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Ин. язык в проф. деятельности...(ПЗ 23.04.01 23.04.03)

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ
УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ Г.Ф. МОРОЗОВА»
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК В ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ
ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлениям подготовки 23.04.01 – Технология
транспортных процессов, 23.04.03 – Эксплуатация
транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов
Воронеж 2016
2
УДК 81.432.1
Маклакова, Е. А. Иностранный язык. Английский язык. Иностранный язык в
профессиональной деятельности [Текст] : методические указания к
практическим занятиям для студентов по направлениям подготовки
23.04.01 – Технология транспортных процессов, 23.04.03 – Эксплуатация
транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов / Е. А. Маклакова,
А. А. Илунина ; М-во образования и науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». –
Воронеж, 2016. – 55 с.
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ» (протокол № 6 от 3 июня 2016 г.)
Рецензент д-р филол. наук, проф. кафедры общего языкознания
и стилистики ФГБОУ ВО «ВГУ» И.А. Стернин
Методические указания содержат пять модулей, которые включают текстовый
материал из аутентичных источников для аннотирования и реферирования, лексические и
грамматические задания, сгруппированные по отдельным практическим занятиям.
Методические указания предназначены для практических занятий студентов
по направлениям подготовки 23.04.01 – Технология транспортных процессов,
23.04.03 – Эксплуатация транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов.
3
ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ
Модуль I .................................................................................................................... 4
Практическое занятие № 1 ...................................................................................... 4
Практическое занятие № 2 ...................................................................................... 7
Практическое занятие № 3 ...................................................................................... 9
Модуль II ................................................................................................................. 12
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 12
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 14
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 17
Модуль III ................................................................................................................ 20
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 20
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 23
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 26
Модуль IV ............................................................................................................... 29
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 29
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 33
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 36
Модуль V ................................................................................................................. 39
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 39
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 43
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 46
Практическое занятие № 4 .................................................................................... 50
Библиографический список ................................................................................... 53
4
МОДУЛЬ I
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
The American automobile economy based on free enterprise is characterized by
private ownership with the absence of government involvement.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
Transport on roads can be roughly grouped into the transportation of goods and
transportation of people. In many countries licensing requirements and safety
regulations ensure a separation of the two industries.
The nature of road transportation of goods depends, apart from the degree of
development of the local infrastructure, on the distance the goods are transported by
road, the weight and volume of the individual shipment, and the type of goods
transported. For short distances and light, small shipments a van or pickup truck may
be used. For large shipments even if less than a full truckload a truck is more
appropriate. In some countries cargo is transported by road in horse-drawn carriages,
donkey carts or other non-motorized mode.
Delivery services are sometimes considered a separate category from cargo
transport. In many places fast food is transported on roads by various types of
vehicles. For inner city delivery of small packages and documents bike couriers are
quite common. People are transported on roads either in individual cars
or automobiles, or in mass transit by bus or coach. Special modes of individual
transport by road like rickshaws or velo-taxis may also be locally available. There are
also specialist modes of road transport for particular situations, such as ambulances.
Trucking companies (AE) or haulage companies / hauliers (BE) accept cargo
for road transport. Truck drivers operate either independently – working directly for
the client – or through freight carriers or shipping agents. Some big companies (e.g.
grocery store chains) operate their own internal trucking operations. In the U.S. many
truckers own their truck (rig), and are known as owner-operators. Some road
5
transportation is done on regular routes or for only one consignee per run, while
others transport goods from many different loading stations / shippers to various
consignees.
On some long runs only cargo for one leg of the route (to) is known when the
cargo is loaded. Truckers may have to wait at the destination for the return cargo
(from). A bill of lading issued by the shipper provides the basic document for road
freight. On cross-border transportation the trucker will present the cargo and
documentation provided by the shipper to customs for inspection (Schengen
Agreement for EC). This also applies to shipments that are transported out of a free
port.
To avoid accidents caused by fatigue, truckers have to keep to strict rules for
drive time and required rest periods. In the United States and Canada, these
regulations are known as hours of service, and in the European Union as drivers
working hours. One such regulation is the Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road
Transport) Convention, 1979. Tachographs record the times the vehicle is in motion
and stopped. Some companies use two drivers per truck to ensure uninterrupted
transportation; with one driver resting or sleeping in a bunk in the back of the cab
while the other is driving.
Truck drivers often need special licenses to drive, known in the U.S. as
a commercial driver's license. In the U.K. a Large Goods Vehicle license is required.
For transport of hazardous materials (dangerous goods) truckers need a license,
which usually requires them to pass an exam (e.g. in the EU). They have to make sure
they affix proper labels for the respective hazard(s) to their vehicle. Liquid goods are
transported by road in tank trucks (AE) or tanker lorries (BE) or special tank
containers for intermodal transport. For unpackaged goods and liquids weigh
stations confirm weight after loading and before delivery. For transportation of live
animals special requirements have to be met in many countries to prevent cruelty to
animals (animal rights). For fresh and frozen goods refrigerator trucks or reefer
(container)s are used.
In Australia road trains replace rail transport for goods on routes throughout the
center of the country. B-doubles and semi-trailers are used in urban areas because of
their smaller size. Low-loader or flat-bed trailers are used to haul containers,
see containerization, in intermodal transport.
6
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
I think we first need to __________ the problem.
а) sell
b) satisfy
c) buy
d) identify
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The key purpose for using a visual aid is to help the audience understand the topic
________ .
а) most
b) better
c) less
d) more
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
What companies accept cargo for road transport? – _________________.
а) Yes, we have got a great many companies.
c) Yes, some companies use two drivers per truck.
b) They were manually operated.
d) They are trucking companies (AE) or haulage companies / hauliers (BE).
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Truck drivers often need special licenses to drive. In the U.K.________________ is
required.
а) a Large Goods Vehicle license
c) the Hours of Work and Rest Periods (Road Transport) Convention
b) speed limits and parking regulations;
d) traffic control devices
Задание 6. Перед Вами бланк. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
а) 30 May, 1985
b) Manchester
c) George Fox
d) British
1) Name, surname
2) Date of birth
3) Place of birth
4) Nationality
7
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
Traffic engineers could not learn how to coordinate signals along a thoroughfare to
increase its speeds and volumes.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
Nearly all roadways are built with devices meant to control traffic. Most
notable to the motorist are those meant to communicate directly with the driver.
Broadly, these fall into three categories: signs, signals or pavement markings. They
help the driver navigate; they assign the right-of-way at intersections; they indicate
laws such as speed limits and parking regulations; they advise of potential hazards;
they indicate passing and no passing zones; and otherwise deliver information and to
assure traffic is orderly and safe.
Two hundred years ago these devices were signs, nearly all informal. In the
late 19th century signals began to appear in the biggest cities at a few highly
congested intersections. They were manually operated, and consisted of semaphores,
flags or paddles, or in some cases colored electric lights, all modeled on railroad
signals.
In the 20th century signals were automated, at first with electromechanical
devices and later with computers. Signals can be quite sophisticated: with vehicle
sensors embedded in the pavement, the signal can control and choreograph the
turning movements of heavy traffic in the most complex of intersections. In the
1920s traffic engineers learned how to coordinate signals along a thoroughfare to
increase its speeds and volumes. In the 1980s, with computers, similar coordination
of whole networks became possible.
In the 1920s pavement markings were introduced. Initially they were used to
indicate the road's centerline. Soon after they were coded with information to aid
motorists in passing safely. Later, with multi-lane roads they were used to
define lanes. Other uses, such as indicating permitted turning movements and
pedestrian crossings soon followed.
