. Read the text and answer the questions.
a) What should you do when you notice the symptoms
of overheating?
b) What coolant do we use?
c) What is the function of a water pump?
d) When does a thermostat stop working?
e) What happens with the coolant when the car is
stationary?
VOCABULARY
5. a) Find the verbs denominating the actions you should
do as soon as your engine gets overheated.
b) Make a list of verbs describing the work of the
cooling system.
c) The terms given below should be translated into
English and grouped into three columns of the chart.
Signs of overheating
Parts of the cooling
system
охлаждающая жидкость, утечка, дым, перегрев, вентилятор, поток воздуха,
нагреватель, пар, насос, радиатор, регулировка, электровентилятор, резиновые
трубы, игла тахометра, гибкий ремень.
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITIES:
Causes of overheating
6. Divide the text into meaningful parts. Use the table
from ex. 5.
7. Give the names to the parts of the text.
8. Finish up the sentences:
a) The title of the text is ... .
b) The text consists of ... .
c) We learn about ... .
d) The author speaks about ... .
9. Now that you have heard about the construction of the
cooling system, could you tell us what happened with
your car?
15
TEXT 5
FITTING A NEW CLUTCH CABLE
A clutch cable is under an enormous amount of strain every time you press the
pedal down. They do break unexpectedly from time to time so many drivers carry a
spare.
Some cars are still fitted with a hydraulic clutch mechanism and you can
recognise these by the extra hydraulic fluid reservoir usually fitted alongside the
brake fluid reservoir. If the gears do not go in, you should check the fluid level and
bleed any air out of the system.
But on cars with cable clutches, the cable must be lubricated with light oil to
prevent breakages and also adjusted from time to time.
PROBLEM: Preparing your car for MOT, you want to refit your clutch cable.
Use this text as an instruction for your activities.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITES:
1. Look at the picture.
These are automobile parts. Explain their usage.
2. Put down a list of Russian names of these parts.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITES:
1. Read the text for the first time.
Find the words describing your actions when
a) the gears do not go in.
b) something is wrong with cable clutches.
2. Explain, how you can recognize the hydraulic
mechanism in your car.
3. Read the first passage.
4. From the 2nd passage put down the description of the
consequence of operations, necessary for refitting the
cable.
Do the same with the 3d.
5. Translate the 4th passage.
6. Look at the picture on page 27 once again. Put down
English names to all the parts shown in the picture, using
the text.
7. Find all the synonyms to the verb "to lubricate".
8. Give recommendations to a young assistant on the
maintenance of a clutch cable.
16
TEXT 6
REFITTING THE CABLE
Refitting the existing cable, if it is undamaged, or fitting a new cable if it is
necessary, is basically a reverse of removal. It is a good idea to lubricate the cable
thoroughly with ordinary engine oil before refitting it. However, remember that if
you have a nylon-lined cable you must only use a silicon-based lubricant like HD-40.
When you have lubricated the cable, pass the pedal end through the engine
compartment bulkhead into the car or feed the cable through the bulkhead from under
the dashboard, whichever is more convenient. Attach the end of the cable to the top
of the pedal and lightly grease the nipple or the eye and pin. While you are in the car
it is a good idea to lubricate the pedal mechanism.
It is important to attach the cable to the pedal end first, while there is no
tension on it, as this is the fiddly bit and has to be done while the cable is slack. Now
remove or slacken off the two nuts on the threaded end of the cable and pass it over
or through the clutch-operating fork. Screw both the lock nut and adjuster nuts
loosely on to the threaded end of the cable if you removed them. At this point smear
some grease on the threads as well, to stop corrosion and make the cable easier to
remove next time you have to do the job.
Check the route of the cable again before you adjust it. It should follow the
same route as the old cable did or you might find it will not reach. Again, make sure
that the cable is not touching any other component of the car. Make sure also that any
curves it follows are smooth, avoiding sharp corners that might stop it from working
effectively. If the cable is hanging loose it is a good idea to attach it to a fixed part of
the car, which will ensure that the cable stays in place.
PROBLEM: You are a Russian inspector at a mechanical workshop in Kenya.
All your students are Russian. You need to explain to them the process of refitting the
cable.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITES:
1. How do you refit the cable?
Describe these activities in Russian.
2. Let us make a list of Russian words, necessary
to describe the refitting of the cable.
17
3. Put down the words:
- reverse –
-removal –
-fitting - refitting –
-routes –
-make sure –
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITES:
1. Read the 2nd passage and put down all the terms you
find in it.
Translate these terms.
Underline all the verbs in the passage.
2. Translate the terms given below:
pedal end
engine compartment bulkhead
dashboard
nipple
eye
pin
3. From the passage 3 put down all the verbs describing
the process of refitting the cable.
4. On the basis of verbs given below make up an
algorithm of your actions during the first
stage of refitting the cable.
= Attach, feed, lubricate, grease, pass. = Make up
sentences with these verbs, using the model theX X
theX.
5. Translate the 1st and the last sentences of the
4th passage.
6. Give your suppositions on the activities described
in the first two sentences.
7. Put down the terms from the 2d and 3d sentences
of the 4th passage and translate them.
18
POSTREADING
ACTIUITY:
7a. Match the pairs of words
remove
Screw
slacken off
adjust
check
pass
smear
Some grease on the threads
the cable
the route of the cable
two nuts
nut loosely
two nuts on the threaded end
air
lock nut
fluid level
8. Translate the 1st sentence of the 5th passage.
9. Using the same model theX X theX, describe
your actions on the second stage of refitting the cable.
10.Put down all words belonging to the sphere "смазка".
11.Explain your students the process of refitting.
Your friend speaking English will translate it into
English.
19
TEXT 7
CAR WIRING BASICS
An electrical device will work only if a complete electric circuit is made.
Batteries have two terminals, one positive (+) and one negative (-). To make a circuit
a wire must run from one terminal to the electrical device; this is the live wire.
Another wire must take the current back to the other battery terminal: in cars, this is
called the earth wire. Some materials, usually metals like cooper and steel, allow
electricity to flow through them and are called conductors. Other materials like
plastics and glass will not let electricity pass and are called insulators.
To save wiring in a car, the steel car body itself is used as one of the
conductors in the circuit. One battery terminal has a braided metal strap or cable
which is bolted to the body nearby. In almost every modern car, this is the negative
(-) terminal. The car body is thus used as the negative conductor, and the electrical
System is described as negative-earthed.
In this system, many electrical devices have short wires (usually black) which
are attached to the car's body. These are the earth wires which pass the current to the
body and thus back to the earthed terminal of the battery. Other electrical components
are bolted directly to the car body, so they do not need a separate wire connecting
them to the body.
In a few older cars, it is the positive (+) terminal of the battery which is
connected by a strap to the car body. This system is described as positive-earthed.
In the tests described here, it makes no difference whether your car is negativeearthed or positive-earthed. This only becomes important when fitting radio’s
alternators.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITES:
1. Answer the questions:
Which major components of the car electrics do you
know?
Where do the car lamps take energy from?
2. Look at the picture and explain the usage of the
parts.
20
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITES:
1. Give answers to the questions:
Why do the batteries have two terminals?
What is the name of one of the conductors in the circuit?
How do the electrical devices pass the current to the
earthed terminal?
Which electric components are bolted directly to the car
body?
VOCABULARY:
1. Find the words, explaining the construction of electric
circuit.
2. Find pairs of words with the opposite meaning.
3. Continue a list of verbs, describing the
current transformation.
to run - to take –
4. Choose the odd word out.
to bolt - to attach - to connect -to pass - to call- to fit
5. Using the vocabulary of the text make up Sentences
with the structure theX X theX.
POSTREADING
ACTIVITY:
Explain the process of battery installation. Give a list of
words you will need in Russian. Explain the scheme in
Russian.
21
TEXT 8
GOING ROUND LIGHTING
First check the lights on your car, which must conform to the following
requirements. They must function correctly and be visible at 200 yards (180 metres).
The lenses must be intact and each lamp should be securely mounted on the body.
The only white light you are permitted to show to the rear is the number plate light.
The law also states exactly where each light should be positioned, but so long
as no changes to the design of the car have been made since the car left the factory,
this is not likely to be a problem. However, you do have to ensure that all lights are
working and are reasonably efficient.
Examine all the lights for damaged lenses and make sure they are secure, then
check that each one works and is properly visible.
Get an assistant to turn on the ignition and put his foot on the brake. Check that
the rear stop lamps are working. Then get him to turn on the indicators and check that
the lights flash both at the front and the rear of the car. If your car is fitted with
further indicator lamps on the front wings, they too should be in good working order.
It is a good idea to test all the lights simultaneously to show up any earthing faults
which only occur when a heavy current passes, and to check the lights with the
engine, running as well as switched off.
Any damaged lenses must be replaced as must missing reflectors or coloured
lenses that have faded. Change any burned or blackened bulbs - make sure you
change them for bulbs of the correct design and wattage. If the lights appear dim
check their earth connections, which are usually the fixing bolts or screws for the rear
light cluster. Change the fuse and the bulb if necessary.
If the indicators do not work, the fault may lie with the flasher unit, rather than
the individual. Should the indicator flash rate be outside the limits specified after you
have checked through the system you have no alternative but to change the flasher
unit. In this country, the indicators must flash at least 60 times a minute and not more
than 120 times a minute.
PROBLEM: Yоu are preparing your car for MOT. You especially worry about
your lightning.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITES:
1. Look at the picture and give Russian names of the
shown parts.
Speak about the lightning components in the Russian cars.
22
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITES:
1. Read the text for the first time and find information
concerning.
a) necessity of a valid test certificate for a driver:
b) lights' requirements;
c) checking of the rear stop lights.
2. Answer the questions.
- Why do you need to test all the lights simultaneously?
What do you do if the lights appear dim?
- What is the fault if the indicators do not work?
- What is the Rate of flusher unit in England?
3. Continue the list of words:
lights - lenses - rear stop lamps –
4. Match the nouns from the list to the following
adjectives:
intact, white, efficient, damaged, visible, secure, rear,
heavy, missing, coloured, faded, burned, dim, blackened.
5. The verbs given below group into pairs of synonyms.
Some of the verbs have no synonyms at all.
to check, to mount, to position, to examine, to turn on,
to flash, to test, to replace, to change.
6. From the words (ex. 3-5) compose sentences with the
model structure
the X is the X and the X is Xed by the X.
