МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМ. Г.Ф. МОРОЗОВА» Е.А.МАКЛАКОВА, А.А.ИЛУНИНА ДЕЛОВОЙ ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ К ПРАКТИЧЕСКИМ ЗАНЯТИЯМ ПО НАПРАВЛЕНИЯМ ПОДГОТОВКИ 35.04.10 «ЛАНДШАФТНАЯ АРХИТЕКТУРА», 35.04.01 «ЛЕСНОЕ ДЕЛО», 35.04.02 «ТЕХНОЛОГИЯ ЛЕСОЗАГОТОВИТЕЛЬНЫХ И ДЕРЕВОПЕРЕРАБАТЫВАЮЩИХ ПРОИЗВОДСТВ» ВОРОНЕЖ 2017 ББК 81.432. 1 Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ» (протокол № от ). Рецензент: д.филол.н., проф. Стернин И.А. Маклакова Е.А. Деловой иностранный язык. Английский язык [Текст]: методические указания кя практическим занятиям по направлениям подготовки 35.04.10 «Ландшафтная архитектура», 35.04.01 «Лесное дело», 35.04.02 «Технология лесозаготовительных и деревоперерабатывающих производств» / E.А. Маклакова, А.А. Илунина; ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». – Воронеж, 2016. – 21 с. Настоящие методические указания представляют собой современный подход к обучению слушателей в системе высшего образования. Необходимость в появлении таких методических указаний диктуется современным подходом к преподаванию дисциплины «Деловой иностранный язык» в магистратуре: в них кратко и информативно представлен алгоритм освоения учебного материала по модулям (разделам), позволяющий повысить качество их обучения магистрантов и стимулировать интерес пользователей к дисциплине «Деловой иностранный язык», изучаемой в ракурсе научной деятельности. Данные методические указания могут служить руководством для магистрантов направлений подготовки 35.04.10 «Ландшафтная архитектура», 35.04.01 «Лесное дело», 35.04.02 «Технология лесозаготовительных и деревоперерабатывающих производств». Табл.: 2. Библиогр.: 5 назв. © Маклакова Е. А., 2016 © Воронежский государственный лесотехнический университет им. Г.Ф. Морозова, 2017 ВСТУПЛЕНИЕ Целью изучения дисциплины «Деловой иностранный язык» является совершенствование уровня владения иностранным языком и языком специальности, наиболее полное использование его в научной работе, активизация и развитие навыков научной письменной и устной речи, реализующих подготовку магистров к сдаче экзамена кандидатского минимума по иностранному языку и ведению профессиональной деятельности в иноязычной среде. Для достижения поставленной цели при изучении дисциплины ставятся и решаются следующие задачи: - магистрант обязан уяснить и совершенствовать навыки чтения научной и научно-технической литературы с целью извлечения основной информации по определенному алгоритму и последующего ее обобщения в устной и реферативной форме; - ознакомиться с приемами письменной научной коммуникации; - изучить все виды чтения оригинальной литературы по специальности; - освоить на конкретных, доступных для студента примерах, аннотирование, переводы, рефераты, резюме и другие виды работы с целью обобщения ключевой информации с ее последующим обсуждением в устной форме. Дисциплина «Деловой иностранный язык» относится к дисциплинам базовой части основной профессиональной образовательной программы, индекс по учебному плану Б 1. Б. 2. ТРЕБОВАНИЯ К РЕЗУЛЬТАТАМ ОСВОЕНИЯ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ Для эффективного освоения дисциплины «Деловой иностранный язык» у обучающегося должны быть сформированы следующие предварительные компетенции или их части: а) владение культурой мышления, способностью к обобщению, анализу, восприятию информации, постановке цели и выбору путей ее достижения; б) умение логически верно, аргументировано и ясно строить устную и письменную речь; в) знание иностранного языка на уровне не ниже разговорного. Магистр по результатам освоения дисциплины «Деловой иностранный язык» должен обладать следующими компетенциями: а) общепрофессиональными (ОПК): - способностью свободно пользоваться государственным языком Российской Федерации и иностранным языком как средством делового общения (ОПК-4); В результате освоения дисциплины магистр должен: - уметь: использовать знание иностранного языка в профессиональной деятельности, профессиональной коммуникации и межличностном общении. В этих условиях обучение иностранному языку в неязыковом ВУЗе приобретает особое значение. В области обучения целью дисциплины «Деловой иностранный язык» является формирование у выпускников способности и готовности к межкультурному общению, развитие профессионально профилированного владения иностранным языком, подразумевающее обладание универсальными и предметно-ориентированными компетенциями, способствующими расширению их кругозора, совершенствованию профессиональных умений и навыков и, в конечном итоге, повышению их конкурентноспособности на рынке труда. CONTENTS SECTION 1 1. Learn