8
In the 20th century traffic control devices were standardized. Before then every
locality decided on what its devices would look like and where they would be
applied. This could be confusing, especially to traffic from outside the locality. In the
United States standardization was first taken at the state level, and late in the century
at the federal level. Each country has a Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices
(MUTCD) and there are efforts to blend them into a worldwide standard.
Besides signals, signs, and markings, other forms of traffic control are designed
and built into the roadway. For instance, curbs and rumble strips can be used to keep
traffic in a given lane and median barriers can prevent left turns and even U-turns.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
We will have to __________ with the problem of traffic control.
а) identify
b) satisfy
c) buy
d) deal
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The research indicates that _________ motorists are following now traffic rules.
а) highly
b) better
c) best
d) more
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
How long is the study expected to last? – ______________________________.
а) We began a pilot study on June, 5. c) It is going to cost much more.
b) We should finish it in three weeks. d) It sounds great.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Last century Great Britain adopted a decimal currency system in which one _______
is worth one hundred pence.
а) pound
b) banknote
c) dollar
d) penny
Задание 6. Перед Вами бланк. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
а) three weeks c) Marketing Manager b) 30 May, 2007 d) China
1) Forename(s)
2) Occupation
3) Period of stay
4) Date of arrival
5) Country
Anna
9
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Traffic control
c) Toll roads
b) The auto parts stores
d) Modern cars' controls
Early toll roads were usually built by private companies under a government
franchise. They typically paralleled or replaced routes already with some volume of
commerce, hoping the improved road would divert enough traffic to make the
enterprise profitable.
Plank roads were particularly attractive as they greatly reduced rolling
resistance and mitigated the problem of getting mired in mud. Another improvement,
better grading to lessen the steepness of the worst stretches, allowed draft animals to
haul heavier loads. A toll road in the United States is often called a turnpike.
The term turnpike probably originated from the gate, often a simple pike,
which blocked passage until the fare was paid at a toll house (or toll booth in current
terminology). When the toll was paid the pike, which was mounted on a swivel, was
turned to allow the vehicle to pass.
Tolls were usually based on the type of cargo being transported, not the type of
vehicle. The practice of selecting routes so as to avoid tolls is called shunpiking. This
may be simply to avoid the expense, as a form of economic protest (or boycott), or
simply to seek a road less traveled as a bucolic interlude.
Companies were formed to build, improve, and maintain a particular section of
roadway, and tolls were collected from users to finance the enterprise. The enterprise
was usually named to indicate the locale of its roadway, often including the name of
one of both of the termini. The word turnpike came into common use in the names of
these roadways and companies, and is essentially used interchangeably with toll
road in current terminology.
In the United States, toll roads began with the Lancaster Turnpike in the 1790s,
within Pennsylvania, connecting Philadelphia and Lancaster. In the state of New
York, the Great Western Turnpike was started in Albany in 1799 and eventually
extended, by several alternate routes, to near what is now Syracuse, New York. Toll
roads peaked in the mid 19th century, and by the turn of the twentieth century most
toll roads were taken over by state highway departments.
10
The demise of this early toll road era was due to the rise of canals and
railroads, which were more efficient (and thus cheaper) in moving freight over long
distances. Roads wouldn't again be competitive with rails and barges until the first
half of the 20th century when the internal combustion engine replaces draft animals
as the source of motive power.
With the development, mass production, and popular embrace of the
automobile, faster and higher capacity roads were needed. In the 1920s limited access
highways appeared. Their main characteristics were dual roadways with access points
limited to (but not always) grade-separated interchanges. Their dual roadways
allowed high volumes of traffic, the need for no or few traffic lights along with
relatively gentle grades and curves allowed higher speeds.
The first limited access highways were Parkways, so called because of their
often park-like landscaping and, in the metropolitan New York City area, they
connected the region's system of parks.
When the German autobahns built in the 1930s introduced higher design
standards and speeds, road planners and road-builders in the United States started
developing and building toll roads to similar high standards. The Pennsylvania
Turnpike, which largely followed the path of a partially built railroad, was the first,
opening in 1940.
After 1940 with the Pennsylvania Turnpike, toll roads saw a resurgence, this
time to fund limited access highways. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, after World
War II interrupted the evolution of the highway, the US resumed building toll roads.
They were to still higher standards and one road, the New York State Thruway, had
standards that became the prototype for theU.S. Interstate Highway System.
Several other major toll roads which connected with the Pennsylvania Turnpike
were established before the creation of the Interstate Highway System. These were
the Indiana Toll Road, Ohio Turnpike, and New Jersey Turnpike.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
When ___________ is paid they allow the vehicle to pass.
а) the automobile
c) the toll
b) the limited access highways d) the state highway departments
11
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Before __________ the graph or chart, prepare the audience for it.
а) shown
b) show
c) showing
d) to show
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
What is your current job title? – _______________________________.
а) I am twenty years old. c) My salary is rather high.
b) I am a travel agent.
d) My interests include swimming and reading.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In the United States, __________, which largely followed the path of a partially built
railroad, was the first, opening in 1940.
а) Fleet Street
c) the City of London
b) Wall Street
d) the Pennsylvania Turnpike
Задание 6. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке
1)
2)
3)
4)
a) I am enclosing a brochure and
b) The reason I am writing to you is
price list for your consideration.
that I represent a new regional chain of
I would like to call on you next auto parts stores, and that we have been
week, give you some samples, and good sellers in many cities.
see if you have an interest in learning
more about our products.
I look forward to talking to you at
that time.
Sincerely,
John Kim
Enclosures: brochure, price list.
c)
d) Asian Auto Products
Dear Mr. Chan,
450 Sutter Street
My name is John Kim and I am an
Suite 102 San Francisco
accountant representative with Asian
March 12, 2015
Auto Products, Inc. in San Francisco.
Automobile repair workshops
125 Maiden Lane
San Francisco
12
МОДУЛЬ II
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Advantages and disadvantages of auto business
b) The trends of development of repair shops
c) Profits and losses of auto parts stores
d) Where motorists can get their car serviced
Automotive garages and repair shops can be divided into following categories:

The auto parts stores or motor factors who also maintain service operations.
This is not common in the United Kingdom but more common in the US.

Automobile repair workshops that are independently owned and operated
businesses. These may also include regional or national chains and franchises
including OEM car dealership sites. In the United States, these sites are commonly
certified by their respective manufacturer to perform warranty and recall repairs by
that manufacturer or distributor. Independent automobile repair shops in the US may
also achieve certification through manufacturer sponsored programs. In the European
Union a recent law (The EC Block Exemption Regulation 1400/2002, October 2003)
allows motorists more flexibility in selecting where they can get their car serviced.

Due to this legislation, maintenance and service work does not have to be
done by the main dealer as long as the garage uses Original Equipment 'Matching
Quality' parts, and are recorded as such, and the garage follow the manufacturer's
service schedules. The Block Exemption Regulation (BER) covers service and
maintenance during the warranty period and prohibits vehicle manufacturers’
warranties from including conditions that require normal maintenance to be provided
within the vehicle manufacturer’s network or that all parts used must be the
manufacturer’s original spare parts. This means that motorists benefit from open
market competition in aftermarket parts, repairs and services thus reducing the cost of
servicing through better labor rates and competitively priced parts.