8. Look through the text and put down the terms which do
not belong to the Lightning problem.
POSTREADING
ACTIUITIES:
1. Compose the Algorithm of going round lightning in
logic of the author.
2. Present your own Algorithm of checking lightning
system in your car.
3. One of the lights is dim - describe your actions.
4. When you were testing the lights with the engine
running, the lights switched off .- What's the matter?
23
TEXT 9
GETTING READY FOR THE MOT
Prepare methodically for the MOT and there is no reason why you should not
get through first time.
In the UK it is illegal to use a car which is over three years old on the roads
unless it has a valid test certificate. The annual roadworthiness test (still called the
MOT test after the now defunct Ministry of Transport) is designed to ensure that
unroadworthy cars are kept off the road. After three years you will have to get a new
certificate every year. If the car has been well maintained, passing should be
straightforward provided that rust has not taken hold. If it has, you could be in
expensive trouble.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITES:
1. What do you do every spring in May if you are a
driver?
2. What do you know about roadworthiness test?
3. What are the demands of the test?
4. What systems are usually checked?
Put down the words: illegal – противозаконно
defunct – упраздненный, распущенный
unroadworthy – непригодный для езды
to take hold – завладеть, покрыть
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITES:
1. Guess the meaning of the words: test certificate,
roadworthiness, maintain – maintainance, rust
3. Answer the questions:
What is illegal in the UK?
What is the MOT test designed for?
3. Translate the sentence:
"If the car has been well maintained ...".
4. Look through the text once again and make a list of
key words necessary to express the content of the text.
5. Ask questions, taking into consideration key words.
6. Try to express the content of the text in one sentence.
7. You come to the UK and buy a second-hand car.
What should you remember?
24
TEXT 10
CHECKING HEADLIGHT ALIGNMENT
Your manual will give you the exact details for focusing the headlight beams
but in general, when you position your car about 25 feet from a wall, you should be
able to see the central bright spot shining level with the light and straight ahead while
the dip beam hits about 2 feet below and to the left.
You will find the adjusters either in the engine bay or behind the trim.
PROBLEM: Getting ready for the test, you want to check the Headlight
alignment. What should you do?
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
1. In the picture below you see different variants
of one and the same part.
What is its name?
2. What is the Russian name of the screw in the picture?
Please put down its English definition and find the
Russian equivalent in the dictionary.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Read the text,
2. Find in the text synonyms to the words:
to put, must.
3. Fill in the gap.
Alignment of headlights means ... ... the beams.
4. Remember the structure theX X theX.
Compose the sentences with the verbs "to position",
"to see", "to hit", using the model structure; theX X the
X.
5. Finish up the sentences.
Your headlights are well-adjusted. The bright spot is ...
... .
Now you use the dip beam. The bright spot is ... .
6. Describe your actions while checking your headlights.
25
TEXT 11
TESTING HORN WIPERS AND WASHERS
Next, check that the horn is in good working order; it must give an instant
response, and if there is more than one horn control, all must work. Furthermore, cars
registered after 1973 must have a horn that does not alternate in pitch. Generally,
there are not many repairs that can be done if it does not work. However, before
replacing it check that it is mounted securely; if it is loose the diaphragm may not
vibrate sufficiently to make a sound. Check also the fuse, wiring and relay (if fitted).
If al1 appears to be in good order, look on the rear of the horn. Some have a small
adjusting screw that acts upon the armature. Undoing the lockout and turning the
screw one way and the other may be enough to make the horn work.
The MOT test regulations state that the windscreen wipers must operate
efficiently and that the windscreen washers must be capable of clearing a muddy
screen.
Washers must provide an adequate flow of water to each blade and on normal
systems the water should flow after no more than two pushes of the pump. If northing
happens check the washer bottle and, if it is full, use a pin to clear any dirt from the
jets. Clear the pick-up tube filter, as well.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
Read the title of the text and try to explain why these
three parts should be checked simultaneously.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Read the text and find the names of three main
characteristics of a good horn.
2. Read the text for the second time and answer the
questions.
Why do you check a securely mounted horn?
What can you find at the rear of the horn?
How can you prove a good order of your washers?
When do you use a pin?
3. The words given below should be divided into three
groups. Give the names of these groups:
pick up tube, pin, horn, windscreen wipers, cars, pitch,
26
adjusting screw, pump, diaphragm, washers, sound, fuse,
jets, wiring, screen, relay, flow of water, armature,
washer bottle, blade, locknut.
4. Arrange the word combinations in the logic of the
author.
turn the screw, check the fuse, wiring and relay. undo the
locknut, check the horn, look at the back of the horn.
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITES:
1. You are checking the horn, it is mounted loosely.
Describe your actions.
2. You are checking the washers. The water does not flow
adequately even after five pushes of the pump.
Speak about your actions.
27
TEXT 12
EXAMINING THE TYRES
Tyres on the same axle of the car must be the same size and must be the same
construction. So, both must be the same sized radials or the same sized cross-plies.
Additionally, if you have a mix of tyres, the radials must be at the back and crossplies must be at the front. However, mixing tyres is not a good idea; it is better to
have all the same kind.
You must check each tyre for cuts and bulges, especially on the sidewall, and
for other damage. Remember to look on the inward facing wall of the tyre as well as
the side facing outwards. If you can see any damage buy a new tyre. You should also
examine the depth, using a tread depth gauge if there is any doubt. If you do not have
a depth gauge a rough and ready tread check is to use a normal 10p coin. The edge of
the coin should disappear fully into the tread. The law says that the tyre must have a
minimum of 1 mm of tread in a continuous pattern that covers at least three quarters
of the original tyre tread. You must also be able to see a continuous tread pattern over
the rest of the tyre.
This legal minimum is enough to keep you on the right side of the law. But if
the tread is so worn that you need to use a gauge to measure it, you should buy new
tyres. It is significant that police and civil service cars have their tyres replaced when
the tread wears down to 2 mm to preserve wet weather grip.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
1. Speak about tyres regulations in this country.
2. What do you understand by "examining the tyres?"
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Read the text for the first time and find all the words
speaking about tyres damages.
2. Read the text for the second time, and answer the
questions:
How should you position the tyres if they are not of the
same kind?
Why do you need a 10р coin?
28
3. Fill in the chart.
construction of
tyres
damages of tyres
tread depth of
tyres
NOUNS
VERBS
Nouns: tyres, same sized radials, same sized cross-plies,
at the back, at the front, cuts, bulges, other
damages, inward facing sidewall, tread depth, I,
we, outward sidewall, 10p coin, in the tread, edge
of the coin, pattern, 3/4 of the original tread.
Verbs: must be, have, cover, disappear, check, look,
examine.
4. Speak about three main problems while examining the
tyres.
5. Here are three situations, how would you act in each of
them:
a) You have a mix of tyres.
b) One of your tyres is very old.
c) You have not got a tread depth gauge.
29
TEXT 13
INSPECTING THE WHEELS
The MOT regulations say that each wheel should be inspected but without
removing hub caps or wheel trims: but this is only because the mechanic's time has to
be limited if the test fee is not to be excessive. From a safety point of view, you
should remove any trim so that you can make a thorough check.
Each road wheel must be securely fitted and there should be no loose or
missing hub nuts or broken studs. Look for any signs of damage and distortion on the
wheels and check the rims carefully. Any damage that is likely to cause the wheel to
leak air will get you a failure, especially a bent safety ledge.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Find in the text the synonims to the verb "to examine".
2. Continue the row: tyre - sidewall - tread - (wheel trim bent ledge) - hub cap - screw - locknut - (hub nut -stud ).
3. Finish the sentences:
Mechanic should not remove ... .
Road wheel must be ... .
There should not be .... .
You must look for ... .
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Describe your operations while inspecting the wheels.
2. In groups of 3 work out the plan of operations,
necessary to prepare tyres and wheels for the MOT.
30
TEXT 14
CHECKING THE SEAT BELTS
During the course of the test, the examiner will make sure that the driver's seat
is securely attached to the floor. If the seat is loose or broken the car will fail.
While you are inside the car, pull the belts out to make sure that they are not
cut, frayed or twisted. Check the operation of the buckle and that the reels work
properly on inertia belts. The reel should lock with a quick jerk and then release
immediately when the tension is released.
The belts must also be properly bolted to the anchorages and the anchorage
itself must be sound. The regulations state that a failure certificate should be issued if
there is any excessive corrosion within 30 cm (12 in.) of the seat belt anchorages.
If your car is fitted with inertia reel seat belts, the retracting mechanism should
be in good order. Pull out the belt and then release it to see that the webbing is
automatically rolled back into the unit.
Some people suggest that you can check inertia reel-belts by braking sharply
from 20 mph and checking that the belt locks as you lurch forward. 0nce the
deceleration is over the belt should reel out normally when you lean forward. But this
test is very risky. So to be safe simply pull the webbing sharply to check that it locks.
PROBLEM: Your friend worries he will not pass the test because of the seat
belts. Try to help him, the text will give you the clues.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Read the title of the text and think about the words you
hope to meet in it. Make a list of these words in Russian.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Find in the text the English equivalents to the words in
your list.
2. Answer the questions:
How much does the state of the driver's seat affect the
result of the test? Why is it necessary to pull the belts
out? How can you prove that reels work well? What are
the corrosion regulations?
3. Speak about a risky way of checking the inertia reel
belts.
31
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Draw a mind-map for the notion seat-belt.
2. From the list of units given below choose those
which should be checked before the testing of the seatbelts.
Headlight, wipers, washers, webbing, wheels, tyres,
driver's seat, hub nuts, buckle, edge, reel, axle, tread,
retracting mechanism, horn, screw, belt, lock.
3. Match the verbs or adjectives from the list below
associated with each of the units chosen.
to bolt, sound, cut, frayed, to attach, twisted, inertia, to
lock, to pull out, to release, to be loose, to be brocken.
4. Put down your actions associated with each
recommendation. Remember the structure the X X the X.
e.g.
- I attach the seat securely to the floor.
Check the belts.
Check the operation of the buckle and reels.
Check the anchorages.
Check the retracting mechanism.
5. Speak how you will help your friend preparing his car
for the test.
32
TEXT 15
GOING OVER THE EXHAUST
The remainder of the checks are under the car. At the MOT test station, the car
will be put up on а ramp or driven over a pit. At home, ramps or axle stands will do
just as well.
