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Зайцева Л. В. English for nature managers

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Л.В. Зайцева
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
ENGLISH FOR NATURE MANAGERS
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2013
1
Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
«Воронежская государственная лесотехническая академия»
Л.В. Зайцева
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
ENGLISH FOR NATURE MANAGERS
Учебное пособие
Воронеж 2013
2
ББК 81.432.1-923
З17
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА» (протокол № 2 от 30 ноября 2012 г.)
Рецензенты: кафедра иностранных языков и технологии перевода ВГТУ,
канд. филол. наук, доц. А.А. Падурец
Зайцева, Л. В.
З17 Иностранный язык. English for nature managers [Текст] : учебное пособие /
Л. В. Зайцева ; М-во образования и науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». –
Воронеж, 2013. – 176 с.
ISBN 978-5-7994-0537-3 (в обл.)
Учебное пособие состоит из 20 учебно-справочных разделов (UNITS), каждый из
которых включает оригинальный специализированный текст на английском языке,
посвященный окружающей среде. Также представлены разнообразные упражнения к
текстам, направленные на развитие навыков различных типов чтения, коммуникативной
деятельности и письма. В учебном пособии изложены основы грамматики английского языка
(ценное приложение к каждодневной аудиторной работе и полезный материал для
самообразования). В разделах рассматривается грамматика местоимений, существительных,
система времен английского глагола, прилагательные, числительные, а также синтаксис
английского предложения. В Приложении (SUPPLEMENT) приводится англо-русский
словарь по тематике охраны окружающей среды.
Содержание данного учебного пособия соответствует учебной программе
дисциплины «Иностранный язык» для высшего профессионального образования.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1, 2 курсов лесного факультета по
направлению подготовки 022000 – Экология и природопользование, профиль
«Природопользование».
ББК 81.432.1-3
ISBN 978-5-7994-0537-3
© Зайцева Л.В., 2013
© ФГБОУ ВПО «Воронежская государственная
лесотехническая академия», 2013
3
INTRODUCTION
A Career in Ecology
What is ecology?
Ecology is a branch of biology that deals with living organisms and their
relationships with their environments. It is a science discipline which requires
knowledge of various focuses of biology in addition to chemistry, physics, geology,
hydrology, geography, and genetics among others.
What does an ecologist do?
Ecologists work for universities, federal, state and local governments, environment
consulting firms, non-governmental conservations organizations and numerous other
entities. Ecologists, especially those working for universities, conduct research
outdoors in populated and remote areas all over the world. In addition to field work,
ecologists also work in the lab, analyzing various collected samples. However, not all
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ecologists are in the research field. Many are involved in biological monitoring,
environmental consulting, habitat restoration, and a myriad of other types of work.
Others are focused on more with the policy aspects of ecology, working with
government agencies to protect and improve habitat, as well as managing natural
resources.
Education requirements
Though there are many ecology-based jobs open to those with a bachelor‟s degree,
having a PhD drastically increases the number and variety of positions open to an
ecologist. Having a PhD will also increase the salary of an ecologist in many
positions. Internships and experience in the field and lab are also invaluable when
finding a job as an ecologist.
Job security
The demand for ecologists today is ever-growing. With increasing public awareness
of environmental issues, funding for ecological research programs is increasing at an
encouraging rate. Considering this increasing demand for ecologists, job security for
ecologists is quite high.
Conclusions
Ecologists, while perhaps not the most glamorous or well-paid people in the world,
are generally very passionate about their work and enjoy it thoroughly. If you care
about the environment, and are looking for a job that you feel is important and
interesting, a career in ecology might be a right choice for you.
5
UNIT I
The Earth
TEXT 1: ABOUT THE EARTH
GRAMMAR: 1. Порядок слов в английском повествовательном
предложении (The Word Order).
2. Личные и притяжательные местоимения (Personal and
Possessive pronouns).
ABOUT THE EARTH
The third planet from the Sun is your home.
The Earth is the only known planet where life
can survive. As far as we know, there is no other
planet in the universe like Earth. We have a very
narrow temperature range that allows water to remain
a liquid. Life has developed over millions of years
because of that liquid. What else makes us special?
We have an atmosphere made up of nitrogen, a
relatively inert gas. If we had clouds of sulfuric acid
or methane, life may never have developed.
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The Plates
There are also huge landmasses on our planet. The rock plates that float across
the surface are called tectonic plates. Those plates float on the mantle. The mantle is
an area between the core and the crust. That mantle is basically filled with molten
rock. It is kept in a liquid state because of the energy given off by the center (core) of
the Earth. Scientists have also discovered that the pressure increases as you move
towards the center of the planet.
The core of the Earth has extreme temperatures and pressures that keep the iron
and metals liquid and flowing.
And a Liquid in the Core
The flowing metal in our planet helps create
something called a dynamo effect. Dynamos create
large magnetic fields. In the case of the Earth, the
magnetic field protects our planet from space. The
region of magnetic protection is called the
magnetosphere and protects us from the solar winds
and solar radiation.
Notes:
plate / tectonic plate – (геол.) тектоническая или литосферная плита
mantle – (геол.) мантия (земная)
crust – (геол.) земная кора
molten rock – расплавленные породы
core – ядро (небесного тела)
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
planet Earth, universe, nitrogen, to survive, temperature range, to remain a liquid,
surface, to increase, to create, to protect.
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II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
инертный газ, облака, серная кислота, метан, суша, ученый, давление,
магнитное поле, космическое пространство, солнечное излучение.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
universe
ученый
liquid
давление
to protect
вселенная
scientist
солнечное излучение
pressure
увеличивать
to increase
жидкость
solar radiation
защищать
Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What is the only known planet where life can survive?
2) What makes it special?
3) What are plates?
4) Is the temperature of the core extremely high or low?
5) What does the magnetic field protect our planet from?
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) There is no other planet in the universe like ... .
2) We have a very narrow temperature range that allows water to remain a … .
3) We have an atmosphere made up of nitrogen, a relatively … .
4) The rock plates that float across the surface are called … .
5) The mantle is an area between the core and the … .
6) The flowing metal in our planet helps create something called a … .
7) Dynamos create large … .
8) The magnetosphere protects us from the solar winds and solar … .
III. Translate from Russian into English:
1) Нет другой такой планеты во всей вселенной, как Земля.
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2) Земля – единственная известная планета, на которой продолжается жизнь.
3) На нашей планете есть атмосфера.
4) Мантия – это область между ядром и земной корой.
5) Магнитосфера защищает нас от солнечных ветров* и солнечного излучения.
*солнечный ветер – потоки частиц, выброшенные Солнцем
GRAMMAR FOCUS
The Word Order (Порядок слов в английских повествовательных
предложениях)
Для английского повествовательного предложения обычным является
следующий порядок слов:
Подлежащее – Сказуемое – Дополнение – Обстоятельство
Таблица 1
Порядок слов в английском повествовательном предложении
I
II
III
IV
Подлежащее
Сказуемое
Дополнение
Обстоятельство
The students
study
the language
at the academy
При наличии в предложении нескольких обстоятельств они
располагаются в следующем порядке:
Обстоятельство образа действия
Обстоятельство места
Обстоятельство времени 1
Продолжение табл. 1.
I
II
III
IV
Подлежащее Сказуемое Дополнение Обстоятельство
образа
места
времени
действия
I
met
him
by chance at the theatre yesterday
Отрицательное предложение отличается только тем, что сказуемое стоит
в отрицательной форме. Порядок слов такой же, как и в утвердительном
предложении.
____________________
1
Обстоятельство времени может стоять и в начале предложения.
At the moment I cannot talk.
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2
Простые наречия частотности в английском языке: always, often, frequently,
usually, normally, generally, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, never и т.д. чаще
все стоят в предложении:
До смыслового глагола:
I seldom have time for a nap. У меня редко есть время на сон/поспать.
I rarely read the paper. Я редко/изредка читаю газеты.
После глагола-связки to be:
He's always late. Он всегда/постоянно/вечно опаздывает.
She's hardly ever in when I call. Еѐ почти никогда нет (на месте/дома), когда я
звоню.
Наречие sometimes может стоять как перед глаголом, так и в начале или в
конце предложения:
He sometimes comes here.
Sometimes he comes here.
He comes here sometimes.
Сложные наречия частотности представляют собой небольшие
устойчивые фразы: every day, twice a week, from time to time… Эти наречия,
как правило, стоят в конце предложения или в начале, НО не перед смысловым
глаголом.
Several times a year I visit my aunt's place. – Несколько раз в году я
навещаю тетю.
We go to the theatre twice a month. – Дважды в месяц мы ходим в театр.
Grammar Exercises:
I. Поставьте слова в нужном порядке, чтобы получить утвердительные
предложения:
family/ the/ my /in/ I/ only /am/ child.
friend/ computer/ my/ games/ is/ now/ playing.
his/ parents/ have /just/ arrived/ in/ Moscow.
America/ have /been/ to/ I/ never.
academy/ she/ a/our /student/ of/ isn‟t .
aunt/ me/ gave/ my/ a/ present/ birthday.
academy/ there/ language/ is/ a/ laboratory/ in/our.
museums/ there/ a/ lot/ are/ Moscow/ of/ in.
I/ the/ can‟t/piano/play.
I/horror/don‟t / films/like.
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II. Исправьте, если это необходимо, местоположение подлежащего
согласно правилу о порядке слов в предложении:
Curly hair has her brother.
Steve likes cakes.
A bad cold has Jessica.
It froze hard last night.
These exercises I did well.
Daddy met me at the station.
Those shoes Mar bought at the market.
Dinner have they in the big dining-hall.
III. Поставьте наречие, данное в скобках, в нужную позицию:
Timothy is sure of his plans. (never)
Erica congratulates me on my birthday. (always)
I can remember her fax number. (never)
We have lunch at McDonald's. (sometimes)
He is angry with his naughty children. (often)
The Fletchers go to the opera. (once a month)
Rita makes mistakes in spelling. (seldom)
Our neighbours are kind to our dog. (generally)
I am sorry, but they have left. (already)
You should come to the lecture on time. (always)
МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ
Местоимение – это часть речи, употребляемая в предложении вместо
существительного или прилагательного, реже – наречия. Местоимение не
называет лицо, признак или предмет, а лишь адресует нас к нему (уже
упомянутому ранее): Ann asked Peter a question. He answered her. – Анна задала
Пете вопрос. Он ответил ей.
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Таблица 2
Личные и притяжательные местоимения
ЛИЧНЫЕ И ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ
ЧИСЛО
ЛИЦО
Единственное 1-е
2-е
3-е
Множественное
ЛИЧНЫЕ МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ
ПРИТЯЖАТЕЛЬНЫЕ
МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ
ИМЕНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ
ПАДЕЖ
ОБЪЕКТНЫЙ
ПАДЕЖ
ОСНОВНАЯ
ФОРМА
Iя
me меня, мне my мой
you тебя,
your твой,
тебе
ваш
him его, ему his его
you ты,
вы
he он
АБСОЛЮТНАЯ
ФОРМА*
mine
yours
his
3-е
3-е
she она
her ее, ей
her ее
it оно, он, it его, ему, ее, its его, ее
она
ей
(неодуш.)
hers
its
1-е
2-е
3-е
we мы
you вы
they они
ours
yours
theirs
us нас, нам
you вас, вам
them их, им
our наш
your ваш
their их
* Абсолютная форма притяжательных местоимений переводится так же,
как и основная, и употребляется вместо определяемого существительного во
избежание повторения: This is her pen and this is mine. – Это ее ручка, а это
моя.
Grammar Exercises:
I. Выберите одно из предложенных притяжательных предложений,
соответствующее каждому второму предложению (my, your, his, her, its,
our, their):
We have a big garden. … garden is young.
The book is new. … contents is rather interesting.
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She is a nice girl. What‟s … name?
I‟m Kathy Brown. … family is large.
He has a lot of friends. … friends are also students.
The Smirnovs have a car. … car is expensive.
You are doing well. … marks are always good.
We have a cat. … character is kind.
II. Заполните пропуски притяжательными местоимениями.
Образец: We have our breakfast at 8 o’clock:
She is doing … homework.
We have … English lesson in the evening.
He is putting on … rain-coat.
I often do … homework with … friend.
This lady‟s surname is Smith. What‟s … first name?
Please sit down. Is it … document?
They do … morning exercises in the open air.
This table is too small. What‟s … length?
III. Найдите 6 притяжательных местоимений в нижеследующем
кроссворде:
m
t
y
h
o
h
e
u
h
e
i
i
r
t
s
r
IV. Выберите нужное местоимение:
1. – Whose bag is this? Is it (your, yours) book or his? – It's (her, hers).
2. (Mine, my) task is easier than (your, yours).
3. Look at those people. They are (our, ours) friends.
4. It is not (their, theirs) house. (Their, theirs) is bigger.
5. (Your, yours) problem is (my, mine) problem.
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6. Are (your, yours) hands warm? (Mine, my) are quite cold.
7. Can we use (your, yours) telephone? (Our, ours) is out of order.
8. Is this money (him, his) or (her, hers)?
9. Meet Mr. Bean. He is a friend of (our, ours).
10. We look after (their, theirs) children and they look after (our, ours).
11. I remember the house but I don't remember (its, his, it's) number.
12. The children always make (their, theirs) beds in the morning.
13. I told her (my, mine) life story and she told me (her, hers).
14. Will you check (my, mine) paper and I shall check (your, yours) test?
15. Now we are going to open (our, ours) presents, and then we shall look at
(their, theirs).
V. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences
illustrating the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
TALK ABOUT THE WEATHER
− What lovely weather we had last week. I hope it keeps dry and sunny this week,
too.
− Well, I wouldn‟t be sure. Have you heard the forecast?
− No, what does it say?
− Occasional showers tomorrow morning, drizzle and more cloud later on, unsettled
for the rest of the week.
− Oh, isn‟t that awful! I do hope it clears up by Saturday.
− Why are you so eager?
− Don‟t you remember? We were planning an outing for this weekend.
− Oh yes, shall I ask Ann? She is a great one for outings.
− Of course. Phone her straight away, will you?
− All right.
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UNIT II
Our green planet is our home
TEXT 2: ECOLOGY – THE STUDY OF ECOSYSTEMS
GRAMMAR: 1. Спряжение глагола to be. Оборот there + to be.
2. Спряжение глагола to have.
ECOLOGY – THE STUDY OF ECOSYSTEMS
Ecology is a science all by itself but it is also a
branch of the larger sciences of biology and
geography. Ecology is the study of organisms and the
environments they live in. As an ecologist, you don't
just study a fish. You study the fish, water, sunlight,
food supply, things that eat the fish, and every
possible factor that might affect the fish in its lifetime.
Ecologists study specific areas of biological activity
called ecosystems.
The details and complexities of ecosystems make ecology interesting.
Ecologists first study all of the interactions inside of the ecosystem. They then apply
the idea that no ecosystem (local environment) exists alone. Ecosystems interact with
each other. That puddle is interacting with the vacant lot. The vacant lot interacts
15
with the ecosystem of the city block, then the city, county, state, country, and
continent. You get the idea.
You should be moving
Nothing just sits around in nature. The
locations studied in ecology are living things. They
are constantly changing and moving. Not only do
the animals move, but the things they need to
survive move too. Energy moves. Nutrients and
chemicals move. Everything either flows or cycles
through an ecosystem, and it happens all the time.
Twenty-four hours a day, bacteria work to get
nitrogen ready for the plants. Plants grow and make food for animals. The Sun shines
on the plants during the day and warms up the area. You need to remember that
things are always happening. Even if you don't see it moving, it is.
Outside Factors
Do you think you control the environment around you? You know that you
can't control the weather or the tides. However, you do have a huge influence over
your local ecosystem and the world. The term biosphere is used to describe all of the
ecosystems found across the world. They are all there, from the bottom of the ocean,
to the Antarctic mountains. There are large factors that influence all of the
ecosystems. The easy factors to remember are climates, seasons, and natural
disasters.
Humans – the Largest Factor?
You affect the biosphere every day. Think
about the people who still use coal to power
generators in China. Did you know that they use so
much coal that it goes into the atmosphere and
floats around the entire world? It's like a huge band
of pollution circling the Earth. Those people
definitely affect the biosphere.
16
What about the farmer who uses a bunch of fertilizers? One person is just
fertilizing his fields. All of those nutrients go into the soil, are washed away into the
rivers, and finally make it to the ocean. Every step of that process changes the local
ecosystem. When the fertilizer gets to the ocean, even more things may change. Let's
say a huge number of bacteria grow on the extra nutrients. Those bacteria can make
the fish sick and die. Eventually the bigger fish die because there is no food. Soon
there are no fish to catch and over fishing happens somewhere else in the world. Do
you see how one person can affect the entire planet?
Notes:
vacant lot – пустырь
city block – городской квартал
bunch of fertilizers – куча удобрений
to apply the idea – вносить идею
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
science, biology, environment, ecologist, to affect, interaction, to exist, living things,
nutrients, natural disasters.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
экология, солнечный свет, пищевые ресурсы, растения и животные, огромное
влияние, климат, загрязнение, почва, океан, умирать.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
environment
питательные вещества
to interact
влияние
living things
почва
pollution
окружающая среда
soil
растение
nutrients
взаимодействовать
plant
живые существа
influence
загрязнение
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Exercises on the Text:
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What is ecology?
2) What do ecologists study first?
3) Can any ecosystem exist alone?
4) Is there in nature that just sits around?
5) Can one person affect the entire planet? Prove it.
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) Ecologists study specific areas of biological activity called … .
2) Ecosystems interact with … .
3) The locations studied in ecology are … .
4) Plants grow and make food for … .
5) What about the farmer who uses a bunch of … ?
6) Do you see how one person can affect the … ?
III. Translate from Russian into English:
1) Экология – это наука об организмах и об окружающей среде, в которой они
обитают.
2) Прежде всего экологи изучают взаимодействия внутри экосистемы.
3) В природе все постоянно движется и изменяется.
4) Основные факторы, влияющие на экосистему, это: климат, время года и
стихийные бедствия.
5) Люди определенно оказывают влияние на биосферу.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Оборот there + to be
Для выражения наличия или существования в определенном месте или
отрезке времени лица или предмета, еще неизвестного собеседнику или
читателю, употребляется особый тип простого сказуемого, выраженный
оборотом there is (are) со значением имеется, находится, есть, существует.
Оборот there is (are) стоит в начале предложения, за ним стоит подлежащее, за
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которым следует обстоятельство места или времени. Соответствующие русские
предложения начинаются с обстоятельства места или времени:
There is a telephone in that room. – В той комнате есть (имеется) телефон.
There are many apple trees in the garden. – В саду (имеется) много яблонь.
There was a meeting at the academy yesterday. – Вчера в академии было собрание.
Внимание! There is используется с cуществительными с неопределенным
артиклем (a, an), когда артикля нет, или используются слова some, any, no и с
неопределенными местоимениями как somebody, nothing.
There’s something worrying me. – Меня что-то тревожит.
На русский язык оборот “there is” не переводится.
Таблица 1
Спряжение глагола “to be” (быть, находиться)
Настоящее время
Прошедшее время
Будущее время
I
He
She
It
We
You
They
am
is
is
is
are
a teacher
teachers
I
He was
She
It
We
You were
They
I
a teacher
teachers
a teacher
shall be
We
teachers
He
She
It
a teacher
You
They
will be
teachers
Вопросы формируются обычным образом (подлежащее there меняется
местами cо сказуемым be): Is there anybody at home?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы
not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола:
There isn‟t a book in my bag. – В моей сумке нет ни одной книги.
Сокращенные формы: isn’t, aren’t, wasn’t, won’t… . Am not сокращенной формы
не имеет.
19
Grammar Exercises:
I. Заполните пропуски соответствующей формой глагола “to be” в Present
Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple:
Ronald Frank … a managing director of the First Bank of Kingsville on Main Street.
He … always on a business trip. Yesterday he … in Geneva. Tomorrow he … in
London. Last week he … in Chicago. Next week he … in New Orleans. At the
moment he … in Amsterdam. In two hours he … in Hague. Three days ago he … in
Paris. At the end of his trip he … usually very tired but happy. He … with his family
now. His sons … so much excited. They have got new toys from their father.
Everybody in the family … very glad to see him again at home.
II. Поставьте следующие предложения в вопросительную форму и дайте
отрицательные ответы к общим вопросам:
Образец. Granny is in the village now – Is Granny in the village? No, she isn‟t.
My grandparents are rather old.
The library is in the room 703.
Peter and Andrew are in group 7.
It is ten by my watch.
Mr. Black is on business.
I am fond of traveling.
The secretary is very busy at the moment.
These engineers are Russian.
III. Прочитайте диалог и заполните пропуски глаголом “to be” в
соответствующей форме:
A: My name … John Brown. I … from a British firm. Here … my card. I … here last
week, but you … away.
B: Yes, I … on business abroad. What can I do for you, Mr. Brown?
A: Please, show me the contract. I … very glad to see it.
IV. Раскройте скобки, выбрав нужную форму глагола “to be”:
There (is, are) a large table in my room.
There (is, are) three windows in my classroom.
There (is, are) a table and four chairs in my sister's room.
20
There (is, are) a blackboard, four tables and five chairs in our classroom.
There (is, are) a text-book and two exercise-books on my table.
There (wasn't, weren't) a school here in 2000.
There (was, were) many children in the park yesterday.
V. Ответьте вопросы, обращая внимание на перевод оборота “there is (there
are)”. Содержание ответа произвольное:
1. What is there on the table?
2. Are there many chairs in the room?
3. What is there in this room?
3. How many students are there in this room?
4. Were there many students on the lecture yesterday?
5. How many pages are there in this book?
VI. Используя конструкцию “there +be”, спросите своих сокурсников о том,
что есть и чего нет:
1. in his or in her flat
2. in his or her native town
3. in the hostel
4. in the street
5. in the forest
Спряжение глагола “to have” (иметь, обладать)
Глагол to have как полнозначный глагол имеет значение «иметь,
владеть».
I have a brother. – У меня есть брат.
Для разговорного английского языка характерна также форма “have got”.
I have got a brother. – У меня есть брат.
Глагол to have также употребляется в сочетании с большим количеством
существительных, утрачивая свое основное значение:
to have dinner/breakfast – обедать, завтракать;
to have tea/coffee – пить чай, кофе;
to have a bath/a wash – принять ванну, помыться;
to have a shave/a shower/a rest – побриться, принять душ, отдохнуть;
to have a sleep/a dream – поспать, помечтать;
to have a holiday/a good time – отдохнуть, хорошо провести время.
21
В этих случаях вопросительная и отрицательная формы глагола
“to have” образуются при помощи вспомогательного глагола to do:
Where do you have dinner? – Где ты обедаешь?
Таблица 2
Спряжение глагола “to have” (иметь)
Настоящее время
Прошедшее время
Будущее время
I
You have a dog
We
They
He
She
It
I
We
had
(для всех лиц ед., мн.
числа)
You
He
She
It
has
shall have
will have
Вопросительная и отрицательная форма глагола “have” в современном
английском языке требует вспомогательного глагола do.
Do you have a sister? – У тебя есть сестра?
They don’t have any children. – У них нет детей.
Формы “to have got”
I've got
you've got
he's/she's/it's got
we've got
they've got
have I got?
have you got?
has he/she/it got?
have we got?
have they got?
Have got образует вопросительную
вспомогательного глагола “do”.
I haven't got
you haven't got
he/she/it hasn't got
we haven't got
they haven't got
и
Grammar Exercises:
I. Вставьте глагол “to have” в правильной форме:
1. He ... a large family.
2. He ... two pets at home.
3. They ... a very nice flat in Voronezh.
4. Peter ... many friends here.
отрицательную
форму без
22
5. You ... many books at home.
6. Does she … any brothers?
7. My mother ... three children.
8. I ... two cousins.
9. She ... two brothers and a sister.
II. Переведите предложения на английский язык:
1. У меня нет ее адреса. 2. У меня был вчера очень интересный разговор с
профессором. 3. У него есть очень интересные книги по английскому. 4. У нас
завтра будет собрание. 5. Вы вчера обедали в ресторане? 6. Есть ли у вас
красный карандаш? 7. У меня не было времени навестить его вчера. 8. Мы
вынуждены обратиться к врачу. 9. Я принимаю душ два раза в день.
III. Выберите правильную форму глагола “have got”:
I … a good bike.
Maria … a new mobile phone.
Tom and Rosie … a dog.
We … a television in our bedroom.
My dad … a big car.
IV. Сделайте предложения отрицательными:
I've got an MP3 player.
Mr. Clarke has got a cat.
They've got a car.
We've got a DVD player.
She's got a camera.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
IMPRESSIONS OF THE FILM
− What films are on this week? Are there any worth seeing?
− "Romeo and Juliet" is on. I saw it at our local cinema the other day. Everybody
says it‟s very good.
23
− As a matter of fact, I prefer seeing ballet performed at the theatre especially if the
plot and the music are familiar.
− I don‟t quite agree with you. Sometimes I find that ballet is much more expressive
on the screen.
− Do you? Then what‟s your opinion of the screen version of "Romeo and Juliet"?
− I think it‟s wonderful from beginning to end. I enjoyed every minute of it. The cast
is very well chosen and the dancing‟s excellent.
− Well, I must go and see it for myself since you praise it so highly.
− You certainly must. I am sure it will make you change your mind about ballet
films.
− We‟ll see. Well, then I‟ll be looking forward to having a good talk with you
about it.
UNIT III
TEXT 3: WHAT IS A BIOME AND AN ECOSYSTEM? AND HOW HAVE
HUMANS AFFECTED THE ECOSYSTEM?
GRAMMAR: 1. Образование множественного числа существительных
(Plural Nouns).
2. Притяжательный падеж существительных (Possessive Case
of the Nouns).
24
WHAT IS A BIOME AND AN ECOSYSTEM? AND HOW HAVE
HUMANS AFFECTED THE ECOSYSTEM?
What is a Biome?
A biome is a large area with similar flora, fauna, and microorganisms. Most of
us are familiar with the tropical rainforests, tundra in the arctic regions, and the
evergreen trees in the coniferous forests. Each of these large communities contains
species that are adapted to its varying conditions of water, heat, and soil. For
instance, polar bears thrive in the arctic while cactus plants have a thick skin to help
preserve water in the hot desert.
What is an Ecosystem?
Most of us are confused when it comes to the words ecosystem and biome.
What's the difference? There is a slight difference between the two words. An
ecosystem is much smaller than a biome. Conversely, a biome can be thought of
many similar ecosystems throughout the world grouped together. An ecosystem can
be as large as the Sahara Desert, or as small as a puddle or vernal pool.
Ecosystems are dynamic interactions between plants, animals, and
microorganisms and their environment working together as a functional unit.
Ecosystems will fail if they do not remain in balance. No community can carry more
organisms than its food, water, and shelter can accommodate. Food and territory are
often balanced by natural phenomena such as fire, disease, and the number of
predators. Each organism has its own niche, or role to play.
The Major Biomes:
Mountains (High Elevation)
Tundra
Temperate Forest
Marine/Island
Desert
Tropical Dry Forest
Cold Climate Forest
Grassland
Savannah
Tropical Rainforest
25
How have humans affected the ecosystems?
We have affected ecosystems in almost every way imaginable! Every time we
walk out in the wilderness or bulldoze land for a new parking lot we are drastically
altering an ecosystem. We have disrupted the food chain, the carbon cycle, the
nitrogen cycle, and the water cycle. Mining minerals also takes its toll on an
ecosystem. We need to do our best to not interfere in these ecosystems and let nature
take its toll.
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce these words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and try to remember:
tropical rainforests, arctic regions, evergreen forest, coniferous forest, species, a polar
bear, to thrive, desert, conversely, a puddle, vernal pool, functional unit, to remain in
balance, a predator, temperate forest, tropical dry forest, cold climate forest,
grassland.
Exercises on the Text:
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What is a biome?
2) What is the difference between two words: a biome and an ecosystem?
3) What major biomes do you know?
4) We need to do our best to not interfere in ecosystems, don‟t we?
