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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ Г.Ф. МОРОЗОВА»
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЕЛОВОЙ ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлениям подготовки
35.04.01, 35.04.02, 35.04.10, 15.04.02, 15.04.04, 09.04.02
Воронеж 2016
2
УДК 81.432.1
Маклакова, Е. А. Иностранный язык. Английский язык. Деловой иностранный
язык [Текст] : методические указания к практическим занятиям для студентов
по направлениям подготовки 35.04.01, 35.04.02, 35.04.10, 15.04.02, 15.04.04,
09.04.02 / Е. А. Маклакова, А. А. Илунина ; М-во образования и науки РФ,
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». – Воронеж, 2016. – 63 с.
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ» (протокол № 6 от 3 июня 2016 г.)
Рецензент: д-р филол. наук, проф. кафедры общего языкознания
и стилистики ФГБОУ ВО «ВГУ» И.А. Стернин
Методические указания содержат пять модулей, которые включают текстовый
материал из аутентичных источников для аннотирования и реферирования, лексические и
грамматические задания, сгруппированные по отдельным практическим занятиям.
Методические указания предназначены для практических занятий студентов по
направлениям подготовки 35.04.01 – Лесное дело, 35.04.02 – Технология
лесозаготовительных и лесоперерабатывающих производств, 35.04.10 – Ландшафтная
архитектура, 15.04.02 – Технологические машины и оборудование, 15.04.04 – Автоматизация
технологических процессов и производств, 09.04.02 – Информационные системы и
технологии, могут быть использованы для самостоятельной подготовки студентов к
контрольным проверкам знаний по английскому языку.
3
Оглавление
Модуль I .................................................................................................................... 4
Практическое занятие № 1 ...................................................................................... 4
Практическое занятие № 2 ...................................................................................... 7
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 10
Модуль II ................................................................................................................. 13
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 13
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 17
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 21
Модуль III ................................................................................................................ 25
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 25
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 29
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 32
Модуль IV ............................................................................................................... 36
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 36
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 40
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 43
Модуль V ................................................................................................................. 46
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 46
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 49
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 52
Практическое занятие № 4 .................................................................................... 56
Библиографический список ................................................................................... 60
4
МОДУЛЬ I
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
The preparation of the logs or trees to be skidded may be done manually with axe or
saw or mechanically with feller-bunchers, delimbers and feller-delimbers in the
stump area.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
A giant sequoia begins to produce seeds after only a few years of life. Mature
trees generate about 600 new cones every year, each cone containing a few hundred
seeds, as they produce more than 100,000 seeds annually. The mature sequoia holds
10,000 cones in its branches with about two million seeds inside, and a large sequoia
may bear as many as 40,000 cones.
Once the seeds reach the forest floor they must overcome many problems
before reproduction takes place. If the seeds come to rest on a thick duff of needles
and twigs reproduction fails.
Sunlight and nourishment in the forms of moisture and minerals of bare soil
must be present. Fire, by clearing the forest floor, encourages such conditions. Of
course, in a fire the seeds that already lie on the ground are burned up, too. Therefore,
nature provides another way to ensure reproduction of the giant sequoia: its heat that
rises in the branches and dries the cones. In a day or so, after the fire has died out, the
cones open and release their seeds, which fall on the ashes below and germinate in a
few months.
Thus, summer and autumn fires are a part of the natural environment in which
the giant sequoia lives. In fact, the mature sugar and yellow pines that live together
with the giant sequoia in the mixed conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada all rely on
these fires for their existing. Without fire to clear out the limb canopy overhead, the
sunlight would not penetrate to the offsprings of these sun-loving trees and their
seedlings would languish in the shadow below. Forest managers have long known
5
that fire is requisite to certain kinds of plant life; however, it is only in recent years
that this natural law has begun to be understood by the public.
The forest fires had a major impact on Yellowstone’s backcountry. Still many
places in the park have not had recent fires. Even those burned did so to varying
degrees. Burning varies from places where entire trees were burned completely to
places where only the understory burned and the forest canopy was untouched. This
has left the park with patterns of different intensities of burns throughout the forest.
These patterns are called fire «mosaics» and are especially visible from overlooks
and high peaks such as Mt. Washburn or Mt. Sheridan.
Forest fires are as much a part of Yellowstone’s ecology as are the grizzly
bears, the ospreys, or the pine trees. For thousands of years, lightning has started fires
here, and nature has eventually put them out. Fires usually burn themselves out when
they come to a stream or river, a wet meadow, a different type of age of tree, or when
a rainstorm or snowfall extinguishes them. The number of fires and the extent of the
burning depend largely on the weather and the age of the forest. The extremely dry
weather and strong winds drive the huge fires.
When a fire strikes a forest, it may burn away the forest canopy. This allows
more sunlight to reach the forest floor, and soon grasses, flowers, bushes, and new
trees spring up (up to 100 seedlings per square metre). It has been found, that the
number of plant species increases after a fire and reaches a peak after about 25 years.
Then as the trees grow back up and the forest and the forest canopy again forms, the
plant diversity decreases drastically.
The number of mammals and birds also increases after a fire. Grazing animals
and root eating rodents are attracted by the sudden abundance of ground plants. Some
birds nest in the trees killed by the fires while others come to feed on the insects these
trees attract. As the forest grows back and its diversity decreases, the diversity and
number of birds, rodents, and grazing animals also decreases.
These burned areas have some good things and some bad things from a hiker’s
point of view. The bad is mainly the soot and the heat. The lack of forest canopy lets
the sun glare down and the black trees seem to absorb the heat.
On the plus side of the fires is the new undergrowth with the large patches of
purple fireweed, yellow arnica, and green grass that seem so much brighter when
contrasted with the black background.
6
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Big trees that lean noticeably or have heavy branches on one side
____________ a difficult felling problem.
а) produce
b) present
c) include
d) identify
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Depending on the timber and operating traditions, skidding may ________ with
animals or with machines.
а) do
b) doing
c) be done
d) to be done
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
We were wandering if you could offer us a discount on crawler tractors. –
_______________________.
а) I’m sorry, that’s still too high. c) Good. Let us leave it at that.
b) That sounds fine.
d) Well, we could certainly discuss it.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
If you are not in an _____________country, such as in Switzerland or France, your
business lunch customs will naturally differ from American-style business lunches.
а) Spanish-speaking
c) English-speaking
b) French-speaking
d) German-speaking
Задание 6. Перед Вами бланк. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
a) Children
c) Marital status
b) Surname
d) Maiden name
1
Serova
2 Forename(s)
Anna
3
Ivanovna
4 Age
20
5 Date of birth
15th October, 83
6
Single
7
no
7
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
Timber rafting is a log transportation method in which logs are tied together into rafts and
drifted or pulled across water body or down the river.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
When Yellowstone National Park was established in 1872, its advocates
wanted to protect an unusual and interesting collection of geothermal wonders.
Today, people recognize that the world’s first national park protects much more than
geysers and other fascinating geothermal features. Yellowstone is recognized as a
great wildlife sanctuary, one of the last places in the nation where the full
complement of wildlife that occurred here during the time of Lewis and Clark’s epic
journey to the Pacific in 1804 – 1806 still roam free. Yellowstone is also recognized
as an important and unique area for scientific study because it has remained, in large
part, as it was more than 200 years ago while other such landscapes in the rest of the
world continue to disappear.
Scientists from all over the world come to Yellowstone to conduct research on
everything from water quality to animal movements and habitat preferences to fire
ecology to the unique life forms found in the park’s geothermal waters. Before they
are allowed to begin, however, they must submit a research proposal to park
management for review and approval. No research is allowed that would threaten or
diminish the resources of the park. Any collected for research specimen (for example,
plants or insects or even microbes) remain the property of the National Park Service
and must be properly cataloged and cared for.
Many different animals are radio collared in Yellowstone. Bison are collared
for various research projects, including studies on seasonal movements. Bighorn
sheep have been collared in an effort to understand their behavior, movement inside
and outside the park, and the locations of specific migration corridor. Wolves are
collared so that researches can track their movements and their progress toward
recovery. Researchers collared grizzly bears in order to learn more about home range
8
sizes, food habits, habitat use, and behavior pattern. The studies on pronghorn
antelope are one of the newest.
As the earth’s human population continues to increase, the remaining wild
places take on an added importance in our lives. Yellowstone is the place where
personal encounters with nature – an early morning walk in a steamy geyser basin or
the haunting howl of a wolf on a moonlight night in the backcountry – provide us
with magical moments to recall during our busy lives. However, another intangible of
this and other national parks is the value such places hold for science to improve our
lives, teach us about other life forms, and to help solve our problems. Despite all that
scientists have already learned from studying Yellowstone and its inhabitants, it is a
certainty that there are many more exiting things yet to be discovered.
«The place of blue smoke» is what the Cherokee Indians call the great Smoky
Mountains region, at the end of the Appalachian Highlands in the southeastern United
States. Long before European settlers arrived on the continent, the mountains were
the part of the great Cherokee Nation. About 8,500 Cherokee now live in
communities on a reservation on the eastern side of the mountains, where they
maintain the traditions of their people. Unfortunately, only a few older people still
remember how to speak the ancient language.
The Great Smoky Mountains are dotted with small towns that were settled by
Europeans. There are a number of interesting things to listen to and to look at.
Nevertheless, most tourists who visit the area go to the Smokies because of the
beautiful mountains and valleys, the changing seasons and the wildlife.
The Smokies are home to more than fifty species of mammals, including the
legendary black bear. To preserve the beauty of the region, The U.S. government
established The Great Smoky Mountains National Park. It is the most visited national
Park in the country, with more than 8 million tourists each year. However, how long
can a place with so many visitors remain unspoiled? Because the water in the clouds
which give the region its name can hold as much as ten times the amount of pollution
and one hundred times the acid rainfall, the trees at the tops of the mountains are
dying. Perhaps the Great Smoky Mountains will become just another lost wilderness.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In the modern commercial logging industry, _________ is typically
followed by limbing and skidding.
9
а) marking
b) accessing
c) burning
d) felling
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Before putting an axe or saw to the tree it is necessary to size up
carefully and decide where the tree should ____________.
а) drops
b) be dropped
c) to drop
d) to be dropping
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
Well, I am sure you will understand that is a reasonable offer. – _______________.
а) I hope you have noticed the difference.
b) It was impossible to sign such an agreement.
c) Yes, but I’m sure you could offer a bit more.
d) Everything is correct, but the sum is not calculated.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
These tax benefits in forest industry are created by the _______ Congress to encourage
investment in particular areas of the economy.