Start the checks under the car with the exhaust system - it should be in good
condition, securely mounted, with no leaks and have an effective silencer.
Examine the complete system for corrosion or other damage and tap any areas
that look heavily rusted with a screwdriver to make sure they are sound. Small holes
can be repaired with Holts exhaust paste and silencer bandages or the Flexi wrap
system but major corrosion means you will have to replace the system.
Check the mountings to ensure they are all present and are in good condition
and that they are securely fixed to the bodywork. Replace any hangers and straps that
are damaged.
Get an assistant to start the engine and check for leaks with your hand (do not
touch the hot pipe-work). Small leaks in pipes or boxes that are well sealed with
exhaust paste and bandages will usually pass. Badly sealed leaks will fail.
PROBLEM: The exhaust system of your car is not sound .You are afraid you
will not pass the MOT test.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
1. Read the title of the text and think about the exhaust
system.
HOLEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Make a list of words characterizing damages of the
exhaust system.
2. Answer the questions:
a) What does it mean - "sound exhaust system"?
b) What gadgets do you need for checking the exhaust
system?
c) How can you repair small holes?
33
POSTREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Put in pairs the words from the columns A and B.
station
system
silencer
holes
condition
small
good
MOT test
effective
exhaust
2. Which words belong to the exhaust system? axle, pit,
trim, leaks, belts, car, silencer, screw-driver, wheel,
corrosion, buckle, box, pipe, rim, hub hut, mounting,
hanger, strap, stud, anchorage, engine.
3. Cross out the odd word: rear, pit, axle stands, trims,
mountings, hangers, straps, buckles, screw-driver, paste,
bandages, bodywork.
4. Arrange the commands in your logic: start the
engine, check the leaks, examine the corrosion, check the
mountings, repair small holes, replace the hangers and
straps.
5. Use these commands as the clues for description of
your activities while preparing the exhaust system for
MOT test.
34
TEXT 16
INSPECTING THE BODYWORK
The basic structure of the car has to be in good condition if the vehicle is to be
safe on the road. Assuming there is no unrepaired crash damage, the single major
cause of MOT failure in this respect is corrosion.
This only applies to the structural parts of the bodywork, not the rest. In
general the important areas are those near suspension mounting points, steering
components, sub-frame mountings and other major chassis areas. These areas should
all be checked by pressing them with - for example - an old screwdriver. (Test
inspectors are not allowed to jab at suspect areas in this way, but they will certainly
lever and push the structure as well as carry out visual checks.)
If the areas you are checking give in or disintegrate, serious corrosion has set in
and welding will be required.
How much corrosion is acceptable depends very much on the individual tester,
using his experience and judgment to assess the extent of any weakening. The
Department of Transport Manual suggests that the tester should consider whether he
personally would feel safe riding at speed in the vehicle with the possibility of an
emergency stop taking place. It is a good idea to think about corrosion in the same
way when you make your own checks.
Start at the rear and look for any heavy rust or holes in the box sections or the
sub-frame. Pay special attention to the cross-members and the outriggers. Watch out
for rust behind the jacking points.
Check the suspension and shock absorber mounting points, particularly the
spring hangers on cars with leaf springs. Boot floors must be sound and rear
bulkheads on vehicles with sub-frames should be carefully inspected. Note that old
seal often hides chronic rust patches.
Next look at both the inner and the outer sills. A couple of holes in the outer
non-load bearing sills may pass but any in the inner, load bearing structures will fail
the car. To repair inner sills, new metal will have to be welded in. Brazing is not
acceptable. You can either weld new metal in yourself or leave it to a specialist.
Control floor pans should be rust-free and again any repair will involve
welding in new metal. Also check chassis cross-members and outriggers.
35
Now stove to the front of the car and examine the front suspension mounts and
the anti-roll bar mounting points. Inspect any sub-frame or chassis members and the
steering system mounts. Corrosion is not the only point to look for - you should also
check for wear and also distortion caused by accident damage.
If the car has MacPharson struts as its front suspension, look inside the bonnet
and check that the inner wing metal around the top suspension mount has not
corroded.
The corrosion of the upper bodywork like the wings and the bonnet does not
come into the test. However, you must ensure that there are no jagged edges of metal
caused by damage or corrosion that could cause injury.
PROBLEM: You bought your car ten years ago. Fortunately you had no
crashes, still you are not sure you will pass the MOT successfully.
Read the text. Do you know what to do now?
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
1. Look at the picture and tell us what unit of the car is
described.
2. What is your opinion about the main possible damage
of a bodywork?
.
3. Explain how you are going to inspect the body-work.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Find the answers to the questions:
What is the other name of the body-work? What is the
single major cause of MOT failure? What areas should
you check very attentively? How can you check these
areas? When do we need welding?
2. Using the information of the text, fill in the chart.
Corrosion - checking.
Areas of checking
Possible instrument
Checking activities
Proofs corrosion
Necessary repairing
36
3. On the scheme put the ticks in places of the most
important areas of body-inspection.
4. In the text find the nouns matching the following
verbs:
to mount, to weld, to press, to check.
5. Use the structure the X X the X to make the
sentences with the above pairs of words.
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Give an algorithm of your actions while inspecting
the condition of your car body.
INSPECTING ТНЕ BODYWORK p.11.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
1. Look at the scheme and give the Russian names to the
pointed units.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Read and translate passages 1,2.
2. Put down all the terms you meet there.
VOCABULARY:
1. The verb "to check" is the most frequently used one in
this text.
Try to find the other verbs having the same
meaning:
to check 2. You already know the verb "weld". There is another
verb in the text of the same sphere. Look for it.
3. Continue the list of words with the meaning
"damages."
4. Group the terms given below according the specific
areas they belong to:
Parts of the body
Parts of the car
boot floor, sub-frame, suspension, bonnet, wing,
37
shock-absorbers, inner/outer sills, box bulkheads, crossmember, spring hangers, leaf springs, anti-roll bar,
McPherson struts, floor pan, body, steering system, top
suspension mount, outriggers.
5. Fill in the chart your recommendations on bodychecking.
Part of the body
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITY:
Inspected unit
Place and form of
possible corrosion
1. Look through the text once again. Make a plan of the
whole text.
2. Compose a short summary of the text, using the
following phrases.
The title of the text is ... .
There are some parts in the text.
The 1st part deals with ... .
In the second part we find ... .
The text speaks about ... .
38
TEXT 17
CHECKING THE HANDBRAKE
At the test the examiner will look carefully at all the brake components to
ensure that there are no obvious signs of damage, corrosion or wear. Assuming all
appears to be well, the brakes will be tested on a rolling road to ensure that they are
reasonably efficient.
Start by checking the handbrake. It should not be difficult to apply and the
travel distance to pull the brakes hard on should not be excessive. The normal amount
of travel allowed is between three and five clicks on the ratchet, although different
design tolerances are taken into account.
Next, check that the handbrake is securely bolted to the floor or the underside
of the dashboard. Floor mounted levers have been known to pull out of the floor so
check for cracks and rust around the mounting brackets.
Most car manufacturers seem to have different ways of connecting brakes at
the wheels to the handbrake, but regardless of the system it must be regularly
lubricated.
With the car on axle stands or ramps let the handbrake off and follow the routs
of the linkage, cleaning off any dirt with a wire brush, and dosing stuff joints with
penetrating oil. On cable systems look for signs of fraying. If more than two strands
of wire have parted, the tester will give you a fail.
The lever pivot and its bearings should be in good condition. Grasp the
handbrake and test for sideways play. Tighten the pivot bolt or fit a new washer if
necessary. If there is still too much slack after adjusting the back brakes, adjust the
linkage under the car.
PROBLEM: A new worker (assistant) comes to you car repairing shop. You
are instructing him how to check the handbrake to be sure it is ready for MOT.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITY:
1. Speak about a handbrake.
How do you apply it?
How does its condition affect the safety of a car?
39
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Read the text arid answer the questions:
What is the examiner looking for?
What do you check, inspecting the bolting of the
handbrake to the floor?
What parts of the handbrake need lubrication?
How do you check the lever pivot?
2. Translate the 2d and 3d passages of the text.
3. In the text find all the words with the meaning "parts of
the handbrake".
4. Make the mind map for the checking operations of the
handbrake.
5. Find synonyms to the words "damage" and "checking".
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITY:
1. Put down the plan of the text.
2. Give a short summary of the text.
3. Describe three main operations while checking the
handbrake.
4. Using the model structure "do smth." put down the
algorithm of your recommendations to the young
assistant on handbrake checking.
40
TEXT 18
EXAMINING THE HYDRAULICS
First of all, check that the brake pedal itself is not fractured or twisted. Then
press it down hard to the floor and note the point where you can feel that the brakes
have come on fully.
Let the pedal up again and press it down again hard. It should stop going down
at exactly the same position as before. If it stops higher off the floor, the brakes have
got air in them and the pedal will probably feel spongy. In most cases, all you have to
do here is to bleed the brakes but if the pedal slowly creeps down to the floor when
you apply the pressure, the master cylinder is probably faulty and must be rebuilt or
replaced. If you can see signs of fluid on the mat near the top of the brake pedal, this
confirms that the master cylinder is faulty and leaking badly.
If there is no sign of fluid leaking there, there may be a serious leak somewhere
else in the hydraulic system.
In any case you should now cheek the hydraulic brake fluid reservoir to see
that the level has not dropped below the minimum line. Where the reservoir cap has a
rubber seal the tester will check for signs of distortion caused by fluid contamination.
This will warn of likely seal damage elsewhere in the system.
Now get under the car while an assistant depresses the brakes to pressurize the
hydraulic system. There will be at least two flexible hoses, one to each wheel, with
one end fixed to the body shell. Brush off any dirt from the hoses and look for marks
or small cracks on he surface which may indicate they have started to perish or have
been rubbing anywhere. Fit a new hose if there is any sign of this.
Next, look at the metal brake pipes which must be securely clipped to the
underside of the body. If they are hanging down loose, fit new clips to hold them
properly. Then brush off the surface dirt and rust so that you cars inspect the metal of
the pipes. This must be in good condition and any rust must be on the surface - pitting
means that the pipes must be replaced.
Finally, check the metal and the flexible pipes for slight isaks. These are most
likely to occur at the various unions but you might find others on the caliper or
behind the brake backplate.