Specialty automobile repair shops are shops specializing in certain parts
such as brakes, mufflers and exhaust systems, transmissions, body parts, tires,
automobile electrification, automotive air conditioner repairs, automotive glass
13
repairs and installation, and wheel alignment or those who only work on certain
brands of vehicle or vehicles from certain continents of the world. There are also
automotive repair shops that specialize in vehicle modifications and customization.
Oftentimes, various specialized auto repair shops will have varied infrastructure and
facilities (for specific jobs or vehicles), as well as technicians and mechanics with
different qualifications.

Online automobile repair shops providing doorstep repair services and
home delivery of new and used auto parts of different late model and classic cars
whose parts are not widely available in the market. Such kind of organizations are
predominant in US with wide acceptance and high growth in UK also.The developing
countries are still adapting to the e-commerce marketplace and it is expected that with
its success in the US this will also prove to be revolutionary there also.
Automotive repair shops also offer paintwork repairs to scratches, scuffs and
dents to vehicle damage as well as damage caused by collisions and major accidents.
Many body shops now offer paintless dent repair, which is done by pushing the dents
out from inside. OEM Certified Collision Centers have the highest standards.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Online automobile repair shops provide doorstep repair services and home delivery of
___________.
а) signals, signs, and markings c) manufacturer or distributor
b) new and used auto parts
d) technicians and mechanics
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
An owner can make decisions quickly without _______ to consult others.
а) have had
c) having
b) had
d) to have
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
What is your practical work experience? – ___________________________.
а) About $500, I think. c) In a month’s time.
b) Five years.
d) It depends on the job.
14
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In the______________ a recent law (The EC Block Exemption Regulation
1400/2002, October 2003) allows motorists more flexibility in selecting where they
can get their car serviced.
а) France
c) UK
b) European Union
d) USA
Задание 6. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке
1)
2)
3)
4)
a) Thank you for your help beforehand. b) Transmaster Innovations, Inc.
We're looking forward to your prompt
18 West Avenue
reply.
Orlando, FI 32808
With best wishes,
Phone 407-555-8312
Foreign Sales Department
Fax 407-555-8313
Philip Burrow
c) Dear Mr. Katsumi,
d)
September, 16, 2016
We are very much interested in an
ad of yours that ran in a recent issue of
Mr. Katsumi
New Electronics. TI, Inc. is always
Katsumi Electronics, Ltd.
looking for good electronic products to
10 Ichiban-cho
keep our customers happy and to attract
Tokyo 102,
new ones. Would you please tell us
Japan
more about your latest PC. Рlease send
your wholesale prices and your terms.
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Сosts and benefits of car usage
b) Car manufacturers
c) Types of cars
15
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation. Most
definitions of the term specify that cars are designed to run primarily on roads, to
have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be
constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.
The year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car. In that year,
German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars did not become
widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that were accessible
to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford
Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where
they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted
in Western Europe and other parts of the world.
Cars are equipped with controls used for driving, parking, passenger comfort
and safety and controlling a variety of lights. As of the 2010s, controls have been
added to vehicles, making them more complex. Examples include rear reversing
cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in-car entertainment. Most cars in
use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by
deflagration of gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel. Both fuels cause air
pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas
vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries. Electric cars, which were
invented early in the history of the automobile, began to become commercially
available in 2008.
There are costs and benefits to car use. The costs of car usage include the cost
of: acquiring the vehicle, interest payments (if the car is financed), repairs and auto
maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance. The
costs to society of car use include: maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air
pollution, public health, health care, and disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life.
Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide.
The benefits may include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence
and convenience. The societal benefits may include: economic benefits, such as job
and wealth creation from car production, sales and maintenance, transportation
provision, society well-being derived from leisure and travel opportunities, and
revenue generation from the tax opportunities.
16
The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching
implications for the nature of societies. It was estimated in 2010 that the number of
cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The
numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, India and other NICs.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант перевода словосочетания
parking fee
а) свободная парковка
c) парковочное место
b) парковка запрещена
d) плата за парковку
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
You __________ use pauses to slow your pace down and make your sentences easier
to understand.
а) shall be able
b) has to
c) might be
d) can
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
Did Mr. Bridges receive you on the day of your arrival? – ____________________.
а) You don’t say so!
b) Yes, he did.
c) Yes, I was.
d) Yes, he received you.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The ______________ government became closely involved in car industry after
World War II when the Labor Party nationalized major industries.
а) British
b) American
c) socialist
d) German
Задание 6. Определите цель делового письма
а) Enquiry
b) Reply to enquiry
c) Offer
17
Electrical Supplies Ltd.
Coventry England
E.C.7.
20th May, 2015
Rossimport
Moscow, Russia
Dear Sirs,
With reference to your enquiry of May 11, we confirm that we manufacture the
equipment you are interested in. Our equipment is not very expensive and it is in
great demand on the world market. We are doing business with many firms in Eastern
Europe and we have never received any complaints. We can supply you with the
number of engines you require.
We are enclosing with the letter our latest catalogue and leaflets where you will
find all the technical and commercial information. We also enclose our price-list and
General Conditions of Sale including the terms of payment.
Many thanks for your enquiry and we look forward to receiving your order in the
near future. If you have questions please do not hesitate to contact us.
Yours faithfully,
Tom Jones
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Manual controls in cars
b) Modern electric cars
c) Types of car controls
Cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety,
normally operated by a combination of the use of feet and hands, and occasionally by
voice on 2000s-era cars. These controls include a steering wheel, pedals for operating
the brakes and controlling the car's speed (and, in a manual transmission car, a clutch
pedal), a shift lever or stick for changing gears, and a number of buttons and dials for
turning on lights, ventilation and other functions.
18
In the Ford Model T the left-side hand lever sets the rear wheel parking brakes
and puts the transmission in neutral. The lever to the right controls the throttle. The
lever on the left of the steering column is for ignition timing. The left foot pedal
changes the two forward gears while the centre pedal controls reverse. The right
pedal is the brake.
Modern cars' controls are now standardized, such as the location for the
accelerator and brake, but this was not always the case. Controls are evolving in
response to new technologies, for example the electric car and the integration of
mobile communications. Since the car was first invented, its controls have become
fewer and simpler through automation, for example all cars once had a manual
controls for the choke valve, clutch, ignition timing, and a crank instead of an
electric starter.
However new controls have also been added to vehicles, making them more
complex. Examples include air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car
entertainment. Another trend is the replacement of physical knob and switches for
secondary controls with touch-screen controls such as BMW's iDrive and Ford's My
Ford Touch.
Cars are typically fitted with multiple types of lights. These include headlights,
which are used to illuminate the way ahead so that the vehicle can be used at night,
brake lights to indicate when the brakes are applied, turning lights to indicate the turn
intentions of the driver, white-coloured reverse lights to illuminate the area behind
the car (and indicate that the driver will be or is reversing) and on some vehicles,
additional lights to increase the visibility of the car. Interior lights on the ceiling of
the car are usually fitted for the driver and passengers.
The weight of a car influences fuel consumption and performance, with more
weight resulting in increased fuel consumption and decreased performance.
According to research conducted by Julian Allwood of the University of Cambridge,
global energy use could be heavily reduced by using lighter cars, and an average
weight of 500 kg has been said to be well achievable.
In some competitions such as the Shell Eco Marathon, average car weights of
45 kg have also been achieved. These cars are only single-seaters (still falling within
the definition of a car, although 4-seater cars are more common), but they
nevertheless demonstrate the amount by which car weights could still be reduced, and
the subsequent lower fuel use.