II. Complete the following sentences from the text:
1) A biome is a large area with similar flora, … and microorganisms.
2) Most of us are familiar with the tropical rainforests, tundra and the evergreen trees
in the … forests.
3) Each of these large communities contains … that are adapted to its varying
conditions of water, heat, and soil.
4) Cactus plants have a thick skin to help preserve … in the hot desert.
5) An ecosystem is much … than a biome.
26
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Таблица 1
Образование множественного числа существительных
Единственное число
Множественное число
Примечание
a desk
desks [s]
после глухих согласных
–s произносится как [s]
a room
rooms [z]
после
гласных
и
звонких согласных -s
произносится [z]
a box
boxes [iz]
после
шипящих
и
свистящих
es
произносится [iz]
a story
stories [z]
при прибавлении -s
буква -y в конце слова
после
согласных
переходит в i
a knife
knives [naivz]
при прибавлении -s
a loaf
loaves [louvz]
конечные
-f,
-fe
переходят в -ve
Таблица 2
Особые случаи образования множественного числа существительных
Единственное
число Множественное число
Примечание
Man - мужчина, человек Men – мужчины, люди
Woman – женщина
Women - женщины
Foot [fu:t] - ступня
Feet [fi:t] – ступни
Tooth - зуб
Teeth - зубы
Child - ребенок
Children – дети
Существительные
Phenomenon - явление
Phenomena - явления
латинского и греDatum
–
данная Data - данные
ческого происхожвеличина
дения
Basis - базис, основа
Bases - основы
Существительные,
Series - серия, ряд
Series - серии, ряды
имеющие одну форMeans
средство, Means - средства, способы
му ед. и мн. числа
способ
27
Grammar Exercises:
I. Напишите следующие существительные во множественном числе:
A story, a fish, a knife, a man, a dress, a tooth, a lamp, a box, a brother, a dog, a foot,
a bench, a hospital, a bed, a sentence.
II. Поставьте подлежащее в единственное число, сделав необходимые
изменения:
1. These are their books.
2. Roses are beautiful flowers.
3. Foxes are animals.
4. Classrooms have black boards.
5. These are old oaks.
6. Dogs have tails.
7. Those boys are good friends.
8. These texts are difficult.
III. Поставьте существительные во множественное число, произведя
соответствующие изменения:
1. This book is interesting.
2. There is a new supermarket in our town.
3. That biscuit was tasty.
4. This is a nice cotton dress for my niece.
5. That goose is big.
6. There is a mouse in the house.
7. This datum is difficult to understand.
8. The crisis is over now.
IV. Составьте предложения no образцу:
О б р а з е ц : He's going to be a detective. – Detectives solve mysteries.
1. He decided to be an artist.
2. She would like to become a teacher.
3. My brother wants to be an architect.
4. Jason is going to become a decorator.
28
5. Nancy made up her mind to become a nurse.
6. His son wants to be an engineer.
7. Our neighbour is a carpenter.
8. Megan is going to be a dressmaker.
9. Mary's son wants to become an actor.
10. This young man would like to be a busker.
11. My student decided to become an ecologist.
12. Our friend will be a policeman soon.
13. His wish is to become a bodyguard.
14. Ted's parents want him to become a doctor.
15. This man is a barber.
Притяжательный падеж существительных
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ
Существительное в притяжательном падеже выражает принадлежность,
является определением к другому существительному и ставится перед ним.
Форма притяжательного падежа образуется путем прибавления 's
(апострофа и „s‟) к существительному единственного числа в общем падеже:
the student's book – книга студента
Форма притяжательного падежа существительных множественного
числа, имеющих окончание множественного числа -s, образуется путем
прибавления к окончанию только апострофа ('):
his brothers' teacher – учитель его братьев
Форма притяжательного падежа существительных, не имеющих
окончания множественного числа, образуется, как и в единственном числе,
путем прибавления 's:
her children's room – комната ее детей
Форма
притяжательного
падежа
имен
существительных,
оканчивающихся в общем падеже на согласные -s, -ss, -x, образуется при
помощи только апострофа ('). При этом конечные согласные произносятся
как [iz]:
Dickens' ['dikinziz] works – произведения Диккенса
29
УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЕ
Форму
притяжательного
падежа
могут
иметь
следующие
существительные:
a. Все существительные, обозначающие одушевленные предметы:
the cat's eyes – глаза кошки
his brother's name – имя его брата
b. Собирательные существительные:
party's policy – политика партии
their family's pride – гордость их семьи
c. Существительные, обозначающие понятия времени, расстояния, веса,
стоимости:
an hour's walk – часовая прогулка
at one mile's distance – на расстоянии в одну милю
d. Существительные, обозначающие названия
звезд, планет, городов, стран, морей и т.д.:
the moon's light – свет луны (лунный свет)
the ocean's waves – волны океана
e. Существительные, обозначающие машины, детали машин, суда,
самолеты и т.д.:
the plane's engine – двигатель самолета
the steamer's name – название парохода
f.
Существительные,
являющиеся
географическими
именами
собственными:
New York's life – жизнь Нью Йорка
Mont Blanc's peak – вершина Монблана
g. Существительные, обозначающие времена года, дни недели, части
суток и т.д.
the spring's streams – весенние ручьи
today's lesson – сегодняшний урок
Grammar Exercises:
I. Дайте форму притяжательного падежа, используя окончания 's, s' и
апостроф ('):
1. Ross, address
2. (a) week, holiday
3. my relatives, house
30
4. Christie, novels
5. Alex, discs
6. my sister, room
7. her neighbour, car
8. (a) woman, magazine
9. James, secretary
10. (a) child, bicycle
11. girls, school
12. (a) week, trip
13. (an) actress, career
14. Doris, dress
15. teenagers, music.
II. Замените фразы с
притяжательном падеже:
1. the name of my friend
2. the speech of the leader
3. the flat of Liz
4. the visit of Max
5. a novel by Sheldon
6. the life of a student
7. the boyfriend of Bess
8. the rights of people
9. the books of her sons
10. the toys of my baby
11. the hobbies of my parents
12. a show of actors
13. a poem by Keats
14. the rays of the sun
15. the climate of England
16. the news of today
17. the progress of the world
18. the surface of the earth
19. a break of ten minutes
20. the history of Russia
предлогом
“of”
на
существительные
в
31
III. В следующих предложениях замените фразы существительными в
притяжательном падеже там, где это возможно:
1. Jessica works for a magazine for men. 2. The roof of the house needs painting.
3. The dress of the girl was made by her mother. 4. The dresses of the girls were
wonderful. 5. My seat was at the wing of the plane. 6. The style of this designer is
perfect. 7. The sound of the car made me stop writing. 8. The voices of the children
woke up the dog. 9. Mary often sat on the bank of the river looking at the ducks.
10. A holiday for a week will do you good. 11. These files belong to Felix. 12. I
borrowed an umbrella from Charles. 13. Their house is at the end of the street.
14. Brian studies the history of the English language. 15. The leg of the new table is
broken. 16. If I need some meat, I go to the shop of a butcher. 17. Where is the key to
the car? 18. Pamela spends her weekends at the house of her aunt. 19. The cover of
this dictionary is very bright. 20. The problems of the company are very serious.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺Read, translate and act out the following dialogues. Work in pairs.
AT THE OFFICE
a)
− Let‟s have a look at the diary. What are the engagements for today?
− Mr. Petrov has an appointment for ten. And then there‟s a conference at three.
− Get the documents ready for the conference. I‟m afraid these bills will keep me
busy till twelve.
− Shall I arrange for Mr. Petrov to come later?
− Yes, you‟d better. Phone him straight away and then attend to the documents.
− Very good.
b)
− Could I speak to Mr. Petrov, please?
− He‟s on another line at the moment. Would you hold on?
− I‟m afraid I can‟t. I‟ll leave a message for him. Will you please ask him to call at
Mr. White‟s office at twelve o‟clock instead of ten?
− All right. I‟ll let him know.
32
UNIT IV
Food chain
TEXT 4: FOOD CHAINS
GRAMMAR: Артикли (Articles).
FOOD CHAINS
Links in the Food Chain
Everyone plays a specific role in the food
chain of life. You might be a human thinking
they are king of the hill or you might be a
bacterium under the feet. You are very important
to the survival of the system no matter what role
you play.
As you study more about ecosystems and
cycles in life, you will see the terms food chains
and food webs. They describe the same series of events that happen when one
organism consumes another to survive. Food web is a more accurate term since every
organism is involved with several other organisms. Cows might be food for humans,
bacteria, or flies. Each of those flies might be connected to frogs, microbes, or
33
spiders. There are dozens of connections for every organism. When you draw all of
those connecting lines, you get a web-like shape.
The Producers
Producers are the beginning of a simple food chain. Producers are plants and
vegetables. Plants are at the beginning of every food chain that involves the Sun. All
energy comes from the Sun and plants are the ones who make food with that energy.
They use the process of photosynthesis. Plants also make loads of other nutrients for
other organisms to eat.
There are also photosynthetic protists that start food chains. You might find
them floating on the surface of the ocean acting as food for small unicellular animals.
Consumers
Consumers are the next link in a food chain.
There are three levels of consumers. The levels start
with the organisms that eat plants. Scientists named
this first group of organisms the primary
consumers. They are also called herbivores. They
are the plant eaters of the chain. It might be a
squirrel or it might be an elk. It will be out there
eating plants and fruits. It will not eat animals.
Secondary consumers eat the primary consumers. A mouse might be a primary
consumer and a cat might be the secondary. Secondary consumers are also called
carnivores. Carnivore means "meat eater."
In some ecosystems, there is a third level of consumer called the tertiary
consumer (that means third level). These are consumers that eat the secondary and
primary consumers. A tertiary consumer could be a wolf that eats the cat and the
mouse.
There are also consumers called omnivores. Omnivores can either be
secondary or tertiary consumers. Humans and bears are considered omnivores: we eat
meat, plants, and just about anything.
34
The Decomposers
The last links in the chain are the
decomposers. If you die, they eat you. If you lose a
leaf, they eat it. Whenever something that was alive
dies, the decomposers get it. Decomposers break
down nutrients in the dead "stuff" and return it to the
soil. The producers can then use the nutrients and
elements in the soil. The decomposers complete the
system, returning essential molecules to the
producers.
Notes:
web-like shape – в форме (виде) паутины
photosynthetic protist – фотосинтезирующий одноклеточный организм
unicellular animals – одноклеточные животные
primary consumer – (биол., эк. прир.) первичный консумент, организм 2-го
поколения (животный организм, который питается растениями (напр., корова
или кузнечик, питающиеся травой))
herbivore – травоядное животное
secondary consumer – (биол., эк. прир.) вторичный консумент, организм 3-го
поколения (животный организм, который питается растениеядными
организмами (напр., волк, поедающий оленя))
carnivore – 1) (зоол.) плотоядное животное
2) (бот.) насекомоядное растение
tertiary consumer – (биол., эк. прир.) третичный консумент (животный организм,
который питается другими хищниками (например, коршун))
omnivore – всеядное животное
decomposers – редуценты (организмы, минерализующие органические вещества,
напр. бактерии, грибы)
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
food chain, to consume, bacterium, the process of photosynthesis, unicellular
animals, a squirrel, an elk, to break down, stuff, molecule.
35
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
первичный (вторичный, третичный) консумент, одноклеточное животное,
травоядное животное, плотоядное животное, всеядное животное, редуценты,
пищевая цепь, более точный термин, выживать, энергия.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
to break down
редуценты
a squirrel
выживать
food chain
белка
stuff
всеядное животное
decomposers
материал (состав, вещество)
to survive
пищевая цепь
omnivore
распадаться (на части), расщеплять (к.-л. вещество)
Exercises on the Text:
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What does the term food chain or food web mean? Give your example.
2) What are producers?
3) How many levels of consumers do you know?
4) What is the last link in the food chain?
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) As you study more about ecosystems and cycles in life, you will see the terms
food … and food ... .
2) One organism consumes another to … .
3) … are the beginning of a simple food chain.
4) There are three levels of … .
5) Scientists named this first group of organisms the … .
6) Secondary consumers are also called … .
7) The last links in the chain are the … .
8) Decomposers break down nutrients in the dead "stuff" and return it to the… .
III. Complete a food chain and tell us about it in English:
1) Tiger – deer – bird – plants
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2) Man – lion – zebra – plants
3) Crocodile – bird – big fish – small fishes and plants
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Артикли (Articles)
Артикль – это служебная часть речи, которая определяет
существительное. В тех случаях, когда перед существительным имеются другие
определения, артикль оказывается уже не непосредственно перед
существительным, а перед этим определением, например: a man – человек,
a young man – молодой человек.
В английском языке два артикля: неопределенный и определенный.
Неопределенный артикль (The Indefinite Article)
У неопределенного артикля две формы: а и an.
Форма а ставится перед словами, начинающимися с согласного звука, а
an – перед словами, начинающимися с гласного звука: a bus, an offer.
Неопределенный артикль употребляется перед исчисляемыми
существительными в единственном числе, когда речь идет о предмете или лице,
упоминаемом впервые или неизвестном слушающему.
Today I have seen a beautiful car. – Сегодня я видел красивый автомобиль.
Определенный артикль (The Definite Article)
Определенный артикль имеет одну форму – the – и употребляется перед
существительными, как в единственном, так и во множественном числе, если
речь идет об уже известных предметах или лицах.
− Where is the cable? – Где телеграмма?
− The cable is on the table. – Телеграмма на столе. (Та телеграмма, о которой
знают говорящие).
В некоторых случаях всегда употребляется определенный артикль,
например:
1) перед прилагательным в превосходной степени, когда прилагательное
является определением к последующему существительному (the best season –
лучшее время года, the most interesting film – самый интересный фильм);
37
2) перед порядковым числительным, когда это числительное является
определением к последующему существительному (the second lesson – второе
занятие, the fifth page – пятая страница);
3) перед предметами или понятиями, единственными в своем роде (the sun –
солнце, the moon – луна, the earth – земля и т.д.);
4) перед названиями рек (the Thames – Темза, the Volga – Волга), морей (the
Black Sea – Черное море), океанов (the Indian Ocean – Индийский океан);
5) перед названием некоторых стран и местностей (the United States –
Соединенные Штаты, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
the Crimea – Крым, the Caucasus – Кавказ);
6) перед названиями горных цепей (the Alps – Альпы, the Ural Mountains –
Уральские горы).
Grammar Exercises:
I. Вставьте в пропуски неопределенный артикль, если это необходимо:
1. What … strong coffee! 2. What … risky situation! 3. What ... timely advice! 4.
What ... shocking idea! 5. What ... smart dresses! 6. What ... cold champagne! 7.
What ... miserable day! 8. Want ... tough people! 9. What ... killing news! 10. What ...
great man! 11. What ... heavy weather! 12. What . . . deep knowledge! 13. What ...
wonderful life! 14. What ... choosy girls! 15. What ... important matter! 16. What ...
hot soup! 17. What ... big surprise! 18. What ... fresh air! 19. What ... unexpected
money! 20. What ... old coin!
II. Вставьте артикли “a, an, the” там, где необходимо:
1. What's your name? My name is___Alison.
2. Where are you from? I am from ____ USA, ___ Wisconsin.
3. Where do you live? We live in ____ eastern part of ____ Minnesota. Our
grandparents live in ____ Hudson.
4. What street do you live in? I live in ____ Green Street.
5. What school do you study at? I study at ____Hudson Middle school.
6. Have you got ___ pen-pal in ____ England?
7. What nationalities are your parents? My mother is ____ English. My father is
____ Swiss.
8. Where and when were you born? I was born in _____ Moscow in ___ 1984.
9. What's your mom? My mom is ____ housewife.
10. What's your dad? My dad is ____ driver.
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III. Вставьте артикль “the” там, где необходимо:
1. ___ Australia is ___ largest island in ____ world.
2. ____ Mississippi is ____ longest river in ____ North America.
3. ____ Pacific Ocean is ____ largest ocean in ____world.
4. What is _________deepest lake in our country?
5. Which river is deeper: ____ Thames or _______ Severn in Great Britain?
6. ________ United States of America were formed in 1776.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogues. Work in pairs.
IN FRONT OF A HOTEL
− Is this the hotel we are going to stay at?
− It is. But I haven‟t booked rooms yet. I‟ll go in and see about them now.
− All right. I‟ll pay the driver and join you in the hall.
IN THE HALL
− Good morning. Can I have two single rooms with a bathroom, please?
− We are rather full up, but I‟ll see. How long do you intend to stay?
− I expect we‟ll be here for a week or so.
− You can have a double room with a bathroom on the first floor.
− How much is it?
− It‟s seventy pence a night, including breakfast.
− All right, I‟ll take it.
− Will you fill in the form, please?
− Surname, Christian name, nationality, permanent address, place and date of birth,
signature. Is that all right?
− Yes, that‟s all, thank you. Here is your key. The boy will show you up to your room
and take in your luggage.
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UNIT V
Population of the world
TEXT 5: POPULATION
GRAMMAR: 1. Имя прилагательное (The Adjective). Степени сравнения
(Degrees of Comparison).
POPULATION
Groups Working As One
A population is a group of organisms that are
all the same species. That's it. You're done. A group
of ducks would not be a population if there were
mallard and wood ducks combined. Scientists would
say that there are two populations existing in the
same area.
Population biologists study groups in a specific area. For example, among
political regions there are a U.S. population and a Mexico population. Life for these
groups is totally different in many ways. We also said a population is all the same
species. When you look at the U.S. and Mexico, you might be looking at human
populations or dog populations. They all interact, but they are different populations.
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Health Of A Population
You need to remember that populations don't just sit there. Things are always
happening. Organisms are born and the population size increases. Other factors that
will increase the size of a population are good weather, medicine, geographic
isolation and no predators. Organisms will also die of old age and the population will
decrease. Populations can also decrease when there are more predators around, after a
natural disaster, when competition is too great, or when some of the organisms just
leave the area (migration).
Limiting Factors
No matter how well a population succeeds in its area, it is still limited even if
no outside forces are applied. Three main factors limit population expansion. There
are others, but these are some biggies.
There are physical limits. Sometimes other environments are just bad places to
live. They may be too hot, too cold, or too dangerous.
Next are the competition limits. You might have a great place to live but there
may be other organisms competing for your food. If there is a smarter bird in the next
area, you might not be able to get all of the food you need. A worse situation would
be to meet a bird that wants to eat you.
Last are the geographic limits. If you are a mouse living in a valley and there
are mountains in every direction, are you going to leave your area? Probably not. You
live a good life and might die if you tried to get over the mountains. An ocean might
be another geographic limitation.
Notes:
mallard – дикая утка
wood duck – (зоол.) каролинская утка
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
population, species, to exist, specific area, geographic isolation, predator, to decrease,
a natural disaster, competition, migration.
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II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
группа организмов, численность населения, уменьшаться (сокращаться),
биолог, покидать территорию, ограничивающий фактор, рост населения,
опасный, горы, океан.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
population
ограничивающий фактор
species
стихийное бедствие
to exist
горы
predator
население (популяция)
to decrease
хищник
a natural disaster
существовать
limiting factor
вид (виды)
mountains
уменьшаться
Exercises on the Text:
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What is a population?
2) What do population biologists study?
3) What factors do you know that will increase the size of a population?
4) When can populations decrease?
5) What are three main factors that limit population expansion?
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) A population is a group of organisms that are all the same ... .
2) Organisms are born and the population size … .
3) Organisms will also die of old age and the population will … .
4) Three main factors limit population … .
III. True or false. If the sentence is false, correct it:
1) A population is a group of organisms that are all of different species.
2) All different populations interact.
3) Organisms are born and the population size decreases.
4) Three main factors limit population expansion.
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GRAMMAR FOCUS
Имя прилагательное (The Adjective)
Прилагательное – это часть речи, обозначающая качество, признак
предмета и отвечающая на вопросы "какой? какая? какое?".
Прилагательное в английском языке не изменяется ни по родам, ни по
падежам, ни по числам (a large letter – большое письмо, a large family –
большая семья, a large table – большой стол).
В предложениях прилагательное выступает в роли определения (a difficult
problem) и именной части сказуемого (This problem is difficult).
Степени сравнения (Degrees of Comparison)
Прилагательные в английском языке имеют три формы: форму
положительной степени (positive degree), сравнительной степени (comparative
degree) и превосходной степени (superlative degree).
Односложные прилагательные и часть двусложных, оканчивающихся на lе, -у, -er, -ow, образуют сравнительную степень прибавлением к
положительной степени прилагательного суффикса -er, а превосходную
степень – суффикса -est.
1. Если положительная степень прилагательного оканчивается на немое е, то оно опускается при образовании степеней сравнения: large – larger –
largest.
2. Если положительная степень прилагательного оканчивается на
согласный звук с предшествующим кратким гласным, то конечная буква
удваивается перед суффиксами -еr и -est для сохранения краткости гласного
звука: hot – hotter – hottest.
Таблица 1
Степени сравнений прилагательных
Положительная степень Сравнительная степень
Превосходная степень
long – длинный
longer – длиннее
longest – самый длинный
large – большой
larger – больше
largest – самый большой
hot – жаркий
hotter – жарче
hottest – самый жаркий
old – старый
older – старше
oldest – самый старый
simple – простой
simpler – проще
simplest – самый простой
narrow – узкий
narrower– уже
narrowest – самый узкий
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3. Если положительная степень прилагательного оканчивается на букву у
после согласного звука, то в сравнительной и превосходной степени у
переходит в i перед суффиксами -еr и -est: early – earlier – earliest. После
гласного звука у не меняется: gray – grayer – grayest.
Многосложные прилагательные и двусложные прилагательные (кроме
тех, которые оканчиваются на -1е, -у, -еr, -ow, образуют сравнительную степень
добавлением слова more (перед прилагательным) и превосходную степень –
слова most.
Таблица 2.
Степени сравнений многосложных прилагательных
Положительная степень
Сравнительная степень
Превосходная степень
interesting
more interesting
most interesting
beautiful
difficult
more beautiful
more difficult
most beautiful
most difficult
Небольшое число прилагательных образует степени сравнения от другого
корня (по исключениям):
good – better – best – хороший – лучше – самый хороший;
bad – worse – worst – плохой – хуже – самый плохой;
many, much – more – most - много – больше – самый большой;
little, few – less – least – мало – меньше – самый маленький.
Существительное, определяемое прилагательным в
степени, всегда употребляется с определенным артиклем the.
превосходной
Grammar exercises:
I. Употребите правильную степень прилагательного:
1. He was the (amusing) lad you ever met.
2. He is a far (intelligent) person than my brother.
3. She was the (practical) of the family.
4. When they told me I was cured and could go, I can tell you I was (afraid) than
glad.
5. I wanted to ask you both what you thought of my (late) films if you saw them.
6. He is (talkative) than his sister. He will not tire you so much.
44
7. He turned out to be (angry) than I had expected.
8. Today I am no (wise) than yesterday.
9. This wine is the (good) I ever tasted.
10. Jack is the (clever) of the tree brothers.
11. I do not think it matters in the (little) which seat I choose.
12. He felt (bad) yesterday than the day before.
13. The (near) house is three miles away.
14. Of the two evils, let us choose the (little).
15. He was the (late) man to come.
16. She waited until her silence became the (noticeable) thing in the room.
17. The (near) item on the program is a piano sonata.
18. He is the (tall) of the two.
19. She is (amusing) in a small company.
20. Uncle Nick was the (old) son of the family.
II. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences
illustrating the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogues. Work in pairs.
IN THE STREET
− Let‟s drop in somewhere for a snack.
− I‟d rather have a proper meal, it‟s lunch time now.
− All right. Shall we go to a restaurant?
− Yes, let‟s. There‟s quite a nice one over there on the left-hand side. They have a
self-service department there too, though I don‟t want to go there today.
AT THE RESTAURANT
− There‟s a nice table for two. Shall we take it?
− Can‟t you see it‟s reserved?
− Oh, I see. Come over here then; we‟ll be very comfortable at this table.
− (seated) Will you have any snacks?
− Not today. I‟ll start with soup and have a steak to follow.
45
− I had meat for my main course yesterday, so I‟ll have fish for a change.
− Shall we order the sweet straight away? What would you like?
− Fruit salad and ice-cream for me.
− All right, I‟ll have the same.
UNIT VI
Different examples of land bioms
TEXT 6: LAND BIOMES
GRAMMAR: Наречие (Adverb).
LAND BIOMES
Quick Looks
Biomes are unique situations.
They are very specialized ecosystems that
only exist in certain parts of the world. They are
ecosystems that are defined by their environments.
Factors like temperature, rainfall, and altitude all
decide what type of life a biome can support.
While you're here, take a walk through a few
different biomes.
46
Hot and Wet
Tropical rain forests are warm and humid. Standing on the ground, you can
look up and see a huge canopy of leaves above you. The trees are very tall, some fifty
feet high. Even though the Sun is shining, you still walk around in the shade. As you
walk through this biome, you see loads of different living creatures. There are lots of
birds, some tiny mammals, but most of all insects. Wow! There are bugs everywhere.
They crawl, fly, and jump all around you. As you continue walking, you notice all of
the dead leaves on the ground. Every now and then a leaf falls from above and adds
to the pile.
Dry and Hot
Imagine you are now in the desert. It's not
just hot; it's incredibly hot and dry here. Your lips
are chapped and you are very thirsty. The ground is
all cracked and it may have been over a year since it
rained. You see cacti and a bird every now and
then. There are no trees at all. There are a few dried
up bushes and a couple of insects on the ground.
After the Sun goes down you notice all sorts of
animals coming out of the ground. When it cools off, the burrowing animals come
out to hunt the bugs. It's just too hot during the day.
Cold and Colder
Life in the tundra is just as hard as life in the desert. You usually find tundra
biomes in the far north. If you came in the winter, it would be dark all of the time. In
the summer, the Sun barely sets. Even with all the light there is still very little life.
You see a lot of lichen and mosses on the rocks, if you can even see the rocks under
the snow. There are no trees. It wouldn't matter anyway; the roots couldn't go deep
because the soil is frozen (a state called permafrost).
Notes:
lips are chapped – губы обветрились
to be thirsty – испытывать жажду
the ground is cracked – земля потрескалась
cacti – кактусы (мн.ч. от cactus – кактус)
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every now and then – время от времени, то и дело
burrowing animal – землеройное животное
permafrost – вечная мерзлота
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
to define, rainfall, altitude, to support, wet, humid, canopy, creature, to crawl, to fall.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
влажный тропический лес, живое существо, млекопитающее, насекомое, жук,
пустыня, высохший, остывать (охлаждаться), тундра, мох, лишайник.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
permafrost
ползти
humid
млекопитающее
a living creature
лишайник
a mammal
влажный
to crawl
засохший куст
a dried up bush
живое существо
lichen
вечная мерзлота
Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) Tropical rain forests are warm and humid, aren‟t they?
2) How tall are the trees in tropical rain forests?
3) What kind of living creatures can you see there?
4) What is the climate in the desert?
5) What is the nature in the tundra?
II. True or false. If the statement is false, correct it:
1) In tropical rain forests you can see different living creatures.
2) It‟s warm and humid in the desert.
3) It rains a lot in the desert.
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4) Life in the tundra is just as hard as life in the desert.
5) You usually find tundra biomes in the far south.
6) In the tundra you can see different species of the trees.
III. Translate from Russian into English:
1) В тропическом лесу тепло и влажно.
2) В пустыне невыносимо жарко и очень хочется пить.
3) В течение дня очень жарко и не видно ни одного живого существа, а после
захода солнца вы можете увидеть, как животные выползают из-под земли.
4) Жизнь в тундре такая же тяжелая, как и в пустыне.
5) Зимой в тундре всегда темно.
6) В тундре много мхов и лишайников.
7) Там нет деревьев, потому что корни не могут глубоко проникнуть в землю
из-за вечной мерзлоты.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
НАРЕЧИЕ (ADVERB)
В английском языке, как и в русском, наречием называется часть речи,
которая обозначает признак действия, состояния или качества.