41
PROBLEM: You are prepairing your car fur MOT. Read the text and speak
about your actions in testing the hydraulics.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. What does the word "hydraulic" mean? What kind of
hydraulic do we have in the car?
2. Look at the pictures.
What are the Russian names of these parts?
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Read the text and answer the questions:
Why do we press the pedal while checking the
hydraulics?
What should we do if we see the signs of fluid
on the sap?
How do we check the hoses?
What should we do with the metal pipes?
2. Translate the second passage of the text.
3. Read the text attentively and fill in the chart.
"Checking different exponents of hydraulic system"
Pedal brake Flexible
Metal pipes
Hoses
Checking
Activity
Cause of the
fault
Possible
repairing
4. Continue the list of words associated with Hydraulic
System.
Hydraulic System - to break pedal 5. Give a plan of the text.
6. Put down a short summary.
7. Suppose you suspect a fault of hydraulic system. What
should you do?
42
TEXT 19
TESTING THE BRAKES
Look for signs of scoring on both sides of the disc – you can use a mirror to see
the back of the disc if it is covered by a metal shield. The tester will also look to see if
any small items like pad retaining springs or split pins are missing from the brake
caliper. The tester will not strip the brakes at all during the test but he checks on the
thickness of the brake pads as this can be done very easily.
If you have drum brakes, any brake shoe adjusters will be examined as will the
drum back plates for any signs of hydraulic fluid weeping from a wheel cylinder.
Now – a road test of the car to check brake efficiency. An emergency stop from
30 mph should be almost instantaneous. From 50 mph, you should be able to feel
yourself thrown forward by the power of the brakes. The brakes must also work
evenly, so drive slowly along a quiet road. When no other traffic is about, apply the
brakes gently while keeping just a light hold on the steering wheel. The car should
pull up straight without any feeling that the car is being pulled to one side.
Next, drive along and again slacken your hold on the steering wheel. If the car
pulls to one side, even when the brakes have not been applied, this may mean that
one of the brakes is binding. Check by jacking up each wheel in turn and trying to
rotate the wheels with the gear lever in neutral.
While you are out on the road, try applying the brakes very lightly to see if
there is any grabbing or judder.
PROBLEM: You work in a repairing workshop and have a young assistant.
You are teaching him how to prepare brakes for testing. Read the text and use the
information given below.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Read the title.
2. How does a tester check the brakes in this country?
3. Put down Russian names of the parts shown in the
picture.
4. How would you explain the activity in the top part of
the picture?
43
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Read the text and find the answers to the following
questions:
Why does a tester use a mirror?
What items of the brakes will a tester check?
Where will a tester look for any signs of hydraulic
fluid?
What parts will you check during a road test?
What should you do if the car pulls to one side?
2. Translate the 3d passage.
3. Read attentively the first two passages and fill in the
chart.
Examined part
Possible damage
The verb used
4. From the 3d passage put down all the verbs associated
with the work of the brakes.
5. Use the information of the 4th passage to describe your
activities in the algorithm:
car pulls to one side - the cause of this fault -your
activities
5. Read the text attentively once again and distribute all
the terms into four groups:
Braking
system
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITIES:
Road
Steering
maintenance system
Transmission
system
1. Put down the plan of the text.
2. Compose a short summary of the text.
3. You are pressing the pedal of your brakes but the car
doesn't stop. What should you do?
4. Describe your actions while checking the brakes inside
the testing shop and during the road test.
44
TEXT 20
TESTING THE DRIVESHAFTS
This mostly applies to front wheel drive cars but also to rear wheel drive cars
where the drive is carried out from the differential in the centre of the car to the
wheels by separate drive shafts.
With the car jacked up and the front wheels off, examine the rubber boot at
each end of the driveshaft. The boots are roughly conical in shape with a set of folds
to allow the suspension to move. The boots must be securely clipped to the driveshaft
at each end and must be free of tears and cuts so that the grease is retained in the
joint.
The driveshaft joints themselves must also be free of wear. You can test this by
twisting the plain centre section of the driveshaft backwards and forwards. When you
do this, you will probably hear a slight click and the shaft may move a little but if
there is more than 1/8 in movement, you will probably have to replace the outer joint
on that shaft as that is the one that usually wears out first. You can confirm that the
outer joint is worn by holding the shaft still and moving the wheel slightly to make
the wear show up more clearly.
Unfortunately you have to disconnect the front suspension and withdraw the
driveshaft before you can replace any parts of the driveshaft.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Look at the picture. Do you guess the part? Why is it
so important? How does it work?
2. Make a list of terms in Russian you are expecting to
find in the text.
3. Modal equivalents.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Read the first two passages of the text for the first time
and answer the question:
How is the drive carried out in the front wheel drive cars?
2. Read the text again and find in the text the Russian
equivalents to the terms.
3. Find in the 1st and the 2d passages the nouns matching
the following verbs.
45
to carry out
to jack up
to clip
to retain
4. Using the models the X X the X and the X is Xed by
the X, speak about the boots.
5. Read and translate the 3d and the 4th passages of the
text.
6. Put down the list of actions describing the process of
driveshaft joints checking.
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Give a summary of the text.
2. Speak about driveshaft joints' testing, using the
models:
The X is the X
The X X the X
The X is Xed by the X.
46
TEXT 21
CHECKING THE STEERING
The steering mechanism is a very important part of the MOT test. The whole
assembly will be examined for excessive wear particularly the track rod ends
themselves.
Start your checks on the steering from the driver's seat. Rock the steering
wheel from side to side testing for any movement between the steering wheel and the
column shaft; only a small amount of play is acceptable.
Again rock the steering wheel from side to side. If there appears to be
movement in the steering column universal joints or couplings open the bonnet and
grip the joint while an assistant holds the steering wheel. You will be able to feel any
slackness in a universal joint and you can generally see when a flexible joint has
excessive movement. Even if there is only a small amount of play in the column joint
the car will fail.
Any excess play at the steering wheel must now be checked against the
steering linkage.
With a steering box, there must be no more than 3in, movement at the wheel
rim before the drop arm moves. The tester will also check to see if the drop arm
moves up and down in the steering box casing.
If you have rack and pinion steering get your assistant to rock the wheel fairly
vigorously while you check for any up and down play inside the gaiter between the
rack and its housing and for wear in the ball joint inside the gaiter. Check the rubber
gaiters for splits as this is a frequent fail point and very easy to put right.
The rack must be securely mounted, so check the U bolts are securely fastened.
Use a tyre lever between the rack or the steering box and the car body to see if there
is any movement apart from the distortion of any rubber mountings that are fitted.
Next test the track rod ends. Hold the body of the joint firmly in one hand and
try to move the steering arm attached to the hub assembly with the other. Any
movement here means a fail.
This is also a good moment to check for wear in the ball joints in the front
suspension, though it does come up later as well. With wishbone suspension, jack up
load of the spring. Then fit a tyre lever between the upright and the wishbone and see
if there is any movement between thorns in the ball joint.
You might got a pass if there is a little up and down movement in the joint but
if you can detect any wear from side to side this indicates that you must renew the
ball joint before you will got a MOT pass certificate.
47
MacPherson strut front suspension only has one ball joint, so fit your tyre lever
into the gap between the wheel rim and the end of the track control area and try to
lever the wheel away from the arm. No wear is allowed here.
PROBLEM: A customer comes to your repair - shop. He has some problems
with his steering system. You should find a fault. At the end of the lesson you will
inform us about the results of your inspection.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. What main components of the steering system do you
know?
2. Look at the pictures. Can you guess these units?
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Answer the questions:
What fault can you find while checking-steering system at
the driver's seat?
How do you check steering column?
Why is it important to check the gaiter?
How do you test the track rod ends?
2. Translate the 3d, the 6th and the 7th passages.
3. Here are very important terms:
Steering, joint, suspension, arm.
In the text find all the word combinations with one of these
words. Give their Russian equivalents.
4. Make a list of all verbs, describing the checking activities.
5. What is common for these words:
play - movement - slackness.
6. Read the text for the second time and fill in the chart:
Tested Unit
Checking Activity Possible Fault
POSTREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Write down a plan of the text.
2. Compose a summary of the text.
3. Using the above chart and your plan of the text describe
your actions on different stages of the checking process.
Remember the structures:
the X X the X
there is the X in the X
the X is the X.
48
TEXT 22
CHECKING WHEEL BEARINGS
You can tell when the front wheel bearings are loose or worn by checking the
hub, with the wheel attached to it, for free play. Some people try to do this with the
road wheel still resting on the ground, but it is far better to make the check after the
front of the car has been jacked up and supported with axle stands. Grasp the top and
bottom of the tyre and try to rock it backwards and forwards. Then switch your hands
to the three o'clock-nine o'clock position and rock the wheel again. If the amount of
movement at both these positions is roughly the same the wheel bearings are loose.
Try not to confuse this movement with wear in the steering linkage or the
suspension.
Bearing adjustment varies from car to car, but at the maximum there should be
no more than 1/16 in. movement at the tyre. You can take off the hubcap and adjust
the bearing on some cars but on others, the only thing to do is to fit a new bearing.
While the front wheels are off the ground, spin them by hand and listen for any
noises which could be caused by a faulty bearing. Very slight noise may be cured by
packing the bearings with fresh grease.
PROBLEM: Sometimes, when you are driving at great speed along the
highway, you hear some noise. You don't like it and try to get rid of it. Reading the
handbook may help you.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Do you know anything about the faults of the
bearings?
2. Why are these faults dangerous?
3. What does it mean: "three o'clock – nine o'clock
position"?
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Read and translate the first passage.
2. What should you do if the movement at the tyre is
more than 1/16 in?
3. Why is it necessary to spin the front wheels while they
are off the ground?
49
4. Put down the list of verbs describing the checking
activities. Then find the nouns matching these verbs. For
example check - the hub.
5. Which activities are typical for all checking operations
and which are specific for this one?
6. Put down the algorithm of your actions while checking
the wheel bearings.
Begin the sentences with pronoun "I".
Use the model the X X the X.
7. Divide the text into logical parts and give the names to
the parts.
8. Describe your actions if
a) you hear some noise in the wheel;
b) you think that the bearing is loose.
50
TEXT 23
TESTING THE DRIVE TRAIN
This section only applies to cars with rear-wheel drive as FWD cars have
already been covered, but if your car has independent rear suspension check the
driveshaft running out to the wheels as if they were FWD drive shafts, looking for
movement in the joints and tears in the rubber boots.