а) English
b) British
c) UK
d) US
Задание 6. Перед Вами бланк. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
a) Hobbies / activities
b) Address
c) Names of two referees besides employers d) Next of kin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Tel daytime
Tel evening
Education university / college
25 Tulskaya Street, Moscow, Russia
(095)658 46 79
(095) 658 42 45
Mrs Antonina Serova, mother
Moscow Secondary Gymnasium
Vera Ivanova, Paul Norman
Reading, chess, skiing, swimming
10
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
а) Open protest against protected areas
b) You participate in doing what I want
c) Conservation is the idea of protected areas
1) When we hear of burned rainforests, disappearing rhinos, threatened pandas
or damaged coral reefs, most of us feel that something is wrong. Many of us donate
money to support international or (and) national conservation organizations. We feel
that we help to protect these threatened habitats and rare species, and we like to think
that we are doing a good job. However, is this full picture? Have we, in the name of
conservation, been missing out something important?
Conservation is uniquely tied to the idea of protected areas, in particular
national parks. The first of these were set up more than a century ago in Europe and
North America. From 2000 protected areas 20 years ago, there are now 8600. They
are to be found in 169 countries, covering 792 million hectares – nearly 6 per cent of
the world’s land area. However, the global expansion of national parks has been
accompanied by a powerful ideology that people are bad for nature, and so the wider
public good is best served by keeping them out.
As a result, million have been resettled or prevented from using what were
once their resources. In Africa, for example, two-thirds of all protected areas (equal
to five times the size of Great Britain) exclude people, allowing no use of wild plants
or animals. However, these people value to flora and fauna, which are crucial to their
survival, a part of their culture and their way of life. Therefore, they look after them.
2) Those that set up national parks seldom recognize the importance of wild
animals and plants to local people. It is often forgotten or not appreciated that the
very ecosystems deemed worthy of protection from people have been shaped as much
by human action as by any other factor. Some «pristine» rainforests, assumed to be
untouched by human hands, are now found to have once supported thriving
agricultural communities. This concept of the wilderness is an urban myth that exists
only in our imagination.
11
The problem is that when people are excluded from conservation activities,
then the very goals of conservation are threatened. In some places, the restrictions
placed on local communities have led to biodiversity loss. After the exclusion of the
Masai from their lands in Kenya, game parks have increasingly been taken over by
scrub and woodland (and tourism for rich westerners), leaving less grazing for
antelopes. The Masai and their grazing cattle in part maintained these rich grassland
ecosystems.
Open protest and rallies against protected areas, attacks on guards, poisoning
on animals deliberate burning of forests have now become common. When Namibia
became independent in 1990, Ovambo tribesmen living on the boundary of Etosha
National Park celebrated their freedom by cutting the game fence and driving into the
park to hunt game for their families to eat. In south India, some 20 square kilometers
of Nagarhole National Park were recently burned as a protest. As a result, the cost of
enforcing park regulations has spiraled. In many countries, the bulk of budget for
protected areas is spent on aircraft, radios, machine guns, vehicle, armed guards and
antipoaching equipment.
3) Emerging slowly from this mess, however, is a strengthening alternative
vision that is putting people at the centre of conservation; it recognizes that humans
and animals can live in symbiotic relationships. It recognizes that societies have
developed many processes that have enabled them to conserve and enhance species
diversity. When people are fully involved in conservation, the change can be
remarkable.
Community wildlife schemes in Africa and India are having a positive impact
on flora and fauna, on the well-being of local people, and on the attitudes and
approaches of conservation professionals. Not all is rosy in the Garden of Eden,
however. An alarming double backlash has now begun. The first come from the
reaction are conservationists who call themselves «deep ecologists». They say that
only they have the competence to decide the future of tropical landscapes. For some
deep ecologists, nature has an intrinsic worth and should be preserved irrespective of
people needs. Some have even argued that a large proportion of the world must be
immediately cordoned off from people.
The second backlash comes from those conservation professionals who say that
they have always sought to involve people. Moreover, we are told that people are
now participating in conservation activities. The problem lies in the interpretation of
12
this word «participation», which means different things to different people. To many
conservation professionals it still means «you participate in doing what I want». In
this type of passive or manipulative participation, people may provide their labour but
not their skills, ideas or knowledge. We should have learnt our lesson by now.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The operations in ________________ that involve the movement of products from
the forest are the most costly, because green products are heavy and the application of
animal or mechanical power is necessary.
а) timber harvesting
b) testing on helicopters
c) load carrying capacity
d) herbicide treatment
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In processing, the tree ____________ logs by removing the limbs (delimbing) and
cutting it into logs of optimal length (bucking).
а) is turned into
b) is prepared for
c) is set aside
d) is taken in
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
What about the Draft Contract? – _________________________.
а) We are going to talk about the offer. c) I’ll certainly be there.
b) Oh, I have not finished it yet.
d) That sounds fine.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
London and many other British cities and towns still have some traditional ________
(= buses with two floors).
а) traffics
c) double-deckers
b) customs points
d) underground stations
Задание 6. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке
1)
2)
3)
4)
13
a)
b)
c)
Encl. 5 pages
If you have any suggestions about the themes, please do not hesitate to
contact us and we will try to make all the necessary rearrangements.
Yours faithfully,
Ms. Gillian Jones
Personnel Manager
Dear Mr. Green,
Re: Training program of 10-20 July, 2015
Thank you for your letter of 1 June and the list of the Participants of the
Program.
In accordance with your request, we are sending you the list of the
lecturers and the themes they will cover in the lectures.
d)
Your ref: JG/BC/3
Our ref: 32/78
date: 23 April, 2015
Mr. James Green
Sales Manager BBB plc
55, Old St.
London
E6 6HG
МОДУЛЬ II
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
а) Different types of tourism
b) Is ecotourism successful?
c) Caring for nature
14
1) The future productivity of our forests depends on careful selection of tree
seed sources to match the local soil and climatic conditions off each forest. The
objective is to select species and seed sources which will yield high volumes of
timber and superior tree form while maintaining wood properties and disease
resistance. Forestry makes an important contribution to a productive and flourishing
countryside and rural welfare. Forest and woodland have the special capacity to
provide recreation benefits and absorb the pressures of large numbers of visitors.
Public recreation must be a part of forest management.
Silviculture is the art of reproducing and tending forest growth, it includes the
technique of starting new forests and caring for them through all stages to maturity.
Regeneration of woods may be accomplished by creating conditions for establishing
new stands either by natural seeding or by a new crop of tree sprouts; again, new
woodlands may be established by planting small trees grown in forest nurseries. As
stands develop, numerous types of cultural measures are desirables, cutting made in
immature stands are termed intermediate cutting; these made in the mature woods are
called final cuttings.
The treatment of a wood that is managed for the production of useful wood
products varies considerably from the treatment where the aim is one of encouraging
of wildlife or of protecting human habitations from climatic extremes. But it is easily
possible in any woods to meet all objectives by a well-coordinated plan of
silvicultural treatment. The application of silvicultural treatment demands a
knowledge of the many environmental factors that influence the growth of species, an
understanding of the ways in which trees live and grow in association of the worth of
the individual species that are adaptable to local conditions.
2) Today the modern tourism is one of the largest industries of the world that
employs 127 million people: each fifteenth of all the working people in the world.
Second, it is a leading taxpayer. Moreover, at last, it is the most quickly developed
world industry. These are the advantages and positive moments of the world tourism.
However, it is harmful towards the environment developing so intensively. However,
it is often considered, that economical problems must be paid attention after
ecological ones. If we do not change the situation, tourism can disappear.
Tourism is the business of providing things for people to do, places for them to
stay when they are on holidays. There are different types of tourism nowadays:
medical, recreational, religious, business, ecological etc. Ecological tourism is what
15
we are interested in. This is a new type of tourism; it is opposite to the old, traditional
one.
What is the difference between traditional tourism and ecotourism? Tourists
can enjoy the nature but save the earth at the same time. Or so goes the theory of
«ecotourism». Ecotourism was based on the realization that some people (usually
poor Africans, Asians, and Latin Americans) live in places surrounded by precious
living things. In addition, other people – well off and rich Americans and Europeans
– want to see them and preserve.
3) The idea was to enable people in the developing world to earn money by
preserving nature rather than using nature up; it is simple – people put down their
guns and harpoons and take up laundry and food trays. Where does ecotourism work?
Is the idea successful? It is successful in the whale-watching waters of Baja,
California, and Argentina’s Peninsula Valdes. Hundreds of gray whales migrate into
the warm lagoons even in winter to breed. Before the 1980s, anglers and whalehunters turned the waters into dead zones.
Local environmentalists proclaimed the idea of ecotourism. Now we can
compare: in the mid 1980s whale watching was modest business with 5 mln, today it
is a 500 million tourist industry with the tourists from 65 countries. Costa Rica
embraced ecotourism early and created an ecotourism institute and a faculty of
ecotourism at its Latin American University of Science and Technology. The industry
brings in almost 500 million dollars a year, second after banana export.
Sometimes ecotourism is beset by eco-troubles. For example, tourists come to
Mexico’s Pacific coast to watch green sea turtles on moonlit beaches. However, the
beachfront hotels cast such bright light that turtles become disoriented. Whalewatching services frighten the whales and they dive underwater. As you understand,
it is dangerous for the people in the boats. In Australia, they organize dolphin
expeditions. Very often feeding reduces the ability of young dolphins to find their
own food.
Of course, the above-mentioned facts can be considered as disadvantages of
ecotourism. For the goals a visiting management is used, it controls time of trip, types
of the visit as well as the maximum number of visitors to a region. Even if whales are
frightened by tourist boats and turtles cannot eat in peace, the living creatures are
now better than when people hunted them to kill. Of two evils, choose the least.
16
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The marketing of _______________ is the final step in the cycle producing and
utilizing tree growth.
а) woodland products
c) medium sized forwarders
b) logging methods
d) manual planted seedlings
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Managers ____________ on this information to sell and promote their woodland
products.
a) depend
b) turn
c) carry
d) look
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
I am calling about GT/152A contract on loading operations. – ____________.
а) Do you want me to pick them up?
b) Oh yes, how is it coming along?
c) That would be fine.
d) Right, see you soon.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Londoners call their underground train network «___________».
а) the traffic
c) the double-decker
b) the customs point
d) the tube
Задание 6. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке
1)
2)
3)
4)
a)
Thank you for your letter of 11th November asking for to-date list of
addresses of our branches.
We have pleasure in enclosing the brochure, showing location of all our
branches and agencies at home and abroad.