По своей структуре наречия делятся на:
1. Простые, состоящие только из одного корня:
now – сейчас
well – хорошо
there – там
2. Производные, в состав которых входят суффиксы и префиксы:
orally – устно
indeed – действительно
uphill – в гору
3. Сложные, состоящие из нескольких корней:
anyhow (any + how) – как-то
everywhere (every + where) – везде
4. Составные, состоящие из нескольких слов:
by all means – обязательно
for ever – навсегда
in a friendly way – дружески
as far as – насколько
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По своему значению наречия делятся на:
1. Наречия времени (к ним относятся наречия определѐнного и
неопределѐнного времени):
today – сегодня
soon – скоро
since – с тех пор, как
already – уже
never – никогда
2. Наречия образа действия:
slowly – медленно
often – часто
3. Наречия места:
inside – внутри
here – здесь
4. Наречия меры и степени:
much – много
very – очень
5. Вопросительные наречия:
how – как
when – когда
В предложении наречия выполняют чаще всего функцию обстоятельства:
It is never too late to learn. (обстоятельство времени) – Учиться никогда не
поздно.
СТЕПЕНИ СРАВНЕНИЯ НАРЕЧИЙ
Некоторые наречия образа действия и времени имеют сравнительную и
превосходную степень сравнения.
Степени сравнения односложных наречий образуются так же, как и
степени сравнения односложных прилагательных, т. е. при помощи
прибавления к основе наречия суффикса -er в сравнительной степени и
суффикса -est в превосходной степени:
late – later – latest
fast – faster – fastest
50
Степени сравнения многосложных наречий образуются так же, как и
степени сравнения многосложных прилагательных, т. е. при помощи слов more
в сравнительной степени и most в превосходной степени:
necessarily – more necessarily – most necessarily
carefully – more carefully – most carefully
От некоторых наречий степени сравнения образуются путѐм изменения
корневой гласной или основы слова.
Их нужно запомнить:
well – хорошо better – лучше best – лучше всего
badly – плохо worse – хуже worst – хуже всего
little – мало less – менее, меньше least – меньше всего
much – много more – более, больше most – наиболее, больше всего
far – далеко further/ farther – дальше furthest/ farthest – дальше всего
Grammar Exercises:
I. Дополните следующие предложения подходящими по смыслу наречиями:
1. It‟s snowing ... .
a. well
2. Your mark is bad. You did the test ... .
b. hard
3. He came home ... ,at one o'clock in the morning.
c. heavily
4. Don't eat too ... . It‟s bad for you.
d. quickly
5. Sarah studies ... to pass her exam.
e. late
6. Who gets up ... , has a long day.
f. high
7. I slept ... this night and I feel ... this morning.
g. carefully
8. He raised the flag ... on the tower.
h. fast
9. Open the window ... not to break it.
i. slowly
10. Modern trains go ... .
j. quietly
11. Speak ... , please. They don't understand you.
k. badly
12. She sat ... in the corner like a mouse.
1. early
13. I can speak German ... .
m. fluently
14. He came closer to hear me ... .
n. clearly
II. Переведите следующие предложения:
1. Испанцы говорят очень быстро. 2. Он быстро бегает, ведь он спортсмен.
3. Не приходи домой поздно. 4. Идет сильный дождь. 5. Внимательно послушай
51
новости. 6. Моя жена плохо готовит, но хорошо поет. 7. Я прекрасно понимаю,
что вы имеете в виду. 8. Осторожно переходи дорогу. 9. Если знаешь алфавит,
ты легко прочитаешь это слово. 10. Он тяжело дышал, он очень быстро бежал.
11. Ярко светит солнце, по небу медленно плывут облака. 12. Думай быстро,
говори медленно. 13. Туристы приехали на вокзал слишком рано. 14. Иногда
женщины водят машину очень неосторожно. 15. Внезапно инспектор понял, в
чем дело. 16. Она балерина и двигается очень красиво. 17. В феврале идет
сильный снег.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
MY FRIEND GOES ABROAD
− Here we are at last. What time does your plane takes off?
− 9.30, we‟ve plenty of time yet. I‟ll go and have my luggage weighed now.
− How much are you allowed to take with you?
− I travel tourist class, so it‟s about 20 kilos. I don‟t think my luggage weighs more
than that.
− Will it take you long to go through the customs?
− No, it‟ll be just a formality. I‟ve nothing to declare.
− When are you due in London?
− It‟s a non-stop flight so I‟ll be there long before lunch.
− Oh, that‟s wonderful, you won‟t even have time to get air-sick.
− I never do, though I‟m a poor sailor.
− Then you can look forward to a pleasant journey.
52
UNIT VII
Factors causing erosion
TEXT 7: EROSION
GRAMMAR: 1. Числительное (The Numeral). Составные числительные.
Хронологические даты.
2. Дробные числительные. Десятичные дроби.
Математические знаки.
EROSION
Break It Down
Erosion is the process that breaks things down. As far as we're concerned,
erosion is the breakdown of the continents and the land around you. The overall
effect of breaking down and weathering the land is called denudation. Denudation is
the process of erosion. In nature, large things are
broken down into smaller things. Boulders become
sand. Mountains are rained on and become hills.
The pieces of the mountain become smaller pieces
and go down the sides of hills. Weathering and
erosion always happen in a downhill direction.
Erosion is an easy idea to understand. If you
see a rock, pull it out of a mountain. Then throw it
down on the ground. You are now a part of the
53
erosion of that mountain. You have taken a big object (a mountain) and started to
make little objects out of it (a rock). When that rock hit the ground, it could have
cracked and made some tiny pieces of rock (sand). Erosion is just that easy. When it
rains, the same process happens. Rocks are washed down a mountain or down a
stream. Soils are washed away. The ocean beats against a cliff and breaks it apart.
They are all examples of denudation.
Things don't just disappear. The masses of
dirt and rock are moved to another form and place.
Scientists call it mass wasting. The wasting is the
loss of matter in one place.
Mass wasting can happen two ways:
1) mechanical, similar to breaking a rock
with a hammer;
2) and chemical, similar to pouring acid on a
rock to dissolve it.
A surefire way to tell what is happening is to check the color of the rock. If a
boulder breaks because of frost, you won't see a color change. If you see rock that has
been near the ocean, you may observe color changes because it is oxidizing.
Does Erosion Build Things Up?
Erosion happens at the tops of mountains and
under the soil. Water and chemicals get into the
rocks and break them up through those mechanical
and chemical forces. Erosion in one area can actually
build up lower areas. Think about a mountain range
and a river. As the mountain erodes, the river carries
sediment downstream towards the ocean. That
sediment slowly builds up and creates new wetlands
at the mouth of the river. The swamps of Louisiana
are good examples of sediment carried by the
Mississippi River and collected at the end.
54
Notes:
weathering the land – выветривание земли
denudation – (геол.) денудация (совокупность процессов разрушения и
переноса продуктов разрушения горных пород в пониженные участки,
приводящих к постепенному выравниванию рельефа)
boulder – валун, булыжный камень
mass wasting – оползень; перемещение горных пород
surefire way – верный способ
oxidize – окислять(ся)
sediment – (геол.) осадочная порода, отложение
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
sand, hill, rock, to crack, to disappear, dirt, to dissolve, acid, soil, a mountain range.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
эрозия, континент, денудация, выветривание, механический, химический,
эродировать (разрушать), осадочная порода, устье реки, болото.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
swamp
растворять
sand
болото
dirt
исчезать
soil
горная цепь
a mountain range
почва
to dissolve
грязь
to disappear
песок
Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What is erosion?
2) How can you describe the process of denudation?
55
3) What is mass wasting? In what ways can it happen?
4) Why does the rock near the ocean change its color?
5) Where does erosion happen?
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) The overall effect of breaking down and weathering the land is called ... .
2) Denudation is the process of … .
3) Mountains are rained on and become … .
4) The masses of dirt and rock are moved to another form and … . Scientists call it
mass … .
5) Mass wasting can happen in two ways: mechanical and … .
6) If you see rock that has been near the ocean, you may observe color changes
because it is … .
7) Erosion happens at the tops of mountains and under the … .
8) The … of Louisiana are good examples of sediment carried by the Mississippi
River.
III. Translate from Russian into English:
1) Эрозия – это процесс распада.
2) Перемещение горных пород происходит двумя способами: механическим и
химическим.
3) Эрозия случается и высоко в горах, и в почве.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Числительное (The Numeral)
Числительное – это часть речи, обозначающая количество предметов или
их порядок при счете. В английском языке существуют количественные и
порядковые числительные.
Количественные числительные указывают на количество предметов или
лиц, например, two weeks – две недели, seven tables – семь столов, ten men –
десять человек.
Порядковые числительные указывают на порядок предметов при счете,
например, the seventh lesson – седьмой урок, the tenth day – десятый день.
Порядковые числительные, за исключением первых трех, образуются от
56
количественных числительных с помощью суффикса -th (first, second, third,
fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, etc.).
У некоторых числительных изменяется правописание: five – fifth, twelve –
twelfth, eight – eighth, nine – ninth, twenty – twentieth.
Существительное, перед которым стоит порядковое числительное,
употребляется с определенным артиклем, например, the seventh lesson –
седьмой урок.
Составные числительные
22 – twenty-two
58 – fifty-eight
131 – one hundred and thirty-one
302 – three hundred and two
1001 – a (one) thousand and one
1225 – a (one) thousand two hundred and twenty-five
3544 – three thousand five hundred and forty-four
После сложных числительных, оканчивающихся на единицу,
существительное ставится во множественном числе, а не в единственном, как
принято в русском языке, например, 51 книга – fifty-one books.
Хронологические даты
При чтении обозначений года называют два двузначных числа,
соответствующих двум первым и двум последним цифрам обозначения,
например:
1612 – sixteen twelve;
1812 – eighteen twelve;
1945 – nineteen forty-five;
1960 – nineteen sixty;
1900 – nineteen hundred;
1905 – nineteen hundred and five или nineteen о five.
В таком чтении слово year (год) не добавляется после числа:
Пушкин родился в 1799 году. – Pushkin was born in seventeen ninety-nine.
Даты обозначаются и читаются следующим образом:
22 May 1942 – the twenty-second of May, nineteen forty-two.
57
Дробные числительные
В
простых
дробях
числитель
обозначается
количественным
числительным, а знаменатель – порядковым. Порядковое числительное, т.е.
знаменатель, принимает окончание множественного числа -s, если числитель
больше единицы:
1/2 – a half, one-half;
1/3 – a third, one third;
1/4 – 1) a quarter, one quarter;
2) a fourth, one fourth;
1/25 – a (one) twenty-fifth;
1/100 – a (one) hundredth;
1/1225 – a (one) thousand two hundred and twenty-fifth;
2/3 – two thirds;
3/4 – 1) three fourths;
2) three quarters;
7/18 – seven eighteenths;
9/10 – nine tenths;
2 1/2 – two and a half;
3 1/4 – three and a quarter (a fourth).
Десятичные дроби
Знаки десятичных дробей отделяются от целого числа точкой. Каждая
цифра читается отдельно.
Ноль называется по-английски zero, nought или о. Ноль целых можно
совсем не читать.
0,2 – 1) о point two;
2) nought point two;
3) zero point two;
4) point two.
0,02 – 1) о point о two;
2) nought point nought two;
3) zero point zero two;
4) point nought two;
5) point zero two;
6) point о two.
58
1,5 – one point five.
25,34 – 1) twenty-five point three four;
2) two five point three four.
Некоторые математические знаки
"+" – plus
"–" – minus
"×" – multiplication sign
":" – sign of division
"=" – sign of equality
Grammar Exercises
I. Употребите правильную форму числительного в скобках:
О б р а з е ц : 1. There are (5) roses in the vase. – There are five roses in the vase.
2. It was his (2) visit to the doctor. – It was his second visit to the doctor.
1. There are (10) students in his group. 2. It's (5) o'clock already. 3. It is (7) of
December today. 4. Read text (2). 5. Find (3) sentence. 6. She is (21) today. 7. It is
their (15) wedding anniversary. 8. (2) years passed quickly. 9. – Will you have (2)
cup of tea? – No more, thank you. 10. You are like (2) family for me. 11. (2) is a
company, and (3) is a crowd. 12. (3) years later (4) child was born to him. 13. Find
file (4) and take it to (14) room. 14. They got flat (6) on (3) floor in house (40).
15. My birthday is on (20) of July.
II. Переведите следующие предложения:
1. Мой дом – третий справа. 2. Упражнение десять – на тринадцатой странице.
3. Предложение шесть неверно, а вот седьмое правильно. 4. Мне не
понравилась первая серия фильма, вторая гораздо лучше. 5. Четверка – это
хорошая оценка. 6. Прошел месяц, затем второй, потом третий, а вестей все не
было. 7. День рождения моего папы – 8 Марта. А ваш? 8. Третий лишний.
9. Комната тридцать находится на третьем этаже. 10. Встреча состоится в два
часа на втором этаже в комнате номер три. 11. Его офис находится на Пятой
авеню на сороковом этаже.
59
III. Write in words the following dates:
1964 1425 1247
1795 1342 1740
1845 1997 1644
IV. Write in words the following praxis:
40 : 10 = 4 10 × 2 = 20
25 × 0,02 = 0,5
72 : 9 = 8 30 × 4 = 120 40 × 0,04 = 0,16
54 : 6 = 9 25 × 3 = 75
12 × 1,2 = 12,24
V. Write in words the ordinal numerals from the 1st to the 21st.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
GOING TO SEE A DOCTOR
− Hallo, Peter! I haven‟t seen you around lately. Where have you been?
− I‟ve been away with a bad cold for over a week! In fact I‟m still on sick-leave
though I‟m no longer running a temperature.
− Are you? Well, you should stay in bed until you‟re completely cured then. Cold
may have serious complications.
− I know they may. But as a matter of fact I‟m only going to the outpatients‟. And
then, perhaps I‟ll drop in at the chemist‟s.
− Who‟s your doctor?
− Doctor Krasnov has been treating me. Do you know him?
− Yes, he‟s a very good man for heart trouble. Well, bye-bye. I wish you a quick
recovery.
− Thank you. So long!
60
UNIT VIII
Volcano
TEXT 8: DEEP EROSION
GRAMMAR: 1. Словообразование (Word formation).
2. Интернациональные слова (International Words).
DEEP EROSION
Erosion Below The Surface
Before we tell you how weather and the elements get inside the rocks, we have
to explain what we mean. The land erodes. When it rains or the air heats up, how can
it affect rocks deep inside if everything is solid? Good question! We're glad you
asked.
ONE: Volcanoes have lava vesicles (the tubes that bring lava to the surface). When
those vesicles cool, sometimes holes remain. Those holes are like tubes that go
directly into the bedrock. Weather, water, and heat/cold can get in those vesicles and
affect the bedrock.
TWO: When any type of earthquake happens, sometimes faults develop. Those faults
are cracks in the surface and in the bedrock. Wherever there is a way in, the weather
will get inside and start eroding the bedrock.
61
THREE: You already know that the Earth is always moving. When stress on the land
happens, small joints can occur. Joints are tiny cracks in the land. They aren't big like
a fault. They are small cracks sometimes created by folding on the surface.
FOUR: Solution cavities are something special. There are special rocks out there with
a lot of calcium. Limestone is a good example. Those rocks are (compared to others)
very soft. When water gets near them, the rocks can dissolve easily. When they
dissolve, cavities are created. Those cavities are small holes in the rocks. As time
passes, the holes allow more and more water in, and the temperature/weather begins
to erode the rock.
FIVE: Last are the super tiny holes, microscopic spaces in between the molecules and
small pieces of rock. When we talk about water getting inside those, we don't mean
rushing rivers down a lava vesicle. We are talking about molecules of water. The
molecules seep between the molecules of rock. When that seeping happens, it is
similar to the percolation during groundwater creation.
Notes:
vesicle – (геол.) полость (в породе, в минерале)
bedrock – (геол.) коренная подстилающая порода
fault – (геол.) разлом горной породы; дислокация (в породе)
joint – (геол.) трещина, отдельность, линия кливажа
folding – (геол.) перемещение пластов без разрыва сплошности
solution cavity – (геол.) диссолюционная пустота; пустота растворения
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
weather, to heat up, solid, to remain, earthquake, soft, to create, to seep, similar,
creation.
62
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
глубинная эрозия, вулкан, лава, поверхность (земли), кальций, известняк,
просачивание (проникновение), подземная вода.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
solid
глубинная эрозия
earthquake
просачиваться
creation
вулкан
to seep
поверхность
volcano
известняк
surface
создание, формирование
limestone
землетрясение
deep erosion
твердый
Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) How do volcanoes affect the bedrock?
2) What are faults? When do they develop?
3) When can small joints occur?
4) What is a good example with a lot of calcium?
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) Volcanoes have lava ... .
2) Weather, water, and heat/cold can get in those vesicles and affect the … .
3) You already know that the Earth is always … .
4) Joints are tiny cracks in the … .
5) There are special rocks out there with a lot of … .
6) Those rocks are (compared to others) very … .
7) When water gets near them, the rocks can … easily.
63
III. True or false. If the statement false, correct it:
1) Volcanoes have lava vesicles.
2) The Earth is always moving.
3) Joints are huge cracks in the land.
4) Limestone has a lot of calcium.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Словообразование
Эффективным средством расширения запаса слов в английском языке
служит знание способов словообразования. Зная значение наиболее
употребительных префиксов и суффиксов, можно без труда понять значение
гнезда слов, образованных из одного корневого слова, которое известно.
Основные префиксы (приставки)
Префикс
Пример
Перевод
antibeсоcounterdenondisinilimirenextraintermisoutover-
antimonopoly
belittle
cooperation
counterbalance
devaluation
non – payment
disadvantage
indirect
illegal
impossible
irregular
enclose
extraordinary
interaction
misunderstand
output
overpay
антимонопольный
умалять
сотрудничество
уравновешивать
девальвация
неплатеж
недостаток
косвенный
незаконный
невозможный
неправильный
прилагать
необычный
взаимодействие
неправильно понять
выпуск продукции
переплачивать
64
postpreunderresubsuperu1tratrans-
postgraduate
predetermine
underestimate
rewrite
subdivision
supermarket
ultramodern
transoceanic
аспирант
предопределять
недооценивать
переписывать
подразделение
супермаркет
сверхсовременный
заокеанский
Префиксы обычно образуют новые слова внутри одной и той же части
речи (pleasant – приятный, unpleasant – неприятный).
Префиксы можно классифицировать по их лексическому значению, а
именно: префиксы, придающие словам отрицательное или противоположное
значение, выражающее предшествование или последовательность, повторность
и т.д.
Основные суффиксы глаголов
Суффикс
Пример
-ate
-en
-ise, -ize
to originate
to threaten
to advertise,
to organize
Перевод
происходить
угрожать
рекламировать
организовывать
Производные глаголы образуются обычно от существительных и
прилагательных.
Интернациональные слова
В европейских языках, в том числе в русском и английском, есть
значительное количество международных слов, близких по написанию и даже
звучанию, хотя произносятся они по правилам фонологической системы
каждого языка.
65
По значению международные слова в английском и русском языках
можно разделить на три основные группы:
1) полностью совпадающие по значению в английском и русском языках;
2) частично совпадающие по значению, имеющие в русском языке несколько
эквивалентов;
3) имеющие разные значения в английском и русском языках.
К первой группе относятся: названия наук; слова, связанные с
общественно-политической сферой жизни; научные термины; названия месяцев
и некоторые другие.
Английское слово
Русский эквивалент
April
constitution
delegation
democracy
expedition
fact
geography
January
magnet
Mathematics
апрель
конституция
делегация
демократия
экспедиция
факт
география
январь
магнит
математика
Ко второй группе относятся английские слова, имеющие в русском языке
несколько значений. Одно из них, обычно узкое, совпадает со значением в
английском языке, другие могут существенно отличаться от основного
значения, например:
champion (of peace) – 1) чемпион, победитель;
2) сторонник, поборник (мира);
commission – 1) комиссия, комиссионная продажа;
2) полномочие, поручение;
individual – 1) индивидуальный;
2) личный, частный;
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progressive – 1) прогрессивный;
2) передовой;
public – 1) публичный;
2) общественный, народный, гласный;
social – 1) социальный;
2) общественный;
character – 1) характер;
2) репутация, характеристика;
3) роль, действующее лицо;
visit – 1) визит;
2) посещение.
Существуют и такие интернациональные слова, которые заметно
изменили значение в русском языке по сравнению с английским:
delicate – тонкий, хрупкий, но не деликатный
data – данные, а не дата
brilliant – блестящий, яркий, а не бриллиант
novel – роман, а не новелла
fabric – материал, изделие, а не фабрика
pretend – притворяться, делать вид, а не претендовать
Grammar exercises:
I. Переведите следующие интернациональные слова с английского на
русский язык:
accumulation, phenomena, centre, theoretical, manuscript, literature, geography,
mathematics, physics, logic, national, system, democratic, reform, technology,
technological, economic, information, computer, ethics, psychology.
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II. Задание на словообразование. Определите по контексту, какая часть
речи нужна, чтобы заполнить пропуск:
(1) CELEBRATE
(2) NATION
(3) POSSIBLE
(4) AVOID
(5) INVOLVE
(6) ABLE
(7) TRADITION
(8) COMPLICATE
(9) ENJOY
(10) BAHAVE
(11) COURAGE
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
BOOKING AIRLINE TICKETS BY TELEPHONE
− Good morning. Can I help you?
− I‟d like to reserve a seat on a morning flight to Seattle next Wednesday.
− I can offer you two flights: at 7.30 a.m. and at 10 a.m. Which would you prefer?
− I‟d rather go by the 7.30.
− First class or economy?
− Economy, please.
− Okay. Anything else?
− When is the plane due in Seattle?
− At 12.30. There are no delays as a rule. Your name, address and telephone number,
please.
− (Gives the information required.)
− We‟ll deliver the ticket two days before your departure. Thank you for calling us.
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UNIT IX
Process of weathering
TEXT 9: WEATHERING
GRAMMAR: 1. PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE
2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
WEATHERING
Mechanical Weathering
We started talking about weathering in the
erosion sections. Mechanical weathering is the
process of breaking big rocks into little ones. This
process usually happens near the surface of the
planet. Temperature also affects the land. The cool
nights and hot days always cause things to expand
and contract. That movement can cause rocks to
crack and break apart. Roots and plants also push
into the rocks and break them apart. They act like
wedges and push the rocks apart. Little animals also help by burrowing and digging
through the ground.
Scientists have observed a process called freeze-thaw. That process occurs
when the water inside of rocks freezes and expands. That expansion cracks the rocks
from the inside and eventually breaks them apart. The freeze-thaw cycle happens
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over and over again and the break finally happens. Another word for it is frost
wedging. There are already some small cracks in boulders and water can get in the
cracks. When that water expands, the rock is crunched between two expanding pieces
of ice instead of being forced apart into separate pieces.
Another type of mechanical weathering is
called salt wedging. When it rains and water flows
everywhere, it usually has ions and salts dissolved
inside. Have you seen salt water dry up? Salt
crystals are left over. Those crystals happen in
nature, too. The water flows in a rock and
evaporates. Crystals slowly begin to grow. Those
crystals act like a wedge and crack the rocks.
Chemical Weathering
Chemical weathering includes the effect of weathering on molecules and
atoms. As with all chemistry, the greater the surface area of an object, the more
chemical reactions can take place. For these chemical reactions to happen in nature,
moisture, and heat must be present.
Reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis, and acidification can happen when all
of the elements are together. Oxidation makes rocks softer. It is similar to an iron bar
rusting. Since there is a lot of iron in many rocks, oxidation often happens.
Hydrolysis usually causes rocks to expand and then mechanical weathering can
begin. These chemical reactions are happening all of the time. When you see rocks
next to each other that are different colors (often shades of red) then you know
chemical reactions have taken place.
Weathering
Biological weathering would include the
effect of animals and plants on the landscape. This
is more than roots digging in and wedging rocks.
Biological weathering is the actual molecular
breakdown of minerals. There are things called
lichens (combinations of fungi and algae) which
live on rocks. Lichens slowly eat away at the
surface of rocks. The amount of biological activity
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that breaks down minerals depends on how much life is in that area. You might find
more activities like lichens near oceans where the air is humid and cooler.
Notes:
wedge – клин
freeze-thaw – промерзание и оттаивание
frost wedging – морозное расклинивание; морозное выветривание
salt wedge – клин соленой воды
iron bar – стальной пруток
biological weathering – биологическое выветривание
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
to cause, to expand, to contract, to observe, to freeze, salt, moisture, to rust, fungi,
algae, to evaporate.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
выветривание, рыть (копать), окисление, гидролиз, закисление среды, железо,
химическая реакция, распад на молекулы, биологическая активность, минерал.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
weathering
oxidation
to contract
to observe
to freeze
acidification
moisture
rust
закисление среды
ржавчина
замерзать
выветривание
влага
сжиматься (сокращаться)
окисление
проводить научные наблюдения
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Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What is mechanical weathering?
2) Where does this process usually happen?
3) What else affects the land?
4) What can cause rocks to crack and break apart?
5) When does freeze-thaw process occur?
6) What does chemical weathering include?
7) What makes rocks softer?
8) What does biological weathering include?
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking big rocks into .... .
2) The cool nights and hot days always cause things to … and … .
3) Scientists have observed a process called … .
4) That process occurs when the water inside of rocks freezes and … .
5) Biological weathering is the actual molecular breakdown of … .
6) There are things called lichens (combinations of fungi and algae) which live on. …
III. True or false. If the statement false, correct it:
1) Mechanical weathering usually happens near the surface of the planet.
2) Temperature doesn‟t affect the land.
3) Roots and plants push into the rocks and break them apart.
4) The greater the surface area of an object, the less chemical reactions can take
place.
5) Oxidation makes rocks harder.
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GRAMMAR FOCUS
Простое настоящее время The Simple Present Tense или The Present
Indefinite Tense употребляется для выражения постоянного или повторяющегося
действия.
Утвердительная форма образуется при помощи инфинитива смыслового
глагола без частицы to, а в 3-м лице единственного числа к инфинитиву
смыслового глагола прибавляется окончание -s (-es).
1. Если глагол оканчивается на -о, -s, -sh, -ch, -х, то в 3-м лице единственного
числа к нему прибавляется окончание -es: to go – goes, to do – does, to finish –
finishes, to discuss – discusses.
2. Если глагол оканчивается на -у с предшествующим согласным звуком, то в
3-м лице единственного числа к нему прибавляется окончание -es, а буква у
меняется на i: to study – studies, но: to stay –stays.
Отрицательная форма глаголов в Present Indefinite образуется при
помощи вспомогательного глагола do (в 3-м лице единственного числа does) и
частицы not. Сокращенные формы: don't, doesn’t:
I don't like to buy clothes myself.
Вопросительная форма глагола в Present Indefinite образуется с помощью
вспомогательного глагола do (does), который ставится перед подлежащим.
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Краткий ответ состоит из подлежащего, выраженного соответствующим
местоимением, и вспомогательного глагола.
Н а п р и м е р : 1) – Do you read letters in the morning? – Yes, I do.
2) – Does your manager read letters in the morning? – Yes, he does.
Настоящее продолженное время (The Present Continuous Tense)
Present
Continuous
употребляется
для
выражения
действия,
совершающегося в момент речи или в настоящий период времени. Глаголы,
выражающие чувства и восприятия, умственную деятельность и некоторые
другие: to see – видеть; to know – знать; to like – нравиться; to want – хотеть и
прочие в Present Continuous не употребляются.
Утвердительная форма Present Continuous образуется с помощью
вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующей форме Present Indefinite и
Participle I (причастие настоящего времени) смыслового глагола.
Н а п р и м е р : Mr. Bell is reading a letter.
Participle I образуется путем прибавления окончания -ing к основной
форме глагола: speak + -ing = speaking. Если глагол оканчивается на букву -е,
то при прибавлении -ing е опускается: come + -ing = coming. Если глагол
оканчивается на согласный звук, перед которым стоит один гласный, то
конечная буква удваивается: sit + -ing = sitting.