the words and word combinations: productivity of forest tree seed source to select species high volumes of timber рublic recreation silviculture regeneration of woods forest nurserу mature wood intermediate cutting silvicultural treatment environmental factor leading taxpayer preserving nature eco-trouble feeding visiting management living creatures / living things продуктивность леса древесный посевной материал выбрать породу большие объемы древесины общественный отдых лесоводство лесовозобновление лесной питомник годный к вырубке лес рубка ухода лесокультурные мероприятия фактор окружающей среды ведущий налогоплательщик сохранение природы экопроблема кормление управление посещением живые существа 2. Read and translate the text: CARING FOR NATURE 1) The future productivity of our forests depends on careful selection of tree seed sources to match the local soil and climatic conditions of each forest. The objective is to select species and seed sources which will yield high volumes of timber and superior tree form while maintaining wood properties and disease resistance. Forestry makes an important contribution to a productive and flourishing countryside and rural welfare. Forest and woodland have the special capacity to provide recreation benefits and absorb the pressures of large numbers of visitors. Public recreation must be a part of forest management. Silviculture is the art of reproducing and tending forest growth, it includes the technique of starting new forests and caring for them through all stages to maturity. Regeneration of woods may be accomplished by creating conditions for establishing new stands either by natural seeding or by a new crop of tree sprouts; again, new woodlands may be established by planting small trees grown in forest nurseries. As stands develop, numerous types of cultural measures are desirables, cutting made in immature stands are termed intermediate cutting; these made in the mature woods are called final cuttings. The treatment of a wood that is managed for the production of useful wood products varies considerably from the treatment where the aim is one of encouraging of wildlife or of protecting human habitations from climatic extremes. But it is easily possible in any woods to meet all objectives by a well-coordinated plan of silvicultural treatment. The application of silvicultural treatment demands a knowledge of the many environmental factors that influence the growth of species, an understanding of the ways in which trees live and grow in association of the worth of the individual species that are adaptable to local conditions. 2) Today the modern tourism is one of the largest industries of the world that employs 127 million people: each fifteenth of all the working people in the world. Second, it is a leading taxpayer. Moreover, at last, it is the most quickly developed world industry. These are the advantages and positive moments of the world tourism. However, it is harmful towards the environment developing so intensively. However, it is often considered, that economical problems must be paid attention after ecological ones. If we do not change the situation, tourism can disappear. Tourism is the business of providing things for people to do, places for them to stay when they are on holidays. There are different types of tourism nowadays: medical, recreational, religious, business, ecological etc. Ecological tourism is what we are interested in. This is a new type of tourism; it is opposite to the old, traditional one. What is the difference between traditional tourism and ecotourism? Tourists can enjoy the nature but save the earth at the same time. Or so goes the theory of «ecotourism». Ecotourism was based on the realization that some people (usually poor Africans, Asians, and Latin Americans) live in places surrounded by precious living things. In addition, other people – well off and rich Americans and Europeans – want to see them and preserve. 