Yours faithfully,
S.S. Carson
Reliance Holdings Group Organization
17
b)
Messrs. Watson and Bruce
Hardware Dealers
14 Castle Road
Edinburgh
For the attention of Mr. P. James
Dear Sirs,
c)
Re: Up-to-date list of addresses
RELIANCE HOLDINGS FINANCE GROUP
88 Martins Lane London EC2V 6BH Telephone 01-5883782
Your ref: LE/N
Our ref: HCD/RP
d)
14th November, 2017
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Wood-processing industry
b) The detailed treatment of one aspect of economic behavior
c) Planting a tree
d) Moving the products from the forest
A properly planted and maintained tree will grow much faster and live much
longer than one that is planted incorrectly. Trees can be planted almost any time of
the year as long as the soil is not frozen. However, early autumn is the optimum time
to plant trees. The roots grow some during the first fall and winter and when sprig
comes, the tree is ready to grow. Your second choice for planting is early spring. Hot
summer weather is hard on newly planted trees.
General planting instructions:
 Dig a hole twice as wide as, and slightly shallower than, the root ball.
Roughen the sides and bottom of the hole with a pick or shovel so that roots can
penetrate the soil.
18
 With a potted tree, gently remove the tree from the container. Lay the tree
on its side with the container end near the planting hole. Hit the bottom and sides of
the container until the root ball is loosened. With trees wrapped in plastic or burlap,
remove the string or wire that holds the wrapping to the root crown. Remove the
wrapping if in plastic; burlap may be left in place.
 Gently separate circling roots on the root ball. Shorten exceptionally long
roots, and guide the shortened roots downward and outward. Root tips die quickly
when exposed to light and air, so don’t waste time.
 Place the root ball in the hole. Leave the top of the root ball (where the
roots end and the trunk begins) ½ to 1 inch above the surrounding soil, making sure
not to cover it unless roots are exposed. As you ad soil to fill in around the tree,
lightly tamp the soil to collapse air pockets, or add water to help settle the soil.
 Form a temporary water basin around the base of the tree to encourage
water penetration, and water thoroughly after planting. A tree with a dry root ball
cannot absorb water; if the root ball is extremely dry; allow water to trickle into the
soil by placing the hose at the trunk of the tree.
 Mulch the tree around.
For the first year or two, especially after a week or so of especially hot or dry
weather, watch your trees closely for signs of moisture stress. If you see leaf wilting
or hard, caked soil, water the trees well and slowly enough so the water soaks in
rather than runs off. This will encourage deep root growth. Keep the area under the
trees mulched and free of other plants. Until the trees are deeply rooted grasses and
other plants may take up moisture before the trees can get their share.
In selecting a tree species or cultivar, our goal should be to have a tree that is
well matched to the planting site so that it survives and thrives. The tree must also
achieve the goals for size, shape, function, and appearance and must be affordable.
Unfortunately, people usually only pay attention to visually obvious characteristics
like flower color, presence or lack of fruit, and crown shape and size. Such
characteristics may be important, but usually they have little to do with whether the
tree will do well on its planting site.
Lack of knowledge of a tree’s site-related needs results in disappointed tree
owners and a lack of well adapted trees in our landscapes. A tree’s site-related needs
and its ability to withstand environmental extremes are rooted in its native origins.
All landscape tree species and cultivars were once native to a certain climatic or
19
geographic region or have been bred from native trees. These native trees were well
adapted to their surroundings and these adaptations usually have carried over into the
cultivated trees we see (with the exception of some species like fruit trees that have
undergone intensive breeding).
For example, though a white fir at a nursery may have grown in a nursery bed
in bright sunlight, it still has its native characteristic of shade tolerance that allows it
to seed-in under the shade of a forest canopy. Cottonwoods are native to bare river
fluid plains which helps explain their preference for moist soils and high light
conditions. So, it is important to remember that trees have specific site requirements
that vary between species and cultivars. Matching your site conditions to a tree that
you like is the key to tree selection.
These are the factors that should be paid special attention – soil conditions,
cold, heat and shade tolerance, water requirements, pest resistance, growth rate,
crown size, form, rooting area or volume, longevity, ornamental characteristics,
utility locations.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант словосочетания
A significant and growing part of this __________ is transmitted to Japan via China,
where the logs are processed and significantly increase in value.
а) consumers of the forestry products
c) illegal exports
b) woodland cooperatives
d) raw hardwood flow
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The introduction of fully mechanized logging methods ________ both advantages
and disadvantages for transport and delivery operations.
а) had
b) is having
c) has
d) have had
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
I would like to meet you to discuss your needs in further detail. –
___________________.
а) I would like to see it.
b) I am sorry, but I will not be available next week.
c) Oh yes, how is it coming along?
d) So, would I.
20
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The highest managerial organ of a British Stock Company is the Assembly of
shareholders, which elects the __________________.
а) Personnel Manager
c) Board of Directors
b) Company Secretary d) Managing Director
Задание 6. Определите вид делового письма
а) Enquiry
b) Complaint
c) Offer
R. H. F. GROUP
88 Martins Lane
London
EC2V 6BH
Telephone 701-5883782250
2nd June 2017
Dear Sirs,
It is with great regret that we have to inform you that the material, delivered under
Contract No 1258 / 57 do not conform to the specification based on which the
contract was signed.
By separate mail, we have sent you a cutting from this material and one piece from
the material of the previous consignment, so that you can compare the two and see
the difference.
Because of this situation, we sustain heavy losses because we cannot fulfill our
contractual obligations to our clients. In this situation, we are prepared to retain the
goods if you will reduce the price, say, by 40%.
Awaiting your early reply,
We remain faithfully yours,
John Brown
Department of Sales
21
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) The main factors of wood-processing production
b) Tree selection
c) Sale of standing timber
d) Consumers of the forestry products
Soil provides trees with special support, water, mineral elements (nutrients),
and oxygen for the roots. Certain properties, such as soil pH (alkalinity or acidity),
drainage, density or compaction, texture, salinity, and structure affect a soil’s ability
to provide these benefits to trees.
Some trees are very cold hardy and withstand extremely cold temperatures,
while a mild frost kills the others. In some cases, a tree may be cold hardy while
dormant but may become active too early in the spring and suffer damage by a late
frost. Other species may be able to tolerate very high temperatures and some
withstand both extreme cod and heat quite well. Plant hardiness zones have been
developed and must be taken in account.
A tree’s shade tolerance can vary from very intolerant to very tolerant and is
important if you have a very shaded or very open planting site. Shade intolerant trees
rarely do well in shaded areas. Though shade tolerant trees do best in at least partial
shade, some also do well in sunny locations.
Some tree species are very drought tolerant and can grow in near-desert
conditions while others need access to abundant water at all times. Many heat tolerant
species are also drought tolerant. If climatic conditions do not provide enough water
irrigation is necessary. However, over watering can weaken or kill trees.
Some tree species or cultivars are highly susceptible to insect or disease pests
while others are nearly pest-free. For example, stressed Lombardy poplars are very
susceptible to a stem canker and are almost certain to die within 5 to 15 years.
Ginkgo has few known pests and is very pollution tolerant. Serious, life-threatening
pests like borers and cancers deserve much more attention and concern than lateseason leaf feeding insects or other non-life = threatening pests. Stressed trees often
are much more susceptible to pest attack and damage.
22
Fast growth rate is one of the main interests people have when selecting a tree.
Cottonwoods and silver maples can grow many feet in height a year and quickly
become large trees. Such fast-growing trees are often short-lived; weak wooded, or
quickly outgrow their site. Though planting of some fast-growing trees to establish
quickly a landscape may be fine, some slower-growing but longer-lived and more
desirable trees also should be planted.
Choose a tree with a mature size that matches the space you have available.
Only short trees should be planted near overhead obstructions like power lines.
Strong-wooded tree crowns can be allowed to overhang a roof but weaker trees
should be planted about one-half of their mature crown width away from a building.
Trees in groups can be planted close enough that their crowns overlap when they are
older, but avoid over-crowding that will lad to poor growing conditions and
unhealthy trees.
Tree species and cultivars vary widely in form or crown shape, depending on
their branching pattern. Crowns can be tall and narrow (columnar), short an wide,
weeping, round, conical, or vase-shaped. Some trees keep their lower branches and
foliage as the crown grows while others readily lose their lower branches as they are
shaded above. Preferred crown form is a matter of personal taste, but crown form also
may be an important factor in matching a tree to a site or to the function, it will serve.
For example, columnar trees are useful in narrow areas, trees used in windbreaks and
visual screens need to retain their lower branches and foliage, and low or weeping
branches should not obstruct sidewalks and driveways.
However, roots can grow along cracks or in voids below, ground space for
roots is as important as aboveground space for crowns. Though no firm formula
exists for calculating, the soil area or volume needed for a certain sized tree. This area
can be of any shape and long narrow areas can be used to connect larger open areas to
achieve adequate rooting space. Soil conditions under paved areas often are
unfavorable for root growth under pavements and can do quite well under paving
bricks or blocks.
The typical life span of a good tree in a suburban neighborhood is 30 to 50
years, while downtown trees may only last 5 to 10 years. As mentioned previously,
people tend to plant fast-growing trees that often have short lives. While some of this
is all right, homeowners and communities should also plant trees that might grow
slower (though some grow quite fast) but that are longer-lived.
23
Ornamental characteristics are important factors in tree selection even though
they usually have little to do with whether a tree can survive and thrive on its site.
Ornamental factors to consider include flower and fruit presence and appearance,
foliage color and texture, bark characteristics, shade density, fall color, and winter
appearance. Some trees have thorns or spines, objectionable odors, a tendency to
have basal or root sprouts, or maintenance-related needs that also should be
considered.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант словосочетания
The development of satellite navigation systems has proved to be of enormous value
to _______________ .
а) measurements of upper stem diameters
c) forest surveys
b) seed bank studies
d) buyers of stumpage
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Corporate wood products tend to cost less because of the large volume and small
overhead costs per unit ___________.
a) sold
b) is sold
c) selling
d) having sold
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
As you may remember, we have to discuss the terms of delivery. – __________.
а) Yes, of course. Could you manage on Monday?
b) I suppose that suits me too.
c) You do not say so! I hardly believe it.
d) Certainly, I will be present.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
_______________ school buses are a tradition in the US and parts of Britain.
а) White
b) Black
c) Red
d) Yellow
Задание 6. Определите цель делового письма
а) Complaint
b) Offer
c) Enquiry
24
Tom Jones
225 Hartman Drive
Portsmouth,
NH 03801
(603) 555-4606-18-15
January 22, 2015
Mr. Howard Speller
General Sales Manager
Speller Automobiles Ltd.
315 Rolling Woods Highway
Dover,
NH 03723
Gentlemen,
We thank you for your letter of 28 June, and are glad to inform you that all the
items listed in your enquiry are in stock.
We are enclosing a proforma invoice for the consumer goods you are interested in.
We are enclosing details of our terms of payment.
The Head of our Sales Department would be happy to discuss discounts with you if
you would kindly let us know how large your orders are likely to be.
We can guarantee delivery in Melbourne within 3 weeks of receiving your
instructions.
We assure you that your orders will receive our immediate attention.
We are looking forward to hearing from you.