Отрицательная форма Present Continuous образуется с помощью
отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола
to be.
Н а п р и м е р : I am not reading a book now.
В вопросительной форме Present Continuous вспомогательный глагол
to be ставится перед подлежащим, а смысловой глагол в Participle I ставится
после подлежащего.
Н а п р и м е р : Is Mr. Bell reading a telex?
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
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II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя Present Indefinite:
1. I (sleep) here. My father (sleep) in his study.
2. In case she (want) to see him, he‟ll come over.
4. I (do) a lot of traveling, you know.
5. He (own) a big car.
6. He (run) very fast.
7. I (leave) home early.
8. They often (go) to the cinema.
9. My Mammy (swim) very well.
10. Sally (open) the window in her room when she is hot.
III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя Present Continuous:
1. Bill, stop that disgusting game you (to play).
2. They have moved to their London house. They (to buy) new furniture.
3. He paused and looked at her. "You (to shake). Are you all right?"
4. The rain … just (to begin).
5. I (to write) an exercise now.
6. They (to play) in the yard now.
7. He (to sleep) now?
8. The children (to eat) soup now.
9. Look! Kate (to dance).
10. You (to play) chess now?
IV. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous или в
Present Simple:
1. I (not to drink) coffee now. I (to write) an English exercise. 2. I (not to drink)
coffee in the evening. I (to drink) coffee in the morning. 3. Your friend (to do) his
homework now? 4. Your friend (to go) to school in the morning? 5. Look! The baby
(to sleep). 6. The baby always (to sleep) after dinner. 7. My grandmother (not to
work). She is on pension. 8. My father (not to sleep) now. He (to work) in the
garden. 9. I usually (to get) up at seven o'clock in the morning. 10. What your sister
(to do) now? – She (to wash) her face and hands. 11. When you usually (to come)
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home from school? – I (to come) at three o'clock. 12. Where your cousin (to work)?
– He (to work) at a hospital. 13. Your sister (to study) at an institute? – No, she
(to study) at school. 14. My cousin (to go) to school every day. 15. My mother (not
to play) the piano now. She (to play) the piano in the morning.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
MAKING HOTEL RESERVATIONS BY TELEPHONE
− Centre Hotel. Good morning. Can I help you?
− Good morning. I‟d like to reserve a single room with bath beginning next Tuesday.
− Name, please?
− Victor Lavrov.
− How long will you be staying, Mr. Lavrov?
− I‟ll be staying for two days. And one more thing. I‟d like it to be a quiet room, not
overlooking the street.
− Just a moment... Unfortunately, we haven‟t got any such accommodation available
at the moment, but the hotel‟s situated in a very quiet part. I‟m sure you‟ll enjoy your
stay here whichever room you book.
− Oh, thanks, I‟ll leave it to you, then.
− Very good, sir. We‟ll be looking forward to seeing you with us next Tuesday.
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UNIT X
Plant growing in the soil
TEXT 10: SOILS
GRAMMAR: 1. THE PAST SIMPLE TENSE
2. THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
SOILS
Covering The Lithosphere
Although soil has many uses, it is really just a layer of dirt between the
atmosphere and the bedrock in the tectonic plates.
The top layer of the planet is called the lithosphere.
Soil is the loose stuff on the surface of the
lithosphere. We have talked about plate tectonics
and swirling clouds in the atmosphere. In the same
way those conditions change, the soil changes. It
changes very slowly but very definitely. It's a very
complex system that supports all of the life on land.
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More Than Dirt
Soil is much more than just dirt. It is the result of the breakdown of rocks. The
breakdown is both physical and chemical. Soil is mainly something scientists call
regolith. Regolith is sandwich between the bedrock (the rock that makes up the
continents) and the actual loose soil (the top stuff at the surface). If you see a tree you
know its roots make it into the soil. They could even go all the way to the regolith
and stop when they get to the bedrock.
From Here To There
As the process of erosion happens, some
areas are built up and some areas are destroyed. The
first thing to change is the soil. One extreme
example would be the Grand Canyon. Over
millions of years, the Colorado River has eroded
and washed away tons of soil and rocks at the
surface. It all went to the ocean eventually. Inland
processes work the same way. The soil and rocks from the sides of a mountain move
downhill and collect in the lower areas. Slowly the valleys fill up with very rich soil
and minerals. Soil is always moving.
What Is Soil?
The core of soil is very small pieces of rocks and dissolved minerals. When
you add in organic material that has collected over millions of years, you have a
substance that encourages life on land. While animals don't get a lot out of soil, the
plants do. As you know, almost all land plants need soil to survive. It has the
nutrients and minerals needed to support life. In a protected system those nutrients
are continually recycled. When man becomes involved, the ability of soil to support
life can be destroyed.
Notes:
regolith – реголит (рыхлые поверхностные образования)
loose soil – разрыхленный грунт
sandwich – переслаивание с другой породой
Grand Canyon – Большой Каньон, Великий Каньон (один из глубочайших
каньонов в мире, на плато Колорадо, в США)
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Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
dirt, the process of erosion, to destroy, eventually, to move downhill, to fill in, the
core, dissolved minerals, to encourage, to recycle.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
почва, литосфера, поверхность, океан, долина, добавлять, органический,
вещество (субстанция), непрерывно (все время), быть вовлеченным во ч-л,
способность (возможность).
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
to destroy
почва
to encourage
долина
to recycle
поверхность
soil
быть вовлеченным во ч-л
surface
разрушать
valley
поддерживать (поощрять)
to be involved in
повторно использовать
Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) What is soil?
2) How do we call the top layer of the planet?
3) What is regolith?
4) As the process of erosion happens, some areas are built up and some areas are
destroyed, aren‟t they?
5) What is the core of soil?
6) Who gets a lot out of soil, animals or plants?
7) What does soil have for land plants to survive?
8) In a protected system those nutrients are continually recycled, aren‟t they?
9) What happens when man becomes involved?
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II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) The top layer of the planet is called the ... .
2) … is the loose stuff on the surface of the lithosphere.
3) Soil is much more than just … .
4) It is the result of the breakdown of … .
5) Soil is mainly something scientists call … .
6) The core of soil is very small pieces of rocks and dissolved … .
7) Almost all land plants need soil to … .
8) When man becomes involved, the ability of soil to support life can … .
III. True or false. If the statement false, correct it:
1) The top layer of the planet is called the atmosphere.
2) The soil never changes.
3) The plants get a lot out of soil.
4) Almost all land plants need soil to survive.
5) When man becomes involved, the ability of soil to support life can‟t be destroyed.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Простое прошедшее время (The Past Indefinite Tense)
The Simple Past Tense или The Past Indefinite Tense употребляется для
выражения действий, совершившихся в прошлом и не связанных с настоящим
моментом, а также для выражения повторяющихся действий в прошлом.
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Данное время употребляется со следующими обстоятельствами времени:
yesterday – вчера;
the day before yesterday – позавчера;
yesterday morning (afternoon, evening) – вчера утром (днем, вечером);
last – в последний (прошлый) раз;
last week (month, year) ago – неделю (месяц, год) тому назад;
the other day – на днях;
in 1969 – в 1969 году.
Время совершения действия может быть не указано, но ясно из ситуации
или контекста, например:
− Did you have a nice weekend?
− No, I didn‟t. The weather was not good and I stayed at home.
Глаголы в утвердительной форме в Past Indefinite не изменяются по
лицам и числам. Форма прошедшего времени правильных глаголов совпадает с
формой Participle II. Каждый неправильный глагол имеет свою форму
прошедшего времени.
Отрицательная форма глаголов в Past Indefinite образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола did и отрицательной частицы not:
The manager did not look through the mail yesterday morning.
Вопросительная форма Past Indefinite образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола did, который ставится перед подлежащим, а
смысловой глагол употребляется в 1-ой форме:
Did he stay at home last morning?
Глагол to be в Past Indefinite имеет форму was для 1-го и 3-го лица
единственного числа и were для 2-го лица единственного числа и всех лиц
множественного числа. Отрицательная и вопросительная форма образуются без
вспомогательного глагола.
Н а п р и м е р : – Was the General Director in his office yesterday
– No, he wasn‟t. He was in the conference room.
Прошедшее продолженное время (The Past Continuous Tense)
Past Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, происходящего в
определенный момент в прошлом. Этот момент может быть выражен:
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1) точным указанием времени;
2) другим действием, выраженным глаголом в простом прошедшем времени.
Утвердительная форма глаголов в Past Continuous образуется при помощи
глагола to be в прошедшем времени (was, were) и Present Participle смыслового
глагола.
Н а п р и м е р : Igor was waiting for the British businessmen at 7 o'clock.
В вопросительной форме Past Continuous вспомогательный глагол to be в
прошедшем времени (was, were) ставится перед подлежащим, а смысловой
глагол в Participle I ставится после подлежащего.
Н а п р и м е р : Were you looking through the latest letters yesterday at nine?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы
not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола to be в прошедшем
времени.
Н а п р и м е р : The director was not looking through the catalogues at two
yesterday.
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
II. Перепишите следующий текст в прошедшем простом времени:
On Monday we have five classes. The first class is English. At this class we
write a dictation and do some exercises. Nick goes to the blackboard. He answers
well and gets a "five". Pete does not get a "five" because he does not know anything.
After the second class I go to the canteen. I eat a sandwich and drink a cup of tea.
I do not drink milk. After classes I do not go home at once. I go to the library and
take a book. Then I go home.
III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present или Past Simple:
1. I (to go) to the gym at seven o'clock every day.
2. You (to come) to my place yesterday?
3. He (to live) in Dubai.
4. We (to have) dinner with my family yesterday.
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5. Jane (not to do) English exercises every day.
6. His computer (to be) ready yesterday.
7. His brother (to drink) coffee with milk every day.
8. My friend (to like) running in the park every morning.
9. Her husband (to like) his job. He (to go) to his office by bus. He (to go) to the
office at 9 am every day.
10. Her husband usually (to go) to his office by bus. He (to come) to the office at
9.30 am yesterday.
IV. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past
Continuous:
1. I (to play) computer games yesterday. 2. I (to play) computer games at five
o'clock yesterday. 3. He (to play) computer games from two till three yesterday.
4. We (to play) computer games the whole evening yesterday. 5. What Nick (to do)
when you came to his place? 6. What you (to do) when I rang you up? 7. I (not to
sleep) at nine o'clock yesterday. 8. What he (to do) yesterday? – He (to read) a book.
9. What he (to do) the whole evening yesterday? – He (to read) a book. 10. She
(to sleep) when you came home? 11. My brother (not to play) tennis yesterday. He
(to play) tennis the day before yesterday. 12. My sister (not to play) the piano at four
o'clock yesterday. She (to play) the piano the whole evening. 13. When I came into
the kitchen, mother (to cook). 14. She (to cook) the whole day yesterday. 15. We
(to wash) the floor in our flat yesterday. 16. We (to wash) the floor in our flat from
three till four yesterday. 17. You (to do) your homework yesterday? 18. You (to do)
your homework from eight till ten yesterday? 19. Why she (to sleep) at seven
o'clock yesterday? 20. He (to sit) at the table the whole evening yesterday.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogues. Work in pairs.
№1
– What do you do about rubbish?
– I usually put it in my bin and wait till the car drives.
– Then why is there a big heap of waste near your house? I am sure all the
neighbours do the same way.
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– You see sometimes people don't want to wait for a car, and the car often
doesn't arrive at all.
– Here is the result.
№2
- Do you live in an industrial district?
- Yes, I do. There are many plants in my district.
- Is anything done to stop the pollution of the air and the water?
- Some steps have been done. You know several dangerous shops don't work.
- I see.
№3
- Do you know any examples of ecologically safe technology?
- Of course, I do. Cars and power stations can work on the sun batteries.
- But what about wastes?
- The Baikal timber plant has proved that a factory can return its "waste" water
to the lake quite pure, if it uses modern flittering technology.
- As for me, I can't believe that crystal clear water is used in this way.
UNIT XI
TEXT 11: SOIL FORMATION
GRAMMAR: 1. THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE
2. THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS
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SOIL FORMATION
Makin' The Soil
The process of soil formation happens in many ways. Here are five of the most
important factors involved in soil formation. There are others, but these are the
biggies.
(1) It can be created because of the shape of the landscape. That shape is called the
topography. When you have mountains, the sides of the mountains are said to have a
slope. When you have a slope and it rains, there will be drainage. The runoff carries
away small rocks and minerals. This runoff winds up in valleys or in the ocean. It
slowly builds up and the small pieces make soil.
(2) There are climatic effects that create soil. Moisture and rain combine with the
temperature to do amazing things to rocks. We just explained that when it rains you
have runoff and erosion. Those physical activities break down the rocks and hard
surfaces. Temperature plays a role when you move below and above the freezing
point. When water freezes, it expands. Rocks and soil that hold water can be cracked
when the water freezes and expands. They pop open with a cracking sound!
(3) What's in the soil is dependent on geologic factors. The type of soil under your
feet is dependent on the bedrock deep below the surface. As the bedrock breaks
down, smaller pieces move to the surface and mix with the existing soil.
(4) In the same way that there are large geologic factors, chronological factors play
an important part in the process. Chronological means time. You need time to make
soil. That's it. Sediment can move around quickly but it takes a long time to break
down bedrock. We can't just sit and watch this process happen. We have to study it
over many years. Also, if we pollute our soil we can't renew it in our lifetime. It takes
hundreds to thousands of years.
(5) Soil is also created by biological factors. You'll find that soil is half
minerals/rocks and half air/water. All sorts of biological things are happening in the
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air/water space. The organic material is most important. There are tiny living
organisms (like bacteria) that break down organic stuff. The "stuff" could be dead
leaves or dead animals. The organic stuff is called humus. There are also roots and
tunneling creatures that work like the microbes. They turn the soil around and move
it. They churn the pieces of soil.
Notes:
biggie – нечто важное, значительное
topography – а) топография (географическое и геометрическое изучение
местности)
б) географические и геометрические особенности местности
runoff – поверхностный сток (в результате дождя или снеготаяния)
to pop - трескаться
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
a slope, drainage, climatic effects, to mix, sediment, to pollute, to renew, lifetime, to
churn.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text: почвообразование, создавать (творить), ландшафт, топография,
горы, влажность, точка замерзания, геологические факторы, перегной, микроб.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
sediment
загрязнять
drainage
возобновлять
to pollute
осадок (горное отложение)
to renew
дренаж
to mix
почвообразование
soil formation
перегной
humus
перемешивать
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Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) How many the most important factors are involved in soil formation?
2) How do we call the shape of the landscape?
3) What are climatic effects that create soil?
4) What does the type of soil under your feet depend on?
5) Who breaks down organic stuff of the soil?
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) There are five of the most important factors involved in ... .
2) The shape of the landscape is called the … .
3) There are climatic effects that create … .
4) When water freezes, it … .
5) The type of soil under your feet is dependent on the … .
6) Chronological means … .
7) If we pollute our soil we can't renew it in our … .
8) Soil is also created by biological … .
9) There are tiny living organisms (like bacteria) that break down organic … .
10) The "stuff" could be dead leaves or … .
11) The organic stuff is called … .
12) There are also roots and tunneling creatures that work like the … .
GRAMMAR FOCUS
The Future Indefinite Tense
употребляется для выражения действий, которые произойдут в будущем.
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Утвердительная форма Future Indefinite образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола shall (для 1-го лица) и will (для 2-го и 3-го лица) и
инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы to.
Н а п р и м е р : We shall go there by train tomorrow.
Отрицательная форма Future Indefinite образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола shall (will) и частицы not, которая ставится после
вспомогательного глагола (shall not = shan't; will not = won't).
Н а п р и м е р : We shall not go there by bus tomorrow.
Вопросительная форма Future Indefinite образуется путем перестановки:
вспомогательный глагол shall (will) ставится перед подлежащим.
Н а п р и м е р : When shall we see you?
Будущее продолженное время (The Future Continuous Tense)
Употребляется для выражения незаконченного действия, которое будет
совершаться в определенный момент в будущем. Этот момент может быть
выражен:
1) точным указанием времени:
I shall be working at the laboratory at 8 o'clock tomorrow morning. – Я буду
работать в лаборатории завтра утром в 8 часов.
2) другим действием в будущем, выраженным глаголом в Present Indefinite:
When you come to see me, I shall be working at the laboratory. – Когда Вы придете
ко мне, я буду работать в лаборатории.
Глагол в форме The Future Continuous Tense переводится на русский язык
глаголом в будущем времени несовершенного вида.
Утвердительная форма The Future Continuous Tense образуется при
помощи вспомогательных глаголов shall (для 1-го лица) и will (для 2-го и 3-го
лица), а также вспомогательного глагола be и смыслового глагола в Participle I:
shall/will be + -ing.
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Н а п р и м е р : I shall be passing my examination at 3 o'clock tomorrow.
Вопросительная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательных
глаголов shall или will, которые ставятся перед подлежащим, а
вспомогательный глагол be и смысловой глагол в Participle I ставятся после
подлежащего.
Н а п р и м е р : Who will be passing his examination at 3 o'clock tomorrow?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы
not, которая употребляется после вспомогательных глаголов shall или will.
Н а п р и м е р : Не will not be passing his examination at 2 о'clock tomorrow.
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя Future Simple:
1. I (come) round tomorrow night.
2. John is not here. He (to be) back soon though.
3. Do sit down, Edmund. You (break) something if you go on moving around.
4. It (to be) easier when you get away. We (not to see) one another every day.
5. Oh, don‟t bother about me. I (stroll down) and (look) at the town.
III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Simple. Задайте общий
вопрос. Ответьте «Да», «Нет».
1. I and my friends (to go skiing) next Sunday.
2. Her mother (not to cook) in the evening.
3. They (to come) home at ten pm tomorrow.
4. His sister (to draw) a picture next week.
5. I (to send) e-mail to my friend tomorrow.
IV. Complete the following sentences in Future Continuous:
1. Tomorrow at 9.30 Jane ______________ (watch) her favourite film.
2. Can we meet tomorrow morning? – No, I ______________ (work).
3. Tomorrow from 7 till 7.30 Mike and Julia __________ (have) breakfast.
4. This time next week I ________________ (swim) in the sea.
5. Don‟t phone me tomorrow between 6 and 7. I ________________ (have)
dinner with my boss.
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6. At 11 o‟clock tomorrow I _______________ (wash) my car.
7. Tomorrow afternoon we are going to play tennis from 2 until 4. So at 3 o‟clock
we ______________ (play).
8. Andrew _______________ (write) a letter when she comes.
9. I ______________ (cook) dinner when you return.
10. Don‟t come to my house at five o‟clock. I ______________ (have) an Italian
lesson.
11. What _____________ (do) at this time tomorrow?
12. Tomorrow morning Derek ______________ (look) through fresh newspapers
and magazines.
13. Ann ______________ (not/wait) for you at the bus stop at six o‟clock
tomorrow.
14. Carlos ______________ (leave) the house tomorrow at 7.45.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
– Do you know when man first appeared, I wonder?
– Not exactly. But, probably, it happened a million or so years ago.
– And what did our earth contain at that time?
– It contained many of the species of plants and animals which exist today, most of
the climates which exist today and many of today's topographic features.
– I see. Then, according to you, the range of ecological situations has not changed to
a pronounced degree. Am I right?
– Quite so! Man, also, made no changes to the biosphere as a whole.
– I can't agree with you. Man's impact on the environment is seen from the first sight.
– There was man the hunter-gatherer, man the farmer, man the technologist and ...
– I see. To satisfy his desires and needs, man the technologist affected the
environment.
– If you are so interested in this question, you can take a book "Man's Impact on the
Environment".
– Thank you, I'll follow your advice.
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UNIT XII
Energy resources
TEXT 12: NATURAL RESOURCES
GRAMMAR: 1. Функции глагола to have в предложении.
2. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
3. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
NATURAL RESOURCES
Natural Resources And Recycling
The Earth is a closed system. For our examples, we need to think that nothing
comes in (except energy) and nothing goes out (except energy). Even the amount of
energy that moves in and out of the Earth is equal. If more came in than was released,
we would heat up. If the Earth gave off more energy
than it received, we would cool down. The smarties
in the crowd are saying "What about meteorites?"
Yes. There are small amounts of matter hitting the
Earth from space. On the other hand, we are sending
more satellites and spacecraft into orbit. A little is
being lost too.
The big point of this section is to look at the
idea that humans have a finite amount of material on
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this planet. We call these materials natural resources. Not only are humans using
these materials, but nature is using them too. The difference between humans and
nature is that nature doesn't waste. Materials are cycled through the ecosystems of the
Earth and reused whenever possible. There have been points in time where nature
runs out of things and it adjusts, changing ecosystems or the types of organisms that
survive. Think about water for a second. Many places used to have large freshwater
lakes with thriving communities. Over thousands of years, those lakes dried up and
some even became deserts. Nature didn't just give up, with the change in
environment, new organisms began to thrive and the ecosystem changed.
Humans may be doing that as we speak. We use natural resources, but don't
return them to the system. They may wind up in landfills or at the bottom of the
ocean. If we have a finite amount of resources, there is always the possibility that we
will run out. Nature will continue. The organisms that survive will change. But we
might not be one of them. Don't worry about it this afternoon. We have plenty of stuff
for a long time.
In The Forests
Forests are an easy starting point. These are dense ecosystems with a large
amount of plant life. Types include tropical and temperate forests. Some have a lot of
rain and others have seasonal moisture. Humans like the land and the trees. Realtors
say location-location-location when they talk about homes. They know that there is
only a specific amount of space in an area that people can live. Unfortunately for
forests, they are sometimes sacrificed for our needs.
We like the timber. We build houses and all sorts of stuff from wood. The big
worry of many people is not timber, it's the fact that many forests are being cut down
to increase the amount of farmland. What happens when you lose forests? Well,
there's less timber. There's also a complete change in the ecosystem. Forests absorb
heat and cool areas. They also release oxygen into the atmosphere and help purify the
air. When you clear-cut a forest the temperatures can increase, wind patterns can
change, and (many would argue) it's less beautiful. But there's always a trade-off. We
need more food. More farmland=more food. As with all of our discussions of natural
resources, management of the resources is the key to success.
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In The Mountains
Are they just big hunks of rock? No way.
Mining operations see mountains as the source of
their ore. They might be looking for iron, silver,
gold, diamonds, whatever. All mining requires a
hole in the mountain, blowing up part of the
mountain, or maybe making a deep hole in the
ground. We use the mountain loosely. Think of it as
the surface of the Earth. As with forests, there are only so many areas with easy
mining opportunities. If humans use up all of those locations, the cost of getting those
resources will go up. There's also the problem of destroying the surrounding area.
Not only do some mining operations leave big holes in the Earth, but also the process
of mining often collects toxic materials in the rocks. Those pollutants are left over
and poison the surrounding area. There are ways to use these resources, but
intelligent management is the key.
In The Water
Oceans, water, puddles. All areas with water are natural resources. The most
direct connection to you is drinking water. Aquifers exist under the surface and wells
pull that freshwater out for you. If humans take out more water than goes in, they will
run out of water. An even worse situation would happen if the water were
accidentally poisoned (maybe mining or farming). If you look at all of the water on
Earth, there isn't a lot of freshwater. That's what makes it so important. Saltwater
provides other things we need including food. Fishing is a huge industry that needs to
be managed so we don't over fish the oceans. If we do, there won't be enough fish left
for the world. We'll say management again, but you need to understand there aren't
easy answers.
Real Competition
You might think of competition as a baseball game or maybe two wolves
fighting over a piece of meat. The real competition of your future will come from
people competing for natural resources. There will always be at least three groups
involved. You will hear about business and companies that want to take as many
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natural resources as they can in order to have a more successful business. Many of
them will not be thinking long term, especially in developing nations. You will also
hear about environmental extremists who want to keep the Earth exactly as it is. They
might want to lock out all industry from using any more natural resources. They often
think that because they are willing to sacrifice certain pleasures in life, everyone
should. And then there will be those in the middle. People who think long-term and
want to preserve the environment but know that business will need some of the
resources. The environmental managers will plan for plans such as reforestation and
fisheries to replenish the oceans.
There will be no easy answers. Just know that when it comes to natural
resources you need to think long-term. The Earth and nature will adjust. It's the
people that might not be happy with the results.
Notes:
smarty – умник
wind pattern – роза ветров, ветровой режим
aquifer – водоносный пласт, водоносны горизонт (почвы)
well – скважина
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
natural resources, recycling, to release, satellite, to waste, to thrive, landfill,
temperate forest, sacrifice, timber, to absorb heat, to purify the air, mining operation,
fishery.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
равный, космический корабль, человек, флора, тропический лес, надобность
(нужда), рубить (деревья), выделять кислород, руда, загрязняющий агент,
сохранять окружающую среду, менеджер в области окружающей среды,
возобновление лесонасаждений, пополнять.
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III. Match up the words and word combinations:
environmental manager
переработка отходов
to release oxygen
поглощать тепло
pollutant
рыболовство
recycling
лес умеренной зоны
fishery
выделять кислород
temperate forest
загрязняющий агент
to absorb heat
менеджер в области окружающей
среды
Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) Who uses natural resources?
2) What is the difference when humans and nature use these resources?
3) What happens when we lose forests?
4) What do mining operators look for?
5) What are the problems with mining?
6) Is there a lot of fresh water on Earth?
7) Who will plan for plans such as reforestation and fisheries to replenish the oceans?
II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) If the Earth gave off more energy than it received, we would ... .
2) We are sending more satellites and spacecraft into … .
3) The difference between humans and nature is that nature doesn't … .
4) Forests release oxygen into the atmosphere and help purify the … .
5) All areas with water are natural … .
III. Translate from Russian into English:
1) Земля – это замкнутая система.
2) Мы используем природные ресурсы, но не возвращаем их в систему.
3) Лес – экосистема с большим содержанием флоры.
4) Леса поглощают тепло и выделяют кислород.
5) Мы небрежно используем горы.
6) Если люди будут больше забирать воды, чем ее поступает, то вода иссякнет.
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GRAMMAR FOCUS
Таблица 1
Функции глагола to have в предложении
Смысловой глагол
Модальный глагол
Вспомогательный глагол
В сочетании с существи- В
сочетании
с В сочетании с
тельным:
инфинитивом:
Participle II для обраWe had a meeting Metals have to stand up to зования времен Perfect:
yesterday. – Вчера у нас heavy loads – Металлы They have translated
было собрание.
должны
выдерживать this article from "Smith
большие нагрузки.
and Со". – Они перевели
статью от "Смит и К°".
Настоящее совершенное время (The Present Perfect Tense)
Это время употребляется для выражения действия, завершившегося к
моменту речи и связанного с настоящим временем. На русский язык глаголы в
Present Perfect в большинстве случаев переводятся прошедшим временем.
Present Perfect в основном употребляется в устной речи.
Утвердительная форма Present Perfect образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола to have в Present Indefinite и Participle II (причастия
прошедшего времени) смыслового глагола: to have + Participle II.
Н а п р и м е р : I have just read the offer from Sam and Co.
1) Participle II стандартных глаголов образуется путем прибавления окончания
-ed, -d к инфинитиву глагола без частицы to.
Если инфинитив глагола оканчивается на букву -е, то прибавляется
только -d: to translate – translated.
Буква y после согласного звука меняется на i, а после гласных у
сохраняется: to study – studied, но to stay – stayed.
После краткого гласного звука конечная согласная удваивается: to stop –
stopped.
2) Participle II нестандартных глаголов образуется не по правилам. Каждый
нестандартный глагол имеет свою форму:
to begin – begun, to drink – drunk.
3) Вспомогательный глагол to have меняется на has при употреблении с 3-м
лицом единственным числом: Не has just read the telegram from this company.
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4) Present Perfect часто употребляется:
а) с наречиями неопределенного времени – already, yet, lately, just, ever, never;
б) со словами, выражающими незаконченный период – today, this week, this
month, this year.