On almost all rear wheel drive cars, you will see the propeller shaft running
back from the gearbox to the back axle. At each end there is usually a universal joint.
Hold one side of the joint still and twist the other side to see if you can feel
movement. Any one at all here means that you must fit new universal joints.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. What are the components of the Drive Train?
2. Make a list of terms you are expecting in the text.
3. Make a list of verbs describing the checking activity.
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Read the text and answer the questions:
What should you look for while checking the drive
shafts?
Where is the propeller shaft? Draw a scheme.
How do you check the universal joints?
2. Group the following words according to the spheres
they belong. Fill the chart.
Type of the shaft
Types of the fault
1
2
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Describe your actions, while checking the universal
joints. Begin each sentence with the pronoun "I", For
example " I inspect the universal joint",
2. Summing up. Speak about the main part which should
be inspected when testing the drive train.
3. Put down the plan of the text and а summary.
4. Tell your partner how you test the drive train in your
car.
51
TEXT 24
BOUNCE TESTING THE SHOCK ABSORBERS
A test for the shock absorbers has recently been added to the MOT test. The
first thing to check is the external corrosion. If the casing is really badly rusted or you
can see the oil from inside trickling down the metal casing, this is enough to get a
fail.
The other external item that will be checked is the rubber bush fitted at each
end of the unit. If the bush shows signs of perishing or breaking up again you will get
a fail.
But the real test is to bounce with your weight up and down on the wing. When
you release it, the wing should rise up again, dip once slightly and then come to rest
completely.
This test applies to cars with either wishbone or MacPherson strut suspension
but if you have a Leyland car with either Hydrolastic or Hydragas suspension, it does
not apply. Shock absorbers just bolt on to most cars with wishbone suspension but it
is a bit more difficult with struts.
PRE-READING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Look at the picture.
What is the man doing?
How do we prepare the shock absorbers for the MOT
in this country?
WHILEREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. In the 1st passage find the words describing the
external corrosion of the shock absorbers.
2. Answer the question:
How should you check the rubber bush?
3. Read and translate the 3d passage.
4. From the 4th passage put down the names of different
suspensions.
5. Draw a mind map of the terms describing the shock
absorbers' checking.
6. Make up a list of verbs describing the inspection of
shock absorbers.
AFTERREADING
ACTIVITIES:
1. Put down the algorithm of your checking activities.
2. Retell the text.
52
Reference Grammar
Глагол To be
Таблица 1
I am
He is
She is
It is
Am I?
Is he?
Is it?
Are we?
Are you?
Are they?
I was
He was
She was
It was
Was I?
Was he?
Was she?
Was it?
Спряжение глагола to be (быть)
в Present Indefinite Tense
I am not
We are
We are not
He is not
You are
You are not
She is not They are
They are not
It is not
Yes, I am.
No, I am not.
Yes, he is.
No, he isn’t.
Yes, she is.
No, she isn’t.
Yes, we are.
Yes, you are.
Yes, they are.
No, we aren’t.
No, you aren’t.
No, they aren’t.
Таблица 2
Cпряжение глагола to be (быть) в Past Indefinite Tense
We were
I was not
We were not
You were
He was not
You were not
They were
She was not
They were not
It was not
Were we?
Yes, I was
No, I was not.
Were you?
Were they?
53
Present Simple, Present Continuous, Future Simple
Таблица 3
Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Present Indefinite Tense
(действие совершается обычно)
I work
I do not work
We work
We do not work
He works He does not work
You work
You do not work
She works She does not work
They work
They do not work
It works
It does not work
Do I work?
Yes, I do.
No, I don't.
Does he work?
Yes, he does. No, he doesn't.
Does she work?
Yes, she does. No, she doesn't.
Does it work?
Yes, it does. No, it doesn't.
Do we work?
Do you work?
Do they work?
Yes, we do.
Yes, you do.
Yes, they do.
No, we don't.
No, you don't.
No, they don't.
Таблица 4
Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Present Continuous Tense
(действие в процессе, совершается в тот момент, когда о нем говорят)
I am working
I am not working
We are working We are not working
He is working
He is not working You are working You are not working
She is working She is not working They are working They are not
It is working
It is not working
working
Am I working?
Yes, I am.
No, I am not.
Is he working?
Yes, he is.
No, he isn't.
Is she working?
Yes, she is.
No, she is not.
Is it working?
It is not working.
Are we working?
Are you working?
Are they working?
Yes, we are. No, we aren't
Yes, you are. No, you aren't.
Yes, they are. No, they aren't.
54
Таблица 5
Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Future Indefinite Tense
(действие будет совершаться в будущем)
I shall work
I shall not work
We shall work We shall not work
He will work
He will not work You will work You will not work
She will work
She will not work They will work They will not work
It will work
It will not work
Shall I work?
Yes, I shall
No, I shan't
Will he work?
Yes, he will
No, he won't
Will she work?
Yes, she will
No, she won't
Will it work?
Yes, it will
No, it won't
Shall we work?
Will you work?
Will they work?
Yes, we shall
Yes, you will
Yes, they will
No, we shan't
No, you won't
No, they won't
Past Simple, Past Continuous, Present Perfect
Таблица 6
Спряжение глагола to work ( работать) в Past Indefinite Tense
правильные глаголы (действие совершалось в прошлом)
I worked
I did not work
He worked
He did not work
She worked
She did not work
It worked
It did not work
We worked
You worked
They worked
Did I work?
Did he work?
Did she work?
Did it work?
We did not work
You did not work
They did not work
Yes, I did
Yes, he did
Yes, she did
Yes, it did
No, I didn't
No, he didn't
No, she didn't
No, it didn't
Did we work?
Did you work?
Did they work?
Yes, we did
Yes, you did
Yes, they did
No, we didn't
No, you didn't
No, they didn't
55
Таблица 7
Спряжение глагола to write (писать) в Past Indefinite Tense
неправильные глаголы (действие совершалось в прошлом)
I wrote
We wrote
I did not write
We did not write
He wrote
You wrote
He did not write You did not write
She wrote
They wrote
She did not write They did not write
It wrote
It did not write
Did I write?
Yes, I did.
No, I didn't
Did he write?
Yes, he did.
No, he didn't
Did she write?
Yes, she did
No, she didn't
Did it write?
Yes, it did
No, it didn't
Did we write?
Did you write?
Did they write?
Yes, we did
Yes, you did
yes, they did
No, we didn't
No, you didn't
No, they didn't
Сравните употребление Present Continuous (действие протекает в момент
речи) и Past Continuous (действие протекало в определенный момент в
прошлом)
Таблица 8
Спряжение глагола to work (работать) в Past Continuous Tense (действие
в процессе, совершалось в определенный момент или протекало в течение
четко ограниченного периода времени в прошлом)
I was working
I was not working
He was working
He was not working
She was working
She was not working
It was working
It was not working
We were working
You were working
They were working
Was I working?
Was he working?
Was she working?
Was it working?
Were we working?
Were you working?
Were they working?
We were not working
You were not working
They were not working
Yes, I was
No, I wasn't
Yes, he was
No, he wasn't
Yes, she was
No, she wasn't
Yes, it was
No, it wasn't
Yes, we were
No, we weren't
Yes, you were
No, you weren't
Yes, they were
No, they weren't
56
Таблица 9
Сравните употребление Past Indefinite и Past Continuous. Обратите
внимание на обстоятельства времени, характерные для Past Continuous:
at ... o' clock yesterday
when mother came home
from 5 till 6 yesterday
the whole evening
Обратите также внимание на следующие два предложения : We
played chess in the evening (вечером) - Past Indefinite
We were playing chess the whole evening (весь вечер) - Past Continuous
Обратите внимане на следующие предложения: Father was reading; at 7
o'clock yesterday. Действие в процессе
Past Continuous. Father came home at 7 o'clock yesterday. Однократное
действие
Past Indefinite
Запомните типичные для Present Perfect обстоятельства: already, not yet, just,
ever, never.
Сравните также:
I have bought a book today (this week, this month) неистекший отрезок времени
- Present Perfect.
I bought a book yesterday (last week, last month) истекший отрезок времени Past Indefinite.
Запомните также следующие предложения:
I have never been to France.
I haven't seen you for ages.
Have you ever been to London?
I haven't met him for a long time.
I haven't been to London since last year.
57
Таблица 10
Спряжение глагола to write (писать) Present Perfect Tense
(действие, совершившееся в прошлом, связано с настоящим)
I have written
I have not written
He has written
He has not written
She has written
She has not written
It has written
It has not written
We have written
You have written
They have written
Have I written?
Has he written?
Has she written?
Has it written?
We have not written
You have not written
They have not written
Yes, I have
No, I haven't
Yes, he has
No, he hasn't
Yes, she has
No, she hasn't
Yes, it has
No, it hasn't
Have we written?
Have you written?
Have they written?
Yes, we have
Yes, you have
Yes, they have
Passive voice
No, we haven't
No, you haven't
No, they haven't
Таблица 11
I am taken
He is taken
She is taken
It is taken
We are taken
You are taken
They are taken
I was taken
He was taken
She was taken
It was taken
We were taken
You were taken
They were taken
Спряжение глагола to take (брать, отводить)
во временах группы Indefinite в Passive Voice
Present Indefinite Passive
I am not taken
Am I taken?
He is not taken
Is he taken?
She is not taken
Is she taken?
It is not taken
Is it taken?
We are not taken
You are not taken
They are not taken
Past Indefinite Passive
I was not taken
He was not taken
She was not taken
It was not taken
We were not taken
You were not taken
They were not taken
Are we taken?
Are you taken?
Are they taken?
Was I taken?
Was he taken?
Was she taken?
Was it taken?
Were we taken?
Were you taken?
Were they taken?
58
Таблица 12
Спряжение глагола to take (брать, отводить)
во временах группы Indefinite в Passive Voice
Future Indefinite Passive
I shall be taken
I shall not be taken
Shall I be taken?
He will be taken
He will not be taken
Will he be taken?
She will be taken
She will not be taken
Will she be taken?
It will be taken
It will not be taken
Will it be taken?
We shall be taken
You will be taken
They will be taken
We shall not be taken
You will not be taken
They will not be taken
Сравните:
I take (я отвожу)
I took (я отвел)
I shall take (я отведу) -
Shall we be taken?