3) The idea was to enable people in the developing world to earn money by preserving nature rather than using nature up; it is simple – people put down their guns and harpoons and take up laundry and food trays. Where does ecotourism work? Is the idea successful? It is successful in the whale-watching waters of Baja, California, and Argentina’s Peninsula Valdes. Hundreds of gray whales migrate into the warm lagoons even in winter to breed. Before the 1980s, anglers and whalehunters turned the waters into dead zones. Local environmentalists proclaimed the idea of ecotourism. Now we can compare: in the mid 1980s whale watching was modest business with 5 mln, today it is a 500 million tourist industry with the tourists from 65 countries. Costa Rica embraced ecotourism early and created an ecotourism institute and a faculty of ecotourism at its Latin American University of Science and Technology. The industry brings in almost 500 million dollars a year, second after banana export. Sometimes ecotourism is beset by eco-troubles. For example, tourists come to Mexico’s Pacific coast to watch green sea turtles on moonlit beaches. However, the beachfront hotels cast such bright light that turtles become disoriented. Whalewatching services frighten the whales and they dive underwater. As you understand, it is dangerous for the people in the boats. In Australia, they organize dolphin expeditions. Very often feeding reduces the ability of young dolphins to find their own food. Of course, the above-mentioned facts can be considered as disadvantages of ecotourism. For the goals a visiting management is used, it controls time of trip, types of the visit as well as the maximum number of visitors to a region. Even if whales are frightened by tourist boats and turtles cannot eat in peace, the living creatures are now better than when people hunted them to kill. Of two evils, choose the least. 3. Continue the sentences: 1. The objective is … 2. Forestry makes an important contribution to … 3. It must be a part of … 4. Regeneration of woods may be accomplished by … 5. As stands develop, … 6. It is easily possible in any woods to … 7. The application of … 8. The modern tourism is … 9. Moreover, … 10. However, … 11. There are different types of … 12. It is opposite to … 13. What is the difference between … 14. In addition, … 15. The idea was to … 16. It is successful in … 17. We can compare … 18. For example, … 19. As you understand, … 20. Of course, … 4. Put ten general and special questions to the text. 5. Write down the key words of the text. 6. Write а summary of the text in English and present it in a form of a report. 7. Choose the right variants and fill in the gaps: A) The marketing of _______________ is the final step in the cycle producing and utilizing tree growth. а) woodland products c) medium sized forwarders b) logging methods d) manual planted seedlings B) Managers ____________ on this information to sell and promote their woodland products. a) depend b) turn c) carry d) look C) I am calling about GT/152A contract on loading operations. – ____________. а) Do you want me to pick them up? c) That would be fine. b) Oh yes, how is it coming along? d) Right, see you soon. D) Londoners call their underground train network «___________». а) the traffic c) the double-decker b) the customs point d) the tube 8. Put the parts of the business letter in correct order: 1) 2) 3) 4) a) Thank you for your letter of 11th November asking for to-date list of addresses of our branches. We have pleasure in enclosing the brochure, showing location of all our branches and agencies at home and abroad. Yours faithfully, S.S. Carson Reliance Holdings Group Organization b) Messrs. Watson and Bruce Hardware Dealers 14 Castle Road Edinburgh For the attention of Mr. P. James Dear Sirs, Re: Up-to-date list of addresses c) RELIANCE HOLDINGS FINANCE GROUP 88 Martins Lane London EC2V 6BH Telephone 01-5883782 Your ref: LE/N d) 14th November, 2017 Our ref: HCD/RP SECTION 2 1. Learn the words and word combinations: advocate geothermal wonders wildlife sanctuary full complement to roam free to conduct research animal habitat preferences research specimen the property of the National Park Service to be radio collared recovery home range sizes behavior pattern mammal acid rainfall wildlife lost wilderness unspoiled защитник геотермические чудеса заповедник живой природы полный состав бродить на свободе проводить исследование преимущественная среда обитания животных экземпляр исследования собственность Службы национального парка носить радиоошейник восстановление размеры территории обитания характер / модель поведения млекопитающее кислотный дождь дикая природа потерянная первозданная природа нетронутый 2. Read and translate the text: YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK When Yellowstone National Park was established in 1872, its advocates wanted to protect an unusual and interesting collection of geothermal wonders. Today, people recognize that the world’s first national park protects much more than geysers and other fascinating geothermal features. Yellowstone is recognized as a great wildlife sanctuary, one of the last places in the nation where the full complement of wildlife that occurred here during the time of Lewis and