Вопросительная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола
have (has), который ставится перед подлежащим, и Participle II смыслового
глагола, который ставится после подлежащего.
Н а п р и м е р : Has he known her for many years? – Он знает ее много лет?
Have you ever been to London? – Были ли Вы когда-нибудь в Лондоне?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы
not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола have (has).
Н а п р и м е р : I have not seen you since spring.
Время Present Perfect Continuous
образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have (has для третьего лица
единственного лица – he, she, it) + глагол be в 3-ей форме + причастие
настоящего времени, образованное от смыслового глагола (т.е. инфинитив
глагола + окончание -ing). Все это выглядит следующим образом:
I have been waiting for you for two hours. – Я жду тебя два часа.
Чтобы образовать вопросительную форму, ставим вспомогательный
глагол (have или has) в начало предложения:
Have you been waiting for me for two hours? – Ты ждешь меня два часа?
А в отрицательной форме помещаем частичку not после
вспомогательного глагола (have или has):
I have not been waiting for you for two hours. – Я не жду тебя два часа.
В качестве сокращений используются следующие формы:
I‟ve been waiting…
He‟s been waiting…
We haven‟t been waiting…
She hasn‟t been waiting…
Haven‟t you been waiting?..
Hasn‟t he been waiting?..
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Употребление времени Present Perfect Continuous
При помощи этого времени передается длительное действие. Present
Perfect Continuous используется для передачи действия, которое началось в
прошлом, длилось некоторое время и продолжает совершаться в настоящем.
Вот несколько классических примеров:
She has been cooking dinner for three hours already. – Она готовит ужин уже три
часа (все это время она готовила и пока что не закончила, продолжает
готовить).
I have been reading this book since the beginning of summer. – Я читаю эту книгу с
начала лета (прочел какую-то часть, но еще не закончил, продолжаю читать).
We have been staying in this hotel nearly a month. – Мы живем в этой гостинице
почти месяц (прожили часть месяца и продолжаем жить).
Когда Present Perfect Continuous употребляется в этой функции, глагол
относится к настоящему времени и имеет соответствующий перевод: готовит,
читаю, живем.
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mention grammatical phenomena.
II. Раскройте скобки, употребив Present Perfect:
1. John (write) his name. 2. I (draw) a picture. 3. Tom (blow out ) the light. 4. The cat
(drink) its milk. 5. The tree (fall) across the road. 6. John (give) his bicycle to his
brother. 7. You (make) a mistake. 8. We (eat) our dinner. 9. The train just (go). 10. I
just (tell) the answer. 11. George never (be) in Australia. 12. John and Richard just
(go away). 13. The baker (sell) all his cakes. 14. I (read) this book.
III. Переведите предложения. Задайте общий вопрос. Ответьте "Да. Нет"
1. Jack has washed the dog. 2. Father has already cleaned his car. 3. Mr. Snowdon
has made a speech at the conference. 4. Granny has bought me some cakes. 5. They
have painted their old house. 6. Liz has bought some flowers. 7. My sister has just
cooked breakfast for the family. 8. The cat has already eaten fish. 9. Mrs. Gracy have
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gone to London. 10. I have never been to India. 11. She has just broken a vase.
12. We have cleaned the room. 13. Chris has phoned his friend. 14. The train has just
arrived. 15. It has just started to rain. 16. Kelly has gone to America. 17. We have left
our books to school. 18. The tree has changed a lot. 19. You have worked here for a
long time. 20. Mandy has been to Greece.
IV. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в правильную форму: Present Continuous
или Present Perfect Continuous:
1. Maria _______________ (learn) English for two years.
2. Hello, Tom. I _______________ (look) for you all morning. Where have you
been?
3. Why ___________________ (you/look) at me like that? Stop it!
4. We always go to Ireland for our holidays. We_________ (go) there for years.
5. I _____________ (think) about what you said and I've decided to take your advice.
6. "Is Ann on holiday this week?" "No, she _____________ (work).
7. Sarah is very tired. She _______________ (work) very hard recently.
V. Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous or Present Continuous.
Выберите правильный вариант:
1. Have you read/Have you been reading that newspaper yet? Can I have it?
2. How long have you been cleaning/have you cleaned that car? Haven't you finished/
Have you been finishing it yet?
3. How long have you known/have you been knowing Rosa?
4. He is living/has been living in Manchester since 1990.
5. She has liked/has been liking you since she saw you at that party.
6. I'm sorry I'm late. How long have you been waiting/are you waiting?
7. I've played/I've been playing tennis twice this week.
8. It's been raining/is raining here all morning. It started at eight.
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LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogues. Work in pairs.
ASKING FOR DIRECTIONS
№1
– Pardon me, sir. Could you tell me how to get to the bus terminal (post office,
library, etc.)?
– Turn left (right) at the corner.
– Thank you.
– You are welcome.
№2
– Good afternoon. I'd like to ask you how to get to Brooklyn College?
– Where are you starting from?
– At Jackson Heights.
– Roosevelt Avenue?
– That's correct.
– Take train number 7, get off at Times Square and transfer there to train number 2.
Get off at the last stop.
– Is Brooklyn College within walking distance from there?
– Yes, it is.
– Thank you.
– You are welcome.
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UNIT XIII
Different examples of energy resources
TEXT 13: ENERGY RESOURCES
GRAMMAR: 1. THE PAST PERFECT TENSE
2. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
ENERGY RESOURCES
We Need The Power
It's just that simple. We need power. All of the time. We use one form of power
to generate electricity. We use another form of power to run our cars. We even need
power cook on the stove. Power needs are all around us but there are only a few types
of power available to our society. You'll hear labels such as clean energy, nonrenewable sources of energy, and renewable sources. While the news may focus on
one or two types, developed nations use them all.
Non-Renewable Sources
The name non-renewable should give you a hint about this energy resource.
Once we use it all up, it's gone. Hydrocarbons are the big form of non-renewable
energy in our society. It's all found underground and it is all being used up. The
hydrocarbons have been created from a variety of extinct plant material from millions
101
of years ago. It has been underground and changed by the pressures and temperatures
down below. There are three forms of these hydrocarbons, neatly organized into
states of matter. You get solid forms that include coal. The liquid form is oil. And
yes, there is a gas form that bubbles to the surface in the form of natural gas. All of
these resources are used in different ways, but they are all able to generate large
amounts of energy to run society's machines.
Renewable Sources
We think renewable is not the best way to describe these energy resources.
They never really run out. It's not like we use them and then fill up the tank again.
Wind power and solar power are easy to capture, just not that reliable. The sun is
always shining, unless it's night time or a cloudy day. Wind is great, when it's windy.
When you're trying to power a major city, you need energy flow that is reliable and
consistent. So we'll probably never be completely dependent on these two types.
Even The Cleanest Have Some Problems
Let's look at some 'clean' sources of energy. Hydroelectric power is excellent.
It generates large amounts of electricity and doesn't give off any pollution. The water
will always be there and won't run out like oil. Ummm. The problem is that you have
to dam up a river and create a reservoir. When you dam up a river there is no end of
trouble created for the local ecosystem and every ecosystem that is downstream. The
Colorado River is a great example of a dammed river with problems.
Many people also think of nuclear power as clean energy. It goes back and
forth, but at its soul, fission is clean, until you need to throw away the radioactive
material. We really haven't figured out a way to take care of that problem so we just
bury it in protected stockpiles deep underground. The real future is in nuclear fusion
power that is a clean source of energy with no radioactive trash.
Notes:
to give a hint – намекнуть
soul – (зд.) энергия
fission – ядерное деление (атома)
reservoir – водохранилище
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Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
energy resources, power, to generate electricity, non-renewable sources, extinct, to
run out, solar power, to capture, to dam up a river, nuclear power, fission, to throw
away the radioactive material, nuclear fusion power.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
доступный, экологически чистый вид энергии, углеводороды, растительный
материал (сырье), уголь, нефть, возобновимые ресурсы, энергия ветра,
обеспечить энергией, гидроэлектроэнергия, загрязнение, радиоактивный мусор.
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
non-renewable sources
загрязнение
renewable sources
невозобновимые ресурсы
radioactive trash
вымерший
pollution
возобновимые ресурсы
extinct
радиоактивный мусор
hydroelectric power
энергия (электроэнергия)
power
гидроэлектроэнергия
Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) We need power all of the time, don‟t we?
2) What types of power available to our society do you know?
3) What non-renewable sources do you know? Give examples of renewable ones.
4) What source of energy does generate large amounts of electricity and doesn't give
off any pollution?
5) How do we take care of the problem with radioactive material?
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II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) There are non-renewable sources of energy and ... .
2) Hydrocarbons are the big form of non-renewable … .
3) You get solid forms that include … . The liquid form is … .
4) Renewable sources never really … .
5) Wind power and solar power are easy to capture … .
6) … generates large amounts of electricity and doesn't give off any pollution.
7) Many people also think of nuclear power as … .
8) The real future is in nuclear fusion power that is a clean source of energy with
no … .
III. True or false. If the statement false, correct it:
1) Hydrocarbons are the big form of renewable energy in our society.
2) There are five forms of these hydrocarbons .
3) Renewable resources never really run out.
4) Wind power and solar power are not easy to capture.
5) Hydroelectric power doesn't give off any pollution.
6) The real future is in nuclear fusion power that is a clean source of energy with no
radioactive trash.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Прошедшее совершенное время (The Past Perfect Tense)
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Past Perfect употребляется для обозначения действия, совершившегося до
определенного момента в прошлом. Этот момент может быть выражен точным
указанием времени с предлогом by или другим прошедшим действием:
Richard and his wife were late for the performance. When they got to the theatre, the
play had already started. – Ричард и его жена опоздали на спектакль. Когда они
добрались до театра, спектакль уже начался.
Утвердительная форма Past Perfect образуется с помощью глагола to have
в форме Past Indefinite и Participle II смыслового глагола: had + Participle II:
− When did you finish your work yesterday?
− I had finished it by 5 o'clock.
Вопросительная форма образуется при помощи глагола to have в Past
Indefinite, который ставится перед подлежащим, и Participle II смыслового
глагола, который ставится после подлежащего:
What business matters had you discussed before you signed the contract?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы
not, которая ставится после глагола to have в Past Indefinite.
Н а п р и м е р : I couldn‟t watch the nine о'clock news on television because I
hadn‟t finished my article by that time.
Образование Past Perfect Continuous:
Правила употребления Past Perfect Continuous:
1) Мы часто используем PPC, объясняя наши действия в прошлом, почему мы
совершили то или иное действие. Например:
105
I decided to buy a flat, because I had been living with my parents for a very long
time. – Я решил купить квартиру, потому что очень долго жил с родителями до
этого.
She decided to go on vacation, because she had been working a lot. – Она решила
уйти в отпуск, потому что перед этим очень много и тяжело работала.
2) Помните, что в Past Perfect Continuous так же не используются stative/nonprogressive verbs. Эти глаголы никогда не используются ни с одним из времен
группы Continuous.
3) Это время используется для того, чтобы подчеркнуть, что мы чем-то
занимались, или что-то происходило продолжительное время, перед каким-то
событием в прошлом. Но между двумя этими действиями или событиями был
интервал. Иначе, мы рискуем спутать Past Perfect Continuous с Past Continuous.
Например:
She was reading a book when the door bell rang. – Она читала книгу, когда
зазвонил дверной звонок. – Между действием и событием не было интервала,
они тесно связаны. Это Past Continuous.
She had been living in Prague since 2005 to 2007, and in 2008 she moved to Kiev. –
Она жила в Праге с 2005 по 2007 год, а в 2008 переехала в Киев. Это Past Perfect
Continuous.
4) Самая главная функция прошедшего перфектного длительного времени –
пояснительная. С помощью этого времени мы объясняем причины
случившегося. Например:
When I looked out of the window the sun was shining, but the ground was wet
because it had been raining. – Когда я выглянул в окно, светило солнце, но земля
была влажной, потому, что до этого шел дождь.
5) Отрицательная и вопросительная формы образуются так же, как и в Past
Perfect.
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
106
II. Дополните предложения, используя слова в скобках. Ситуация: Вы
вернулись в свой родной город через много лет и обнаружили, что многое
изменилось.
Пример: Most of my friends were no longer there. They had left (leave).
(Пояснения: no longer – "больше не". Most of my friends were no longer there
– Моих друзей больше не было там)
1. My best friend, Kevin, was no longer there. He _____ (go) away.
2. The local cinema was no longer open. It ________ (close) down.
3. Mr. Johnson was no longer alive. He _______ (die).
4. Bill no longer had his car. He ________ (sell) it.
III. Закончите предложения, используя слова “never, before”, как в
примерах, и глаголы в скобках в нужной форме (Обратите внимание
на порядок слов – “never” между вспомогательным и смысловым
глаголами, “before” – в конце предложения):
Пример: Mr. And Mrs. Davis were in an airplane. They were very nervous,
when the plane took off, because they (fly) had never flown before.
1. Jane played tennis yesterday, but she wasn't very good at it, because she
(play) ________________.
2. It was Kate's first driving lesson. She was very nervous and didn't know
what to do. She (drive) ___________.
IV. Составьте предложения, используя слова в скобках:
Пример: I wasn't hungry. (I/just/have/lunch) I had just had lunch.
1. Tom wasn't at home when I arrived. (he/just/go/out).____________
2. We arrived at the cinema late. (the film/already/begin).___________
V. Поставьте глагол в нужной форме (Past Perfect или Past Simple) в
зависимости от смысла:
1. The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody _____________ (go)
to bed.
2. I felt very tired when I got home, so I ______ (go) straight to bed.
3. Sorry I am late. The car ______ (break) down on my way here.
4. There was a car by the side of the road. It ________ (break) down and the
driver was trying to repair it. So we _______ (stop) to help him.
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VI. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в нужную форму – Past Continuous или Past
Perfect Continuous:
Примеры:
1) Tom was sitting on the chair, out of breath. He had been running (run).
2) I tried to catch Tom but I couldn't. He was running (run) very fast.
1. Jim was on his hands and knees on the floor. He ________ (look) for his cigarette
lighter.
2. We ________ (walk) along the road for about 20 minutes when a car stopped and
the driver offered us a lift.
3. When I arrived, everyone was sitting round the table with their mouths full. They
____________ (eat).
4. When I arrived, everyone was sitting round the table and talking. Their mouths
were empty but their stomachs were full. They ____________ (eat).
5. When I arrived, Ann ________(wait) for me. She was rather annoyed with me
because I was late and she (wait) for me a very long time.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
RIDING THE BUS
A: Pardon me, do the buses stop here?
B: Yes, most downtown buses stop at this corner.
A: I want to go to Washington Avenue. Can I take any bus
that stops here?
B: You can take any bus except number 12. The number 12
turns off at Richmond Street.
A: How often do the buses run?
B: They are supposed to run according to the schedule that
you can see over there. In fact, the buses don't always run on
schedule.
A: What are the usual intervals between the bus arrivals?
B: About every fifteen minutes. You won't have to wait any
longer. A bus is coming. It's number 5. You can take it.
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UNIT XIV
TEXT 14: RECYCLING
GRAMMAR: 1. FUTURE PERFECT
2. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
RECYCLING
Ever write down some notes on a piece of paper and throw it away? Have you
ever thrown that paper in the recycling bin? That's about all people know about
recycling. It's a question of where they put there garbage. But why are you asked to
recycle things?
A Finite Amount of Materials
Recycling has to do with natural resources of the Earth. The world is a closed
environment. We have "X" amount of kilograms and, with a few exceptions of
sending satellites into orbit or having meteorites hit our surface, this is all we have. If
you only had ten toys, you probably wouldn't be very happy if you played with them
one time and then you could never play with them again. Recycling works the same
way. We're taking our toys, playing with them once, and then we use parts of a few
toys to make a new one.
109
Recycling isn't a new idea. Nature recycles all of the time. We have a whole
section on different biogeochemical cycles that happen across the Earth. Nature
doesn't use a carbon atom and then throw it away. Carbon atoms (and all atoms) are
used and recycled. They are used by different organisms right away and sometimes
left in the Earth to be used again in millions of years. Nature knows there's only so
much stuff on Earth and if it doesn't find ways to recycle, there will be no life.
Reduce – Reuse – Recycle
That's the big slogan that everyone is taught. Let's break it down. The term
reduce refers to the fact that the western world uses too much stuff. It's not about
eating too much or having widescreen TVs. When you think reduce, think about
smaller packaging. Think about better gas mileage so that you use less gasoline.
Think about turning down the thermostat in the winter. Reuse is all about using things
more than one time. A good example is a water bottle. The reuse idea would
encourage you to go back to the market and fill up the bottle, not throw it away. And
then there's recycling. This is the last step. You started by buying the package with
the smallest amount of material. You reused that package to hold some out your
pencils. Now that it's all over, you need to put that package in the recycling bin so
that the paper can be used again in another type of material.
Efficiency Is The Key
When you apply the Reduce-Reuse-Recycle ideas, it is fantastic and every little
bit helps. But it doesn't start with you. It really starts with businesses that create the
materials and packaging we use. When you recycle a two-liter bottle, it's great. But
when a package designer redesigns a two-liter bottle that is half an ounce lighter,
that's huge savings. Only a half ounce? That's not such a big deal. Think again young
one. For one bottle it's not a big deal, but when you think that they make millions of
two-liter bottles each month, that adds up to millions of ounces of plastic that never
become materials that need to be recycled. You can do your part by purchasing
products that encourage smaller packaging and design and manufacturing that is more
efficient. Efficiency is better for the environment and for the companies' profits.
110
Notes:
gas mileage – расход бензина, характеризуемый числом миль пробега
автомобиля, приходящихся на один галлон израсходованного
топлива
gasoline (Am) – бензин; (Br.) – petrol
ounce – унция; капелька, чуточку
Words and Word Combinations
I. Pronounce words and word combinations correctly, translate them
from English into Russian and remember:
recycling bin, garbage, to reduce, to reuse, efficiency, manufacturing, profits.
II. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations
in the text:
повторно использовать (перерабатывать), упаковка, экономия (бережливость),
пластик (пластмасса), покупать, рациональный (эффективный).
III. Match up the words and word combinations:
to recycle
покупать
recycle bin
упаковка
garbage
бережливость
to purchase
эффективный
packaging
перерабатывать
saving
мусорная корзина
efficient
мусор
Exercises on the Text
I. Answer the following questions:
1) Nature recycles all of the time, doesn‟t it?
2) What is the big slogan that everyone is taught?
3) How do you understand the words “Reduce - Reuse – Recycle”?
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II. Finish up the following sentences:
1) The world is a closed... .
2) … recycles all of the time.
3) … that's the big slogan that everyone is taught.
4) When a package designer redesigns a two-liter bottle that is half an ounce lighter,
that's huge … .
5) … is better for the environment and for the companies' profits.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Будущее совершенное время (The Future Perfect Tense)
Употребляется для того, чтобы выразить действие, которое будет
совершено к определенному моменту в будущем. Этот момент может быть
выражен следующими способами.
1. Обозначениями времени с предлогом by (by 6 о'clock – к 6 часам; by that time
– к тому времени и т.д.):
We shall have finished this article by 6 о'clock tomorrow. – Завтра к 6 часам мы
закончим эту статью.
2. Другим будущим действием, выраженным придаточным предложением
условия и времени с глаголом в настоящем времени, который переводится на
русский язык глаголом в будущем времени:
You will have finished your work before the bell rings. – Вы закончите свою
работу, прежде чем прозвенит звонок.
Утвердительная форма Future Perfect образуется при помощи
вспомогательных глаголов shall/will и have, а также Participle II смыслового
глагола: shall/will have + Participle II.
112
Н а п р и м е р : I shall have written the letter by seven о'clock.
Вопросительная форма образуется при помощи вспомогательных
глаголов shall / will, которые ставятся перед подлежащим, а также
вспомогательного глагола have, который ставится после подлежащего и
Participle II смыслового глагола.
Н а п р и м е р : Will you have written this article by 6 о'clock?
Отрицательная форма образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы
not, которая ставится после вспомогательного глагола shall или will.
They will not have finished this work by 4 o'clock tomorrow.
Future Perfect Continuous
Во многом Future Perfect Continuous схоже с Future Perfect. Более того, во
многих ситуациях они вполне взаимозаменяемы без вреда для смысловой
ценности предложения. Тем не менее, рассмотрим грамматику FPC:
Утвердительное предложение:
(+) (I, you, we, they, she, he, it) + will + have + been + Ving
Отрицательное предложение:
(-) (I, you, we, they, she, he, it) + will + have + been + not + Ving
Вопросительное предложение:
(?) Will + (I, you, we, they, she, he, it) + have + been + Ving?
Ответы:
Yes, (I, you, we, they, she, he, it) + will
No, (I, you, we, they, she, he, it) + will not/ или won't
Правила Future Perfect Continuous
Мы используем это время для того, чтобы сказать как долго что-то будет
происходить в будущем, до какого-то определенного момента:
Next Christmas I will have been teaching for 10 years. – К следующему рождеству
я уже буду преподавать 10 лет («преподаю») и буду продолжать преподавать.
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Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
II. Раскройте скобки, переведите предложения:
1. We (to come) home by the evening tomorrow.
2. We (to finish) his project by the end of the next week?
3. She (to do) my homework by five o'clock tomorrow.
4. When I come home tomorrow, my family (to have) lunch.
5. When they (to come) to the party tomorrow, I (to cook) dinner. I (to finish) it
by 5 pm.
6. If the weather is fine, we (to go) to the picnic.
7. You (to complete) the project by the end of the week?
8. What you (to do) by the end of the year?
9. What you (to make) by five o'clock tomorrow?
10. You (to finish playing) tennis by 7 pm?
11. You (to do) this project by next Friday?
III. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Perfect:
1. By next winter he (to sold) all his things. 2. He (to leave) when you arrive. 3. By
next month he (to write) his fourth play. 4. We (to solve) this difficult problem
by the end of the week. 5. When the sun sets I (to read) this book. 6. If you come
at nine they (to have) dinner. 7. If you ring me up after nine o‟clock, I (to speak) to
the doctor. 8. Next year we (to be) together for ten years.
IV. Переведите на русский язык:
1. They will have been sitting here for 20 minutes when I come. 2. In ten minute‟s
time I shall have been hanging around here for exactly four hours 3. When they
finish I will have been waiting for them for 30 minutes. 4. Tomorrow it will be a
month as they have been working on this project. 5. He will have been working on
his book for a year soon. 6. He will have been repairing his car for two weeks
on Wednesday.
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V. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Future Perfect Continuous:
1. He (to study) in London for two years when I come here. 2. He (to teach) German
for two years when I begin to teach English. 3. By next July she (to live) here
for five years. 4. At six o‟clock I (to work) for five hours. 5. I (to work) at the
library for 8 hours when you come there.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
SHOPPING FOR CLOTHING
Saleswoman: May I help you?
Olga Rozova: Yes, I‟m looking for blouses.
S: What‟s your size?
O.R.: I wear size 12. Could you show me some blouses in solid color?
S: What colors do you want?
O.R.: Yellow and white.
S: They are over here.
O.R.: What‟s the material?
S: It‟s fifty percent cotton and fifty percent polyester.
O.R.: This white blouse looks nice. I‟d like to try it on.
S: The fitting room is to your left.
O.R.: I think this blouse is all right.
S: Very well, ma‟am.Will that be cash or credit card?
O.R.: I‟d like to give you a check.
S: We need at least one piece of identification.
O.R.: Here is my driver‟s license.
S: All right. We can accept your check.
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UNIT XV
TEXT 15: ACID RAIN
GRAMMAR: 1. Функции причастия I (Participle I).
2. Функции причастия II (Participle II).
ACID RAIN
What is acid rain?
Acid rain is rain that has been made acidic by certain
pollutants in the air. Acid rain is a type of acid deposition,
which can appear in many forms. Wet deposition is rain,
sleet, snow, or fog that has become more acidic than normal.
Dry deposition is another form of acid deposition, and this is
when gases and dust particles become acidic. Both wet and dry deposition can be
carried by the wind, sometimes for very long distances. Acid deposition in wet and
dry forms falls on buildings, cars, and trees and can make lakes acidic. Acid
deposition in dry form can be inhaled by people and can cause health problems in
some people.
What is acidity?
Acidic and basic are two ways that we describe chemical compounds. Acidity
is measured using a pH scale. A pH scale runs from zero (the most acidic) to 14 (the
most basic or alkaline). A substance that is neither basic or acidic is called "neutral",
and this has a pH of 7.
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What causes acid rain?
Sources of Acid Rain
Acid rain is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when
compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are
released into the air. These substances can rise very high into the atmosphere, where
they mix and react with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form more acidic
pollutants, known as acid rain. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides dissolve very
easily in water and can be carried very far by the wind. As a result, the two
compounds can travel long distances where they become part of the rain, sleet, snow,
and fog that we experience on certain days.
Human activities are the main cause of acid rain. Over the past few decades,
humans have released so many different chemicals into the air that they have changed
the mix of gases in the atmosphere. Power plants release the majority of sulfur
dioxide and much of the nitrogen oxides when they burn fossil fuels, such as coal, to
produce electricity. In addition, the exhaust from cars, trucks, and buses releases
nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide into the air. These pollutants cause acid rain.
Acid Rain is Caused by Reactions in the Environment
Nature depends on balance, and although some rain is
naturally acidic, with a pH level of around 5.0, human activities
have made it worse. Normal precipitation – such as rain, sleet, or
snow – reacts with alkaline chemicals, or non-acidic materials,
that can be found in air, soils, bedrock, lakes, and streams. These
reactions usually neutralize natural acids. However, if
precipitation becomes too acidic, these materials may not be able
to neutralize all of the acids. Over time, these neutralizing materials can be washed
away by acid rain. Damage to crops, trees, lakes, rivers, and animals can result.
Why is acid rain harmful?
Acid Rain Can Cause Health Problems in People
Air pollution like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause respiratory
diseases, or can make these diseases worse. Respiratory diseases like asthma or
chronic bronchitis make it hard for people to breathe. The pollution that causes acid
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rain can also create tiny particles. When these particles get into people‟s lungs, they
can cause health problems, or can make existing health problems worse. Also,
nitrogen oxides cause ground-level ozone. This ground-level ozone causes respiratory
problems, like pneumonia and bronchitis, and can even cause permanent lung
damage. The health effects that people have to worry about are not caused by the acid
rain, but are caused when people breathe in these tiny particles or ozone. Swimming
in an acidic lake or walking in an acidic puddle is no more harmful to people than
swimming or walking in clean water.
Acid Rain Harms Forests
Acid rain can be extremely harmful to forests. Acid rain that seeps into the
ground can dissolve nutrients, such as magnesium and calcium, that trees need to be
healthy. Acid rain also causes aluminum to be released into the soil, which makes it
difficult for trees to take up water. Trees that are located in mountainous regions at
higher elevations, such as spruce or fir trees, are at greater risk because they are
exposed to acidic clouds and fog, which contain greater amounts of acid than rain or
snow. The acidic clouds and fog strip important nutrients from their leaves and
needles. This loss of nutrients makes it easier for infections, insects, and cold weather
to damage trees and forests.
Acid Rain Damages Lakes and Streams
Without pollution or acid rain, most lakes and streams would have a pH level
near 6.5. Acid rain, however, has caused many lakes and streams in the northeast
United States and certain other places to have much lower pH levels. In addition,
aluminum that is released into the soil eventually ends up in lakes and streams.
Unfortunately, this increase in acidity and aluminum levels can be deadly to aquatic
wildlife, including phytoplankton, mayflies, rainbow trout, small mouth bass, frogs,
spotted salamanders, crayfish, and other creatures that are part of the food web.
DIRECTIONS
Read each clue below. Then find the number in the puzzle that corresponds to each
clue. To assist you, there is a list of possible answers to each clue below the puzzle.
Now it is time to see how many clues you can get correct!