19
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант перевода словосочетания
fuel consumption
а) топливный насос
c) заправка топливом
b) потребление топлива
d) выбор топлива
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
You __________ change the meaning of a sentence by putting the stress on a
different word.
а) shall be able
b) has to
c) might be
d) can
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
How was your flight, Mr. White? – ______________________.
а) Yes. Here we are. c) I would prefer a morning flight.
b) I'm afraid not.
d) A little bumpy, but I am glad to be here.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In some competitions such as the _______________, average car weights of 45 kg
have also been achieved.
а) USA Open
c) Shell Eco Marathon
b) Wimbledon TCh
d) Olympic Games
Задание 6. Определите цель делового письма
а) Enquiry
b) Reply to enquiry
c) Offer
W. Jones & Sons, Ltd.
Queen Street, 285
London, E.C.4
10th January 2014
Rossexport
Lomonosova Street, 15
Moscow
Russia
Dear Sirs,
We learn from the Russian Trade Mission that you are producing for export air
conditioning and navigation systems for cars.
20
We are very much interested in your products. We are always looking for good air
conditioning and navigation systems for cars to keep our customers happy and to
attract new ones. There is a steady demand here for high-class goods of this type.
Will you please send us your catalogues and full details of your export prices and
terms of payment. We look forward to hearing form you.
Yours faithfully,
W. Jones.
МОДУЛЬ III
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая из его частей
содержит следующую информацию
a) Fuel and propulsion technologies
b) Costs and benefits
c) Seating and body style
d) Safety
1) Most cars are designed to carry multiple occupants, often with four or five
seats. Cars with five seats typically seat two passengers in the front and three in the
rear. Full-size cars and large sport utility vehicles can often carry six, seven, or more
occupants depending on the arrangement of the seats. In the other hand, sports
cars are most often designed with only two seats.
The differing needs for passenger capacity and their luggage or cargo space has
resulted in the availability of a large variety of body styles to meet individual
consumer requirements that include, among others, the sedan/saloon, hatchback,
station wagon/estate, and minivan.
2) Most cars in use today are propelled by an internal combustion engine,
fueled by deflagration of gasoline (also known as petrol) or diesel. Both fuels are
known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change
and global warming. Rapidly increasing oil prices, concerns about oil dependence,
tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are
propelling work on alternative power systems for cars.
Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development
of hybrid vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. Vehicles using
21
alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are
also gaining popularity in some countries.
Oil consumption in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries has been
abundantly pushed by car growth; the 1985-2003 oil gluts even fuelled the sales of
low-economy vehicles in OECD countries. The BRIC countries are adding to this
consumption; in December 2009, China was briefly the largest car market.
3) Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths
worldwide. Mary Ward became one of the first documented car fatalities in 1869 in
Parsonstown, Ireland, and Henry Bliss one of the United States' first pedestrian car
casualties in 1899 in New York City.
There are now standard tests for safety in new cars, such as the EuroNCAP and
the US NCAP tests, and insurance-industry-backed tests by the Insurance Institute for
Highway Safety (IIHS). Worldwide, road traffic is becoming ever safer, in part due to
efforts by the government to implement safety features in cars, and by implementing
safety components such as speed bumps on the roads themselves.
4) The costs of car usage, which may include the cost of: acquiring the vehicle,
repairs and auto maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes,
and insurance, are weighed against the cost of the alternatives, and the value of the
benefits – perceived and real – of vehicle usage. The benefits may include on-demand
transportation, mobility, independence and convenience.
Similarly the costs to society of encompassing car use, which may include
those of: maintaining roads, land use, pollution, public health, health care, and of
disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life, can be balanced against the value of the
benefits to society that car use generates. The societal benefits may include: economy
benefits, such as job and wealth creation, of car production and maintenance,
transportation provision, society wellbeing derived from leisure and travel
opportunities, and revenue generation from the tax opportunities. The ability for
humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the
nature of societies.
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному высказыванию
Both fuels are known to cause_____________ and are also blamed for contributing
to climate change and global warming.
a) repairs and auto maintenance b) road traffic accidents
c) air pollution
d) speed limits
22
Задание 3. Восстановите правильный порядок
синтаксическим элементам предложения
in new cars / standard tests / now / for safety / there are /.
слов
по приведѐнным
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
What was the home of the nation's newspapers till the recent past?
a) Roman fortification b) Fleet Street
c) Greenwich
d) Wall Street
Задание 5. Выберите реплику, соответствующую телефонному разговору
A – This is Otto Kunstler from Swiss Trading Associates calling for Tom Jones.
B – _______________________________________.
A – Yes: it is K-U-N-S-T-L-E-R.
a) Sorry, the line is busy. b) One moment, please, I’m ringing.
c) Would you spell your name, please?
d) Yes, please.
Задание 6. Определите вид представленного документа
a) Cover Letter
b) Enquiry
c) Order
d) Claim
Dear Ms. Robinson:
With reference to your Ad in today's Financial World, I would like to be
considered for the above-mentioned opening.
My recent position is a manager of Sales department. I was hired by this company
eight years ago and have profound experience in this field. I appreciate the
opportunity to work on my own initiative and to take a certain amount of
responsibility.
Since my present position offers little prospect for advancement, I would prefer to
be employed in an expanding organization such as yours. I tailor to a position of a
manager in your company.
Please find enclosed my resume where I present myself.
I hope to attend an interview at any time convenient to your. I can be contacted at
211-5762 after 6 p.m.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,
John Pogodin
23
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите главную идею
текста
a) Loss of habitat potential
b) Major contributor to air pollution
c) Types of fuels
d) Hybrid vehicles
While there are different types of fuel that may power cars, most rely on
gasoline or diesel. The United States Environmental Protection Agency states that the
average vehicle emits 8,887 grams of carbon dioxide per gallon of gasoline. The
average vehicle running on diesel fuel will emit 10,180 grams of carbon dioxide.
Many governments are using fiscal policies (such as road tax or the US gas
guzzler tax) to influence vehicle purchase decisions, with a low CO2 figure often
resulting in reduced taxation. Fuel taxes may act as an incentive for the production of
more efficient, hence less polluting, car designs (e.g. hybrid vehicles) and the
development of alternative fuels. High fuel taxes may provide a strong incentive for
consumers to purchase lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, or to not drive.
On average, today's automobiles are about 75 percent recyclable, and using
recycled steel helps reduce energy use and pollution. In the United States Congress,
federally mandated fuel efficiency standards have been debated regularly, passenger
car standards have not raised above the 27.5 miles per US gallon (8.6 L/100 km;
33.0 mpg-) standard set in 1985. Light truck standards have changed more frequently,
and were set at 22.2 miles per US gallon (10.6 L/100 km; 26.7 mpg) in 2007.
The manufacture of vehicles is resource intensive, and many manufacturers
now report on the environmental performance of their factories, including energy
usage, waste and water consumption.
The growth in popularity of the car allowed cities to sprawl, therefore
encouraging more travel by car resulting in inactivity and obesity, which in turn can
lead to increased risk of a variety of diseases.
Transportation (of all types including trucks, buses and cars) is a major
contributor to air pollution in most industrialized nations. According to the American
Surface Transportation Policy Project nearly half of all Americans are breathing
24
unhealthy air. Their study showed air quality in dozens of metropolitan areas has
worsened over the last decade.
Animals and plants are often negatively impacted by cars via habitat
destruction and pollution. Over the lifetime of the average car the "loss of habitat
potential" may be over 50,000 square meters (540,000 sq ft) based on primary
production correlations.