Yours truly,
Tom Jones,
Sales Manager
25
МОДУЛЬ III
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
a) Good or poor soil structure
b) Excessively drained soils
c) Saline soils
d) Ideal soils for root growth
1) Tree planting consists of preparing a planting site, placing the tree, and
backfilling. Soil conditions are very important in the planting process. Important soil
conditions for tree health are texture, drainage, compaction, pH, salinity, and
structure. All of these conditions can be modified to some extent. When soil
conditions cannot be adequately modified, or modification is too expensive, tree
species and cultivars often can be selected that are tolerant of extremes.
2) Soil texture – soil texture is the proportion of sand, silt, and clay particles in
a soil. Sand particles are large and coarse, silt is smaller, and clay particles are very
small. Ideal soils for root growth tend to have a mixture of all three particle size and
are called loams.
Such soil have good water and mineral nutrient (element) holding capacity
because of the silt and clay, and good drainage, porosity, and air movement because
of the sand. Very clayey soils tend to waterlog and hard for roots to grow through.
Sandy soils may be droughty and low in mineral content. Soil texture is not easy to
change but it is good to be aware.
3) Soil drainage – drainage refers to how quickly a soil drains after water is
applied and is affected by texture, structure, porosity, precipitation or irrigation
levels, and the slope and landscape position of a site. Soils can be excessively
drained, well drained or poorly drained. Excessively drained soils tend to be coarse
textured (sandy) and drain too rapidly to be able to supply much water for plants.
Poorly drained soils usually are fine textured (clayey) and hold water too long
which limits soil oxygen. Excessively drained soils can be improved by addition of
organic matter or bringing in new soil. Poor drainage can be improved with drain tiles
26
or other artificial drainage systems. Special planting methods can also be used to deal
with poor drainage.
4) Soil compaction – good soil for root growth are made up of about one – half
soil particles and one – half pore space. Soil compaction occurs when a soil is
compressed enough to reduce pore space, decreasing root growth and soil oxygen
levels. Vehicle and pedestrian traffic, construction activities, and working of wet soils
increase compaction, especially in fine soils. Severely compacted sites like old
parking lots, construction sites, or work ways may need to be deeply tilled over the
entire site before trees are planted.
Local compaction can be reduced or prevented with mulch beds and traffic
control. An augering 2-3 inch diameter hole 8-16 inches deep in a grid around tree
reduces compaction. Holes should be left empty and allowed to collapse, or can be
tilled with compost or other coarse organic material (called vertical mulching).
5) Soil pH – or reaction is the acidity or alkalinity of a soil and is a good
indicator of the availability of many mineral nutrients (elements). Seven is a neutral
pH with lower number being acidic and higher numbers alkaline or basic. Trees
generally do best in a slightly acidic soil with a pH of 5 to 6,5. Below and above this
range certain minerals become less available.
Regular additions of granular sulfur can lower soil pH. Soil salinity – refers to
the relative amount of salts in the soil. Saline soils have high accumulations of
sodium, chloride, and certain other ions. These ions interfere with nutrient and water
uptake, reduce growth and alter plant metabolism, and can cause increased soil
compaction.
6) Soil structure – structure refers to the arrangement of soil particles into
granules, clods, or other forms with space in between. Loose, granular soils are good
for trees because air, water, and roots easily penetrate the many spaces in the soil.
Hard, dense, cloddy soils have little room for roots to grow or oxygen and water to
penetrate.
Good soil structure may be ruined by working or distributing the soil while it is
wet. However, poor structure may improve over time through the action of soil
microbes and freezing and thawing, deep tillage is the only way to improve quickly
soil structure. If soil conditions are that bad, changes should be made or trees should
not be planted.
27
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
___________is providing assistance in park planning, satellite photography, park
rangers’ training, communications and infrastructure.
a) The studies
b) The sales of logs
c) The project
d) The retail banks
Задание 3. Выберите перевод относительного местоимения в предложении
The total timber volume in these forests is estimated to be 11,3 billion cubic meters,
of which 8,3 billion cubic meters is so-called mature and over-mature forest.
a) те, которые
b) одни из тех
c) из которых
d) некоторые
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
The first reported testing on helicopters for logging was in ________ in 1956.
a) Middle East
b) UK
c) Scotland
d) USA
Задание 5. Дополните диалог подходящей по ситуации репликой
A. – Reservations, may I help you?
B. – Yes, please. What do you have available for next week, from the 20th to the
25th?
A. –_________________________.
B. – Yes, I would like to make a reservation for a single room.
a) Do you have a room service?
b) I would like a non-stop flight.
c) Will this be for you?
d) Do you have any luggage?
Задание 6.
документа
1)
Определите
2)
последовательность
3)
частей
4)
представленного
28
a)
Mr P. Barker
Purchasing Manager
Softchain Ltd
77 Brigham Street
Liverpool
Ll34AT
10 April 2015
Your ref: AE/677
Dear Mr. Baker
b)
I am enclosing a copy of our most recent catalogue details of our
product range, together with list price. I hope that the information will be of
interest to you, and look forward to discussing orders in the near future.
Yours sincerely
Alice·Everett
Marketing Manager
Encl. Compact catalogue, trade price list
c)
COMPACT SYSTEMS
96 Rosewall Drive, Southtown, S03 4BT tel: 0927-423845 telex: 69364
d)
Thank you for your letter of 5 April 2015 in which you asked details of
our range of business applications programs.
Because of the low price of our software, we do not offer a quantity
discount; however, if you can give me an indication of the quantity involved,
I would be happy to discuss terms further with you. Normally, we would be
happy to offer you a 20 p.c. trade discount off net list prices, as requested in
your letter, and to accept your terms of payment.
29
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
a) Placing the tree
b) Season to plant
c) Preparing the planting site
d) Backfilling
1) Dig the planting hole much wider than the root ball with sloping sides; a
hole at least 3 times the root ball width is best. The hole should be just deep enough
so the bottom of the root ball will be placed on undisturbed soil and the root collar
will be at or above the level of the surrounding soil. The root collar is a flared or
swollen area on the trunk where the root system and trunk meet and where the soil
contacted the trunk in the nursery.
Loosening the soil in the bottom of the hole has been recommended in the past
but this lets the heavy root ball settle and sink causing the tree to be too deep. The
sides of the hole may become glazed and smooth during digging if the soil is clayey
and moist, making root penetration difficult. If this occurs roughen the glazed
surfaces and open up the soil’s spores and cracks by picking at the soil with the tip of
the spade or a trowel.
2) Place the tree in the bottom of the hole onto undisturbed soil with its stem
vertical. Handle the tree by its root ball or container to avoid trunk damage. Never
drop the tree or you will loosen the root ball and break roots. Make sure that the root
collar is at or above surrounding soil grade. Now start to remove packing materials
from the root ball. Ropes and wires that surround the trunk or root collar should
always be removed or they will eventually girdle the tree.
Roots must quickly grow from the root ball into the surrounding native soil for
the tree to survive. However, untreated burlap breaks down quickly in the soil, treated
burlap and some types of pots beak down too slowly to assure good, quick growth out
of the root ball. Therefore, if the root ball or potted root system is strong and firm all
packing materials should be removed, including pots, wire baskets and burlap.
If the root ball is broken and loose, remove this material carefully and only to
the extant that you can keep the root ball together. Backfilling as you remove this
30
material helps keep the root ball intact. Any burlap or potting material that must be
left on should be slit in several placed to allow roots to grow through. It is less
important but still desirable to remove packing materials left underneath the root ball.
Cleanly cut any circling or damaged roots that are exposed at this point to
promote good root growth. Bare root trees should be placed with their root collar
positioned as mentioned above and with their root system spread out in the flatbottomed hole or over a shallow mound constructed in the bottom of the hole. Do not
bend or kink roots to make them fit. If roots are too long for the hole, either dig the
hole wider and deeper or, as a last resort, cut off some root length with sharp hand
pruners. Also cleanly cut any crushed, torn, or otherwise damaged roots.
3) Fill the hole with the original native soil – this soil the tree must ultimately
move its roots into in order to survive. Large rocks can be removed when backfilling.
Up to 25 % by volume of composed organic matter ca be mixed in with the backfill
soil if it has a very high clay content and is difficult to work, but in such cases till the
soil just outside the root ball 8 to 12 inches deep and several feet wide after planting
to ensure good root growth. Otherwise, use no other soil amendments.
Break up large clods as you backfill and pack the soil occasionally to remove
air pockets. Pack the soil with your hand or highly with your foot to avoid overcompaction. Straighten the tree and keep its root collar at the right level as you
backfill. Add and pack the soil until it is even with the surrounding soil level and the
root collar. If you are purposely planting the tree shallow, mound the soil up to the
root collar (bare-root) or cover the sides of the root ball. No roots should be exposed
when backfilling is complete and no soil and remove air pockets. Place additional soil
where settling occurs but no packing should be done after the soil is wet.
4) Trees are best planted when they are still dormant with tight, unopened buds
in the early to mid-spring after the soil has thawed. Moderate temperatures and good
soil moisture in the spring help trees get established. Fall planting also works well for
many species, though watering will be critical if the fall is dry. Summer planting and
container plants can be done successfully, though hot temperatures dry conditions,
and non-dormant trees make good care especially important and survival less sure.
Bare root trees should be planted only in spring while still dormant.
31
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
The _________________ of a forest stand can be defined as the bottom-to-top
configuration of above-ground vegetation.
a) central loading points
b) vertical structure
c) skidding of logs
d) short wood harvesting system
Задание 3. Определите значение наречного местоимения
Regardless of the form of ultimate use of piece products, the principle of cost
determination is the same.
a) такой же
b) некоторый
c) какой-нибудь
d) одинаковые
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
What covers an area in east central London north of the River Thames?
a) Nelson’s Column
b) Greenwich
c) Тhe City of London
d) Wall Street
Задание 5. Дополните диалог подходящей по ситуации репликой
A. – Do you have room service?
B. – Yes. I will send someone up right away.
A. – Thank you. _________________________.
B. – No, madam.
a) Has anyone left any messages for me?
b) I would like a non-stop flight.
c) Will this be for you?
d) Do you have any luggage?
Задание 6. Определите последовательность
документа
1)
2)
3)
частей
4)
представленного
32
a)
Mrs A. Everett
Compact Systems
96 Rosewall Drive
Southtown
Dear Mrs. Everett
b)
We would be much obliged if you could dispatch the goods so they
reach us not later than 30 July, and look forward to receiving your
acknowledgement.
Yours sincerely
P. Barker
c)
SOFTCHAIN Ltd
Foss House, Brigham Street, Live Tel: 051-3876397 Telex: 79284
15 July 2016
d)
Please find enclosed our order, Ord. B7693, for 100 IBM compatible
Compact Accounts packages, as discussed in our phone conversation of 12
July.