Clark’s epic journey to the Pacific in 1804 – 1806 still roam free. Yellowstone is also recognized as an important and unique area for scientific study because it has remained, in large part, as it was more than 200 years ago while other such landscapes in the rest of the world continue to disappear. Scientists from all over the world come to Yellowstone to conduct research on everything from water quality to animal movements and habitat preferences to fire ecology to the unique life forms found in the park’s geothermal waters. Before they are allowed to begin, however, they must submit a research proposal to park management for review and approval. No research is allowed that would threaten or diminish the resources of the park. Any collected for research specimen (for example, plants or insects or even microbes) remain the property of the National Park Service and must be properly cataloged and cared for. Many different animals are radio collared in Yellowstone. Bison are collared for various research projects, including studies on seasonal movements. Bighorn sheep have been collared in an effort to understand their behavior, movement inside and outside the park, and the locations of specific migration corridor. Wolves are collared so that researches can track their movements and their progress toward recovery. Researchers collared grizzly bears in order to learn more about home range sizes, food habits, habitat use, and behavior pattern. The studies on pronghorn antelope are one of the newest. As the earth’s human population continues to increase, the remaining wild places take on an added importance in our lives. Yellowstone is the place where personal encounters with nature – an early morning walk in a steamy geyser basin or the haunting howl of a wolf on a moonlight night in the backcountry – provide us with magical moments to recall during our busy lives. However, another intangible of this and other national parks is the value such places hold for science to improve our lives, teach us about other life forms, and to help solve our problems. Despite all that scientists have already learned from studying Yellowstone and its inhabitants, it is a certainty that there are many more exiting things yet to be discovered. «The place of blue smoke» is what the Cherokee Indians call the great Smoky Mountains region, at the end of the Appalachian Highlands in the southeastern United States. Long before European settlers arrived on the continent, the mountains were the part of the great Cherokee Nation. About 8,500 Cherokee now live in communities on a reservation on the eastern side of the mountains, where they maintain the traditions of their people. Unfortunately, only a few older people still remember how to speak the ancient language. The Great Smoky Mountains are dotted with small towns that were settled by Europeans. There are a number of interesting things to listen to and to look at. Nevertheless, most tourists who visit the area go to the Smokies because of the beautiful mountains and valleys, the changing seasons and the wildlife. The Smokies are home to more than fifty species of mammals, including the legendary black bear. To preserve the beauty of the region, The U.S. government established The Great Smoky Mountains National Park. It is the most visited national Park in the country, with more than 8 million tourists each year. However, how long can a place with so many visitors remain unspoiled? Because the water in the clouds which give the region its name can hold as much as ten times the amount of pollution and one hundred times the acid rainfall, the trees at the tops of the mountains are dying. Perhaps the Great Smoky Mountains will become just another lost wilderness. 3. Continue the sentences: 1. Today, people recognize that … 2. It is also recognized as … 3. Scientists from all over the world … 4. Before they are allowed to begin, … 5. No research is allowed that … 6. Any collected for research … 7. Many different animals … 8. Researchers collared … 9. The studies on … 10. It is the place where … 11. However, … 12. Despite all that … 13. Long before … 14. Unfortunately, … 15. There are a number of … 16. Theу are home to … 17. To preserve the beauty of the region, … 18. It is the most visited … 19. How long can … 20. Perhaps … 4. Put ten questions to the text. 5. Write down the key words of the text. 6. Write а summary of the text in English and present it in a form of a report. 