Animals are also killed every year on roads by cars, referred to as Road kill.
More recent road developments are including significant environmental mitigations
in their designs such as green bridges to allow wildlife crossings, and
creating wildlife corridors.
Growth in the popularity of vehicles and commuting has led to traffic
congestion. Brussels was considered Europe's most congested city in 2011.
Car propulsion technologies that are under development include gasoline /
electric and plug-in hybrids, battery electric vehicles, hydrogen cars, biofuels, and
various alternative fuels.
Research into future alternative forms of power include the development
of fuel cells, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), and even using the
stored energy of compressed air or liquid nitrogen. New materials which may replace
steel car bodies include duralumin, fiberglass, carbon fiber, and carbon nano-tubes.
Telematics technology is allowing more and more people to share cars, on
a pay-as-you-go basis, through car share and car pool schemes. Communication is
also evolving due to connected car systems.
Задание 2. Выберите одно из четырѐх словосочетаний, которое
соответствует приведѐнному высказыванию
High ____________ may provide a strong incentive for consumers to purchase
lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars, or to not drive.
a) popularity of vehicles
b) road developments
c) development of fuel cells
d) fuel taxes
Задание 3. Восстановите правильный
синтаксическим элементам предложения
порядок
слов
negatively impacted / often / animals and plants / by cars / are.
по приведѐнным
25
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
What ended the plague, but also destroyed much of the city in 1666?
a) Roman fortification
b) World War
c) Great Fire of London d) Industrial Revolution
Задание 5. Выберите реплику, соответствующую телефонному разговору
A – Just a minute. I'll ring him.
B – Thank you.
A –_______________________________________.
B – Okay. I will hold for a couple of minutes.
a) Sorry, the line is busy. Would you mind holding?
b) Yes, please.
c) One moment, please.
d) Could you put me through, please?
Задание 6. Определите вид представленного документа
a) Cover Letter
b) Invitation
c) Order
d) Reply to enquiry
P. Watson
Sales Manager
Pan Engineering Со
Dear Mr. Watson:
We have pleasure in inviting you to our annual conference. It will take place at the
Sheraton Hotel, Glasgow from 15 to 18 April. We enclose details of the conference,
accommodation arrangements and a provisional program.
We would appreciate it if you could confirm your participation at a suitable time.
Yours sincerely,
J. Cooper
Conference Organizer
26
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
More recent road developments are including significant environmental mitigations
in their designs such as green bridges to allow wildlife crossings, and
creating wildlife corridors.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
A robotic Volkswagen Passat shown at Stanford University is a driverless car.
Fully autonomous vehicles, also known as driverless cars, already exist in prototype
(such as the Google driverless car), and are expected to be commercially available
around 2020. According to urban designer and futurist Michael E. Arth, driverless
electric vehicles – in conjunction with the increased use of virtual reality for work,
travel, and pleasure – could reduce the world's 800 million vehicles to a fraction of
that number within a few decades.
This would be possible if almost all private cars requiring drivers, which are
not in use and parked 90% of the time, would be traded for public self-driving taxis
that would be in near constant use. This would also allow for getting the appropriate
vehicle for the particular need – a bus could come for a group of people, a limousine
could come for a special night out, children could be chauffeured in supervised
safety, and 41,000 lives could be saved each year in the US alone.
The automotive industry designs, develops, manufactures, markets, and sells
the world's motor vehicles. In 2008, more than 70 million motor vehicles, including
cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide.
In 2007, a total of 71.9 million new cars were sold worldwide: 22.9 million in
Europe, 21.4 million in the Asia-Pacific Region, 19.4 million in the USA and
Canada, 4.4 million in Latin America, 2.4 million in the Middle East and 1.4 million
in Africa. The markets in North America and Japan were stagnant, while those in
South America and other parts of Asia grew strongly. Of the major markets, China,
Russia, Brazil and India saw the most rapid growth.
About 250 million vehicles are in use in the United States. Around the world,
there were about 806 million cars and light trucks on the road in 2007; they burn over
260 billion US gallons (980,000,000 m3) of gasoline and diesel fuel yearly. The
27
numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India. In the opinion of some,
urban transport systems based around the car have proved unsustainable, consuming
excessive energy, affecting the health of populations, and delivering a declining level
of service despite increasing investments. Many of these negative impacts fall
disproportionately on those social groups who are also least likely to own and drive
cars. The sustainable transport movement focuses on solutions to these problems.
In 2008, with rapidly rising oil prices, industries such as the automotive
industry, are experiencing a combination of pricing pressures from raw material costs
and changes in consumer buying habits. The industry is also facing increasing
external competition from the public transport sector, as consumers re-evaluate their
private vehicle usage. Roughly half of the US's fifty-one light vehicle plants are
projected to permanently close in the coming years, with the loss of another 200,000
jobs in the sector, on top of the 560,000 jobs lost this decade.
Combined with robust growth in China, in 2009, this resulted in China
becoming the largest car producer and market in the world. China 2009 sales had
increased to 13.6 million, a significant increase from one million of domestic car
sales in 2000. Since then however, even in China and other BRIC countries, the
automotive production is again falling.
Established alternatives for some aspects of car use include public transit such
as
buses, trolleybuses,
trains, subways,
tramways light
rail,
cycling,
and walking. Car-share arrangements and carpooling are also increasingly popular, in
the US and Europe. For example, in the US, some car-sharing services have
experienced double-digit growth in revenue and membership growth between 2006
and 2007.
Services like car sharing offering residents to "share" a vehicle rather than own
a car in already congested neighborhoods. Bike-share systems have been tried in
some European cities, including Copenhagen and Amsterdam. Similar programs have
been experimented with in a number of US cities. Additional individual modes of
transport, such as personal rapid transit could serve as an alternative to cars if they
prove to be socially accepted.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The automotive industry is also facing increasing external _________ from the public
transport sector.
а) car producer
c) raw material costs
b) competition
d) product
28
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
I ______________ my presentation into three parts.
а) dividing
b) have divided
c) has divided
d) divides
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
Could you supply us with the latest information about it? – ____________________.
а) Most willingly.
b) Let me introduce myself.
c) Keep well. All the best!
d) Yes, I am, the day after tomorrow.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
_______________, the longest ruling monarch in Britain, who lived in 1837-1901, is
a symbol of the unity of the whole nation and the British Empire.
а) Karl Benz
c) George Washington
b) Queen Victoria
d) Independent Authority
Задание 6. Перед Вами резюме. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
а) Career objective
c) Present address
b) References
d) Work experience
1 Name
John R. Pogodin
2
1 Park Avenue, Ap. 32 New York, N.Y. 11298 Tel.:
(312) 489-5671
3 Marital status
single
4
A position as a manager
5 Summary of skills and 8 years of experience in all routine work in his field.
qualifications
Perfect knowledge of up-to-date computer software
and statistics.
6 Responsibilities
Decision making, problem solution, controlling and
fulfillment of production planning forecasts.
7
1994 – up to now SIGMA, Inc. New York.
Manager. In charge of promotion and sales
8 Education
1988-1993 Moscow State University. Moscow,
Russia, Master (Economics),
1994 Courses in Marketing
9
Available upon request
29
МОДУЛЬ IV
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
Services like car sharing offering residents to «share» a vehicle rather than own a car
in already congested neighborhoods.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
An ambulance is a vehicle for transporting sick or injured people, to, from or
between places of treatment for an illness or injury. The term ambulance comes from
the Latin word ambulare, meaning to walk or move about which is a reference to
early medical care where patients were moved by lifting or wheeling.