We have decided to place an order for 100 packages and accept the 20
p.c. trade discount off net list prices as discussed. Payment will be made,
as agreed, 30 days after receipt of your invoice.
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
The timber imported from Russia is mainly from natural forests, and is of good
quality and offer logs with bigger diameters.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
33
Up to 95 % of a tree’s roots are cut off during transplanting, greatly decreasing
its ability to take up water. Nevertheless, water is a tree’s greatest need at planting
time and for a year or two after transplanting until a good root system is established.
Thoroughly water newly planted trees, applying the water with a hose or bucket to
the entire planting area and letting it soak it well.
Watering needs after planting depend on weather, drainage, planting season,
and the species you have planted. However, water should be applied to the original
planting area out. Apply water often enough so that the soil, near the tree 2 inches
below the surface is moist and will form a ball when squeezed. If it is crumbles, it is
too dry.
A soil probe or rod with a rounded tip can be used to indicate soil moisture.
The rod will penetrate the soil with more resistance as the soil drys. It is possible to
over-water a tree especially in poorly drained soils. Do not water so often or so
deeply that the tree’s root system becomes waterlogged. Older, established trees can
withstand some soil drying around their root systems, but all landscape trees should
be watered regularly during the periods of severe drought.
No fertilizers of any kind should be used at planting time since they decrease
root growth and may cause the crown to outgrow the roots. No hormones, extracts,
vitamins or other such formulas have been shown to stimulate root growth or help
tree establishment. Fertilizing should be done after the tree has recovered from
transplanting. This recovery can take 2 or 3 years; longer with larger trees.
A bed of wood chips or coarse organic mulch around a tree’s base greatly
increases root and tree health. Maintain a mulch bed around all newly planted and
existing trees that extends several feet from the trunk; wider is better. Mulch should
be 3 to 4 inches deep and should be renewed as it breaks down.
Keep mulch a couple of inches away from the base of the trunk to avoid root or
trunk decay. Airtight plastic sheeting and rock beds should not be used around the
trees. Porous weed barriers of woven or matted plastic provide effective weed control
but can be difficult to install and maintain and are not effective than an adequate
organic mulch layer.
Stalk newly planted trees only where wind is a problem. Guy loosely to allow
some stem movement, using canvas strapping or similar materials around the tree to
prevent trunk damage. Remove all stalking materials after one or two years.
34
Thin bark on lower trunks of young trees sometimes is damaged by
«sunscald». This damage appears as small cracks or wounds on the bark, especially
on the southwest side of the tree. Though the underlying cause is uncertain, sunscald
appears to be caused by bark being warmed by the winter sun, becoming less cold
hardy, and then being damaged by freezing when the sun sets.
Tree wrap made from corrugated paper or a similar material is often used to
help prevent this. However, research has shown few if any benefits to wrapping most
trees. In fact, tree wrap may improve conditions for insects and diseases that damage
tree trunks, it decreases the young bark’s ability to make food through
photosynthesis, and it has been shown to increase rather than decrease bark
temperature fluctuations.
If you choose to wrap your new tree, wrap from the trunk base to one-half of
the way up the trunk, overlapping as you go and using masking tape to hold the wrap
at the top. Apply wrap in the fall after leaf drop and remove each spring, repeating for
no more than two or three years after planting. Do not wrap trees with trunks that will
be shaded I the winter.
Damage from feeding or rabbits and mice can be prevented by wrapping wire
mesh around lower stems of young trees. Remember to remove or reposition the
mesh before it girdles the tree. There are plastic tree shelter tubes. They can be of
some benefit to growth and survival of young trees, but further research is needed to
prove their worth.
Little pruning should be done at planting time because the young tree needs all
the stored food (in the wood) making ability (in the leaves) it can get. Trees should
not be «headed back» at planting time to «balance» the roots and crown.
The tree will naturally loose branches and twigs if balance is needed. These
branches will die, at which time they can be removed. Dead, diseased, damaged, or
rubbing branches should be removed at planting time. Once the tree is established it
becomes important to begin pruning to ensure good form later in life.
Weeds use water and mineral nutrients that would otherwise be available for
your newly planted tree. Grassers are especially heavy water users and should not be
allowed to grow near young trees. Control weed competition by using a wide mulch
bed several inches deep and by pulling weeds or using directed sprays or herbicides
as needed.
35
Herbicides or weed killers that are taken up by roots should not be used since
they can harm the tree. Glyphosate is an effective weed killer that can be sprayed on
leaves of weedy plants without affecting tree growing nearby. Keep all weed killers
off tree leaves, young bark, and sprouts coming from the tree base.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
________ in logging is the process of removing branches from the stem of a fallen
tree.
а) Limbing
b) Skidding
c) Bunching
d) Transporting
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
A complete understanding of all terms by both parties prior to the signing of the
contract and starting of the work _______ later misunderstanding and difficulties.
а) will prevent
c) is prevented
b) to prevent
d) to preventing
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
What rates on fallen timber are you charging these days? – __________________ .
а) Of course, this price is high.
b) That depends on the size of a tree.
c) Here's my card, take it.
d) Oh, it is very simple.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
__________________ identified the division of labor as the source of «the greatest
improvement in the productive powers of labor».
а) Karl Marx
c) Immanuel Kant
b) Ramsey Macdonald
d) Adam Smith
Задание 6. Соотнесите информацию в графах резюме под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
a) Other information
b) Marital status
c) Date of birth
d) Work experience
36
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
27 February 1985
Name
Belova Margaret
Present address
18 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 128343, Russia
single
Education and 1990-2000 Specialized Secondary School
qualifications
23 Tushinskaya Street, Moscow, Russia
2000-2003 Johnson Bros Ltd, 35 Ostozhenka Street
Type of Company: Retail Chain Stores Post:
Junior Secretary Responsibilities: Secretarial-work
including typing, shorthand, correspondence, taking
minutes at meetings, copying reports and minutes from
shorthand notes, filing, tabulating data, answering
customers' calls, mail distribution and general office duties
2003-present Auto Importers Ltd., 38 Rostokino
Moscow, Russia Type of Company:
Car importers Post: Secretary to Assistant Director
Responsibilities: dealing with all correspondence, taking
minutes at meetings and writing up Assistant Director's
reports, receiving customers and suppliers, dealing with all
kinds of enquiries; making decisions on behalf of A.D. in
his absence; and representing the company at various
business functions.
While working I attended various evening courses for
business and information technology. My interests include
tennis, badminton, swimming and reading.
МОДУЛЬ IV
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
Timber rafting is a log transportation method in which logs are tied together into rafts
and drifted or pulled across water body or down the river.
37
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
Because of the great variety and complexity of the problems that can arise in
connection with the establishment of a sawmill, sawmills of the standard type seldom can
be installed without special precautions Consideration of the local climatic conditions
makes it possible to estimate variations in seasonal supply and their effect on the choice
of sawmill.
A factor of grime importance is the consideration of the species of wood. In
certain cases, the presence of internal tensions or the danger of warping during seasoning
may dictate a special mode of sawing (symmetrical cutting or complete quarter sawing).
Knowledge of the resistance of the wood to the penetration of the teeth makes it
possible to establish the dimension and the power of the saws.
The choice of the type of sawmill depends also on possibility or impossibility of
coordination the rates of operation of the various sawing stations and at the same time
ensuring the regular operation of each. If this can be done, it is possible to organize a
highly mechanized sawmill entirely analogous to standard type of sawmills.
In addition to the lumber cutting in the mill, pre-sawing preparation of logs and
post-sawing control of lumber seasoning and other general services are part of
sawmill activity. Sometimes the outside-mill activity requires more than half of the
total labour force. Therefore it is important to have this outside-mill operation wellorganized and mechanized.
Usually the logs are cross-cut before entering the mill For this operation the
portable electric chain saws are most convenient. It is preferable to debark some
species with heavy bark usually containing sandy particles. For such cases, a
mechanical debarker should be used. If a sawmill cuts a major portion of species
susceptible to fungus or insect attack, a mechanized tank for dipping treatment should
be installed at the remote end of the "green" chain. Transport and stacking of lumber
for air seasoning usually requires a sizeable labour force.
The most economical method is to stack the lumber for air seasoning
immediately after removing it from the «green» chain. The piles should be of a
convenient size for transport by fork-lift. Correct seasoning is a very important
sawmill's activity. Whether kiln or semi-artificial seasoning should be a part of the
38
post-sawing treatment, or natural air seasoning is enough, can be decided according
to particular requirements
Sawmilling is one of the world's oldest and most widespread manufacturing
processes. Today sawmills are mechanizing and automating at an ever-increasing rate
as new tools are adopted to solve the problems of increasing productivity and quality
in the process of making lumber from logs. Automation has grown so rapidly as an
industrial force that many people are not sure what it is. A definition of automation
that has been pretty well adopted by industry is: «Automation is the control of
machines by other machines». For example, two men are rolling logs onto the log
deck and then onto the carriage, it is manual labour.
Now suppose that these men are replaced with a deck chain, a log stop and
loader, and a log turner, and only one man is used on the deck, where he pushes
buttons to control the flow of logs to the carriage. This is mechanization. Finally, if a
machine is installed to control the deck chain, stop, and loader, so that the logs move
toward the carriage automatically, thereby replacing the man who pushed the buttons,
it is automation.
Mechanization and automation have been making some advances, in the large
sawmills since the time steam engines became available to replace water power.
Excess steam was available for use in actuating cylinders for a variety of mechanical
needs: to kick logs out of a delivery trough, to move the log carriage back and forth
in front of the saw, to turn logs, etc. How with the development of small air
compressors and air cylinders even the smallest sawmills can use these devices
Hydraulic power and electric motors and controls open the door to mechanization and
automation to any size sawmill.
Automation increases production. In moat instances, when men axe replaced
by machines, not only the production per men goes up, but the total production of the
plant increases. Where machines are used for the physical labour, the men who are
placed in the control positions in the modern sawmill, i.e., sawyer, edgerman,
trimmerman, can concentrate on making decisions based on their observations and
judgment. Meanwhile, the machines do the actual handling and measurement – much
more accurately and faster than a human being can.
Automation also provides for better, uniform quality, dimensional quality is
uniform with automation because it depends on repetition, and repetition is
something a man does not do well. Setting dimensions demand a man's full attention,
39
both mentally and physically. This is tiring, and the momentary inattentions lead to
variations of thickness, width or length. However, a machine, which is steel,
electricity, and compressed air, cannot be tired of repetition.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In Finland and Sweden all the ________ are annually covered by middle-resolution
satellite images (10-30 m) for account of the state budget.
а) forest areas
c) wood-using industries
b) woodland products
d) loading capacity
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
If the price of timber fails ___________, you have earned nothing because
commodities like timber do not pay interest.