Will you be taken?
Will they be taken?
I am taken (меня отводят)
I was taken (меня отвели)
I shall be taken (меня отведут)
Таблица всех времен в Passive Voice
Present
Past
Future
Future in the Past
Letters are
The letter was
The letter will be (He said that)
written every
written tomorrow the letter would be
written
day
yesterday
written the next day
The letter is
being written
now
The letter has
already been
written
Perfect
Perfect
Continuou
s
Continuo
us
Indefinit
e
Таблица 13
------------------
The letter was
being written at
5 o'clock
yesterday
The letter had
been written by
5 o'clock
yesterday
---------------------- -----------------------The letter will
have been
written by 5
o'clock tomorrow
(He said that) the
letter would have
been written by 5
o'clock the next day
-------------------- ---------------------- ------------------------
59
Infinitive
Таблица 14
Запомните случаи, в которых инфинитив употребляется без частицы "to":
после модальных глаголов;
после глаголов to let и to make;
в сложном дополнении после глаголов восприятия:
to see, to hear, to feel, etc.
после выражений:
I would rather ..., you had better...
Таблица 15
Сравните употребление
Active Infinitive и Passive Infinitive
to write - to be written
I am glad to help you - рад помочь (рад,
что я помогаю)
I am glad to be helped - рад, что мне
помогают
Сравните употребление
Indefinite Infinitive и Perfect Infinitive
to write - to have written
I am glad to see you - рад видеть вас
(рад, что вижу)
I am glad to have seen you - рад, что
повидал вас
Таблица 16
Indefinite
Continuous
Формы инфинитива
Active
to write
to be writing
Perfect
Perfect Continuous
to have written
to have been writing
Passive
to be written
-------------------------------to have been written
---------------------------------
60
Passive
Active
Таблица 17
Что значат эти формы?
Рассмотрите предложения, иллюстрирующие значение разных форм
инфинитива
чему я рад?
рад поговорить с
Indefinite
I am glad to speak
вами (всегда
with you
радуюсь, когда
говорю)
рад, что сейчас
Continuous
I am glad to be
разговариваю
speaking with you
рад, что поговорил
Perfect
I am glad to have
spoken with you
Perfect Continuous
I am glad to have been рад, что уже давно
(все
это
время)
speaking with you
разговариваю
Indefinite
I am (always) glad to всегда рад, когда мне
рассказывают
be told the news
новости
что
мне
Perfect
I am glad to have been рад,
рассказали
told the news
Participles (I and II)
Таблица 18
Present
Perfect
Past
Формы причастия Participle I и Participle II
Active
Passive
writing
being written
having written
having been written
-------------------------------- written
----
61
Таблица 19
Сравните употребление Participle I ("ing"-форма) и Participle II (III форма
глагола)
taking - берущий, беря
taken - взятый
doing - делающий, делая done - сделанный
Таблица 20
Сравните употребление
Present Participle и Perfect Participle
buying - покупая
having bought - купив
Таблица 21
Past Participle = Participle II
III форма глагола
broken - сломанный, разбитый
She watched the children writing the
written - написанный
dictation.
eaten - съеденный
Writing the dictation, he made only one
mistake.
The dictation written the day before was
corrected.
Таблица 22
Формы
причастия
reading
having read
being read
having been
read
read
Как переводить разные формы причастия
на русский язык
Как их переводить
Причастием
Деепричастием
читающий
читая
-------------------------- прочитав
читаемый (т.е.
будучи читаемым (т.е. когда его
который читают)
читали)
будучи прочитанным (т.е. когда
его прочитали)
--------------------------- будучи прочитанным (т.е. когда
его прочитали)
----------------------------------------------прочитанный
62
The Complex Subject
Таблица 23
He is said to know six languages. Говорят, что он знает шесть языков.
He was said to know six languages.
Говорили, что он знает шесть языков.
He is said to have gone to London.
Говорят, что он уехал в Лондон.
He was said to have gone to London. Говорили, что он уехал в Лондон.
Обратите внимание, что сказуемое выражено глаголом в Passive Voice
Таблица 24
Следующая таблица поможет вам переводить предложения, содержащие
Complex Subject
He was said to work a lot. - Говорили, что он много работает.
.... was said to ...
- Говорили, что ...
.... was seen to ...
- Видели, что ...
.... was heard to ...
- Слышали, что ...
.... was supposed to ...
- Предполагали, что ...
.... was believed to ...
- Полагали, что ...
.... was expected to ...
- Ожидали, что ...
.... was reported to ...
- Сообщали, что ...
.... was considered to ... - Считали, что ...
.... was thought to ...
- Думали, что ...
.... was fount to ...
- Обнаружили, что ...
.... was announced to ...
- Объявили, что ...
.... was known to ...
- Было известно, что
The Gerund
Seeing a good film is a pleasure
We thought of seeing a film after
supper.
He went home without seeing the
film.
63
Таблица 25
Indefinite
Perfect
Формы герундия
Active
writing
having written
Passive
being written
having been written
Таблица 26
Perfect
Indefinite
Что значат эти формы?
Рассмотрите предложения, иллюстрирующие значение разных форм герундия
Что он любит?
Active
He likes telling fairy-tales.
рассказывать
Passive
He likes being told fairy-tales
чтобы ему рассказывали
Чем он гордится?
Active
He is proud of having spoken to this
outstanding person
что поговорил
Passive
He is proud of having been spoken to.
что с ним поговорили
Таблица 27
Запомните следующие глаголы и выражения, требующие после себя герундия
to avoid
to excuse
to keep (on)
to burst out
to finish
to mind
cannot help
to forgive
to postpone
to deny
to give up
to put off
to enjoy
to go on
to stop
64
Таблица 28
Запомните следующие глаголы и выражения, требующие после себя герундия с
определенными предлогами
to accuse of
to give up the
to rely on
to agree to
idea of
to succeed in
to approve of
to insist on
to suspect of
to be afraid of
to look forward to
to thank for
to complain of
to object to
to think of
to depend on
to persist in
to feel like
to prevent from
Таблица 29
Сравните:
I don't mind opening the window.
I don't mind his opening the window.
She did not object to doing the room.
She did not object to my doing the room.
She insisted on being allowed to go home.
She insisted on her son being allowed to go home.
The Modal Verbs and their Equivalents
Модальные глаголы и конструкции
Модальные глаголы и конструкции сами действия не выражают. Они
обязательно имеют при себе смысловой глагол:
I can`t + do that . - Я не могу это сделать.
You must + do that . - Вы должны это сделать.
Сами модальные глаголы не имеют всего набора глагольных форм, т.е.
это глаголы дефектные или неполные:
Таблица 30
саn – мочь /смочь
Past
Present
Future
I couldn`t do that. - Я не
(с)мог этого сделать.
I can`t do that. – Я не
могу этого сделать.
нет формы
65
Таблица 31
must – должен/
должна/должно/должны
Past
Present
Future
нет формы
You must do that. – Вы
должны это сделать.
нет формы
Окончание -s не прибавляется:
Таблица 32
I саn do that. Я могу это сделать.
=
Natasha саn do that.
Наташа может это сделать.
После модальных глаголов частица to не ставится.
сравните:
I don`t want to do that. - You must do that.
Я не хочу это делать. - Вы должны это сделать.
В вопросах и отрицательных предложениях модальные глаголы ведут
себя как "силачи": т.е. для образования отрицания и вопроса им не требуются
вспомогательные глаголы:
I can do that. - Я могу это сделать.
I cannot do that. - Я не могу этого сделать.
Can you do that? - Ты можешь это сделать?
Модальные глаголы могут придать речи на английском языке
эмоциональность, правильное употребление поможет передать
тонкие оттенки нашего отношения к тому или иному предмету
разговора, выразить состояние своей души, показать вежливое,
почтительное или грубое отношение к кому-либо или чемулибо.
Для того, чтобы правильно выбрать нужный нам модальный глагол,
необходимо прежде всего подумать о смысле всей фразы, о том, какую цель мы
хотим достичь. Лишь после этого подобрать именно тот, который необходим
нам именно сейчас.
66
Если говорить в общем, то модальные глаголы служат для выражения:
способности / неспособности выполнять то или иное действие;
разрешения;
запрета;
намерения;
возможности того или иного действия;
вероятности;
желания;
правильности/неправильности действия;
одобрения/ неодобрения;
необходимости;
уверенности;
предчувствия или предсказания событий.
МОДАЛЬНЫЙ ГЛАГОЛ CAN
Общее значение:
быть способным или в состоянии что-то делать / сделать, иметь
возможность или шанс что-то делать / сделать.
1. глагол - can (could)
2. конструкция - be able to
Таблица 33
Глагол
Present
Past
сan
can
could
to be able to
выражает
реальную
возможность,
физическую
или
умственную
способность
am (is, are) able was ( were) able will (shall) be
to
to
able to
I can do it.( I am I could do it . (I I shall be able
able to do it).
was able to do to do it. Я
Я могу (в
it). Я мог (был смогу ( буду в
состоянии,
в состоянии,
состоянии,
умею) делать умел) сделать сумею) это
это.
это.
сделать.
Future
67
Глагол can (could) употребляется, когда мы говорим об
интеллектуальных возможностях или способностях человека, навыках и
умениях (или их отсутствии).
I can read English, but I can`t speak it. - Я читаю по-английски, но я не могу
говорить.
I can`t swim. - Я не умею плавать.
I can`t drive a car. - Я не умею водить машину.
Bопросы:
Can you play chess? - Вы умеете играть в шахматы?
My father could play the guitar. - Мой отец раньше играл на гитаре.
Во многих случаях глагол can, could на русский язык не переводится.
Глагол can (could) может употребляться, когда сообщают о
возможности или невозможности совершить действие в конкретной
ситуации или выясняется эта возможность:
1. События относятся к настоящему и будущему:
Can you come ? - Ты придѐшь? (Ты можешь прийти?)
I can`t answer this question. - Я не могу ответить на этот вопрос.
We can go to the disco tonight. - Сегодня можно сходить на дискотеку.
2. События относятся к прошлому:
We couldn`t park there, it was prohibited. - Мы не могли там поставить машину:
там запрещена стоянка.
Maradona was ill, so he couldn`t play yesterday. - Марадона заболел, поэтому он
вчера не играл.
Глагол can (could) употребляется при характеристике предмета,
животного, вещества:
This car can go very fast. - Эта машина развивает (может развить) большую
скорость.