The word is most commonly associated with the land-based, emergency motor
vehicles that administer emergency care to those with acute illnesses or injuries,
hereafter known as emergency ambulances. These are usually fitted with flashing
warning lights and sirens to facilitate their movement through traffic. Other vehicles
used as ambulances include trucks, vans, station wagons, buses, helicopters, fixedwing aircraft, boats, and even hospital ships.
Emergency ambulances are required to gain access to patients as quickly as
possible, and in many countries, are given dispensation from obeying certain traffic
laws (for instance, they may be able to treat a red traffic light or stop sign as a yield
('give way') sign, or be permitted to break the speed limit. For these reasons,
emergency ambulances are often fitted with visual and /or audible warnings to alert
road users.
Visual warnings on an ambulance can be of two types – either passive or
active. The passive visual warnings are usually part of the design of the vehicle, and
involve the use of high contrast patterns. Modern ambulances often carry retroreflective designs which reflect light from car headlights or torches. In addition some
services now have the vehicles painted in a bright (sometimes fluorescent) yellow or
orange for maximum visual impact.
30
Another passive marking form is the word ambulance spelled out in reverse on
the front of the vehicle. This enables drivers of other vehicles to more easily identify
an approaching ambulance in their rear view mirrors. Ambulances may also carry an
emblem, such as a Red Cross, Red Crescent or Star of Life. The active visual
warnings are usually in the form of flashing coloured lights.
The flash is used in order to attract the attention of other road users as the
ambulance approaches, or to provide warning to motorists approaching a stopped
ambulance in a dangerous position on the road. Common colours for ambulance
warning beacons are blue and red. In addition to visual warnings, ambulances can be
fitted with audible warnings, sometimes known as sirens, which can alert people and
vehicles to the presence of an ambulance before they can be seen.
A more recent development is the use of the RDS system of car radios. The
ambulance can be fitted with a short range FM transmitter, set to RDS code 31, which
interrupts the radio of all cars within range, in the manner of a traffic broadcast, but
in such a way that the user of the receiving radio is unable to opt out of the message.
Ambulances can be based on many types of vehicle, although emergency and disaster
conditions may lead to other vehicles serving as makeshift ambulances:
1.
Van. A typical ambulance is of a van construction, based on a standard
chassis, usually with a maximum road weight loaded of between 3.5 and 7.5 tons. In
North America, the large box type vehicles are referred to as «mods» (modular) and
the smaller van type vehicle is often called a «high-top».
2.
Car. Used either as a fly-car for rapid response or for patients who can
sit, these are standard car models adapted to the requirements of the service using
them. Some cars are capable of taking a stretcher with a recumbent patient, but this
often requires the removal of the front passenger seat, or the use of a particularly long
car. This was often the case with early ambulances, which were converted (or even
serving) hearses, as these were some of the few vehicles able to accept a human body
in a supine position ).
3.
Motorcycle. In developed areas, these are used almost exclusively for
rapid response in an emergency as they can travel through heavy traffic much faster
than a car or van, although in the developing world, trailer or sidecar adaptations
make these patient transporting units.
4.
Bicycle. Also used for response, but usually in pedestrian’s areas where
road vehicles find access difficult.
31
5.
All Terrain Vehicle. Such as a 'quad bike', these are used for response off
road, especially at events. Some ATVs are modified to carry a stretcher, and are used
for tasks such as mountain rescue in inaccessible areas.
6.
Golf cart. Also used for rapid response at events. Function similar to
ATVs, with less rough terrain capability, but also less noise.
7.
Helicopter. Usually used for emergency care, in places inaccessible
either by road, or in any area where speed is of the essence, as they are able to travel
significantly faster than a road ambulance.
8.
Fixed-wing aircraft. These can be used for either acute emergency care
in remote areas (such as in Australia, with their 'Flying Doctors') or for patient
transport over long distances (usually a repatriation following an illness or injury in a
foreign country).
9. Boats & Ships. In some areas, boats may serve as ambulances, especially in
island areas. Some lifeboats or lifeguard vessels may also fit the description of an
ambulance.
There are also hospital ships, mostly in the military, which meet the definition
of ambulances as they provide transport to the sick and wounded (along with
treatment). These are often sending to disaster or war zones to provide care for the
casualties of these events.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
_______________ are usually fitted with flashing warning lights and sirens to
facilitate their movement through traffic.
а) Public transport
c) Racing cars
b) Emergency ambulances
d) All private cars
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Car production ____________ slightly since May.
а) has increased
c) are increasing
b) increased
d) will increase
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
May I ask you to prepare this report by tomorrow? – ________________________.
а) Yes, that’s right.
c) Naturally.
b) Sure. Here you are.
d) I am sorry to hear it.
32
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Nowadays there are about 12,000 students in Oxford, and ___________ and the town
live quietly side by side.
а) Queen Victoria
c) the University
b) the Royal Observatory d) the National Maritime Museum
Задание 6. Соотнесите информацию в графе резюме под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
а) Education
c) Marital status
b) Name
d) Summary of skills and qualifications
1
2
John R. Pogodin
Present address
3
4
I Park Avenue, Ap. 32 New York, N.Y. 11298 Tel.:
(312) 489-5671
single
Career objective
5
A position as a manager.
8 years of experience in all routine work in his field.
Perfect knowledge of up-to-date computer software and
statistics.
6
Responsibilities
Decision making, problem solution, controlling and
fulfillment of production planning forecasts.
7
Work experience
1994 – up to now SIGMA, Inc. New York.
Bookkeeper. In charge of account books and
statements.
8
9
1988-1993 Moscow State University. Moscow, Russia,
Master (Economics)
1994 Courses in marketing.
References
Available upon request.
33
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
а) During the Driving Test
b) Basic Driver License Information
c) Examination for a Driver License
1. A driver license shows that you have been given permission
by the state to drive on public roads. You will receive a license
after you have paid the fee, correctly answered questions about the
law and safety rules, shown that your physical and mental condition
is satisfactory, demonstrated your ability to drive safely, and have
no outstanding actions on your driver record.
If you are 18 years old, meet the requirements, and pass the
tests, you may be issued a driver license. There is no upper age
limit. Persons under 18 may not be employed to drive a motor
vehicle. It is against the law to loan your vehicle to an unlicensed
person.
If the person is caught driving, your vehicle may be impounded.
No person of any age may drive on a highway or in a public parking
facility unless the person has a license. The law also says that you
must not employ, permit, or authorize any person to drive a vehicle
on a public street or highway unless the person is licensed to drive
that class of vehicle.
2.
Your
examination
for
a
driver
license
includes
the
following:
• A vision test to measure how clearly you see. If you need
glasses or corrective contact lenses to pass this test, you should
wear them. Your license will be marked to show that you must wear
"corrective lenses" while driving.
34
• A test of traffic laws, road signs, and driving safety rules
to find out if you know how to handle your vehicle in keeping with
the laws.
• A driving test to show that you can drive safely.
Only you and the examiner may be in the vehicle with you. No
animal may be in the vehicle. The examiner will give you directions.
You will not be tricked or asked to do anything illegal. At the end
of the test, the examiner will give you your score sheet and discuss
the results with you.
You may take driver education (classroom training) and driver
training (behind-the-wheel) in a state licensed professional driving
school.
The
teaching
cars
are
subject
to
annual
inspection.