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POSSIBLE ANSWERS:
ACID
ALLOWANCE
ECOSYSTEM
BASIC
GEOTHERMAL
CARPOOL
NUTRIENTS
COAL
SCRUBBER
CONSERVATION SUN
DEPOSITION
WATER
ACROSS
3. A solution is ______ when it has a pH higher than 7.0.
5. When power plants burn ______, they release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
into the air.
7. Wet ___________ refers to acidic rain, fog, and snow.
9. ______ deposition can be wet or dry.
11. _________ energy comes from the heat stored in the earth.
13. A ________ removes sulfur dioxide from the gases leaving the smokestack of a
power plant.
DOWN
1. The government gives an __________ to a power plant, letting it release a set
amount of sulfur dioxide.
2. One way that people can help prevent acid rain is by joining a ________, in which
individuals share rides to their destination and reduce the number of cars polluting the
air.
4. By turning off the lights when you leave a room, you are practicing energy
________.
6. An ________ consists of plants and animals and the environment in which they
live.
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8. Acid rain dissolves and washes away important ________ found in the soil that are
necessary for the healthy growth of plants.
10. Hydroelectricity is produced from the energy of running _______.
12. Solar energy is energy that comes from the ___.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Функции Причастия I и Причастия II (Participle I, Participle II).
Participle I образуется прибавлением суффикса -ing к основе глагола:
to stand – стоять
to carry – нести
standing – стоящий carrying – несущий
Таблица 1
Функции и место в предложении Причастия I
Функция
Место
Примеры
в предложении
в предложении
Определение
Часть
определительного
причастного
оборота
Обстоятельство
Перед определяемым Boiling water
словом
После определяемого The
girl
слова
reading
a
newspaper is
our student
В начале или в конце Looking
предложения
в through
the
обстоятельственном
book, she came
причастном обороте
across
the
description of
the process
Перевод
Кипящая вода
Девушка,
читающая
газету,
наша
студентка
Листая книгу,
она
натолкнулась
на описание
этого процесса
Participle II обычно выражает результат действия, которому подвергся
предмет, и переводится на русский язык причастием страдательного залога.
Participle II стандартных глаголов образуется прибавлением суффикса -ed
к основе глагола:
to complete – заканчивать;
completed – законченный.
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Participle II нестандартных глаголов имеют особую форму, которая образуется
по разному у различных глаголов:
to see – seen;
to build – built;
to make – made.
Таблица 1
Функции и место в предложении Причастия II
Место Participle II в предложении
Функция
Перевод
1. Перед определяемым словом:The Определение
Избранные рассказы
selected stories
2. После определяемого слова: The Определение
Офис, построенный
office built in our street has simple and
на нашей улице,
severe lines
имеет простые и
строгие линии
3. В начале или в конце предложения Обстоятельствo Когда построят этот
(в обстоятельственном причастном
офис,
он
будет
обороте), сопровождаемый часто
самым высоким на
союзами if, when, while.
нашей улице
When built this office will be the
highest in our street
4. The work was done
Именная часть Работа была сделана
сказуемого
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
II. Найдите причастие I и определите его функцию в предложении:
1. She sat very still, and the train rattled on in the dying twilight. 2. I sat quite silent,
watching his face, a strong and noble face. 3. He wished to say something
sympathetic, but, being an Englishman, could only turn away his eyes. 4. She was
always to him a laughing girl, with dancing eyes full of eager expectation. 5. It was a
bright Sunday morning of early summer, promising heat. 6. The door opened and he
entered, carrying his head as though it held some fatal secret. 7. I'm afraid it's the
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moon looking so much like a slice of melon. 8. Lying he spoke more quickly than
when he told the truth. 9. I hadn't slept the night before, and, having eaten a heavy
lunch, was agreeably drowsy. 10. When driving in London itself she had as
immediate knowledge of its streets as any taxi-driver. 11. "What a nice lunch," said
Clare, eating the sugar at the bottom of her coffee cup. 12. While eating and drinking
they talked loudly in order that all present might hear what they said. 13. For the first
time she stared about her, trying to see what there was. 14.1 received from her
another letter saying that she was passing .through Paris and would like to have a chat
with me. 15.1 sat on the doorstep holding my little sister in my arms thinking over
my chances of escaping from home. 16.I used to tell all my troubles to Mrs.
Winkshap, our neighbour living next door. 17. "It's a quarter past seven," he said
trying as hard as he could to keep relief from his voice. 18. As he wrote, bending over
his desk, his mouth worked.
III. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на причастие II:
1. He doesn‟t like boiled milk.
2. I remember well his words said at the meeting.
3. We don‟t like the book bought last week.
4. The stolen things were returned to the owner.
5. Asked about this event, he replied nothing.
6. The explanation given was not complete.
7. When burnt, coal produces heat.
8. The results received were of great importance for the further work.
9. When reconstructed the theatre looked more beautiful than before.
10. She showed us a list of the newly published books.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
BUSINESS CALLS
BORIS RUDAKOV: Good morning (good afternoon). May I speak to Mr. Wood?
SECRETARY: He is not in right now. Who is calling, please?
B.R.: This is Boris Rudakov. I have a letter from Mr. Wood asking me to call him for
an interview appointment. He has my resume.
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SECRETARY: I see. Mr. Wood is out to lunch right now (in a meeting right now)
but I expect him back very shortly.
B.R.: At what time would you suggest that I call back?
SECRETARY: He usually gets back to the office about two o'clock. May be it would
be better if I have him call you. What's your telephone number?
B.R.: (718) 459-3243.
SECRETARY: Thank you, Mr. Rudakov. As soon as he's back, he will return your
call.
B.R.: Thank you.
UNIT XVI
TEXT 16: GLOBAL WARMIN
GRAMMAR: PASSIVE VOICE (страдательный залог)
GLOBAL WARMING
As long ago as the 1960s Professor Bert Bolin predicted “global warming”,
caused by an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere,
would lead to significant changes in the Earth‟s climate. 1__________ But most
experts now agree that the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will double
from 0.03 % to 0.06 % in the next 50 years and that temperatures worldwide will rise
by 2° Celsius. Although a temperature rise of 2° may not seem significant, the local
effect may be much greater: by 2025 a rise of 10° is possible in polar regions and 4°
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in Northern Europe. Indeed the first effects will be felt by the end of the centuryperhaps they are already being felt... But how does the greenhouse effect operate and
why should such a tiny proportion of CO2 have such a harmful effect? When living
creatures breathe out and when things are burned, CO2 enters the atmosphere.
2 __________But the balance of nature has been disturbed. In power stations,
in factories and in cars, we are burning more and more fossil fuels (coal, oil and
natural gas). Eighteen billion tons of CO2 enter the atmosphere every year. And the
destruction of forests means that there are fewer trees to convert the CO2into oxygen.
3__________As sunlight enters the atmosphere, the surface of the earth is warmed.
Some of this heat escapes back into space, but the rest is trapped by CO 2, which acts
rather like the glass in a greenhouse, allowing sunshine and heat to pass in but not out
again. 4.__________As the temperature rises, the amount of water vapour in the air
will increase and this, too, will absorb more of the Earth‟s heat. The oceans, too, will
become warmer and store more heat, so that they increase the warming effect.
According to some scientists, the polar icecaps will start to melt and the oceans will
expand as more snow and ice melts. Because the exposed ground, formerly covered
in snow, won‟t reflect the heat so well it will absorb more sunlight and this will lead
to even more snow melting.
Scientists predict that the level of the sea will have risen by 1/2 to 112 metres
by 2050. This will affect many low-lying areas of the world – millions of people
today live less than one metre above sea level. 5 __________ For Northern
Europeans, the extra warmth may be welcome – but there is also likely to be
increased rainfall.
But many areas may suffer: the southern states of the USA can expect hotter
summers and less rainfall, leading to worse conditions for agriculture, and the
Mediterranean region may well be much drier and hotter than now.
Many experts believe that the Greenhouse Effect will bring significant changes
to the Earth‟s climate, though they don‟t all agree how long this will take, or what
form it will take. 6 __________.
Задание: в тексте пропущено 6 предложений. Выберите наиболее
подходящий вариант из списка A-G. Одно предложение лишнее:
A) Until recently all of this was adsorbed by trees and plants which converted it back
into oxygen.
B) So the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing all the time.
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C) Some areas may actually benefit: the higher temperatures may allow a longer
growing season for example.
D) At the time his predictions were regarded as science fiction.
E) But it certainly looks as if the inhabitants of this planet will have to get used to
living in the warmer world.
F) Consequently, the temperature rises.
G) Surprisingly, the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has continued to fall.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice)
Залог – это форма глагола, которая показывает, является ли подлежащее
производителем действия, выраженного сказуемым, или само подлежащее
подвергается воздействию. В английском языке имеется два залога: the Active
Voice (действительный залог) и the Passive Voice (страдательный залог).
Страдательный залог показывает, что действие направлено на предмет или
лицо, выраженное подлежащим.
Таблица 1
Сводная таблица спряжения глаголов в страдательном залоге
(Passive Voice)
Вид
Время
Indefinite
Continuous
Perfect
Perfect
Неопределенное Длительное
Совершенное
Continuous
to be (am, is, are, was, were, ...) + III-я форма
(-ed форма)
I + am III
I + am being III I, we, you, they +
he, she, it + is III he, she, it + is have been III
Present
we, you, they
being III
he, she, it + has been ----Настоящее
+ are III
we, you, they + are III
being III
Пример:
I am asked
I am being asked
I have been asked
I, he, she, it
I, he, she, it
Past
+ was III
+ was being III
I, he, she, it, we, you,
----Прошедшее we, you, they + we, you, they + they + had been III
were III
were being III
Пример:
I was asked
I was being asked I had been asked
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Окончание табл. 1
Вид
Время
Future
Будущее
Пример:
Indefinite
Continuous
Неопределенное Длительное
I, we
+ shall be III
he, she, it, you, ----they
+ will be III
Perfect
Perfect
Совершенное
Continuous
I, we
+ shall have been III
he, she, it, you, they ----+ will have been III
I shall be asked
I shall have been asked
Future
in I, we
the Past
+ should be III
----Будущее в he, she, you, they
прошедшем + would be III
I, we
+ should have been III
----he, she, it, you, they
+ would have been III
Пример:
I should
been asked
I should be asked
have
Страдательный залог (Passive Voice) образуется при помощи
вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и
причастия прошедшего времени смысл. глагола – Participle II (III-я форма или
ed-форма).
Определение залога глагола в тексте:
Если смысловому глаголу в третьей форме -III форма (-ed) предшествует одна
из личных форм вспомогательного глагола to be (am, is, are; was, were; shall/will
be и т.д.), то глагол-сказуемое употреблен в страдательном залоге.
Вопросительная форма образуется путѐм переноса первого
вспомогательного глагола на место перед подлежащим, например:
Is the suit pressed?
Отглажен ли костюм?
Has the house been built?
Дом построен?
Will they be requested to go there? Их попросят пойти туда?
When will the telegram be sent?
Когда будет отправлена телеграмма?
How is this word spelt?
Как пишется/произносится это слово?
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Отрицательная форма образуется путем постановки отрицательной
частицы not после первого вспомогательного глагола, например:
He was not (wasn‟t) sent there.
Его туда не посылали.
We were not told that he was ill.
Нам не говорили, что он был болен.
The books have not been sold yet. (Эти) книги еще не распроданы.
В страдательном залоге не употребляются:
1) Непереходные глаголы, т.к. при них нет объекта, который испытывал бы
воздействие, то есть нет прямых дополнений, которые могли бы стать
подлежащими при глаголе в форме Passive.
Переходными в англ. языке называются глаголы, после которых в
действительном залоге следует прямое дополнение; в русском языке это
дополнение, отвечающее на вопросы винительного падежа – кого? что?:
to build строить, to see видеть, to take брать, to open открывать и т.п.
Непереходными глаголами называются такие глаголы, которые не требуют
после себя прямого дополнения: to live жить, to come приходить, to fly
летать, to cry плакать и др.
2) Глаголы-связки: be – быть, become – становиться/стать.
3) Модальные глаголы.
4) Некоторые переходные глаголы не могут использоваться в страдательном
залоге. В большинстве случаев это глаголы состояния, такие как:
to fit годиться, быть впору
to like нравиться
to resemble напоминать, быть похожим
to have иметь
to lack не хватать, недоставать to suit годиться, подходить и др.
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
II. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple
Passive.
1. My question (to answer) yesterday.
2. Hockey (to play) in winter.
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3. Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn.
4. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of London.
5. His new book (to finish) next year.
6. Flowers (to sell) in shops and in the streets.
7. St. Petersburg (to found) in 1703.
8. Bread (to eat) every day.
9. The letter (to receive) yesterday.
10. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week.
11. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday.
12. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday.
13. Many houses (to build) in our town every year.
14. This work (to do) tomorrow.
15. This text (to translate) at the last lesson.
16. These trees (to plant) last autumn.
17. Many interesting games always (to play) at our PT lessons.
18. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow.
19. We (to invite) to a concert last Saturday.
20. Lost time never (to find) again.
21. Rome (not to build) in a day.
III. Передайте следующие предложения в Active Voice:
1. The room was cleaned and aired. 3. Whom were these letters written by? 5. She
showed me the picture which had been painted by her husband. 6. I shall not be
allowed to go there. 10. Betty was met at the station. 11. The girl was not allowed to
go to the concert. 13. The chicken was eaten with appetite. 14. It was so dark, that the
houses could not be seen. 16. The boy was punished for misbehaving. 17. By three
o'clock everything had been prepared. 18. The dictation was written without
mistakes. 19. Whom was the poem written by? 20. Her dress was washed and ironed.
21. I was not blamed for the mistakes. 23. This house was built last year. 25. This
article will be translated at the lesson on Tuesday. 26. When will this book be
returned to the library?
IV. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Passive Voice:
1. The rule explained by the teacher at the last lesson (to undertand) by all of us.
2. The poem was so beautiful that it (to learn) by everybody.
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3. I hope the invitation (to accept) by everybody.
4. The letter (to post) in half an hour.
5. It seems to me that music (to hear) from the next room.
6. At the last competition the first prize (to win) by our team.
7. The question (to settle) as soon as they arrived.
8. Your report must (to divide) into two chapters.
9. Soon he (to send) to a sanatorium.
10. The book (to discuss) at the next conference.
11. The composition must (to hand) in on Wednesday.
12. Yesterday he (to tell) to prepare a speech.
13. The article (to publish) last week, if I am not mistaken.
14. The lectures (to attend) by all of us.
15. A taxi (to call) fifteen minutes ago, so we are expecting it any moment.
16. The young man (to introduce) to me only a couple of hours ago, but it seems to
me that I've known him for years.
V. Выберите глаголы в действительном или страдательном залоге:
1. Much attention (is devoted /devotes) to the development of this science.
2. The architect (was built / built) many beautiful bridges in town.
3. They (study/are studied) the properties of this material.
4. He (influenced / was influenced) by his friends.
5. He (reconstructed/was reconstructed) an old church in our town.
6. He (was caught/caught) by police yesterday.
7. The manager (gave/was given) an interesting work by the President.
8. A beautiful cathedral (built/was built) in our town in the 11 century.
9. Canals (link/are linked) many rivers in Great Britain.
10. The book (consists/is consisted) of 4 parts.
11. William the Conqueror (defeated/was defeated) King of England and (built/was
built) an abbey near the place of battle.
12. The first Olympic games (held/were held) in Greece in 777 B.C.
13. At the station they will (meet, be met) by a man from the travel bureau.
14. She will (meet, be met) them in the hall upstairs.
15. The porter will (bring, be brought) your luggage to your room.
16. Your luggage will (bring, be brought) up in the lift.
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LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
AT THE POST OFFICE
Boris: I would like to mail this parcel by fourth class mail.
Clerk: What's in the parcel?
B: Nothing but books. The parcel should be mailed by books rate.
C: (weighs the parcel). Four pounds. It would cost $1.95.
B: How long does it take for a parcel to arrive in San Francisco?
C: Fourth class mail takes about 15 days to arrive.
B: Okay (pays for postage). I have a problem. I'll be out of town next week. Can you
hold my mail for me at the post office? I'll pick it up when I get back.
C: Yes, we can do that. You have to fill out this form. Bring it back to me.
UNIT 17
People take care of the planet
TEXT 17: OUR FRAGILE PLANET
GRAMMAR: 1. THE COMPLEX SENTENCES (Сложноподчиненные
предложения).
2. GERUND (герундий).
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Choose the best way to define these words and read it:
Pollution
dirty water, air and atmosphere;
making water, air and atmosphere dirty and dangerous for
people and animals to live in;
people who make water, air and atmosphere dirty and
dangerous.
Environment
air, water and land, in which people, animals and plants live;
an organization that wants to protect the natural world;
something that we do to prevent air and water pollution.
Ecology
natural balance between plants, animals, people and their
environment;
plants growing in some area;
part of medicine that helps people to lead a healthy life.
Greenhouse effect a building in a garden or park which has glass walls and a
glass roof in which you grow plants;
a salad made with green vegetables;
the problem of temperature rise in the Earth‟s atmosphere.
OUR FRAGILE PLANET
1. Read the text to yourself. Complete the sentences. Put in the words from the
box:
protection
effect
habitats
dangerous
extinct
dump
disappear
People have got a lot of ecological and environmental problems. They are the
most important problems these days.
The world climate is changing. The earth became warmer. It is so because of
the greenhouse
. Sunlight gives us heat. Some of the heat warms the
atmosphere, and some of the heat goes back into space. Nowadays the air around the
earth becomes much warmer because the heat can‟t go back into space. That‟s why
winter and summer temperatures in many places have become higher. These changes
can be
for our fragile planet.
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A lot of species of animals and plants are endangered. They may
because
men kill animals and destroy their
. Some of the plants and animals are
________. Every day we use paper and cardboard, furniture. They are made of wood.
People cut down forests. Trees produce oxygen. We breathe in oxygen. Also plants
help to cure many illnesses (cancer, AIDS).
Oceans, seas and rivers are used as a______. People dump tons of industrial
waste.
Nuclear power stations can go wrong and cause nuclear pollution. Nuclear
pollution cannot be seen but its effects can be terrible.
Our fragile planet needs____________. Modern man ruins the world step by
step. People all over the world think and speak about ecology. Man should solve
ecological problems as soon as possible.
How can you personally save our fragile planet? We must plant trees, save gas,
water, electricity and natural resources. Don‟t pollute rivers, lakes seas and oceans.
BETTER TO GIVE THAN TO TAKE.
2. Ask questions and answer them using these words:
greenhouse, What , remember, you, about, do, the, effect?
nuclear ,Why, stations, dangerous, are?
the earth, forests, important, for, Why, the life, are, on?
you, save, How, our, planet, fragile, personally, can?
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Сложноподчиненные предложения (The Complex Sentences)
Сложноподчиненное предложение состоит из главного и одного или
нескольких
придаточных
предложений.
Придаточные
предложения
соединяются с главным предложением при помощи подчиненных союзов и
союзных слов, а также бессоюзным способом.
Дополнительные придаточные предложения (Object Clauses)
Дополнительные придаточные предложения выполняют в сложном
предложении функцию прямого дополнения или предложного косвенного
дополнения. Они отвечают на вопросы whom – кого? или what – что? без
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предлогов или с предлогами и вводятся союзами that, if, whether, союзными
словами who, what, which, when, where, how или бессоюзно.
I am sure that he is not at home now. – Я уверен, что его нет дома сейчас.
I am glad you have come. – Я рад, что Вы пришли (бессоюзное подчинение).
Определительные придаточные предложения (Attributive Clauses)
Определительные придаточные предложения выполняют функцию
определения в сложноподчиненном предложении, отвечают на вопросы what,
which – какой? и присоединяются к главному предложению бессоюзным
способом или при помощи следующих союзных слов-местоимений: who –
который (whom – которого), whose – чей, которого, which, that – который, а
также наречиями when – когда, where – где, куда, why – почему. Местоимения
who, whom, whose относятся к существительным, обозначающим одушевленные
предметы, which относится к неодушевленным предметам, а местоимение that
относится как к одушевленным, так и неодушевленным предметам.
Here are the letters that I received yesterday. – Вот письма, которые я получил
вчера.
The man whom you saw yesterday is our director. – Человек, которого ты видел
вчера, мой директор.
При бессоюзной связи предлог стоит в конце придаточного предложения,
а при переводе на русский язык – в начале.
This is the office we work in. – Вот офис, в котором мы работаем.
Обстоятельственные придаточные предложения (The Adverbial Clauses)
Обстоятельственные придаточные предложения выполняют в сложном
предложении функцию различных обстоятельств. Они делятся по своему
значению на обстоятельственные предложения времени, места, образа
действия, причины, цели, следствия, уступительные, степени и сравнения,
условия.
Придаточные предложения времени (Adverbial Clauses of Time)
Придаточные предложения времени отвечают на вопросы: when – когда;
since when – с каких пор; how long – как долго.
133
Придаточные предложения времени соединяются с главным
предложением союзами: when – когда; while – в то время как; before – перед тем
как, до того как, перед; after – после того как; as soon as – как только; as –
когда, в то время как, по мере того как; till, until – пока, до тех пор, пока не; as
long as – пока, до тех пор пока; since – с тех пор как и др.
I saw many places of interest when I was in Moscow. – Я осмотрела много
достопримечательностей, когда была в Москве.
As soon as I receive his cable, I shall give it to you. – Как только я получу его
телеграмму, я дам ее тебе.
She came after I had left. – Она пришла после того, как я ушла.
В придаточных предложениях времени будущее время не употребляется.
While you are working I shall be reading this article. – Пока Вы будете работать, я
прочитаю эту статью.
Придаточные предложения условия (Adverbial Clauses of Condition)
Придаточные предложения условия обычно соединяются с главным
предложением союзами: if – если; unless – если не. В английском языке
условные предложения подразделяются на три типа.
Первый тип условных предложений выражает осуществимое условие,
относящееся к настоящему, прошедшему или будущему времени.
If it gels dark, we switch the light on. – Если становится темно, мы включаем свет.
Второй тип составляют предложения, выражающие маловероятные условия,
относящиеся к настоящему или будущему времени. Эти предложения
употребляются в сослагательном наклонении. В главном предложении
употребляются вспомогательные глаголы should / would + инфинитив
смыслового глагола, в придаточном предложении употребляется форма
сослагательного наклонения, совпадающая с Past Simple.
If I had time (now, tomorrow), I should go there. – Если бы у меня было время
(сейчас, завтра), я бы пошла туда.
Третий тип составляют предложения, выражающие неосуществимые
предположения, относящиеся к прошедшему времени. В условных
предложениях третьего типа глагол главного предложения стоит в форме should
(would) + Infinitive Perfect, а глагол условного придаточного предложения стоит
в форме сослагательного наклонения, совпадающего с Past Perfect.
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If you had listened to me carefully, you would not have asked me such questions. –
Если бы Вы слушали меня внимательно, Вы бы не задавали мне таких
вопросов.
Герундий (Gerund )
Герундий является неличной формой глагола, которая сочетает в себе
свойства глагола и существительного. Герундий не имеет соответствующей
формы в русском языке.
Таблица 1
Формы герундия
Active
Passive
writing
being written
Простые
формы
asking
being asked
(одновременность или
будущее)
having written
having been written
перфектные
формы
having asked
having been asked
(предшествование)
1. Обладая свойствами глагола, герундий (как и инфинитив) имеет категорию
относительного времени и залога, может иметь прямое дополнение и
определяться наречием.
Тот likes reading such books. – Том любит читать такие книги.
Тот likes being read such books. – Том любит, когда ему читают такие книги.
Не is fond of walking quickly. – Он любит ходить быстро.
I remember having seen this film many years ago. – Я помню, что смотрел этот
фильм много лет назад.
I remember having been told about this film. – Я помню, что мне рассказывали об
этом фильме.
2. Обладая свойствами существительного, герундий выполняет в предложении
те же синтаксические функции, что и существительное (функции подлежащего,
второй части сложного сказуемого, определения, дополнения, обстоятельства).
Как всякое существительное, герундий может определяться притяжательным
местоимением или существительным в притяжательном падеже и иметь перед
собой различные предлоги.
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Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena:
II. Переведите условные предложения с русского на английский язык:
1. Я бы никогда не подумал, что это возможно, если бы я не увидел это своими
глазами.
2. Я бы не стал делать этого на твоем месте.
3. В случае если тебе придется неожиданно уехать, пришли мне записку.
4. Пьеса понравилась бы мне больше, если бы она не была такой длинной.
5. Если бы не его болезнь, семья переехала бы в город.
6. Если бы он пришел вовремя, этого могло бы не случиться.
7. Если бы пошел дождь, я бы промокла до костей, так как на мне было очень
легкое платье.
8. Куда бы ты пошел, если бы не было дождя?
9. Посиди с ним, и, если он вдруг попросит чего-нибудь, скажи мне.
10. Если бы я сказал что-нибудь подобное твоей тетушке, она сочла бы меня
сумасшедшим.
III. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на герундий:
1. Have you finished writing? 2. Taking a cold shower in the morning is very useful.
3. I like skiing, but my sister prefers skating. 4. She likes sitting in the sun. 5. It looks
like raining. 6. My watch wants repairing. 7. Thank you for coming. 8. I had no hope
of getting an answer before the end of the month. 9. I had the pleasure of dancing
with her the whole evening. 10. Let's go boating. 11. He talked without stopping. 12.
Some people can walk all day without feeling tired. 13. Living in little stuffy rooms
means breathing poisonous air. 14. Iron is found by digging in the earth. 15. There
are two ways of getting sugar: one from beet and the other from sugar-cane. 16. Jane
Eyre was fond of reading. 17. Miss Trotwood was in the habit of asking Mr. Dick his
opinion.
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LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
REPAIRING THINGS
A: I would like to have these shoes repaired. As you see, my heels are worn down.
B: Yes, new heels are to be put on.
A: Will you repair the shoes while I wait?
B: I'm very busy now. You can pick up your shoes tomorrow.
A: At what time?
B: Any time.
A: How much will it cost?
B: Six dollars. What's your name, please?
A: Vladimir Soloveychik.
B: All right. Here's your slip.You'll pay tomorrow when getting the shoes.
A: Thank you.
UNIT XVIII
Nuclear power station
TEXT 18: THE NUCLEAR ENERGY CHALLENGE
GRAMMAR: ИНФИНИТИВ (THE INFINITIVE)
137
THE NUCLEAR ENERGY CHALLENGE
The atom, the smallest component of any element, contains enormous energy.
When it is split – a process called fission, this energy is released in the forms of
tremendous heat and light. This energy was released on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
Japan, by two separate atom bombs in 1945 that led to the conclusion of World War
II. The horrors created by those two bombs led the international community
to condemn further use of atomic weapons.
Still, engineers, governments and scientists realized that if the atom's energy
could be controlled and harnessed, it would revolutionize the world's energy markets
and provide significant electricity reserves to help meet the world's energy demands.
It was even envisioned that it could one day replace the need for fossil fuels.
As a result, the first usable electricity from nuclear fission was produced at the
Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in 1951.
In 1954, The Atomic Energy Act was passed to promote the peaceful use of
nuclear energy. Subsequently, in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency
(IAEA) was formed to promote peaceful use of nuclear energy and to provide
international safeguards and an inspection system to ensure nuclear materials are not
diverted from peaceful to military uses. It was later replaced by the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission and the Energy Research and Development Administration,
the latter of which became the US Department of Energy in 1977.
Commercial nuclear power plants became a commercial reality in the late
1960s when large numbers of orders were placed for nuclear power reactors in the
United States. Yet, in 1979, America's fears about nuclear power were realized when
a partial meltdown occurred in a reactor at the Three Mile Island facility in
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Though minimal radioactive material – which can cause
serious damage to or kill living tissue – was released, the potential for greater disaster
lurked.
This greater potential was realized in April 1986 when a full reactor meltdown
and fire occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the former Soviet Union.