7. Write the words in the sentence in correct order: biodiversity conservation / this fact / significant for / is particularly 8. Choose the right variants and fill in the gaps: A) A significant and growing part of this __________ is transmitted to Japan via China, where the logs are processed and significantly increase in value. а) consumers of the forestry products b) woodland cooperatives c) illegal exports d) raw hardwood flow B) The introduction of fully mechanized logging methods ________ both advantages and disadvantages for transport and delivery operations. а) had b) is having c) has d) have had C) I would like to meet you to discuss your needs in further detail. – ___________________. а) I would like to see it. c) Oh yes, how is it coming along? b) I am sorry, but I will not be available next week. d) So, would I. D) The highest managerial organ of a British Stock Company is the Assembly of shareholders, which elects the __________________. а) Personnel Manager b) Company Secretary c) Board of Directors d) Managing Director 9. Define the type of the business letter: а) Enquiry b) Complaint c) Offer R. H. F. GROUP 88 Martins Lane London EC2V 6BH Telephone 701-5883782250 2nd June 2017 Dear Sirs, It is with great regret that we have to inform you that the material, delivered under Contract No 1258 / 57 do not conform to the specification based on which the contract was signed. By separate mail, we have sent you a cutting from this material and one piece from the material of the previous consignment, so that you can compare the two and see the difference. Because of this situation, we sustain heavy losses because we cannot fulfill our contractual obligations to our clients. In this situation, we are prepared to retain the goods if you will reduce the price, say, by 40%. Awaiting your early reply, We remain faithfully yours, John Brown Department of Sales SECTION 3 1. Learn the words and word combinations: питательное вещество приносить пользу холодовыносливый находящийся в состоянии покоя получить повреждение зоны выносливости растений теневыносливость место посадки засухоустойчивый культурный сорт восприимчивый представляющий угрозу для жизни угнетенное дерево темп роста характер / модель разветвления листва перекрывать, заходить один на другой полезащитная полоса площадь укоренения декоративные особенности поросль nutrient to provide benefits psychrophile dormant to suffer damage рlant hardiness zones shade tolerance planting site drought tolerant cultivar susceptible life-threatening suppressed tree growth rate branching pattern foliage to overlap windbreak / protective belt rooting space оrnamental characteristics sprouts 2. Read and translate the text: TREE SELECTION Soil provides trees with special support, water, mineral elements (nutrients), and oxygen for the roots. Certain properties, such as soil pH (alkalinity or acidity), drainage, density or compactness, texture, salinity, and structure affect the soil’s ability to provide these benefits to trees. Some trees are psychrophile and withstand extremely cold temperatures, while a mild frost kills the others. In some cases, a tree may be cold hardy while dormant but may become active too early in the spring and suffer damage by a late frost. Other species may be able to tolerate very high temperatures and some withstand both extreme cold and heat quite well. Plant hardiness zones have been developed and must be taken in account. Tree shade tolerance can vary from very intolerant to very tolerant and is important if you have a very shaded or very open planting site. Shade intolerant trees rarely do well in shaded areas. Though shade tolerant trees do best in at least partial shade, some also do well in sunny locations. Some tree species are very drought tolerant and can grow in near-desert conditions while others need access to abundant water at all times. Many heat tolerant species are also drought tolerant. If climatic conditions do not provide enough water irrigation is necessary. However, overwatering can weaken or kill trees. Some tree species or cultivars are highly susceptible to insect or disease pests while others are nearly pest-free. For example, stressed Lombardy poplars are very susceptible to a stem canker and are almost certain to die within 5 to 15 years. Ginkgo has few known pests and is very pollution tolerant. Serious, life-threatening pests like borers and cancers deserve much more attention and concern than lateseason leaf feeding insects or other non-life threatening pests. Suppressed trees often are much more susceptible to pest attack and damage. Fast growth rate is one of the main interests people have when selecting a tree. Cottonwoods and silver maples can grow many feet in height a year and quickly become large