Instructor must pass qualifying examinations every three years to
show proof of education in traffic safety.
If your driver license is lost or damaged you must pay the
required fee for a duplicate. Once a duplicate license has been
issued the previous license is no longer valid. You must have your
driver license with you whenever you drive. You must show it to any
police officer who asks to see it.
3. The driving test is your chance to show that you can drive
safely. You will be asked to locate the vehicle's headlight switch,
windshield wipers, and emergency flashes. You must demonstrate how
to use the parking brake and wear your seat belt.
During the test, you must use the vehicle's turn signal lights.
The examiner will ask you to back up in a straight line and may ask
you to turn the vehicle around on a narrow two-way street, or park
on a hill. During the driving test, the examiner will note:
• How you start your vehicle. When leaving the curb, do you use
your mirrors, turn your head, and look back for passing cars? Do you
signal, and wait until it is safe before entering traffic?
35
• How you control your vehicle. Do you use the gas pedal,
brake, steering wheel, and other controls correctly?
• How you drive in traffic. Do you use the proper lane? Do you
signal, change lanes carefully, and follow other vehicles at a safe
distance? Do you signal the proper distance before turning? Is your
turn too wide or too sharp?
• How you stop. Do you stop smoothly and at the right spot? Can
you stop quickly and safely in an emergency?
• How you back up. Do you look over your right shoulder while
backing? Do you have complete control of the car?
• How you change your speed to suit the number and speed of
cars nearby, the people crossing the street, road conditions,
weather, the amount of light, and the distance you can see ahead.
• How you judge distance. Do you stay a safe distance away from
other cars when following or passing? Do you stay a safe distance
away from people walking or riding on the road?
• How you respect the rights of others. Are you courteous to
other drivers and pedestrians? A driving test may be required as
part of any driver license examination.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
It is against the law to ____________ your vehicle to an unlicensed
person.
а) provide
c) loan
b) take
d) represent
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Emergency ambulances ____________to gain access to patients as quickly as
possible.
а) are required
c) will require
b) have been requiring
d) to require
36
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
Is transportation (of all types including trucks, buses and cars) a major contributor to
air pollution in most industrialized nations? – _____________________________.
а) I hope, it does.
c) No, there is not.
b) It is usually a fruit of joint efforts. d) By all means, it is.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
A toll road in the United States is often called a ______________.
а) autobahns
c) auto parts stores
b) turnpike
d) state highway department
Задание 6. Определите вид деловой документации
а) Bill of Lading
c) E-mail
b) Contract
d) Enquiry
FROM: Joan Turner
TO: All staff
SUB: Vacation schedules
5/20/01
1:36 p.m.
MESSAGE:
I need to know your vacation schedules for summer months.
Please send your vacation dates to me by June I, 2004.
Send the information to my electronic mailbox: Joan T.
Thank you for cooperation.
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
выражение
Services like car sharing offering residents to «share» a vehicle rather than own a car
in already congested neighborhoods.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
37
To drive safely, you must follow many rules and laws. They tell where and
when you can drive. To follow these rules, you must know what traffic lights and
signs mean. You must understand «right-of-way» laws and how to use traffic lanes.
You must know where and when you can park. Traffic lights, sings, and «right-ofway» rules tell you when to go or stop at intersections. These are what the colors of
traffic lights mean:
Red – A red signal light means «STOP».
Red Arrow – A red arrow means: "STOP» until the green signal or green arrow
appears. A turn may not be made against a red arrow.
Flashing Red – A flashing red signal light means exactly the same as a stop
sign: namely, STOP! After stopping, proceed when safe, observing the «right-ofway» rules.
Yellow – A yellow signal light warns you that the red signal is about to appear:
When you see the yellow light, you should stop, if you can do so safely. If you can't
stop, look out for vehicles that may enter the intersection when the light changes.
Flashing Yellow – A flashing yellow signal light warns you to be careful. Slow
down and be especially alert.
Yellow Arrow – A yellow arrow means the «protected» turning time period is
ending. Be prepared to obey the next signal, which could be the green or red light or
the red arrow.
Green – A green light means «GO», but first you must let any vehicles,
bicycles, or pedestrians remaining in the intersection when your signal changes to
green, get through before you move ahead. Make the left turn only if you have
enough space to complete the turn before any oncoming vehicle becomes a hazard.
Do not enter an intersection, even when the light is green, unless there is enough
space to cross completely before the light turns red.
Green Arrow – A green arrow means «GO». Turn in the direction the arrow is
pointing. First, you must yield to any vehicle still in the intersection. The green arrow
pointing right or left allows you to make a «protected» turn. A red light stops this
means oncoming vehicles as long as the green arrow is lighted.
Traffic Signal Blackout – If all traffic signal lights are not working because of
an electrical power failure, you must stop at the intersection and then proceed when
you know other turning and approaching vehicles will also be stopping. A blackout
traffic signal is the same as a stop sign controlled intersection in all directions.
38
Right-of-way rules help people drive safely. These rules go along with courtesy
and common sense. Bicycle, moped riders, and pedestrians must follow these rules,
too. Never insist on taking the right-of-way. If another driver does not yield to you
when he or she should, forget it. Let the other driver go first. You will help prevent
accidents and make driving more pleasant. However, do not always insist on others
going ahead of you. If another vehicle expects you to take your legal turn, you may
delay traffic by stopping or slowing unnecessarily to allow another vehicle to go
ahead of you.
Pedestrians. A pedestrian is a person on foot or using a conveyance propelled
by human power (roller skates, skateboards, etc.) other than a bicycle. The definition
of pedestrian includes persons who are disabled and use self-propelled wheelchairs
because they are not able to move about as a pedestrian. These individuals must be
given the same rights as any other pedestrian.
• Always, stop for any pedestrian crossing at corners or other crosswalks. Do
not pass a car from behind that has stopped at a crosswalk. A pedestrian you cannot
see may be crossing.
• You must stop for any person using a guide dog or a white cane with a red
tip. Only blind, or nearly blind, persons are allowed to use these canes or guide dogs
and they must be given the right-of-way at all times whether in or out of a crosswalk.
• Remember – just because you make eye contact with a pedestrian does not
mean that the pedestrian will yield the right-of-way to you.
Other Vehicles.
• At an intersection without STOP or YIELD signs, slow down and be ready to
stop. Yield to vehicles already in the intersection or just entering it. Also, yield to the
car, which arrives first, or to the car on your right if it reaches the intersection at the
same time as your car.
• When there are STOP signs at all corners, stop first; then follow the above
rules.
• When you turn left give the right-of-way to all vehicles on the same road
coming from the opposite direction, close enough to be dangerous. Turn only when
you can see that it is safe. Look for motorcyclists and bicyclists.
On divided highways, or highways with several lanes, watch out for cars
coming in any lane you must cross. When you have parked off the road, before you
enter the road again, you must yield to traffic.
39
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
A ________________ is a person on foot or using a conveyance
propelled by human power (roller skates, skateboards, etc.) other
than a bicycle.
а) police officer
b) pedestrian
c) driver
d) car owner
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
All data _____________ and evaluated, the final decision was made.
а) been collected
c) having been collected
b) to have collected
d) being collected
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
Are most cars in use today propelled by an internal combustion engine? –
________________________.
а) Yes, they have.
b) Probably enough.
c) It is usually a fruit of joint efforts.
d) Much of it, I suppose.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The public corporations in the ________ are British Coal, British Steel, the Post
Office, British Telecom, the British Airports Authorities, British Rail and some
others.