Cats cannot swim. - Кошки не умеют плавать.
68
Глагол
can
(could)
используется,
когда
физические
или
интеллектуальные способности человека проявляются в конкретной
ситуации полностью, частично или совсем не могут проявиться:
настоящее время
It`s too dark. I can`t see anything. – Слишком темно, я ничего не вижу.
I can smell gas. - Я чувствую запах газа.
прошедшее время
I couldn`t see anything. - Ничего не было видно.
I couldn`t understand what was going on. – Я не мог понять, что происходит.
Примеры употребления конструкции be able to
Present Indefinite
Natasha is able to memorize 30 new words at a time.
- Наташа может за один раз запомнить 30 новых слов.
Past Indefinite
I wasn`t able to lift my suitcase. It was too heavy. – Я не смог поднять свой
чемодан, он оказался слишком тяжѐлым.
I wasn`t able to meet you at the airport, I had too much work. – Я не смог
встретить вас / тебя в аэропорту потому, что у меня было очень много работы.
Future Indefinite
I think Natasha won`t be able to get to the university this year. – Я думаю, что
Наташа не сможет поступить в университет в этом году.
If you go to Britain or America, you will be able to learn English very soon. – Если
ты поедешь в Англию или в Америку, тебе довольно быстро удастся выучить
английский язык.
МОДАЛЬНЫЙ ГЛАГОЛ MAY
Таблица 34
Если что-то разрешается, позволяется , то употребляются:
can
may
более официально, реже
встречается
You may use this phone. – Вы можете воспользоваться этим телефоном.
69
Таблица 35
Если что-то запрещается, то употребляются:
cannot
must not
may not
самая частая и
жѐсткая форма
нейтральная форма
запрета
запрета
более
официальная
форма
may not
You may not telephone from here. – Этим телефоном пользоваться не
разрешается.
You may not leave earlier. = You are not allowed to leave earlier. – Я не
разрешаю вам уходить раньше. / Вам не разрешается уходить раньше.
Таблица 36
Глагол
Present
Past
may
may
might
to be allowed to
am (is,are )
allowed to
выражает
допущение
возможности,
разрешение
совершить
действие
You may / are
allowed to go
to the movies.
Вы можете /
вам разрешено
теперь пойти в
кино.
Future
was (were)
will (shall) be
allowed to
allowed to
He said I might
go to here. Он You will be
сказал, что я allowed to
могу идти
watch TV after
туда.
10.
I was allowed Вы сможете
to go to the
смотреть (вам
movies.
разрешат)
Мне
телевизор
разрешили
после 10 часов.
идти в кино.
70
МОДАЛЬНЫЙ ГЛАГОЛ MUST
Мы используем must и его эквивалент have to, когда нам нужно выразить
необходимость сделать что-либо. Но между ними есть разница:
Общее значение: необходимое, неизбежное или вынужденное действие.
1. глагол – must
Таблица 37
2. конструкция - have to
е
в
ж
Past Indefinite
Present Indefinite
Future Indefinite
had to
have to / has to
will have to
3. конструкция - have got to / has got to
Примеры:
must
You must stop smoking. - Вы должны бросить курить.
You must do your homework. - Вы должны делать
домашнее задание.
You must phone home at once. - Ты должен
немедленно позвонить домой.
We really must do something about the stray dogs. Нужно что-то делать с бродячими собаками
конструкция have to
I have to study a lot. - Мне надо много заниматься.
I had to study last night. - Мне надо было заниматься
вчера вечером. / Мне пришлось заниматься вчера
вечером.
71
I will have to study a lot this summer. - Этим летом мне придѐтся много
заниматься.
Must we leave at once? - Нам что, надо немедленно выезжать?
Do I have to do this work again? - Мне что, придѐтся второй раз делать эту
работу?
Did you have to work last Saturday? - Тебе что, пришлось работать в прошлую
субботу?
Will you have to work next Saturday? - Тебе что, придѐтся работать в
следующую субботу?
How long did you have to wait? / What time did you have to wait? - Сколько
времени тебе пришлось ждать?
How many exams will you have to take? - Сколько тебе придѐтся сдавать
экзаменов?
You don't have to do that!
Вам (и) не нужно этого делать!
You mustn't do that!
Вам нельзя этого делать!
72
Таблица 38
Глагол
Present
Past
-Must I memorize this
poem?
-Yes, you must.
-Должен ли я выучить
это стихотворение?
-Да, обязательно.
must
должен обязательно must
что-то сделать
-Do we have to wait
long?
-Yes, you do.It's raining
hard and the flaight is
delayed.
-Нам придется долго
ждать?
Да. Идет сильный
дождь, и рейс
откладывается.
have (have got) to
должен, приходится
have (has)
поневоле, вынужден
had to
to
(в силу
остоятельств)
-I am to meet her in the
library today.
-Я должен (мне
предстоит, мы
договорились, я
обещал) встретиться с
ней в библиотеке
сегодня.
be to
должен (я обещал,
запланировал по
расписанию, по
договоренности)
-You should study
English words before you
go to bed.
-Вам следует (вы
должны по моему
мнению) учить
английские слова перед
сном.
should
должен (следует по
should
моему мнению,
совету)
am (are, is) was (were)
to
to
Future
will (shall)
have to
73
You ought to return the
book to me on time.
Ты должен (это твой
долг) возвратить мне
книгу вовремя.
ought to
следует, должен
(это твой
ought to
моральальный долг,
когда мы говорим о
законе, правилах)
You needn't clean the
windows. They are clean
already.
Тебе не нужно мыть
окна. Они чистые.
needn't
нет никакой
необходимости
(нужды)
need
Word-building
Секреты словообразования
КОНВЕРСИЯ И ОТЛИЧИЕ ГЛАГОЛА ОТ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОГО, ЕСЛИ ОНИ ИМЕЮТ
ОДИНАКОВУЮ ФОРМУ
a lecture – лекция
to lecture – читать лекцию
В английском языке, в отличие от русского, одна и та же словоформа может
обозначать существительное, глагол и прилагательное, например:
a ship – корабль
to ship – транспортировать
an import – импорт
to import – импортировать и т. д.
В ряде случаев, как в случае со словами to import и an import, мы имеем дело
со словоформами, которые различаются в произношении: глагол имеет ударение
на последнем слоге, а существительное – на первом. Там же, где формы глагола и
существительного совпадают, определить, что есть глагол, что – существительное, а
что – прилагательное, можно только опираясь на знание структуры предложения
(порядка слов, способа управления и т. д.).
Например, встретив предложение We ship goods from Australia, вы, плохо
разбираясь в структуре предложения и не имея достаточно глубоких познаний в
лексике (значения слов), можете встать в тупик: слово ship вам знакомо только в
одном значении – «корабль», слово good (а при чем здесь окончание s? – еще
74
спросите вы) – только в значении «хороший» или «хорошо» (прилагательное или
наречие). Что же получится? «Мы корабль хорошо (или хорошие?) из Австралии»?
Но если вы твердо знаете, что в английском предложении, как правило,
действует прямой порядок слов, предполагающий, что за подлежащим в
повествовательном предложении всегда стоит сказуемое, потом – прямое и косвенное
дополнение, а затем – обстоятельства, то вы поймете: стоящее за подлежащим we
слово – это глагол (может быть, «возим на кораблях»?, спросите себя вы и будете
недалеки от истины), а за ним следует существительное-дополнение (goods –
может быть, что-то «хорошее» во множественном числе, и это тоже неплохо). И
тогда вам останется только «причесать» полученное предложение, обработать его
стилистически и получить то, что требуется: «Мы транспортируем грузы из
Австралии».
Это и есть конверсия – способность английских слов выполнять функции либо
существительного, либо глагола, либо прилагательного, в зависимости от места
слова в предложении. Знание этого правила поможет вам понять, где в
предложении какая часть речи.
ПРАВИЛА ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОГО В ФУНКЦИИ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНОГО.
А stone wall is a wall made of stone.
Из стоящих рядом в предложении двух существительных первое является
определением по отношению ко второму и выполняет функцию прилагательного:
John is a foreign language teacher. – Джон – учитель иностранного языка.
Слово language, являясь существительным, выполняет роль прилагательного
– определения по отношению к существительному teacher. При этом
существительное, выполняющее функцию прилагательного, не должно
изменять свою форму (приобретать форму множественного числа или
притяжательного падежа):
What's their telephone number? – Каков номер их телефона?
Составные прилагательные с числительным в качестве первого элемента
состоят из числительного, существительного или существительных и/или
прилагательных, соединенных дефисом:
A sixty-year-old man applied for this job. – Шестидесятилетний мужчина подал
заявление о приеме на работу.
75
При этом существительные, входящие в число членов составного
прилагательного, как правило, не изменяют своей формы (не меняют форму
единственного числа на множественное число):
A two-door car is cheaper than a four-door model. Двухдверная машина дешевле, чем четырехдверная модель.
A three-minute call costs less than a dollar when you dial it yourself. –
Трехминутный звонок стоит меньше доллара, если вы осуществляете набор
сами.
НО:
Существительное storey (этаж) изменяется в составных прилагательных,
таких как six-storeyed (-storied) («шестиэтажный»):
His house is five-storeyed.
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ ОТГЛАГОЛЬНЫХ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ.
Существительные
суффиксов.
to act – action
могут образовываться
Глагол
buy
act
Перевод
покупать
играть
store
accept
agree
authorize
накапливать
принимать
соглашаться
утверждать
Суффикс
-er
-or,
ress
-age
-ance
-ment
-sion/
-tion
от
глаголов
с
помощью
Таблица 39
Существительное
Перевод
buyer
покупатель
actor,
актер,
actress
актриса
storage
накопление
acceptance
принятие
agreement
соглашение
authorization
утверждение
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ ОТ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ.
lovely – loveliness
Существительные могут образовываться от прилагательных с помощью
суффиксов.
76
Таблица 40
Прилагатель
ное
convenient
redundant
opposite
soft
durable
Перевод
удобный
избыточный
противоположный
мягкий
протяженный
Суф
фикс
-ce
-cy
-tion
-ness
-ty
Существитель
ное
convenience
redundancy
opposition
softness
durability
Перевод
удобство
избыточность
противоположность
мягкость
протяженность
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ ОТ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ
Beauty – beautiful
Прилагательные могут образовываться от существительных с помощью
суффиксов.