trees. Such fast-growing trees are often short-lived, or quickly outgrow their site. Though planting of some fast-growing trees to establish a landscape quickly may be fine, some slower-growing but longer-lived and more desirable trees also should be planted. Choose a tree with a mature size that matches the space you have available. Only short trees should be planted near overhead obstructions like power lines. Sound tree crowns can be allowed to overhang a roof but weaker trees should be planted about one-half of their mature crown width away from a building. Trees in groups can be planted close enough that their crowns overlap when they are older, but avoid overcrowding that will lad to poor growing conditions and unhealthy trees. Tree species and cultivars vary widely in form or crown shape, depending on their branching pattern. Crowns can be tall and narrow (columnar), short and wide, weeping, round, conical, or vase-shaped. Some trees keep their lower branches and foliage as the crown grows while others readily lose their lower branches as they are shaded above. Preferred crown form is a matter of personal taste, but crown form also may be an important factor in matching a tree to a site or to the function it will serve. For example, columnar trees are useful in narrow areas, trees used in windbreaks and protective belts need to retain their lower branches and foliage, and low or weeping branches should not obstruct sidewalks and driveways. However, roots can grow along cracks or in voids below, ground space for roots is as important as aboveground space for crowns. Though no firm formula exists for calculating, the soil area or volume needed for a certain sized tree. This area can be of any shape and long narrow areas can be used to connect larger open areas to achieve adequate rooting space. Soil conditions under paved areas often are unfavorable for root growth under pavements and can do quite well under paving bricks or blocks. The typical life span of a good tree in a suburban neighborhood is 30 to 50 years, while downtown trees may only last 5 to 10 years. As mentioned previously, people tend to plant fast-growing trees that often have short lives. While some of this is all right, homeowners and communities should also plant trees that might grow slower (though some grow quite fast) but that are longer-lived. Ornamental characteristics are important factors in tree selection even though they usually have little to do with whether a tree can survive and thrive on its site. Ornamental factors to consider include flower and fruit presence and appearance, foliage color and texture, bark characteristics, shade density, fall color, and winter appearance. Some trees have thorns or spines, objectionable odors, a tendency to have basal or root sprouts, or maintenance-related needs that also should be considered. 3. Continue the sentences: 1. Certain properties affect … 2. Some trees are … 3. In some cases, … 4. Other species may … 5. Tree shade tolerance can … 6. However, overwatering can … 7. Suppressed trees often … 8. Fast growth rate is … 9. Only short trees should be planted … 10. Trees in groups can be planted … 11. Tree species and cultivars vary in … 12. Preferred crown form is … 13. For example, … 14. However,… 15. This area can be … 16. Soil conditions under paved areas are … 17. As mentioned previously, … 18. While some of this is all right, … 19. Ornamental characteristics are … 20. Some trees have … 4. Put ten special questions to the text. 5. Write down the key words of the text. 6. Write а summary of the text in English and present it in a form of a report. 7. Choose the right variants and fill in the gaps: A) The development of satellite navigation systems has proved to be of enormous value to _______________ . а) measurements of upper stem diameters c) forest surveys b) seed bank studies d) buyers of stumpage B) Corporate wood products tend to cost less because of the large volume and small overhead costs per unit ___________. a) sold b) is sold c) selling d) having sold C) As you may remember, we have to discuss the terms of delivery. – __________. а) Yes, of course. Could you manage on Monday? b) I suppose that suits me too. c) You do not say so! I hardly believe it. d) Certainly, I will be present. D) _______________ school buses are a tradition in the US and parts of Britain. а) White b) Black c) Red d) Yellow 8. Define the type of the business letter: а) Complaint b) Offer c) Enquiry Tom Jones 225 Hartman Drive Portsmouth, NH 03801 (603) 555-4606-18-15 January 22, 2015 Mr. Howard Speller General Sales Manager Speller