а) moving
b) to move
c) to have moved
d) to be moved
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
How often do I need to make the monitoring of the regional forest settlements? –
_________________________.
a) Mr. Hamilton has signed the contract on monitoring.
b) Please, feel free to call me if you have any questions.
c) This fact is particularly significant for biodiversity conservation.
d) Semi-annually, I suppose, will be enough.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
It will help to protect its rare and endangered _______, and it will assist the efforts in
raising public awareness of the park and the multiple values associated with it.
а) species
c) woodland products
b) central loading points d) wood-using industries
Задание 6. Соотнесите информацию в графах резюме под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
a) Current salary b) References
c) Present address d) Marital status
40
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Date of Birth
Name
Other
information
27 February 1985
Belova Margaret
18 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 128343, Russia
single
While working I attended various evening courses for
business and information technology. My interests
include tennis, badminton, swimming and reading.
Mr. B. Norman, Assistant Director, Auto Importers
Ltd., 38 Rostokino, Moscow, Russia.
Mrs. A.Bunina, department head of Johnson Bros
Ltd., 35, Ostozhenka Street, Moscow, Russia.
$ 5,000 per annum
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
а) Protecting wood from weathering and checking
b) Preliminary treatment of wood
c) Wood preservatives
1) The most effective and generally satisfactory of all wood preservatives for
treating timbers is creosote. Others an in use and new one are constantly being
developed. The wood preservatives, in general, must possess certain qualities. They
must be toxic to fungi and destructive to animal life. In addition, they possess the
qualities of permanence, insolubility in water, penetrability, and safety in handling.
They must be available at reasonable cost. The most effective combinations are found
in the creosotes.
Creosote is a proved preservative, although it may have certain unpleasant
qualities of color and odor. It is extremely toxic to wood-destroying agencies,
permanent, easy to force into wood, arid reasonable in cost. For timbers placed in
exterior use or exposed to the weather, it meets every essential requirement.
2) In treating timbers the application must be made by means of immersion or
by a superficial spraying, or brushing, In order to obtain satisfactory results, the
41
special chemicals should be applied in accordance with correct technique. For
example, all ordinary creosotes must be heated prior to use.
Paints and stains are essentially protective and decorative coatings, and are not
wood preservatives. Their value is great in protecting wood from weathering and
checking, but they are not fungi sides in the same sense as creosotes. An unbroken
coating of paint will protect wood many forms of insects, but, for woods subject to
decay, a surface coating of paint is without permanent value. Tars and petroleums are
without value for preserving wood.
3) Wood cannot be treated with most preservatives unless it is free from bark
and wet seasoned. Treatment is given to sound wood only. All bark must be removed
from wood that is to be treated in round form. Preservatives cannot penetrate through
either outer or inner bark. If the wood is not thoroughly peeled, penetration of the
wood will not take place, and a zone fungus infection will result.
Green wood is unsuited to treatment. There fore the wood must be air
seasoned. Wood when air will have a moisture content of 15 per cent of its dry
weight. Wood to be treated is piled openly and handled so that the seasoning process
will not be too rapid at the start. Otherwise, severe surface checking will bike place.
Unless the moisture is removed from the wood, the preservative cannot enter.
Wood should be framed to the exact size and shape in which it is used. After
treatment the layer of impregnated wood is thin, and sawing will quickly expose
untreated wood in which spores will develop. The result will be the growth of the
fungus on the wood inside the treated layers. Obviously, treated wood should be
handled with care so that surface abrasions will not expose untreated wood.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Some of the basic terminology connected with ______________ includes felling,
processing, stump to landing route, landing to mill route.
a) medium sized forwarders
b) self-loading trailers
c) logging
d) transportation of timber
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Good business links _________ recently with the Ministry of Trade and Economy of
Finland and with some local forest companies.
а) develops
c) should develop
b) have been developed d) will be developed
42
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
We can discuss different types of wood harvesting systems. – __________________.
а) Yes, they are, but not for Siberia and the Russian Far East.
b) Great. May I ask you a question first?
c) This fact is particularly significant for biodiversity conservation.
d) That depends on the size of a tree.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
About 90-95 percent of timber traded between _______ and Russia passes through
land border crossings.
a) USA
b) Britain
c) China
d) Japan
Задание 6. Определите вид деловой документации
а) Bill of Lading
c) Telex Message
b) Contract
d) Enquiry
CO-OPERATION
The «Parties» shall co-operate and use their best efforts and good faith in the
consummation of the barter, purchase and sale transactions contemplated by this
agreement.
THE AGREEMENT
«The Parties» agree to form an offshore company for trading commodities
between Russia and the rest of the world. The offshore company shall be responsible
for procuring any commodity required by «The Purchaser» at prices most favourable
to «The Purchaser».
«The Purchaser» shall be responsible for acquiring raw timber materials,
commodities and technologies which the offshore company will be required to sell at
prices most favorable to «The Parties».
FINANCING
Any of «The Parties» providing finance to the offshore company shall be
entitled to the prime interest rate charged by the Alma Bank in Moscow to its most
favoured customer plus four percent.
As soon as the offshore company has finance available it must repay any loans
provided by any of «The Parties» before it can declare a dividend.
43
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Remote sensing methods in forestry
b) Methods of wood treatment
c) Timber industry in RF
d) Tourism-Based Industry
Treating processes are classified in two broad groups: the pressure and the nonpressure methods. The former use pressures greater than atmospheric. The
commercial timbers including crossties, construction timbers, piling, and poles are
treated in large cylindrical retorts under compressed air. Pressure treatment is the
most effective of all forms, in that it makes for deep and uniform penetration.
In the pressure processes, the amount of liquid forced into the wood can be
controlled accurately. It is, however, necessary with method to treat the entire piece.
The timbers are placed into horizontal steel cylinders. The doors arc closed and
sealed, and the preservative is admitted and then forced at high air pressure. Pumps
are available for moving the heated preservative and creating air pressure.
When the desired amount of preservative has been forced into the wood, the
pressure is released and the liquid with drawn. With some processes in order to insure
deep penetration, a bath of live steam is applied. The treated wood is allowed to drain
and then moved to the storage yards.
Timbers treated in this way are extremely effective in resisting decay and
insect damage. It would be of great advantage to the builder to obtain supplies of
treated foundation timbers for construction work. Structures, resting on pressure
treated timbers would be in no danger of break down from decay or from damage by
insects.
The superficial treatments are those in which the preservative is applied to the
surface of the wood, and little penetration is expected. The methods are not effective
and are advised for use only when better treatment is applied by a brush or spray.
A short period of immersion of the wood into a tank of liquid is also possible.
The preservative coats the surface only, and later surface checking immediately
wood. The value in terms of increased years of service is light, seldom being more
than a few years. In brush or spray treatment, the advantage lies in the low expense
involved, the ease of application, and the small amount of preservative that need be
44
purchased. Once the first coat has dried, a second should be applied. Green or frozen
wood is never treated in this way.
The dipping process also results in a superficial coating only. In this process,
the wood is immersed in a container of hot creosote for a period of about 15 min. It
provides for an even application of the preservative and insures a thorough coating of
all cracks and checks, which may be difficult to reach with a brush or spray.
Of all the non-pressure processes, the hot-and-cold-bath open-tank process is
the most effective. The method requires a tank of suitable size to accommodate the
material to be treated. The wood is placed in a bath of hot creosote and held there for
a period that may last from 2 to 10 hr. After the hot bath, the wood is removed to a
bath of cool oil. The work should be done quickly or the vacuum existing at the end
of the hot bath will be obtained. Excellent results are possible if the wood is properly
prepared for treatment and the work is well done.
Within recent years several methods for treating posts, poles, and crossties by
the diffusion of the preservative through the wood have been introduced. These
methods are entirely different from those which have been developed for creosote
treatment. One of the methods uses a preservative consisting of a number of
chemicals, which is applied to green wood in the form of a thin paste.
The paste is brushed on to the wood. The treated wood is then stacked and the
pile covered with a tough heavy paper to prevent the loss of moisture by evaporation,
and to prevent the washing off the paste by rain. After a period of from several weeks
to 3 months, the diffusion of the preservative into the wood is completed, and the
piles are uncovered. The wood is then allowed to air-season for a mouth or longer,
when it is ready for use.
The diffusion methods depend upon the moisture in the wood to carry the
preservative from the surface inward, and there fore the wood must be treated in
green condition. Deep penetration thorough the sapwood, and to some extent into the
heartwood is obtained. The length of time required for the preservative to flow into
the wood will vary with the quantity used, the kind and condition of the wood, the
thickness of the sapwood, the season of the year, and other factors.
Most rapid treatment may be expected during warm weather. Diffusion
methods for treating woods have interesting possibilities. If the length of service of
nondurable woods can be increased 10 to 15 years, there is every reason to believe
that they may find wide application. The cost of preservative is low, the equipment
easy to obtain, and the application relatively.
45
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Unless some ____________ are paid, investors may lose interest in the timber
exporting company.
а) quantity
b) wages
c) capital goods
d) dividends
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
It has been agreed that the company ________________ its prices on wood products.
а) is not raising
c) should not raise
b) have not raised
d) should not be raised
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
We can look at investments you can choose for your plans on logging operations. –
____________________________________.
а) This is particularly significant for biodiversity conservation.
b) Yes, they are, but not for this type of forest.
c) Good idea. May I ask you a question first?
d) Yes, we have good business links with some local companies.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Logging with ___________________ was common in the Pacific Northwest region
in the 1890’s.
a) oxen
b) dogs team
c) self-loading trailers
d) space imaging
Задание 6. Определите вид деловой документации
а) Bill of Lading
c) E-mail message
b) Contract
d) Enquiry
TO: German Shipping Lines (ABC 124)
FROM: Russline (DEF 450)
POSTED: 15 May, 2000 12.41
SUBJECT: Charter of the Orion
ACTION REQUIRED: reply
TEXT: Please confirm when the Orion will be in Rotterdam and charter rate of USD
32, 21 per ton.
DEF 450 – sent
end of mail.
46
МОДУЛЬ V
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Illegal logging activities
b) Space imaging
c) Wood panel products
d) Pre-export certification scheme
The manufacture of wood panel products has become very popular nowadays.
The types or panels used for structural and industrial purposes include particleboard,
fiberboard, waferboard, hard board and plywood. Two of the newest boards:
particleboard and fiberboard are versatile in both structural and industrial uses.
Particleboard, originally used to replace scarce lumber, now is widely used by
furniture and cabinet makers as a cheap substitute for lumber Particle-board, used as
a generic tern, represents a variety of wood panel products that are manufactured
similarly but look and perform differently, depending on the shape and size of the
wood particle used. Panels in this category are particleboard, fiberboard, waferboard
and flakeboard. In addition, there is another category of wood panels manufactured
from then sheets of wood, adhesively bonded under heat and pressure. Plywood
represents this category of wood panels.