Таблица 41
СуществиСуф
Перевод
Прилагательное
Перевод
тельное
фикс
possibility
возможность
-able/ possible
возможный
-ible
intention
намерение
-al
intentional
намеренный
distance
расстояние
-ant
distant
отдаленный
frequency
частота
-ent
frequent
частый
juice
сок
-y
juicy
сочный
poison
яд
-ous
poisonous
ядовитый
poet
поэт
-ie
poetic
поэтический
friend
друг
-ly
friendly
дружеский
SINGULAR AND PLURAL OF NOUNS
СЛОЖНЫЕ СЛУЧАИ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ МНОЖЕСТВЕННОГО ЧИСЛА ИМЕН
СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ
knife – knives
roof – roofs
brother-in-law – brothers-in-law
Правила образования множественного числа существительных в английском
языке достаточно разнообразны. Основные из них сводятся к следующим:
77
1) Множественное число существительных (кроме тех, у которых основа
оканчивается на -ch, -s, -ss, -sh, -х), образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания
-s:
a boy – boys
a trick – tricks
2) Множественное число существительных, основа которых оканчивается на -ch,
-s, -ss, -sh, -х, образуется путем прибавления к основе окончания -es:
a bench – benches
a bus – buses
При чтении формы множественного числа этих существительных
произносится редуцированная [I]: [boksiz].
3) Существительные, оканчивающиеся на -у (после согласной), во
множественном числе имеют окончание -ies:
an army – armies
a fly – flies
a lady – ladies
4) Существительные, имеющие окончание -о, как правило, образуют
множественное число путем прибавления к основе окончания -es:
a potato – potatoes
НО:
Некоторые существительные, оканчивающиеся на -о, принимают
окончание -s:
piano – pianos
photo – photos
5) В форме множественного числа существительных, оканчивающихся на
-f(-fe), конечная согласная, как правило, меняется на -v, давая окончание -ves:
a calf – calves
a knife – knives
НО:
Ряд существительных, оканчивающихся на -f, образуют множественное
число прибавлением окончания -s:
roof – roofs
chief – chiefs
handkerchief – handkerchiefs
78
5) Ряд существительных образует множественное число не по общим
правилам:
а) у некоторых существительных во множественном числе изменяется
корневая гласная;
a man – men
a goose – geese
a woman – women
a mouse – mice
a foot – feet
a louse – lice
a tooth – teeth
6) У ряда существительных к форме единственного числа добавляется
окончание -en;
an ox – oxen
a child – children
в) некоторые существительные, заимствованные из латинского и греческого
языков, образуют множественное число следующим образом;
a formula – formulae (formulas)
an index – indices
a crisis – crises
a criterion – criteria
a bacterium – bacteria и др.
7) Некоторые существительные имеют одну форму для единственного и
множественного числа:
a deer – олень
deer – олени
a sheep – овца
sheep – овцы
a fish – рыба
fish – рыбы
8) Некоторые существительные имеют форму только единственного числа
или только множественного числа:
advice
information
knowledge
furniture
luggage
HO:
news, clothes, damages, goods, looks, riches, manners, thanks.
79
9) Некоторые неисчисляемые или абстрактные существительные могут
образовывать форму единственного или множественного числа в
идиоматических выражениях: a piece of music, a piece of luggage, two pieces of
equipment, three pieces of advice:
A folk song is a piece of popular music. – Народная песня – популярное
музыкальное произведение. I ordered twelve bars of soap. – Я заказал
двенадцать кусков мыла.
Degrees of Comparison
СЛОЖНЫЕ СЛУЧАИ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ФОРМ СРАВНИТЕЛЬНОЙ И ПРЕВОСХОДНОЙ
СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ.
Jake is seventy three, he is the eldest in the family
Таблица 42
Положитель- Сравнитель Превосходная
Перевод
ная степень ная степень
степень
bad
worse
the worst
плохой – более плохой – хуже –
худший – самый плохой
far
farther
the farthest
далеко – дальше – самый далекий
(о расстоянии)
further
the furthest
далее – дальнейший (о времени, о
работе и т.д.)
good
better
the best
хороший – лучше – лучший
little
less
the least
маленький – меньший – самый
маленький
much
more
the most
много – больше – больше всего
old
older
the oldest
старый – старше – самый старший
elder
the eldest
старше, самый старший (о
родственниках)
80
List of irregular verbs
Таблица 43
Simple
Present
tensе
be
beat
become
begin
bend
bet
bite
blow
break
bring
build
burst
buy
catch
choose
come
cost
cut
deal
dig
do
draw
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
fly
forbid
forget
forgive
Simple
Past tense
was/were
beat
became
began
bent
bet
bit
blew
broke
brought
built
burst
bought
caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dealt
dug
did
drew
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
flew
forbade
forgot
forgave
Past
Participle
been
beaten
become
begun
bent
bet
bitten
blown
broken
brought
built
burst
bought
caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dealt
dug
done
draw
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
flown
forbidden
forgotten
forgiven
Present
Participle
being
beating
becoming
beginning
bending
betting
biting
blowing
breaking
bringing
building
bursting
buying
catching
choosing
coming
costing
cutting
dealing
digging
doing
drawing
drinking
driving
eating
falling
feeding
feeling
fighting
funding
flying
forbidding
forgetting
forgiving
Перевод
быть
бить
становиться, делаться
начинать
сгибаться
держать пари
кусать
дуть, цвести
ломать
приносить
строить
разражаться, взрывать
покупать
ловить
выбирать
приходить
стоить
резать
иметь дело, обходиться
копать
делать
тащить, рисовать
пить
гнать, ехать
есть
падать
кормить
чувствовать
сражаться
находить
летать
запрещать
забывать
прощать
81
freeze
get
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hide
hit
hold
hurt
keep
know
lay
lead
learn
leave
lend
let
lie
light
lose
make
mean
meet
pay
put
read
ride
ring
rise
run
say
see
seek
sell
send
froze
got
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knew
laid
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
frozen
got
gotten
given
gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
known
laid
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
paid
put
read
ridden
rung
rise
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
freezing
getting
getting
giving
going
growing
hanging
having
hearing
hiding
hitting
holding
hurting
keeping
knowing
laying
leading
learning
leaving
lending
letting
lying
lighting
losing
making
meaning
meeting
paying
putting
reading
riding
ringing
rising
running
saying
seeing
seeking
selling
sending
замерзать
получать, достигать,
делаться (амер.)
давать
идти, уходить
расти
висеть, вешать
иметь
слышать
прятать
ударять, попадать
держать
причинять вред, боль
хранить, держать
знать
класть
вести
учиться, учить
оставлять
одалживать
пускать
лежать
освещать
терять
делать
значить, подразумевать
встречать
платить
класть, ставить
читать
ехать (верхом и тп.)
звонить
подниматься
бегать
говорить, сказать
видеть
искать
продавать
посылать
82
set
sew
shake
shine
shoot
show
shrink
shut
sing
sit
sleep
speak
spend
split
spread
spring
stand
steal
stick
stink
strike
string
swear
sweep
swim
swing
take
teach
tear
tell
think
throw
understand
wake
wear
win
write
set
sewed
shook
shone
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sat
slept
spoke
spent
split
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stank
struck
strung
swore
swept
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
threw
understood
woke
wore
won
wrote
set
sewn/sewed
shaken
shone
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sat
slept
spoken
spent
split
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stunk
struck
strung
sworn
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
understood
woken
worn
won
written
setting
sewing
shaking
shining
shooting
showing
shrinking
shutting
singing
sitting
sleeping
speaking
spending
splitting
spreading
springing
standing
stealing
sticking
stinking
striking
stringing
swearing
sweeping
swimming
swinging
taking
teaching
tearing
telling
thinking
throwing
understanding
waking
wearing
wining
writing
устанавливать
шить
трясти
светить, сиять
стрелять, давать побеги
показывать
сокращать, отступать
закрывать
петь
сидеть
спать
говорить
тратить
расщеплять
распространять
вскакивать, возникать
стоять
красть(ся)
колоть, приклеивать
вонять
ударять
натягивать, нанизывать
клясться
мести
плавать
качать, размахивать
брать
учить кого-либо
рвать
рассказывать сказать
думать
бросать
понимать
просыпаться, будить
носить (об одежде)
выигрывать,добиваться
писать
83
Библиографический список
1. Андрианова, Л. Н. Курс английского языка для вечерних и заочных
технических вузов [Текст] : учеб. / Л. Н. Андрианова, Д. Е. Багрова,
И. В. Ершова. – 5-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М. : Высш. шк., 2002. – 464 с.
2. Гинзбург, Ю. В. Современный англо-русский автомобильный словарь [Текст]
/ Ю. В. Гинзбург. – М. : ЗАО”КЖИ”За рулем”, “Иврус”, 2003. – 488 с.
3. Голицинский, Ю. Б. Грамматика [Текст] : сб. упражнений /
Ю. Б. Голицинский. – СПб. : Каро, 2004. – 475 с.
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[Текст] / Б. В. Гольд, Р. В. Кугель, С. А. Шершер. – Минск : Новая звезда Лтд.,
1999. – 704 с.
5. Кузьмин, Ю. А. Краткий англо-русский технический словарь [Текст] /
Ю. А. Кузьмин, В. А. Владимиров, Я. Л. Гельман. – М. : ЧеРо, 1998. – 416 с.
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864 с.
7. Орловская, И. В. Учебник английского языка для студентов технических
университетов и вузов [Текст] : учеб. / И. В. Орловская, Л. С. Самсонова,
А. И. Скубриева. – М. : Изд-во МГТУ им. Н.Э.Баумана, 1999. – 310 с.
8. Auto & Truck International [Text]. – London PH, 1999. – № 1-6.
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students / R. Murphy. – M. : Open Doors, 1999. – 328 p.
84
Учебное издание
Нина Игоревна Базарская
Ирина Борисовна Минаева
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
GETTING READY FOR THE MOT
ГОТОВИМСЯ К ТЕХОСМОТРУ
Учебное пособие
Редактор Е.А. Богданова
Подписано в печать 29.05.2013. Формат 60×90 /16. Объем 5,25 п. л.
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ФГБОУ ВПО «Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
РИО ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». 394087, г. Воронеж, ул. Тимирязева, 8
Отпечатано в УОП ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА»
394087, г. Воронеж, ул. Докучаева, 10
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