Automobiles Ltd. 315 Rolling Woods Highway Dover, NH 03723 Gentlemen, We thank you for your letter of 28 June, and are glad to inform you that all the items listed in your enquiry are in stock. We are enclosing a proforma invoice for the consumer goods you are interested in. We are enclosing details of our terms of payment. The Head of our Sales Department would be happy to discuss discounts with you if you would kindly let us know how large your orders are likely to be. We can guarantee delivery in Melbourne within 3 weeks of receiving your instructions. We assure you that your orders will receive our immediate attention. We are looking forward to hearing from you. Yours truly, Tom Jones, Sales Manager SECTION 4 1. Learn the words and word combinations: sawmilling сonsideration of the local conditions variations in seasonal supply species of wood warping during seasoning tangential cutting quarter sawing mechanized sawmill the dimension and the power of the saw pre-sawing preparation of logs post-sawing control of lumber seasoning cross-cut to debark mechanical debarker susceptible to fungus or insect attack stacking of lumber semi-artificial seasoning particular requirement log carriage лесопиление учет местных условий различия в сезонных поставках порода древесины коробление при сушке на воздухе тангентальная распиловка радиальная распиловка механизированный лесопильный завод размер и мощность пилы предварительная подготовка бревен к пилению контроль сушки пиломатериала после распиловки поперечный распил окорять окорочная машина подверженный воздействию грибка и насекомых укладка пиломатериалов штабелем полуискусственная сушка специальное требование тележка лесопильной рамы 2. Read and translate the text: CHOICE OF SAWMILL Because of the great variety and complexity of the problems that can arise in connection with sawmilling the establishment of sawmills of standard type seldom can be provided without special precautions. Consideration of the local climatic conditions makes it possible to estimate variations in seasonal supply and their effect on the sawmill choice. A factor of great importance is to form a correct estimate of the wood species. In certain cases, the presence of internal tensions or the danger of warping during seasoning may dictate a special mode of sawing (tangential cutting or complete quarter sawing). Knowledge of the resistance of the wood to the penetration of the teeth makes it possible to establish the dimension and the power of the saws. The choice of the type of sawmill depends also on the following conditions occurring at the same time: the possibility of rate coordination of the various sawing stations’ operations and the regular operation ensuring of each one. If this can be done, there is a fine chance to organize a highly mechanized sawmill which is entirely analogous to that of standard type. In addition to the lumber cutting, the pre-sawing preparation of logs and postsawing control of lumber seasoning and other general services are also part of any sawmill activity. Sometimes the outside-mill activity requires more than half of the total labour force. Therefore it is important to have this outside-mill operation wellorganized and mechanized. Usually the logs are cross-cut before entering the mill. The portable electric chain saws are most convenient for this operation. It is preferable to debark some species with thick bark beforehand because they usually contain sandy particles. For such cases a mechanical debarker should be used. If a sawmill cuts a major portion of species susceptible to fungus or insect attack, a mechanized tank for dipping treatment should be installed at the remote end of the «green» chain. Transportation and stacking of lumber for air seasoning usually requires a sizeable labour force. The most economical method is to stack the lumber for air seasoning immediately after removing it from the «green» chain. The piles should be of a convenient size for transporting them by a fork-lift. Correct seasoning is very important in a sawmill production. Whether kiln or semi-artificial seasoning should be a part of the postsawing treatment, or natural air seasoning is enough, can be decided according to particular requirements Sawmilling is one of the oldest and the most widespread manufacturing technologies in the world. Today sawmills are being mechanized and automated at an ever-developing rate as new tools are adopted to solve the problems of increasing productivity and quality in the process of making lumber from logs. Hydraulic power and electric motors and controls are available for use in air compressors and air cylinders for a variety of mechanical needs: to kick logs out of a delivery trough, to move the log carriage back and forth in front of the saw, to turn logs, etc. Mechanization and automation have been making some advances. They provide for better, uniform quality. It is a well-known fact that setting dimensions demands full attention, both mental and physical efforts from workers, but modern mechanical devices cannot be tired of repetition. So, they increase the production of the plant and the productive capacity of its labour force. 