This resulted in the massive release of radioactive materials, resulting in major
environmental catastrophe. As a result of these disasters, global support for nuclear
energy – which already had significant negative public support – plummeted to lower
levels. Over the last 15 years, vast improvements to nuclear reactors have been made
138
to make them safer and last longer. There is still strong support for nuclear energy
from many sectors that are convinced it is the future of the world's energy sources.
While nuclear energy has several advantages over fossil fuels, particularly
considering that it does not release the harmful greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into
the atmosphere, public resistance remains high.
Nuclear energy requires sources of radioactive elements found naturally in our
environment and manmade with which to create the nuclear fission process that splits
the atoms. The most common and most used of these elements is Uranium, which is
found in two different types or species (called isotopes): U-238 and U-235. U-235 is
the type used for nuclear fission because it can be readily split, releasing massive
energy. The other type of Uranium is called U-238, which is barely radioactive. Of all
the known Uranium reserves in the world, almost all of it is U-238, with just over a
half a percent of those reserves being U-235. Plutonium and Thorium are the only
other available sources that are used for nuclear energy. Plutonium is not naturally
occurring. Thus, the Plutonium used in nuclear reactors is man-made, coming from a
nuclear reactor. It is not as stable as U-235 and is harder to use. Thorium, though not
yet a mainstream nuclear energy supply source, is being heavily studied and applied
as a safer, cleaner alternative to Uranium. Still, Uranium is king as the premiere
provider of nuclear energy.
Perhaps the greatest challenge facing nuclear energy production – after any
potential for nuclear disasters similar to the 1986 Chernobyl event – is disposal of the
highly radioactive wastes. It could take at least 10,000 years for these materials to
fully break down into harmless elements so the challenge is to store them safely for at
least that length of time. It is possible, but where and how are still troubling issues.
Exploitable Uranium supplies also pose some more short-term challenges. According
to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the world's
economically exploitable Uranium reserves are likely to last between 35 and 63
years, depending on whether demand is such as to justify the higher cost of mining
less easily exploitable reserves. Still, in consideration of the power that can be
generated by Uranium and the burgeoning global energy demands, many
governments are placing more emphasis on nuclear energy. The largest user of
nuclear energy is the United States, followed by France, Japan, Germany and the
Russian Federation. In the US alone, the nation's 103 nuclear power plants each
generate an average of around 20 tons of radioactive spent fuel a year.
139
Spent fuel now sits in cooling pools and temporary storage areas waiting for
somebody to figure out what to do with it.
A second form of nuclear energy comes from the same process that gives life
to our sun and other stars in the universe: nuclear fusion. Fusion occurs when two
lighter elements, like hydrogen, are forced together – or fused – to create a heavier
element, Helium. This occurs only under extraordinary heat and pressure, but it
releases enormous energy in the form of heat, light and other radiation. Deep inside
the sun's core, hydrogen is converted to helium at temperatures of 10 – 15 million
degrees Celsius. Fusion provides the energy necessary to sustain life on Earth.
Sunlight is energy released from fusion reactions inside the sun. This process also
produces all of the chemical elements found on Earth. In 1952, seven years after the
atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, the United States developed and successfully
tested the hydrogen bomb. Using the same fusion process and hydrogen elements
used in the sun and stars, the hydrogen bomb yields thousands of times more energy
than that provided by nuclear fission. One hydrogen bomb would release five times
more energy than all of the bombs dropped in World War II! Fortunately, there have
been no hydrogen bombs used in warfare.
Duplicating the fusion process that is constantly occurring inside the Sun is not
that easy. While fusion does not have the harmful radiation side effects that fission
creates, the problem with nuclear fusion is to start the fusion reaction in an area small
enough at sufficiently high temperatures – about 180,000,000 degrees Fahrenheit!
There is currently no known substance that would not melt or vaporize at just a
few thousand degrees.
Words and Expressions to remember:
a fission – расщепление, деление атомного ядра при цепной реакции
to condemn – браковать, признавать негодным для использования
to envision – воображать что-либо, представлять себе, предвидеть
to divert – отвлекать, переключать, переводить
a meltdown – расплавка, растворение
a facility – оборудование, приспособление, аппаратура
a tissue – ткань, материя
to lurk – скрываться в засаде, прятаться
to plummet – кидать, бросать, швырять вниз, сбивать
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an isotope – изотоп
a mainstream – основное направление, главная тенденция
a premiere – премьера
exploitable – использующийся
to burgeon – распускаться, расцветать
a fusion – синтез, слияние
to yield – давать такой-то результат, приводить к чему-либо
a warfare – война, приемы ведения войны
to duplicate – повторять, копировать
to vaporize – испаряться, распылять
Exercises on the Text
1. Answer the following questions:
1). What is the smallest component of any element?
2). What does the process of fission look like?
3). In what form is nuclear energy always released?
4).Which episode of the Second World War led the international community to
condemn further use of atomic weapons?
5). When did commercial nuclear power become a commercial reality?
2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Атом, мельчайший компонент любого элемента, заключает в себе огромную
энергию.
2. Две ядерные бомбы были сброшены на Хиросиму и Нагасаки в Японии, что
привело к завершению Второй мировой войны.
3. С тех пор, как инженеры, члены правительств и ученые осознали, что
энергией атома можно управлять, они поняли, что это произведет революцию
на энергетических рынках.
4. В 1979 г. опасения Америки относительно ядерной энергии оправдались:
случилась незначительная утечка реактора в Пенсильвании.
5. В течение последних пятнадцати лет ядерные реакторы были значительно
улучшены в плане безопасности и продолжительности срока эксплуатации.
6. Ядерная энергия нуждается в источниках радиоактивных элементов,
содержащихся в естественном виде в окружающей среде.
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7. Самый распространенный из этих элементов – уран, который существует в
двух формах, называемых изотопами.
8. Плутоний и торий – единственные источники ядерной энергии, помимо
урана.
9. Торий в настоящий момент тщательно изучается и планируется его
применение в качестве более безопасного заменителя урана.
10. Крупнейший потребитель ядерной энергии – США, затем идет Франция,
Япония, Германия и Российская Федерация.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
ИНФИНИТИВ (THE INFINITIVE)
1. Инфинитив – это неличная форма глагола, которая выражает действие, но без
указания на число, лицо, наклонение.
В русском языке инфинитиву соответствует неопределенная форма
глагола. Инфинитив имеет признаки существительного и глагола.
Как и существительное, инфинитив может выполнять в предложениях те
же функции, что и существительное, т.е. функцию подлежащего, дополнения,
обстоятельства, именной части составного именного сказуемого:
Nellie closed her eyes and tried not to think. – Нелли закрыла глаза и пыталась не
думать.
Quickly she dressed, and went into the other room to prepare their breakfast. – Она
быстро оделась и вышла в другую комнату, чтобы приготовить завтрак.
Как и глагол, инфинитив имеет формы времени и залога и может
определяться наречием, а в предложении инфинитив может входить в состав
сказуемого (простого, составного глагольного или составного именного,
являясь его смысловой частью).
Our observatory could still be used for training purposes, but the research had to
move into the space. – Нашу обсерваторию (все) еще можно было использовать
для тренировочных целей, но исследование нужно было выносить в открытое
пространство.
Не wanted to get there early, but he failed. – Он хотел рано попасть туда, но это
ему не удалось.
Формальным признаком инфинитива является частица to. Однако частица
to перед инфинитивом в некоторых случаях опускается.
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2. Чаще всего инфинитив употребляется без частицы to в следующих случаях:
a. После модальных глаголов:
Не саn speak English. – Он умеет говорить по-английски.
b. В обороте «Сложное дополнение» после глаголов to let, to make, to feel, to
hear, to see, to notice, to watch:
I'll make him tell me the truth. – Я заставлю его сказать мне правду.
c. Если в предложении стоят два инфинитива, соединенные союзом and или or,
частица to обычно опускается перед вторым из них:
Не promised to telephone or write. – Он обещал позвонить по телефону или
написать.
Таблица 1
Формы инфинитива
Форма инфинитива
Действительный залог
Страдательный залог
Indefinite
to ask
to be asked
Continuous
to be asking
-
Perfect
to have asked
to have been asked
Perfect Continuous
to have been asking
-
Функции инфинитива в предложении
3. Инфинитив в предложении может употребляться в следующих функциях:
a. Подлежащего:
То see means to believe. – Увидеть – значит поверить.
b. Части сказуемого:
То know everything is to know nothing. – Знать все – значит ничего не знать.
Здесь инфинитив - именная часть сказуемого.
c. Прямого дополнения:
I asked him to give me the magazine. – Я попросил его дать мне журнал.
d. Определения:
(Часто в функции определения инфинитив переводится на русский язык
определительным придаточным предложением.)
Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet. – У природы много секретов,
которые еще предстоит раскрыть.
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e. Обстоятельства:
His mind was too much upset to put the same thoughts in another words. – Он был
слишком расстроен (вне себя), чтобы изложить те же самые мысли другими
словами.
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
II. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на
инфинитив:
1. The buyers want to know our terms of payment.
2. This is for you to decide.
3. The plan of our work will be discussed at the meeting to be held on May 25.
4. To walk in the garden was a pleasure.
5. Jane remembered to have been told a lot about Mr. Smith.
6. I felt him put his hand on my shoulder.
7. This writer is said to have written a new novel.
8. She seems to be having a good time at the seaside.
9. They watched the boy cross the street.
10. To advertise in magazines is very expensive.
11. He proved to be one of the cleverest students at our academy.
12. He knew himself to be strong enough to take part in the expedition.
13. To see is to believe.
14. He is sure to enjoy himself at the disco.
15. To tell you the truth, this company has a very stable position in the market.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
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AT THE DRUG STORE
C: Can I help you?
D: Could you give me something for a toothache?
C: I would recommend you Tylenol. It's for temporary relief of minor pain.
D: Don't you have a painkiller?
C: We've plenty of them. But without a doctor's prescription you can't have it.
C: Okay.What's to be done? Please give me Tylenol, extra-strength-50 capsules. I've
to see my dentist anyway.
UNIT XIX
We are for natural products
TEXT 19: ORGANIC AGRICULTURE TODAY
GRAMMAR: Модальные глаголы can, may (modal verbs can, may)
ORGANIC AGRICULTURE TODAY
The production and use of organic food products has taken firm root today as a
serious alternative for consumers and farmers. Particularly since the early 1990s, a
growing number of North American farmers have taken steps to minimize the use of
and consumers' exposure to, toxic and persistent pesticides by establishing organic
agricultural practices.
Organic farming is about building a sustainable, healthy and productive future
for every aspect of our planet: the soil, water supply, animals and humans.
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Consumers who want to minimize their – and the environment's – exposure to toxic
and persistent chemicals can do so by buying organic foods and organic fiber
products, and by choosing organic agricultural methods for home pest control and
lawn care. It is simply putting nature to work while removing many potential health
risks that exist from certain food production today, mainly the use of pesticides.
In March 2001, the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released
findings showing measurable amounts of residual organophosphate pesticides in a
group of people who were studied. The National Academies of Sciences has indicated
that one out of four developmental and behavioral problems in children may be
linked to genetic and environmental factors, including exposure to lead, mercury and
organophosphate pesticides. When you put these two studies together, the
conclusions could be cause for concern. Still, it should be noted that there is still
more scientists and doctors need to learn about the long-term health effects of the
low-level presence of organophosphates in humans.
Interestingly, a separate study to assess preschool children's organophosphate
exposure in the Seattle Metropolitan area showed that one child who showed no
measurable pesticide residue lived in a family that buys exclusively organic products
and does not use any pesticides at home. While this does not conclude that there were
any serious health risks to the remainder of the group, it does indicate that use of
organic food and nonfood products can reduce the presence of those products in
humans.
With increasing demands for food supplies during the past 60 years, we saw
the introduction of the use of harsh chemicals and synthetic fertilizers as a way for
farmers to boost crop yields. This subsequently has been followed by the more recent
adoption of planting genetically modified crops.
Even today, there are toxic and persistent pesticides still used in agriculture.
CDC noted that organophosphate pesticides account for approximately half of the
insecticides used in the United States. An estimated 60 million pounds of
organophosphate pesticides are applied to about 60 million acres of U.S. agricultural
crops annually, and an additional 17 million pounds are used per year for
nonagricultural uses, such as in household pest control products and in lawn and
garden sprays.
The National Organic Standards Board defines organic agriculture as an
ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity,
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biological cycles and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm
inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain and enhance ecological
harmony.
Despite the fact that less than 1 percent of U.S. agriculture research dollars are
spent on organic practices, organic production has been shown to have yields
comparable to, and sometimes higher than, conventional systems.
In addition, because organic production improves soil quality as measured by
soil structure, organic matter, biological activity, water infiltration and water-holding
capacity, organic systems generally produce higher yields than crops grown using
conventional high-input methods during drought, leading to production stability year
after year.
Organic agriculture is a collection of tested agricultural practices by diligent
farmers‟ intent on preserving the health of our planet. Organic agriculture is
sustainable, keeping soils healthy and alive, and helping to minimize contamination
of the earth's precious water supplies.
Organophosphates are not allowed in organic agriculture. Instead, organic
growers use biological and cultural practices as their first line of defense against
pests. Methods used include crop rotation, the selection of pest- and disease- resistant
varieties, nutrient and water management, the provision of habitat for the natural
enemies of pests, and release of beneficial organisms to protect crops from damage.
The only pesticides allowed in organic agriculture must be on a USDA approved list,
with restricted use.
In addition, organic practices prohibit the use of genetic engineering,
irradiation, sewage sludge, antibiotics, and hormones. These practices are allowed in
other forms of raising and producing our food, and other agricultural products.
Because organic agriculture respects the balance of microorganisms in the soil,
organic producers use composted manure and other natural materials, as well as crop
rotation, to help improve soil fertility, rather than synthetic fertilizers that can result
in an overabundance of nitrogen and phosphorous in the ground. As a result, organic
practices protect ground water supplies and avoid runoff of chemicals that can cause
"dead zones" in larger bodies of water.
Comparisons in Europe, for instance, have shown nitrate-leaching rates on
organic farms are 40 – 57 percent lower per hectare (roughly 2,5 acres or
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12,000 square yards) and carbon dioxide emissions are 40-60 percent lower per
hectare than conventional systems.
On the other hand, current conventional practices have led to some measurable
problems, including a high level of toxic metals in commercial fertilizers. An analysis
of 29 fertilizers found that each contained 22 different heavy metals. In 20 of the
products, levels exceeded the limits set on wastes sent to public landfills, with
disturbing quantities of arsenic, lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and dioxin,
among others.
Furthermore, polluted runoff from farms and cities went largely unabated and
actually increased over the past 30 years according to a 2001 report from the Pew
Oceans Commission. The report noted that many of the nation's coastal environments
exhibit symptoms of over-enrichment from these run-offs. Symptoms include
harmful algal blooms, loss of sea grasses and coral reefs, and serious oxygen
depletion. Coastal regions, as a result, have suffered reduced production of valuable
fisheries and threats to biodiversity and ecosystems less resilient to natural and
human influences.
Because organic practices help safeguard the environment and protect habitats,
organic production conserves and promotes species diversity. In the United Kingdom,
a study comparing biodiversity in organic farming and conventional farming systems
found that organic farms had five times as many wild plants in arable (farmable)
fields and 57 percent more species.
The organic farms also had 25 percent more birds at the field edge, 44 percent
more in the field in autumn and winter, and 2,2 times as many breeding skylarks and
higher skylark breeding rates. In addition, they had 1,6 times as many of the
invertebrate arthropods that make up bird food; three times as many non-pest
butterflies in the crop areas; one to five times as many spider numbers, and one to
two times as many spider species. They also showed a significant decrease in aphid
numbers.
Buying organic products is also a way to support conservation of our land.
Organic products, whether foods or fiber, are produced through a system of farming
that maintains and replenishes soil fertility in an ecological way. There were
approximately 1,3 million acres in certified organic production in the United States in
1997. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service estimates
2,6 million acres were in production in 2001.
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As far as feeding the world, the late Donella Meadows, who served as director
of the Sustainability Institute, wrote: "We already grow enough food to feed
everyone; the excess simply is not distributed where it is needed. Industrial
agriculture, far from being the salvation it promises, is actually undermining the
resource base-healthy soil, clean water, and diversity of plants and animals-needed to
sustain the world's growing human population in the long term. If anything can
restore that resource base and at the same time eliminate hunger it is organic
methods."
Organic foods and products are making a healthy comeback from a by-gone
era, but in more of the light of what is healthy for Earth‟s ecology and us. Moreover,
the production and use of these products have become the choice of a rapidly
growing number of farmers and consumers today. It does prove that the connection
between human health and our ecology are indelibly intertwined.
Words and Expressions to remember:
a fiber – волокно, волосок, фибра, нить, древесное волокно
a residual – остаток, остаточный продукт
an organophosphate – органический фосфат
a residue – осадок, отстой
a remainder – остаток, остатки
harsh – жесткий, твердый, грубый, неприятный
to boost – поднимать, помогать подняться
to enhance – увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать
to restore – возвращать в прежнее состояние
infiltration – инфильтрация, просачивание, проникновение
a capacity – вместимость, емкость
a drought – засуха, засушливость, нехватка дождей, сухость воздуха
an intent – намерение, цель
a contamination – загрязнение, порча
precious – драгоценный, большой ценности
a rotation – чередование, периодическое повторение, очередность, ротация
a nutrient – питательное вещество
an irradiation – облучение, химиотерапия
sewage – сточные воды, нечистоты
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a sludge – густая грязь, слякоть, ил, тина
to compost – готовить компост, компостировать, превращать в компост
a manure – навоз, компост, удобрение
overabundance – чрезмерное изобилие, избыток, излишек
an emission – выделение, распространение
unabated – неослабленный
algal – относящийся к водорослям, водорослевый
resilient – пружинистый, упругий, эластичный
an arable – пахота, пашня, пахотная земля
a skylark – жаворонок
an invertebrate – беспозвоночное животное
arthropods – членистоногие
an aphid – тля растительная
to replenish – (снова) наполнять(ся), пополнять(ся)
a salvation – избавление, спасение
Exercises on the Text
1. Answer the following questions:
1). What does the term "organic" mean in agriculture?
2). Where and when did organic agriculture appear?
3). What is the purpose of organic farming?
4). Why do many farmers use harsh chemicals and synthetic fertilizers?
5). Which agricultural system is more popular nowadays: organic or conventional and
why?
2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Сегодня производство и использование органических пищевых продуктов
представляет собой серьезную альтернативу для потребителей и фермеров.
2. Органическое сельское хозяйство вносит свой вклад в улучшение всех
составляющих нашей планеты: почвы, воды, животных и человеческих
существ.
3. Доказано, что в одном случае из четырех задержка в развитии у детей связана
с генетическими и экологическими факторами, включая контакт со свинцом,
ртутью и органофосфатными пестицидами.
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4. Так как за последние шестьдесят лет резко возросла потребность в пищевых
продуктах, фермеры начали применять химикаты и синтетические удобрения
для увеличения урожая.
5. Даже в наши дни токсические пестициды все еще используются в сельском
хозяйстве.
6. Органическое сельское хозяйство – это набор сельскохозяйственных практик,
разработанных фермерами с целью сохранения здоровой обстановки на нашей
планете.
7. Использование органофосфатов запрещено в органическом сельском
хозяйстве.
8. Кроме того, органическое сельское хозяйство запрещает использование
генной инженерии, антибиотиков и гормонов.
9. Анализ двадцати девяти удобрений показал, что каждое из них содержит
двадцать два разных тяжелых металла.
10. Покупка экологически чистых продуктов – это еще один способ поддержать
здоровую обстановку на нашей планете.
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs)
Модальные глаголы – это такие глаголы, которые обозначают не само
действие, а указывают на отношение говорящего к действию, т.е. указывают на
возможность, вероятность или необходимость совершения действия.
Модальные глаголы не употребляются самостоятельно, а только в
сочетании с инфинитивом смыслового глагола, образуя глагольное составное
сказуемое.
1. Глагол can – "могу", "умею" – выражает физическую (умственную)
возможность совершения действия:
− Can you speak English?
− Yes, I can speak English.
2. Глагол must – "должен" – выражает долженствование или необходимость
совершения действия:
− I cannot speak to you now. I must go home.
− Must you go now?
− Yes, I must.
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3. Глагол may – "можно" – выражает разрешение выполнить действие. В
разговорной речи вместо may часто употребляется can:
− May I go to the cinema?
− No, you must not. The film is not for children.
− You can watch TV at home.
У модальных глаголов can, may, must есть ряд грамматических особенностей.
1. В Present Simple не имеют окончания -s в 3-м лице единственного числа.
2. Вопросительную и отрицательную формы образуют без вспомогательного
глагола to do. Отрицательная частица not с глаголом can пишется слитно –
cannot.
3. Не имеют формы инфинитива.
4. Следующий за модальным глаголом смысловой глагол употребляется без
частицы to.
5. Не имеют форм будущего времени (Future Simple), а глагол must не имеет и
формы прошедшего времени (Past Simple).
Present
can
must
may
Past
could
–
might
Future
–
–
–
6. Взамен недостающих форм модальных
употребляются заменители модальных глаголов.
глаголов
can,
may,
must
Таблица 1
Заменители модальных глаголов
Can
May
Must
to be able (to)– быть в to be allowed (to) – иметь to have (to) – быть высостоянии (мочь)
разрешение
нужденным (в силу обстоятельств)
to be (to) – быть обязанным (в силу договоренности, плана, расписания и т.д.)
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Заменители модальных глаголов употребляются не только в тех случаях,
когда модальные глаголы не имеют соответствующих форм Future или Past, но
и вместо них.
Инфинитив, следующий за заменителем модального глагола,
употребляется с частицей to.
They were to be at the conference. – Они должны были быть (присутствовать) на
конференции.
She was not allowed to stay there. – Ей не разрешили оставаться там.
7. В вопросительных предложениях модальный глагол ставится перед
подлежащим.
8. В отрицательных ответах на вопросы с глаголом must употребляется
модальный глагол need (в отрицательной форме needn't) для выражения
отсутствия необходимости.
9. Глагол should может употребляться в качестве модального глагола, выражая
необходимость совершения действия. Обычно глагол should переводится на
русский язык как "следует", "следовало бы", "должен".
You should help him. – Вам следовало бы помочь ему.
10. Глагол would может употребляться в качестве модального глагола для
выражения упорного нежелания, отказа выполнить действие, для выражения
просьбы:
We did our best but the motor would not start.
Would you come back a little later?
Grammar Exercises
I. Look through the text again and find out whether there are sentences illustrating
the above mentioned grammatical phenomena.
II. Переведите на русский язык:
1. Her grandmother can knit very well. 2. I can answer the questions. They are very
easy. 3. This trip is too expensive for me. I can't afford it. 4. She can type. She can
speak well on the telephone. She hopes she can find the job she's looking for. 5. Can
you go to have lunch with me? - I'm sorry. I can't. 6. Mike can run very fast. 7. They
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can understand French. 8. Kate can speak English very well. 9. My brother can
come and help you in the garden. 10. Can you speak Spanish?
III. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя модальный глагол can
(could):
1. Я умею говорить по-английски. 2. Мой папа не умеет говорить по-немецки.
3. Ты умеешь говорить по-французски? 4. Моя сестра не умеет кататься на
коньках. 5. Ты можешь переплыть эту реку. 6. Я не могу выпить это молоко. 7.
Она не может вас понять. 8. Ты умел плавать в прошлом году? 9. В прошлом
году я не умел кататься на лыжах, а сейчас умею. 10. Вы не можете сказать
мне, как доехать до вокзала? 11. Не могли бы Вы мне помочь? 12. Я не могу
перевести это предложение. 13. Никто не мог мне помочь. 14. Где тут можно
купить хлеб? 15. Твоя бабушка умела танцевать, когда была молодой? – Да,
она и сейчас умеет.
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
AT THE DOCTOR’S OFFICE
Doctor: What 's troubling you?
Patient: I've caught a cold. I have a sore throat and a bad cough.
D: Put this thermometer under your tongue. I want to see if you have a fever. Let me
see...Yes, you have a temperature. When did you first feel ill?
P: A couple of days ago.
D: Let me examine you .Take a deep breath. Now I want to test your blood pressure
(testing blood pressure).Your blood pressure is slightly above normal, but nothing to
worry about. Any other trouble?
P: Doctor, I haven't been sleeping well.
D: I'll give you some sleeping pills. Take the tablets as prescribed-you take only one
at bedtime. You must stay in bed for several days until your temperature has gone
down. Here's a prescription for your flu. Come in again to see me in ten days.
P: Okay.Thank you, doctor.
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UNIT XX
TEXT 20: FOOD’S FRONTIER: THE NEXT GREEN REVOLUTION
GRAMMAR: ПРЕДЛОГИ (PREPOSITIONS)
Food’s Frontier: the Next Green Revolution
Over the past half century, the United States has sent billions of tons of food to
famine-stricken countries and that is one reason many remain in a dire struggle to
feed themselves. Dumping our surplus grain depressed the prices of locally grown
grain, pushing farmers in those countries out of business explains environmental
writer Richard Manning, author of "Food's Frontier: the Next Green Revolution", a
new book on efforts to establish sustainable agriculture in developing countries
around the globe.
The situation is critical. Industrial agriculture, mostly developed in the 1960s
"Green Revolution", has reached its production limit. In some areas, the combination
of monocropping and heavy fertilizer and pesticide use has actually reduced the
land's capacity to produce. Meanwhile, the population of developing countries is
expected to double by 2020.
The second green revolution is a revolution not only in biological science, but
also in information distribution among scientists, farmers, and consumers. "Food's
Frontier" documents the Minneapolis-based McKnight Foundation's Collaborative
Crop Research Program, which has funded research and training in agricultural
science in nine developing countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Each project
is headed by scientists from the developing country, who identify the agricultural
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problem they want to tackle and put together interdisciplinary teams of scientists such
as biologists, economists, and anthropologists. Each team collaborates with
counterparts in U.S. universities.
"We're realizing that economic and cultural factors are as important as biology,
soil and climate in developing a secure global food supply", – Manning said.
"Certainly, you have to understand the biology behind the interaction of, say, a
chickpea and a pod borer if you want to reduce the damage the pest does to the plant.
But you also need to figure out how to help Ugandan farmers learn about a method of
planting that protects sweet potato from weevils, or how to convince Mexican
wholesalers that there's a potentially strong market in the United States for blue
corn".
McKnight-funded research in areas like polyculture – the planting of several
crops amongst each other – and the discovery of natural protections against pests in
disease in wild relatives of common crops, also stand to benefit U.S. farmers.
"The Midwest is strewn with rural ghost towns whose small farmers were
driven away by huge agricultural firms farming thousands of acres of a single crop.
And the oversupply of grain has promoted widespread usage of high-fructose corn
syrup in processed foods, contributing to the epidemic of obesity", – Manning said.
The McKnight project researching an ancient Aztec polycropping system, still used
by Mexican peasants, called "milpa", could provide a solution for reversing
monoculture in the U.S.
Experiments underway in New York, Chile and Brazil crossing domestic
potatoes, plagued by a range of insect pests, with wild relatives of potatoes, whose
sticky leaves trap insects, are revolutionizing the economics of potato farming both in
the U.S. and worldwide.
"The intensive use of pesticides and herbicides has contaminated our water and
depleted our soils. It costs between $60 and $200 per acre per year to spray potatoes
with insecticide. A grower in upstate New York typically gets about $6 for a hundred
pounds of these potatoes, while organic market pays $30 a hundredweight for
pesticide-free potatoes," – Manning said.
Three projects described in "Food's Frontier" involve genetic engineering: in
Nanjing, China, creating scab-resistant wheat; in India, increasing the efficiency of
production and nutritional value of chickpea; and in Shanghai, China, eradicating
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viral rice disease by eliminating the ability of a plant hopper insect to transmit the
virus.
Recognizing that modern biotechnology has the potential to contribute much to
the solutions of agricultural problems in the developing world, Manning dismisses
the argument that genetic engineering is unnatural.