Particleboard is a wood panel product manufactured from small pieces of wood
such as chips, flakes, slabs, cuttings, etc, bonded together by means or adhesive under
heat and pressure. Having smooth and wear resistant surfaces particleboards well
suited as a core for wood veneers and plastic laminates. It is available in many sizes
and is widely used in furniture manufacture (for tables, desks, case goods, store
displays, etc. Particleboard is very popular with the furniture industry because of its
dimensional stability and high surface smoothness.
A smooth, clean and parallel surface of particleboard is necessary for
successful veneering, lumber banding and plastic banding. Some improvements nave
recently been made in particleboard. This applies especially to the very important and
promising sphere of surface treatments using plastics, which give to the board some
47
extra properties, required by the modern consumer particularly a housewife. These
qualities are: bright and pleasant colours, resistance to heat, abrasion, and chemicals
normally used in the house-hold: longevity and easy maintenance (e.g., just wipe with
a moist cloth).
There are three main groups of particleboards, produced for building purposes:
the first group of light particle boards with a specific weight of 0,25- 0,40/cm3, which
have a flexural strength of between 10 and 160 kg/cm2 They are efficient and cheap
acoustic insulation boards. Particle boards of medium density with a specific weight
of 0,4-0,8 g/cm3 comprise the majority of the production, They have a medium sound
absorption, low heat conductivity and a flexural strength of between 150 and 300
kg/cm2. Owing to their excellent dimensional stability, they are used mostly as core
material but also as self-supporting building elements for houses, furniture, ships and
motor vehicles.
Heavy particleboards represent a small proportion of the production. They are
hard boards with a specific weight of between 1,0-1,2 g/cm3 and flexural strength of
200-350 kg/cm2. These panels are used as building elements under great stresses.
Flooring elements are made of these hardened particleboards; they can be used in the
manufacture of containers for fragile goods, radio and television cabinets, various
seats etc. This classification confirms the conclusion that the particleboard industry is
one of the most progressive industries in the field of forest products.
Fiberboard is made with wood fibers, refined or partly refined, and bonded
with a synthetic adhesive under heat and pressure. Unlike particleboard, fiberboard
uses a thermal mechanical process that refines raw materials, such as shavings and
chips, to fiber. The pulping process and fiber technology is similar to that used to
produce hardboard. Fiberboard is formed and pressed dry in the same manner as
particleboard. This panel product may be cut, shaped and processed just like solid
wood. It is generally tough and resistant to impact and breakage.
Fiberboard has become very popular with cabinetmakers that value its tight
edge for easy sawing. It is found in furniture (shelves, sides, backs and front panels of
cabinets) as high quality material. Being a substitute for solid wood, fiberboard can
be manufactured in a wide range thickness and has little or no waste. It offers the
manufacturer the ability to produce intricate detail with precise drilling, shaping and
edge finishing. It also provides a smooth-surface, that is more consistent than lumber.
48
Fiberboard is used in custom cabinetry as well as in high quality furniture because of
its superior edge integrity.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант перевода словосочетания
The marketing of _______________ is the final step in the cycle producing and
utilizing tree growth.
а) woodland products
c) wood harvesting systems
b) illegal logging activities d) manual planted seedlings
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
If the above circumstances ________ more than six months, each «Party» shall have
the right to refuse the fulfillment of the contract.
а) will last
b) last
c) shall last
d) lasted
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
Is transportation (of all types including trucks, buses and cars) a major contributor to
air pollution in most industrialized nations? – _____________________________.
а) I hope, it does.
c) No, there is not.
b) It is usually a fruit of joint efforts. d) By all means, it is.
Задание 5. Восстановите правильный порядок слов по приведѐнным
синтаксическим элементам предложения
biodiversity conservation / this fact / significant for / is particularly
Задание 6. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения пропусков так,
чтобы они отражали особенности оформления служебной записки
a) Appointment of a New General Manager
b) Brian Lockney, Personnel Director
c) Anthony Hiller will be retiring at the end of this year
d) All board members
49
MEMORANDUM
TRAFALGAR PRODUCTS LTD
Date: 25 - 09 - 2015
1. TO: ____________________
2. FROM: _____________________
3. SUBJECT: _________________________
4. I am sure you are all aware by now,______________________________, which
leaves us a little over two months in which to appoint a new General Manager. The
post is currently being advertised in both the national press and the leading trade
magazines and I intend to begin the first round of interviews in mid October.
The advertisements contain the following description of General Manager's duties:
• to have overall responsibility for the running of the plant;
• to coordinate the work of the management team so that the company's targets
and objectives are met;
• to advise on new product development;
• to negotiate with trade union representatives;
• to accompany the Sales Manager on overseas sales trips, whenever possible;
• to represent the company when the Manager Director is unavailable.
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Consumers of the forestry products.
b) Adhesives for furniture manufacture
c) Natural resource-based project.
d) The main components of wood-processing production
There are a wide range of adhesive products to meet the many and varied
requirements of the furniture and wood working industries. They include polyvinyl
acetate (PVA) adhesives, hot melts, pigmented and contact adhesives, flammable and
non-flammable adhesives.
50
One of the most significant recent developments is a water-resistant PVA
adhesive. The main advantage of the glue is fast betting times. It is suitable for
bonding hard and soft woods, laminates, veneers, and foils. It dries to a transparent
film and accept wood stains, polishes and lacquers. Specific setting times of the PVA
adhesive will depend on temperature and humidity, bonding pressure and porosity,
temperature and water content.
Hot melt adhesives are solid. They are ideal for such, applications as rapid
bonding of metal frames to wooden parts of furniture. These adhesives are applied in
a molten state using the electrically heated gun that provides a fast time of heating
between three and five minutes. Hot melt glues have usually a long open time
(between 30 and 60 seconds) for adjusting components to their final position. As the
adhesive cools a strong bond develops – reaching full strength in about two minutes.
No further fixing device is necessary.
Pigmented adhesives are also hot melts They are based on established grades
but with the addition of pigments to meet special requirements There exist three types
of pigmented hot melts:
1) Caseomelt HMR-27 is a white general purpose adhesive, with good thermal
conductivity-promoting rapid melting.
2) Caseomelt HMH-29 has similar properties but is pigmented brown to match
darker timbers. Like HMR-27, it has excellent flow properties making it suitable for
use on a wide range of banding equipment.
3) Caseomelt HMR-28, with white pigment, has been developed to maintain
good strength of bond even at high temperatures that occur in lacquer curing ovens,
hot presses and hot climates.
Contact cements represent one more type of adhesive widely used with board
lamination. In this type operation, contact cement is sprayed on both surfaces: the
core and the back of the laminate. This adhesive may be dispersed in water or
dissolved in solvent. Solvent systems are of two types – flammable and nonflammable. Brush, roll spreader or spray coater can apply both types. More energy
and time is required to dry water-based contact cements than the solvent systems.
Amount of the adhesive to be applied will depend on surface smoothness,
porosity, strength required, and uniformity of application. Adhesives should be
selected relative to assembly time and setting time. Faster setting times – usually
mean shorter assembly times. Heavier spreads will increase assembly time, but may
51
increase «bleed through» on porous woods. A skilled furniture maker must always
consider all these points.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант словосочетания
It was clear that ____________ was primarily the result of a favorable market
situation and the effect of devaluation.
а) tourism-based industry
c) forest industry's growth
b) pre-export certification scheme d) woodland cooperatives
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
If any provision of this Agreement is held to be invalid or illegal, it ___________
severed from this Agreement.
а) is considered
c) considers
b) shall consider
d) shall be considered
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
I see. How many employees are there? – ___________________________.
а) Yes, they are.
b) There are six of us.
c) None of them.
d) Some partners may be appropriate.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Subsequently, the role of the government in US has increased considerably since the
________________ of the 1930s.
a) Great Depression
c) Treaty of Rome
b) World War II
d) Confederacy
Задание 6. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения пропусков так,
чтобы они отражали особенности оформления служебной записки
a) SUBJECT
b) As agreed, your presentation will take the following form
c) FROM
d) TO
52
MEMORANDUM
Date: 9 January 2015
1.________: Sales Manager, England and Scotland
2.________: Chairman
3.________: Sales Presentation – 20 January 2008
4. Following our telephone conversation, I confirm that you – and members of your
sales team – will be making a sales presentation to members of the Board at 2 p.m. on
20 January._______________________:
1) Total timber sales for the year ending 2014.
2) The trend in total timber sales over the period 2012-2014.
3) The regional distribution of sales, with indications of areas of growth and problem
areas.
4) Sales forecasts.
I hope you and your team will give the Board a clear picture of our timber sales
performance.
May I remind you, finally, to provide 12 copies of any graphs or other visual
material which you may wish to circulate to Board members.
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выберите заглавие, подходящее
по смыслу к данному тексту
a) Problems of marketing of woodland products
b) Satellite monitoring of forests
c) The basics of gluing technology
d) The main factors of wood-processing production
Most good gluing techniques are simple and easy to follow. Yet, the basics are not
always kept in mind. Let us look at the art of gluing, from mixing to the inspection of
joints.
Glue mixing is one of the simplest jobs in the plant. However, an incorrect mix can
rain several hours of production. That is why the worker must follow the given
recommendations:
53
1) All mixing equipment must be cleaned by removing old glues from the
mixer's sides
2) The mixer blades should be placed correctly to produce a smooth
homogeneous mix.
3) The ingredients must be added in the order recommended by. the adhesive
supplier.
4) Do not mix small amounts of adhesives in a large mixer.
5) Do not mix any more glue than can be used during the given operation. Most
glue mixtures tend to get heavy A heavy mix is difficult to spread and may set up in the
glue spreader, leading to a difficult cleaning. In addition, large quantities of
unworkable adhesive will remain after the gluing process.
Like all machinery, spreading equipment requires maintenance and occasional
repair. In addition, it must be set properly to give adequate spreads.
1. The spreader rolls must be checked at regular time intervals.
2. There must be always some extra rolls at hand not to lose production time
while waiting for the necessary repairs.
3. The spreader must be cleaned after every shift or more of-ten if necessary.
Clean spreader rolls will work more efficiently and longer.
4. The amount of the glue spread vanes with conditions and materials to be
glued. Too much glue spread is not only wasteful], but can cause steam blows in hot
presswork and slow setting and warpage in cold presswork. Insufficient glue spread
can cause poor bonds.
Temperature must be controlled from the mixing stage up to the removal of
work from the press.
1. The ideal temperature for any adhesive during the mixing and using periods
is 70°F, which, of course, is difficult to maintain throughout the year.
2. If the ingredients are too cold, they will not combine readily and the final
mix may be viscous.