3. Continue the sentences: 1. The establishment of sawmills of standard type … 2. A factor of great importance is … 3. In certain cases, … 4. Knowledge of … 5. If this can be done, … 6. In addition to … 7. Therefore it is important to … 8. It is preferable to … 9. For such cases … 10. The most economical method is … 11. Correct seasoning is … 12. Today sawmills are … 13. Mechanization and automation … 14. Hydraulic power and electric motors and controls are … 15. They provide for … 16. It is a well-known fact that … 17. Modern mechanical devices cannot be … 18. So, they increase … 19. The piles should be … 20. Sometimes the outside-mill activity requires … 4. Write down the key words of the text. 5. Write а summary of the text in English and present it in a form of a report. 6. Write the words in the sentence in correct order: are important / in tree selection / ornamental characteristics / factors 7. Fill in the form using the following information: a) Current salary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Date of Birth Name Other information b) References c) Present address d) Marital status 27 February 1985 Belova Margaret 18 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 128343, Russia single While working I attended various evening courses for business and information technology. My interests include tennis, badminton, swimming and reading. Mr. B. Norman, Assistant Director, Auto Importers Ltd., 38 Rostokino, Moscow, Russia. Mrs. A.Bunina, department head of Johnson Bros Ltd., 35, Ostozhenka Street, Moscow, Russia. $ 5,000 per annum 8. Choose the right variants and fill in the gaps: A) In Finland and Sweden all the ________ are annually covered by middleresolution satellite images (10-30 m) for account of the state budget. а) forest areas b) woodland products c) wood-using industries d) loading capacity B) If the price of timber fails ___________, you have earned nothing because commodities like timber do not pay interest. а) moving b) to have moved c) to move d) to be moved C) How often do I need to make the monitoring of the regional forest settlements? – _________________________. a) Mr. Hamilton has signed the contract on monitoring. b) Please, feel free to call me if you have any questions. c) This fact is particularly significant for biodiversity conservation. d) Semi-annually, I suppose, will be enough D) It will help to protect its rare and endangered _______, and it will assist the efforts in raising public awareness of the park and the multiple values associated with it. а) species b) central loading points c) woodland products d) wood-using industries Библиографический список Основная литература 1. Маньковская З. В. Английский язык в ситуациях повседневного делового общения [Электронный ресурс]/ З.В. Маньковская. – М.: НИЦ Инфра-М, 2012, 223 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум». – Режим доступа: http://www.znanium.com/ – Загл. с экрана. 2. Дубинина Г. А. Английский язык: экономика и финансы (Majors) [Текст]: Учебник / Г.А. Дубинина, И.Ф. Драчинская, Н.Г. Кондрахина; Финансовый университет при Правительстве РФ. – М.: Альфа-М: ИНФРА-М, 2011. – 176 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум» – Режим доступа: http://www.znanium.com/ – Загл. с экрана. Дополнительная литература 1. Милованова, И. В. Английский язык [Текст] : термин. словарь по лесн. делу и ландшафт. архитектуре / И. В. Милованова ; М-во образования и науки Рос. Федерации, Фед. гос. бюджет. образоват. учреждение высш. проф. образования "Воронеж. гос. лесотехн. акад.". – Воронеж, 2014. – 180 с. Электронная версия в ЭБС ВГЛТУ. – Режим доступа: http://www.vglta.vrn.ru/ BiblSite/elcat.htm – Загл. с экрана. 2. Маньковская З. В. Идиомы и фразовые глаголы в деловом общении (английский язык) [Электронный ресурс]: Учебное пособие / З.В. Маньковская. – М.: ИНФРА-М, 2011. – 184 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум». – Режим доступа: http://www.znanium.com/ – Загл. с экрана. 3. Мюллер, В.К., Англо-русский словарь [Текст] /В.К. Мюллер.-М.: ЛокидПресс, 2003. – 687 с.