"From lop-eared rabbits to wine grapes, artificial form of life as a result of
human-engineered selection surrounds us. Every form of life we call domestic has a
genetic makeup that is artificial as a result of human activity", – he said.
The biggest danger to the public regarding genetic engineering, Manning feels,
is when profit-motivated companies rush to patent and market an untested technique.
In contrast, McKnight-funded research remains in the public domain, available to all
who need it, and is carefully tested by scientists who live among the farmers where
the techniques will be used.
Manning found that Robert Goodman, a University of Wisconsin plant
pathologist who oversees the Collaborative Crop Research Program, has his own
doubts about the value of genetic engineering.
"We'll eventually have the same problem with genetically engineered plants as
we do with more traditional approaches – the pests and diseases we are trying to repel
are going to develop their own defenses", – Goodman said.
The alternative is not to look only at a single gene, but at the entire sequence of
genes in a particular plant, as well as the sequence of genes in the organisms living in
the surrounding soil and air. With this information, scientists, rather than transferring
single genes from one plant species to another, can manipulate a plant's own genes to
stimulate certain interactions with the other organisms in its environment. Goodman
predicts this practice, called "genomics", will render genetic engineering obsolete
within a matter of years.
"By the end of the decade we're going to look back at current genetic
engineering technology, with its parlor tricks like sweeter tomatoes, as being
primitive and almost arcane," – Goodman said. "We are finally recognizing that
nature is unimaginably complex. To survive, we need to learn to respect and harness
that complexity, because at a fundamental level, genetic improvement is integral to
human society".
"No one ever said feeding a planet of six billion people would be without
consequences," – Manning said.
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"But helping third world scientists feed their own people ensures sensitivity to
culture and environment that we missed in the first green revolution".
The McKnight Foundation Collaborative Crop Research Program, begun in
1993, seeks to increase food security in developing countries. The total financial
commitment is $53,5 million over 15 years.
Words and Expressions to remember:
famine-stricken – голодающий
dire – страшный, ужасный, жуткий, внушающий ужас
surplus – излишний, избыточный, добавочный
monocropping – выращивание одной культуры
to collaborate – работать совместно, сотрудничать
chickpea – нут, турецкий горох
a pod borer – стручковый сверлильщик (червь)
a weevil – долгоносик
to strew – разбрасывать, разбрызгивать
obesity – тучность, ожирение
sticky – клейкий, липкий, вязкий, тягучий
to contaminate – пачкать, загрязнять, марать, портить, отравлять
scab-resistant – устойчивый к парше
to eradicate – искоренять, вырывать с корнем, истреблять
viral – вирусный
to repel – подавлять, сдерживать
a gene – ген
obsolete – устарелый, старый, немодный
arcane – тайный, скрытый, темный, загадочный, потайной, секретный
to harness – использовать
Exercises on the Text
1. Answer the following questions:
1). How will you explain the term "monocropping"?
2). Have you ever heard about the second green revolution?
3). What developing countries can you name?
158
4). What kind of damage can pests do to plants?
5). Do you know any factors of water and soil contamination?
2. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1. Сельское хозяйство, которое развивалось быстрыми темпами во время
"Зеленой революции" 60-х годов, достигло своего производственного предела.
2. Вторая зеленая революция – это революция не только в самой биологической
науке, но и в распределении информации между учеными, фермерами и
потребителями.
3. Каждый проект возглавляется учеными из развивающихся стран, которые
решают, какую проблему принять к рассмотрению и координируют работу
биологов, экономистов и антропологов.
4. Мы осознаем, что экономические и культурные факторы так же важны, как
биология, почва и климат в обеспечении мирового запаса пищи.
5.
Переизбыток
зерна
привел
к
широкому
использованию
фруктозосодержащего сиропа в пищевом производстве.
6. Интенсивное использование пестицидов и гербицидов приводит к заражению
воды и истощению почвы.
7. Современная биотехнология имеет большое значение для решения
сельскохозяйственных проблем в развивающемся мире.
8. Начиная от вислоухих кроликов и заканчивая темно-красным виноградом,
нас повсюду окружают искусственные формы жизни, полученные в результате
использования генной инженерии.
9. Наибольшая опасность для общества при использовании генной инженерии
возникает тогда, когда жаждущие прибыли компании представляют на рынок
непроверенные технологии.
10. Имея такую информацию, ученые предпочтут не переносить отдельные
гены из одного вида в другой, а станут манипулировать имеющимися генами
для стимулирования определенного взаимодействия с другими организмами
окружающей среды.
159
GRAMMAR FOCUS
Употребление предлогов в английском языке
Основные три категории предлогов по лексическому значению
(употреблению):
1. Предлоги времени (prepositions of time);
2. Предлоги места (prepositions of place);
3. Предлоги направления (prepositions of direction).
В чистом виде практически не бывает только предлогов времени, места
или направления. Лексическое значение предлога напрямую зависит от его
позиции в предложении, поэтому в большинстве случаев один и тот же предлог
может иметь два и более лексических значения.
Таблица 1
Таблица лексического значения (употребления) английских предлогов
Предлог
Лексическое значение предлога
время
at
[æt]
место
[ɒn]
in
[ɪn]
на, у, около
Перевод
и He came at 5 Он пришѐл в
o'clock.
пять часов.
You can buy the Ты
можешь
cabbage at the купить капусту
market.
на рынке.
Давай
встреLet's meet at the
тимся у/около
car.
машины.
visit Мы навестим
on Дональда
в
пятницу.
Пульт
от
The TV remote
телевизора
место
на
control is on the
лежит
на
sofa.
диване.
Я люблю
о
какой-либо
I like magazines
о, об
журналы о
тематике
on fishing.
рыбалке.
was Дороти родив (в месяцах и Dorothy
лась в июне.
годах);
через born in June.
время
(через определен- The examination Экзамен
ный промежуток will start in three начнѐтся через
времени)
hours.
три часа.
время
on
в (в часах
минутах)
Пример
в (в днях и датах)
We will
Donald
Friday.
160
to
[tu:]
into
['ɪntə]
место
в
направление
в, на; к (куда?)
дательный падеж
в русском языке без перевода
(кому? чему?)
Give this
to me.
направление
We are coming Мы заходим в
into the flat.
квартиру.
направление
в (внутрь)
из, с, от
from
[from]
родительный
падеж в русском
от
языке
(кого?,
чего?)
before
[bɪˈfɔ:(r)]
until / till
[ən'tɪl] / [tɪl]
На
данный
Mr. Milton is not
момент Мистер
in the office at
Милтон не в
the moment.
офисе.
They are going Они
to the theatre.
идут в театр.
Philip is walking Филипп идѐт на
to work.
работу.
Примечание:
Слово
home
употребляется
без предлога to.
Philip is going Филипп
идѐт
home.
домой.
She is coming to Она подходит к
his car.
своей машине.
место
до, перед
время
до
pen Дай эту ручку
(кому?) мне.
My father is Мой
отец
coming
back возвращается
from the theatre. из театра.
Сильвия
Sylvia is coming
возвращается с
back from work.
работы.
Samuel is coming Самуэль
back from his возвращается
friends.
от друзей.
Я
получил
I have got a
выговор
от
reprimand
начальника.
from the chief.
Я
получил
I have got a letter
письмо
от
from Lewis.
Льюиса.
What do you
Что ты хочешь
want from me?
от меня?
Lewis left the Льюис покинул
room
before комнату перед
John.
Джоном.
She won't come Она не вернѐтся
back till the end до
конца
of the month.
месяца.
161
about
[əˈbaʊt]
время
около
место
около, вокруг
предложный
падеж в русском
о
языке (о ком?, о
чем?)
for
[fə(r)]
of
[əv]
with
[wɪð]
Walter
returns
home
at about
seven o'clock in
the evening.
Harry
is
wandering
about the house.
Волтер возвращается домой
около
семи
часов вечера.
Гарри бродит
вокруг/ около
дома.
We are talking Мы разговариabout a new ваем о новом
movie.
фильме.
Николь
учит
Nicole has been
испанский язык
время
в течение
learning Spanish
в течение двух
for two years.
лет.
The train left Поезд уехал в
for London one Лондон
час
hour ago.
назад.
направление
в; на/без перевода
Мой сын ушѐл
My
son
has
на
прогулку/
gone for a walk.
(куда?) гулять.
Я
купил
дательный падеж
I have bought a подарок
для
в русском языке для/без перевода gift for my
своей девушки/
(кому?, чему?)
girlfriend.
(кому?) своей
девушке.
Малькольма
родительный
Malcolm
was пригласили на
падеж в русском
invited for a встречу (кого?)
без перевода
языке
(кого?,
meeting of ex
бывших
чего?)
classmates.
одноклассников
.
предложный
Мы
падеж в русском
We are talking
o
разговариваем о
языке (о ком?, о
of a new movie.
новом фильме.
чем?)
Мой муж летит
My husband is
творительный
в Испанию со/
flying to Spain
падеж в русском
вместе со своис/со; вместе с/со
with his
языке (с кем?, с
ми коллегами
colleagues next
чем?)
на следующей
week.
неделе.
Действие
Я передвинул
происходит
с
I
moved
the
шкаф
помощью/при
без перевода
cabinet with my
(чем?/как?)
помощи
чегоhands.
руками.
либо.
162
Действия
происходит от/по
от, со
причине
чеголибо.
место
by
[baɪ]
у/рядом
(с)/возле/около
творительный
падеж в русском
языке
(кем?,
чем?)
She has turned
pale with fear.
The
teacher
widely opened his
eyes
with
amazement.
Joseph stood for a
while by the door
and knocked.
Recently I have
read a book that
is/was written by
a very famous
writer.
без
перевода;
Сюда относятся
на/без перевода
случаи,
когда
Her
mother
действие
prefers
совершается
travelling by car.
определѐнным
способом.
after
[ˈɑːftə(r)]
since
[sɪns]
during
[ˈdjʊərɪŋ]
Isabel
usually
walks after
breakfast.
Daniel has been
learning Chinese
since
he
graduated school.
Она побледнела
от/со страха.
Учитель широко открыл глаза
от удивления.
Джозеф постоял
некоторое
время возле/у/
около двери и
постучал.
Недавно
я
прочѐл книгу,
написанную
очень известным писателем.
Еѐ мать предпочитает
путешествовать
на автомобиле/
(как?)
автомобилем.
Изабелла
обычно гуляет
после завтрака.
Дэниел
учит
китайский язык
с
окончания
школы.
время
после
время
с
время
в продолжение, в
течение.
Употребление
этого предлога в
лексическом значении
времени
напоминает предлог for. Разница Mark
was Марк спал
заключается в том, sleeping
течение
что for указывает during the film. фильма.
на продолжительность события, а
during обозначает
период времени, в
течение которого
происходило
действие.
в
163
between
[bɪˈtwi:n]
near / nearby
[nɪə(r)]/[nɪə(r)ˈbaɪ]
in front of
[ɪn frʌnt əv]
место
место
место
Мой дом распоMy house is
ложен между
between
the
между
продуктовым
grocer and the
магазином
и
parking.
парковкой.
My house is Мой дом нахооколо, близ, у
nearby the
дится около/ у/
parking.
близ парковки.
Школьный автобус останоA school bus
перед, напротив,
вился
напроstopped in front
спереди
тив моего дома
of my house.
/ перед моим
домом.
He is behind the
Он за дверью
door.
behind
[bɪˈhaɪnd]
across
[əˈkrɒs]
above
[əˈbʌv]
over
[ˈəʊvə(r)]
under
[ˈʌndə(r)]
below
[bɪˈləʊ]
место
место
место
место
место
место
Шэрон
идѐт
Sharon is walking
позади/сзади
за, позади, сзади, п behind us.
нас.
осле
Я
стою
за
I am behind the
женщиной
/
woman in this
сзади женщины
queue.
в этой очереди.
Почему
твоя
Why is your dog собака смотрит
через
looking
across через
дорогу
the road so wary? так
настороженно?
Над
нашими
There thousands
головами
of
dragonflies
летают тысячи
above our heads.
стрекоз.
над, выше
Neighbors above Соседи над наus are Portuguese ми – мигранты
migrants.
из Португалии.
Look!
Our Смотри! Наш
над
aircraft is flying самолѐт пролеover the sea.
тает над морем!
My dog likes
Моя
собака
под
sleeping under любит
спать
the table.
под столом.
Еѐ
квартира
находится под
Her flat is below
под, ниже
квартирой/
Michael's.
ниже квартиры
Майкла.
164
along
[əˈlɒŋ]
Round / around
[raʊnd] / [əˈraʊnd]
past
[pɑːst]
through
[θru:]
out of
[aʊt əv]
место
вдоль, по
место
за, вокруг
место
мимо
место
сквозь, через
направление
из
Anthony
is
Энтони едет по/
driving along the
вдоль шоссе.
highway.
Грабители
Robbers turned
свернули
за
round the corner.
угол.
Алан
ездит
Alan is driving
вокруг
around
the
парковки,
parking looking
выискивая
for some free
свободное
place.
место.
Льюис прошѐл
Lewis went past
мимо
a flower shop and
цветочной
didn't
buy
лавки
и
не
flowers.
купил цветы.
Почтальон проPostman pushed
сунул письмо
the letter through
сквозь/через
the door gap.
дверную щель.
Энн только что
Ann has just gone
вышла
из
out of the room.
комнаты.
Grammar Exercises
I. Заполните пропуски правильным предлогом in, at или on:
a. I get up early ____ the morning and go to bed late ____ night.
b. I‟m so bored. There‟s nothing to do ___ weekends.
c. He went swimming ___ Sunday morning, and ____ the evening he play squash.
d. I love going for walks ____ summer. It‟s still light ___ nine o‟clock.
e. I take my annual holiday ____ June, but I have a few days off ____ Christmas.
f. He usually starts work ____ 9.30, but ____ Friday he starts ____ 8.30.
g. I was born ____ 18 January, 1954.
h. People exchange presents ____ Christmas Day.
i. This house was built ____ the nineteenth century.
II. Вставьте предлоги “in” или “to”:
1. We did not want to stay ... town on such a hot day, so we went ... the country. 2. It
is very late: Go ... bed at once. 3. Where is your little sister? – She is ... bed. Mother
165
always puts her ... bed at eight o'clock. 4. In summer my mother does not go ... work
and I don't go ... school. We live ... the country. My father goes ... work every day, so
he stays ... town. But sometimes he comes ... the country after work and goes back ...
town early in the morning, when I am still ... bed. 5. In winter I usually go ... bed at
ten o'clock because I learn ... school and have to get up early.
III. Переведите на английский язык следующие словосочетания:
В четыре часа, в половине шестого, без четверти три, на закате, в четверть
пятого, в полночь, в пять минут шестого, без десяти два, в полдень, на восходе
солнца, в двадцать пять третьего.
IV. Вставьте предлоги “to” или “of”:
1. Не bought a book ... English poems and gave it... his sister. 2. I wrote ... him
asking to send me a box ... chocolates. 3. The roof ... the house is very old. 4. There is
a monument ... Pushkin in the Square ... Arts. 5. One wheel ... my car must be
changed. 6. He was standing outside the door ... his house and explaining ... the
mechanic what was wrong with his car. 7. He gave her a big bunch ... flowers. 8. I
sent a letter ... my friend. 9. The streets ... St. Petersburg are straight. 10. Many pages
... this book are torn. 11. The young scientist was trying to prove ... the professor the
necessity ... the experiment. 12. London is the capital ... Great Britain. 13. The
embankments ... the Neva are faced with granite. 14. It is clear ... me that you don't
know your lesson. 15. He was devoted ... his friend. 16. I explained ... the teacher that
by the end ... the lesson I had not finished the translation ... the text and that's why I
had not handed it ... him. The surprise ... the teacher was great. My explanation
seemed strange ... the teacher.
V. Вставьте предлоги with или by:
1. The boy cut his finger ... a knife. 2. The boat was carried ... the waves into the open
sea. 3. The teacher was pleased ... our work. 4. America was discovered ... Columbus.
5. "Hamlet" was written Shakesреаrе. 6. We eat soup ... a spoon. 7. He was killed ... a
knife. 8. He was killed ... the robbers. 9. He was knocked down ... a big stick. 10. He
was knocked down ... a car. 11. He was taken to hospital... an ambulance. 12. He was
treated... very effective drugs. 13. He was cured ... a very skilful doctor. 14. He wrote
his letter ... a pencil. 15. He was scolded ... his mother.
166
LET’S TALK
English in Everyday Communication:
☺ Read, translate and act out the following dialogue. Work in pairs.
DISCUSSING NUTRITION PROBLEMS
Simon: I've been living in this country for more than seven years, but I don't yet
understand why there is so much talk about nutrition as a growing scienсe.
Tom (his American friend): Americans want to be healthy. But most of us have no
understanding of nutrition problems.
Simon: Whenever I see my family doctor, he advises me to stick to a low cholesterol
diet.
Tom: And do you follow his advice?
Simon: It's hard to stick to a diet with my busy schedule.
Tom: For your health, it is very important to get a balanced diet.
Simon: What is a balanced diet?
Tom: Adults can get a balanced diet by including foods from the four main food
groups. These are: the milk group (milk, cheese, yogurt, and other dairy foods); the
meet group (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and meat alternates such as beans, lentils, and
nuts); the bread group (bread, cereals, noodles etc.); and the vegetable and fruit
group.
Simon: Can people who don't eat meat or fish stay healthy?
Tom: Absolutely. By eating enough dairy foods and meat alternates, people can get
essential proteins.
Simon: What about the nutritional value of canned vegetables that we buy at the
supermarket?
Tom: The nutritional difference depends more on how vegetables are prepared than
on whether they are bought fresh or canned.
Simon: I wonder how knowledgeable you are. You could become a professional
dietitian.
Tom: It's just my hobby to read about food and health.
Simon: I was told to avoid such foods as bread or potatoes. What's your view?
Tom: By avoiding bread and potatoes you cut out several B vitamins, vitamin C and
other nutrients.
Simon: Are extra vitamin dosages useful?
Tom: You shouldn't take more vitamins than the body needs.
Simon: Thank you for your valuable information.
167
SUPPLEMENT
English-Russian Dictionary
planet Earth
universe
nitrogen
to survive
temperature range
to remain a liquid
surface
to increase
to create
to protect
UNIT I
планета Земля
вселенная
азот
выжить, продолжить существование
интервал (диапазон) температур
оставаться в жидком состоянии
поверхность
увеличивать
создавать
защищать
science
biology
environment
ecologist
to affect
interaction
to exist
living things
nutrients
natural disasters
UNIT II
наука
биология
окружающая среда
эколог
влиять, воздействовать
взаимодействие
существовать
живые существа
питательные вещества
стихийные бедствия
tropical rainforest
arctic region
evergreen forest
coniferous forest
species
a polar bear
UNIT III
влажный тропический лес
арктический регион
вечнозеленый лес
хвойный лес
вид (виды)
белый (полярный) медведь
168
to thrive
desert
conversely
a puddle
vernal pool
functional unit
to remain in balance
a predator
temperate forest
tropical dry forest
cold climate forest
grassland
процветать, преуспевать
пустыня
обратно, вспять, наоборот
лужа, запруда, маленький пруд
временный водоем, наполняющийся
весной
функциональная единица
оставаться в равновесии
хищник
смешанный лес, лес умеренного пояса
сухой тропический лес
лес холодной зоны
луг, пастбище
food chain
to consume
bacterium
the process of photosynthesis
unicellular animals
a squirrel
an elk
to break down
stuff
molecule
UNIT IV
пищевая цепь, цепь питания
потреблять
бактерия, микроб, микроорганизм
процесс фотосинтеза
одноклеточные животные
белка
лось
распадать(ся) на части, расщеплять
состав, вещество, материал
молекула
population
specific area
geographic isolation
to decrease
competition
migration
UNIT V
население, популяция
ограниченная (удельная) площадь
географическая изоляция
уменьшаться, сокращаться
конкуренция
миграция, переселение
169
to define
rainfall
altitude
to support
wet
humid
canopy
creature
to crawl
to fall
UNIT VI
определять, характеризовать
осадки
высота над уровнем моря
поддерживать, сохранять
мокрый, влажный
влажный, сырой
полог (лесонасаждения)
существо
ползать
падать
sand
hill
rock
to crack
to disappear
dirt
to dissolve
acid
soil
a mountain range
UNIT VII
песок
возвышение, холм
скала, утес
трескаться, раскалываться
исчезать
грязь, земля, почва, грунт
растворять
кислота, кислый
почва
горная цепь
weather
to heat up
solid
to remain
earthquake
soft
to seep
similar
creation
UNIT VIII
погода
нагревать
твердый, цельный
оставаться, жить, обитать
землетрясение
мягкий
просачиваться, протекать
подобный, схожий
создание
170
to cause
to expand
to contract
to observe
to freeze
salt
moisture
to rust
fungi
algae
to evaporate
UNIT IX
вызывать, быть причиной
расширяться, увеличиваться
сжиматься, сокращаться
наблюдать, замечать
замерзать
соль
влажность, влага
ржаветь, портиться
грибы (грибки), плесень
водоросли
испаряться
the process of erosion
to destroy
eventually
to move downhill
to fill in
the core
dissolved minerals
to encourage
to recycle
UNIT X
процесс эрозии
разрушать, уничтожать
в итоге, в конечном счете, со временем
перемещаться вниз
заполнять
центр, ядро
растворенные минералы
поощрять, способствовать, содействовать
повторно использовать
a slope
drainage
climatic effects
to mix
sediment
to pollute
to renew
lifetime
to churn
UNIT XI
склон, уклон
дренаж, сток
климатические воздействия
мешать; сочетать
осадок, осадочная порода
загрязнять
обновлять; возрождать
продолжительность жизни, время
существования
перемешивать; встряхивать
171
natural resources
recycling
to release
satellite
to waste
landfill
sacrifice
timber
to absorb heat
to purify the air
mining operations
fishery
UNIT XII
природные ресурсы, богатства
переработка отходов
выпускать, выделять
спутник
тратить без пользы
закапывание мусора; мусорная свалка
жертва; убыток
лесоматериалы; древесина; строевой
лес
поглощать тепло
очищать воздух
добыча полезных ископаемых, горные
работы
рыболовство
UNIT XIII
energy resources
энергетические ресурсы
power
сила, мощь, энгергия
to generate electricity
давать (вырабатывать) электричество
non-renewable sources
невозобновляемые источники
extinct
вымерший; угасший
to run out
кончаться, истощаться
solar power
энергия солнца
to capture
захватывать; улавливать
to dam up a river
запруживать; перекрывать плотиной
nuclear power
атомная энергия
fission
деление атомного ядра
to throw away the radioactive material
выбрасывать радиоактивный материал
nuclear fusion power
энергия ядерного синтеза
recycling bin
garbage
to reduce
UNIT XIV
мусорная корзина
мусор
уменьшать, сокращать
172
to reuse
efficiency
manufacturing
profit
acidic
acid deposition
alkaline
compound
acidic pollutants
fossil fuel
exhaust
precipitation
alkaline chemicals
neutralize
asthma
bronchitis
ozon
многократно использовать
эффективность, производительность
производство
выгода, польза
UNIT XV
кислотообразующий
кислотные дожди
щелочной
химическое соединение
кислотные загрязняющие агенты
ископаемое топливо
выхлопные газы
выпадение осадка
щелочные химические вещества
нейтрализовать; уравновешивать
астма
бронхит
озон
173
How to Write an Annotation
Как написать аннотацию
Аннотация (от лат.annotatio –замечание) – краткая характеристика
содержания произведения печати или рукописи. Она представляет собой
предельно сжатую описательную характеристику работы.
В аннотации указывают лишь существенные признаки содержания
документа, т.е. те, которые позволяют выявить его научное и практическое
значение и новизну, отличить его от других, близких к нему по тематике и
целевому назначению.
Соблюдение языковых особенностей аннотации включает в себя
следующее:
- изложение основных положений оригинала просто, ясно, кратко;
- избежание повторений, в том числе и заглавия статьи;
- соблюдение единства терминов и сокращений;
- использование общепринятых сокращений;
- употребление безличных конструкций типа «is/are considered…,
Is/are analyzed…, is/are reported…» и пассивного залога;
- избежание использования прилагательных, наречий, вводных слов, не
влияющих на содержание;
- использование некоторых обобщающих слов и словосочетаний,
обеспечивающих логические связи между отдельными частями
высказываний типа «as shown, however» и т.д.
Образцы клише для аннотаций на английском языке:






The article deals with …
As the title implies the article describes ...
The paper is concerned with…
It is known that…
It should be noted about…
The fact that … is stressed.
174
A mention should be made about …
It is spoken in detail about…
It is reported that …
The text gives valuable information on…
Much attention is given to…
It is shown that…
The following conclusions are drawn…
The paper looks at recent research dealing with…
The main idea of the article is…
It gives a detailed analysis of…
It draws our attention to…
It is stressed that…
The article is of great help to …
The article is of interest to …
….. is/are noted, examined, discussed in detail, stressed, reported,
considered.
 In conclusion it should be mentioned/ noted … .















175
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК
1. Агабекян, И. П. Английский язык для бакалавров. А Course of English for
Bachelors Degree Students : Intermediate level [Текст] : учеб. пособие /
И. П. Агабекян. – Ростов н/Д. : Феникс, 2012. – 379 с.
2. Голицынский, Ю. Б. Грамматика [Teкст] : сборник упражнений /
Ю. Б. Голицынский. – 6-е изд. – СПб. : КАРО, 2010. – 544 с.
3. Данилова, Г. А. Английский язык. Практический курс. Фонетика,
грамматика, лексика [Текст] : пособие / Г. А. Данилова. – М. : АСТ:
Восток – Запад ; Владимир : ВКТ, 2008. – 287 с.
4. Мыльцева, Н. А. Универсальный справочник по грамматике английского
языка [Текст] : справочник / Н. А. Мыльцева, Т. М. Жималенкова. – Изд.
10-е, испр. – М. : Глосса-Пресс ; Ростов н/Д. : Феникс, 2009. – 280 с.
5. Радовель, В. А. Разговорный английский в диалогах [Текст] : пособие /
В. А. Радовель. – Ростов н/Д. : Феникс, 2007. – 350 с.
6. Степанова, Н. А. An Introduction to Environmental Awareness : Знакомство
с основными проблемами охраны окружающей среды [Текст] : учеб.
пособие / Н. А. Степанова. – СПб. : Антология, 2006. – 128 с.
7. http://www.physicalgeography.net
8. http://www.peopleandplanet.net
9. http://www.bbc.co.uk
10. http://www.unep.org
11. http://www.epa.gov
176
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Introduction……………………………………………………………………...........3
Unit I…………………………………………………………………………….........5
Unit II…………………………………………………………………………..........14
Unit III………………………………………………………………………….........23
Unit IV………………………………………………………………………….........32
Unit V…………………………………………………………………………..........39
Unit VI………………………………………………………………………….........45
Unit VII…………………………………………………………………………........52
Unit VIII………………………………………………………………………..........60
Unit IX………………………………………………………………………….........68
Unit X…………………………………………………………………………..........76
Unit XI………………………………………………………………………….........83
Unit XII………………………………………………………………………............90
Unit XIII……………………………………………………….……………….......100
Unit XIV………………………………………………………………………........108
Unit XV……………………………………………………………………….........115
Unit XVI………………………………………………………………………........122
Unit XVII……………………………………………………………………….......129
Unit XVIII…………………………...…………………………………………......136
Unit XIX………………………………………………………………………........144
Unit XX……………………………………………………………………...…......154
SUPPLEMENT. English-Russian Dictionary……….…………………………......167
How to Write an Annotation………………………………………………….........173
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК……………………………….…………........175
Учебное издание
Зайцева Людмила Вячеславовна
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК
ENGLISH FOR NATURE MANAGERS
Учебное пособие
Редактор Е.А. Богданова
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РИО ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». 394087, г. Воронеж, ул. Тимирязева, 8
Отпечатано в УОП ФГБОУ ВПО «ВГЛТА». 394087, г. Воронеж, ул. Докучаева, 10
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