3. A too warm glue mix will have a short pot life
4. It is impossible to get decent results with many types of adhesives in room
temperatures well below 70°F. This is true to such adhesives as areas, epoxies and
PVA. To maintain a 70°F temperature some heaters should be instilled.
An important factor in obtaining a good bond is the time taken between
spreading of glue and putting the work under pressure.
54
1. The limits of assembly time given by adhesive supplier should be observed
carefully. Excessively long assembly time is a major cause of failure in bonding.
2. Enough glue should be spread so that squeeze out occurs when pressure is
applied It is a good indication of proper assembly procedures.
3. If the squeeze out is rather hard, the work must be removed from the press.
4. If moisture content of the wood is comparatively high, press time will be
longer.
All those and many other factors, including machining, wood species, and
employee training, affect the success of gluing operations.
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
Lightweight purpose-built machines used in commercial logging and thinning
operations can handle ________ of up to 8 tons.
a) direct skidding
b) roadside landing
c) loads
d) building forest-roads
Задание 3. Восстановите правильный порядок слов по приведѐнным
синтаксическим элементам предложения
in his woods / for a specified sum / the owner / all the merchantable material /
commonly sells
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
The word pub is short for _________________ , but the full name is rarely used.
a) public library
b) public corporation
c) public house
d) publication
Задание 5. Дополните диалог подходящей по ситуации репликой
A. – I would like a non-stop flight from New York to Paris leaving April 15. Can you
tell me what is available?
B. – _________________________________________.
A. – Yes, myself, and I would prefer a morning flight.
a) Do you have a room service?
b) I would like a non-stop flight.
c) Would this be for one person?
d) Do you have any luggage?
55
Задание 6.
документа
Определите
1)
a)
последовательность
2)
3)
частей
представленного
4)
Mrs. A. Everett
Compact Systems
96 Rose wall Drive
South town
2 August 2016
Dear Mrs. Everett
b)
Yours sincerely
P. Barker
Purchasing Manager
c)
SOFTCHAIN LTD
(head office), Foss House, Brigham Street, Liverpool L Tel: 051-3876397
Telex: 79284
d)
On 15 July, we placed an order for 100 IBM compatible Compact
Accounts packages.
A consignment was delivered on 30 July, but upon inspection, we found
that the packages were not IBM compatible.
As this is our first transaction with your company, we are disappointed that
we have got off to such a bad start.
Therefore I would be much obliged if you could send us the correct goods
as soon as possible, and arrange for the collection of the incorrect ones.
56
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 4
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выберите заглавие, подходящее
по смыслу к данному тексту
a) Use of mill residues
b) Forest use
c) Timber harvesting operations
d) Important factors of wood-processing industry
In most countries, lumber is the chief industrial forest product. According to
FAO's statistics, close to 60 % of the world's timber harvest for all industrial purposes,
including pulpwood, veneer logs, poles, etc., is made into lumber. Moreover, about 40 %
of the sawmill industry's supply of raw material annually is not being turned into
lumber. It is left as so-called mill residue, which may be waste or find use as a
byproduct.
From a utilization point of view, it is logical to group mill residues in two
different categories: wood in solid form, such as slabs, edgings, trimmings, etc., and
fines, mainly in the form of sawdust and shavings. In most milling operations about 2/3
of the residue is in solid form. Fortunately, this type of residue is more easily adaptable
as raw material for further conversion.
The most common utilization of slabs and edgings is as raw material for the
pulping industry, where it is used in pulp for various types of craft paper.
One of the most common uses of solid mill residues today is in manufacturing
various types of fiberboard. A more recent but quite promising development is the use
of mill residues in the manufacture of particleboards.
While the solid forms of mill residue are being utilized as fiber, a more
profitable use of sawmill fines is still in its infancy. In many areas, the bulk of the
sawdust and shavings produced is discarded. Fines in various forms represent roughly 1/3
to 1/2 of the total amount of mill residues. Mill residues provide an excellent type of fuel.
Most frequent uses of sawdust and shaving» today are due to their properties.
With their absorbent qualities, they are widely used for livestock bedding, poultry
litter, floor covering, sweeping compounds and many other applications. For its
abrasive qualities, sawdust is being employed in metal polishing, cleaning soap and
57
so on. On the basis of present techniques and equipment, mill fines are sometimes
used in malting fiber manufactured products.
The lumber and the woodworking industries have taken precautions to ensure
that residues can be used as raw material in other branches. The pulp and fiberboard
industries, on their part, have taken steps to accept such residues to a greater degree.
Obviously, the possibilities of utilization of residues vary broadly from country
to country and from region to region, depending on the size, structure, location and
diversity of the pulp and board industry as compared to the sawmill industry. In
localities in which various types of forest products industries are well represented, the
possibilities for integrated utilization are the beat.
One of the features that attract manufacturers of fiberboard and particleboard is
the flexibility of the raw materials that can be used. While round wood from
commercial species is the most versatile raw material, they often prefer wood
residues.
Raw material for board manufacture may be classified according to its form:
1.
Round wood;
2.
Solid wood residues (slabs, edgings, cutoffs, veneer clippings, forest
thinnings, limbs, tops, crooked logs, etc.);
3.
Comminuted wood residues (shavings and sawdust).
Normally, round wood may be considered the most desirable material for board
manufacture. Such wood is easily processed by common methods in the pulp and paper
industry Round wood may be converted to ground wood pulp and used in the manufacture
of insulation board, or it can be converted to pulp chips and used in the production of any
type of fiberboard.
The headline «Solid Wood Residues» is given to all forms of wood residue other
than shavings, sawdust, and round-wood ordinarily used as the primary raw material for
pulp and paper manufacture, lumber, or plywood production. This grouping includes
such materials as slabs, edgings, cutoffs, forest thinnings, tope, crooked logs, etc.
It can be said that almost any type of solid wood residue finds application in the
manufacture of one more types of fiberboard or particleboard Forest thinnings, slabs and
edgings may be used in tat preparation of ground wood pulp for insulation board
manufacture. Certain types of bark – containing residues, such as tops, limbs, and
crooked logs, present certain problems in barking, because high-quality board requires
bark-tree raw material.
58
Shavings from planers and other woodworking equipment are not considered the
most desirable raw materials for fiberboard manufacture. Nevertheless, these
materials contain a considerable percentage of undamaged fiber and they may be pulped
and used la the fiberboard production.
Of all forms of wood residue, coarse sawmill sawdust is the least desirable for
board manufacture. The terrific impact that the sawdust particles have received from the
saw teeth, due to the high speed of the saw, severely crushes and tears the fiber. Sawdust
does not produce a suitable pulp for fiberboard. In addition, it is not an acceptable raw
material for particleboard manufacture, since it is usually very wet, absorbs large
quantities of binder, and gives a product of low strength.
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
Monitoring of ____________ program became the first acting governmental highresolution remote sensing monitoring program in the country.
a) consumers of the forestry products b) illegal logging
c) motor-manual short wood method
d) tourism-based industry
Задание 3. Восстановите правильный
синтаксическим элементам предложения
порядок
слов
по приведѐнным
level / maintained / is / at a satisfactory / growing stock / the forest's
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
Would you explain what Greenwich is?
a) Roman fortification
b) very beautiful parkland on the outskirts of London
c) English-speaking country
d) street on the bank of the River Thames
Задание 5. Дополните диалог подходящей по ситуации репликой
A. – ________________________________.
B. – Yes, it does. We offer a full breakfast every morning from 7:30 to 11:30.
A. – Sounds good.
59
a) Do you have a room service?
b) Will this be for you?
c) Does that rate include breakfast?
d) Do you have any luggage?
Задание 6.
документа
Определите
1)
2)
последовательность
3)
a)
частей
представленного
4)
November 20, 2015
Dear Sir / Madam
b)
Yours sincerely,
David Grow
Administrator
Office of Director
c)
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Biotechnology Laboratory
Room 237 – Westbrook Building
6174 University Boulevard
Vancouver, B. C. Canada V6T IW5
Tel: (604) 228-4838
Fax: (604) 8-2114
d)
Thank you for your letter enquiring about a position with the
Biotechnology Laboratory at the University of British Columbia.
I regret that we have no positions available, which require your
qualifications.
60
Библиографический список
Основная литература
1. Дубинина, Г. А. Английский язык: экономика и финансы (Majors)
[Электронный ресурс] : учеб. / Г. А. Дубинина, И. Ф. Драчинская,
Н. Г. Кондрахина. – М. : Альфа-М : ИНФРА-М, 2011. – 176 с. – ЭБС
«Знаниум».
2. Маньковская, З. В. Английский язык в ситуациях повседневного
делового общения [Электронный ресурс] : учеб. пособие / З. В. Маньковская. –
М. : ИНФРА-М, 2012. – 223 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
Дополнительная литература
3. Илунина, А. А. Иностранный язык. Терминологический словарь по
технологии лесозаготовительных и деревоперерабатывающих производств
[Текст] / А. А. Илунина, Л. В. Дворникова, Ю. Ю. Дубровина. – Воронеж, 2014.
– 127 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
4. Илунина, А. А. Иностранный язык. Технология лесозаготовки.
Logging technology [Текст] : учеб. пособие / А. А. Илунина, И. В. Милованова. –
Воронеж, 2014. – Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
5. Кравец, В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Морфология
[Текст] : граммат. справ. / В. Е. Кравец. – Воронеж, 2010. – 124 с. –
Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
6. Кравец, В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Синтаксис [Текст] :
граммат. справ. / В. Е. Кравец. – Воронеж, 2010. – 80 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС
«ВГЛТУ».
7. Литвинова, Ю. А. Английский язык. Information technologies.
Информационные технологии [Текст] : учеб. пособие / Ю. А. Литвинова,
И. В. Милованова, А. А. Илунина. – Воронеж, 2014. – Электронная версия в ЭБС
«ВГЛТУ».
61
8. Маньковская, З. В. Идиомы и фразовые глаголы в деловом общении
(английский язык) [Электронный ресурс] : учеб. пособие / З. В. Маньковская. –
М. : ИНФРА-М, 2011. – 184 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
9. Милованова, И. В. Английский язык. Терминологический словарь по
лесному делу и ландшафтной архитектуре [Текст] / И. В. Милованова. –
Воронеж, 2014. – 180 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
10. Минаева, И. Б. Иностранный язык. Traffic and driving safety rules
[Текст] : учеб. пособие / И. Б. Минаева, Ю. Ю. Дубровина. – Воронеж, 2014. –
107 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
62
Елена Альбертовна Маклакова
Анна Александровна Илунина
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ДЕЛОВОЙ ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлениям подготовки
35.04.01, 35.04.02, 35.04.10, 15.04.02, 15.04.04, 09.04.02
63
Редактор Е.А. Богданова
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имени Г.Ф. Морозова»
РИО ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». 394087, г. Воронеж, ул. Тимирязева, 8
Отпечатано в УОП ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ»
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