а) USA
c) UN
b) UK
d) England
Задание 6. Определите вид деловой документации
а) Bill of Lading
c) Telex Message
b) Contract
d) Enquiry
THE BARTER TRADE
«The Purchaser» agrees to supply «The Seller» with either of the following
commodities or a mixture thereof to the value of US dollars 89, 200 valued at the
price agreed in this Appendix A.
40
COPPER 20 tons of new copper of no less then 99.95% (Ninety nine point nine five
percent) purity and free of phosphorus.
ALUMINIUM 14 tons of new aluminum of not less then 99.75% (Ninety nine point
seven five percent) purity.
Both the above metals shall only be in the form of cathodes, ingots, anodes, plate,
sheet or selected tubing.
МОДУЛЬ V
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Traffic Control at Intersections
b) Speed Limits
c) During the Driving Test
The 'Basic Speed law' says that you must never drive faster
than is safe for the present conditions, regardless of the posted
speed limit. The maximum speed limit on most highways is 65-70 mph
(100-110 km/h). However, for two-lane undivided highways the maximum
speed limit is 55 mph (90 km/h), unless posted for a higher speed.
Other speed limits are set for the type of road and traffic in each
area. All speed limits are based on ideal driving conditions.
Driving faster than the posted speed limit, or than it is safe
for current conditions, on any road is dangerous and illegal. High
speed increases your stopping distance. The faster you go, the less
time you have to avoid a hazard or accident. The force of a 60 mph
crash is not just twice as great as at 30 mph, it is four times as
great!
41
If you block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic by
driving too slowly, you may receive a ticket. Sometimes, of course,
you may have to go slowly.
If you are driving slower than other traffic, do not drive in
the «fast» lane. If you are in the left (or fast) lane, move to the
right when another driver is close behind you and wishes to drive
faster.
• Always drive more carefully near schools, play grounds, and
parks because children may suddenly dart into the street. Sometimes
lower speed limit signs are placed near schools, so look for them.
• Blind intersections are intersections where you cannot see
for 100 feet (30 m) in either direction during the last 100 feet
before
crossing.
Trees,
bushes,
buildings,
or
parked
cars
at
intersections can block your view of cars coming from the side. You
need to approach a "blind" intersection slowly enough to be able to
stop if a vehicle pulls out suddenly.
• The speed limit is 15 mph (25 km/h) when you come within 100
feet of a railroad crossing. You may go faster than 15 mph if gates,
a warning signal, or a flagman controls the crossing.
• If you see animals or livestock, slow down. Obey the person
in charge of the animals. If you see a stray animal in your path,
slow down or stop, if it is safe to do so. If you are driving a
slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway or road where passing is
unsafe, and five or more vehicles are following you, pull to the
road wherever you can safely do so to let the vehicles pass.
When another driver makes a mistake, you need time to react.
You can give yourself this time by keeping enough space between your
car and the vehicles around you. Keep a «space cushion» on all sides
of your car. It will give you space to brake or maneuver if you need
it.
42
Many drivers do not see as well as they should because they
follow too closely, and the vehicle ahead blocks their view of the
road. Good drivers keep a safe following distance so they can see
well. The more space they allow between their car and the car ahead,
the more time they will have to see a hazard or accident down the
road. Keep enough space between your car and the car ahead so that
you will have «a bigger picture» of what lies down the road and
steering to avoid trouble will be easier. You can travel in the
center of the lane instead of hugging one side or the other to let
you see ahead.
When you follow too closely and another driver «cuts» in front
of you, the normal reaction is to slam on your brakes and swerve out
of the way. Swerving out of way most often results in cutting
someone else off or possibly driving off the road way. It might also
result in the car behind you crashing into you or other cars around
you. If another driver «cuts» in front of you, it would be better if
you just take your foot off the gas. Do not overreact if you are cut
off. Plan your emergency escape route before an emergency happens.
Keep a space cushion on each side of your car. Do not drive in
the blind spot of another driver. The other driver may not see your
car and could change lanes and hit you. If possible, make room for
vehicles entering freeways even though you have the right-of-way.
Keep a space between yourself and parked cars. Someone may step
out from between them. A car door may open. A car may start to pull
out suddenly. Be careful when riding near bicycles. A bicycle rider
could be seriously hurt in an accident. Always leave plenty of room
between your car and bicycle. Watch for tailgaters! If one is
following you, be careful!
Brake slowly before stopping. Tap your brake lightly a few
times to warn the tailgater before you slow down. Your brake lights
will flash. "Lose" the tailgater as soon as you can by changing
43
lanes. If you cannot change lanes, slow down enough to encourage the
tailgater to go around you. If this does not work, pull off the road
when it is safe and let the tailgater pass. Sometimes there will be
dangers on both sides of the road. Give the most room to the worst
danger if one danger is greater then the other.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант перевода словосочетания
urban transport
а) транспортировка груза c) подземный транспорт
b) городской транспорт
d) частный транспорт
44
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In the past three months, we _________ more new cars in China than in any other
country.
а) have been bought
c) have bought
b) has bought
d) has been bought
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
May I invite you to visit our firm? – ______________________________.
а) I accept your invitation.
c) No trouble at all.
b) Sorry, no idea.
d) Never mind.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Many of the creative innovators in the American computer industry built successful
companies in what is now known as ___________________.
а) Silicon Valley, California
c) Washington, DC
b) Midland and National Westminster d) Transmaster Innovations, Inc.
Задание 6. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения пропусков так,
чтобы они отражали особенности оформления служебной записки
а) K.L.T.
c) All members of staff, Northern Branch
b) PERSONAL COMPUTERS
d) 5 December 2008
1. To: __________________________
2. From: ________________________
3. Date: _________________________
4. Subject: _______________________
The board urgently requires feedback on your experience with PCs in Northern
Branch. I need to know for my report:
1. What do you personally use your PC for and your reasons for doing this?
2. What software do you use? Please, name the programs.
3. How many hours per day do you spend actually using it.
4. How has not your PC come up to your expectations?
5. What unanticipated uses have you found for your PC, that others may want to
share?
Please FAX this information directly to me by 7 p.m. on Wednesday 7 December.
Thank you for your help.
45
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
текста
а) Safe Driving Practices
b) Speed Limits
c) During the Driving Test
In order to avoid last minute moves, you should look down the
road 10 to 15 seconds ahead of your vehicle. A driver needs to look
that far ahead to see hazards early. Constantly staring at the road
just in front of your car is dangerous. Keep your eyes moving. Turn
your head before changing lanes, because mirrors have blind spots.
It is very important to check behind you before you change lanes.
Keep your windshield, side windows inside, and out clean. You
should clear ice, frost, or dew from all windows before you drive.
If you drive in rain or snow, you may have to stop sometimes to wipe
mud or snow off your windshield, headlights, and taillights. You
should always adjust the seat, mirrors, and safety belt before
starting your car. You may have an accident if you try to adjust
them while driving. If something is in your path, you need to see it
in time to be able to stop. Assuming you have new tires, good
brakes, and dry pavement:
• At 55 mph (90 km/h), it takes about 400 feet (120m) to react
to something you see and to bring the car to a complete stop.
• At 35 mph (60 km/h), it will take about 210 feet (69 m) to
react and to bring the car to a complete stop.
• Adjust your driving to the weather. You should slow down in
rain or fog.
Turn on your lights during the day if it is hard to see. The
best advice for driving in the fog is DON'T. You should consider
46
postponing your trip until the fog clears. Be very careful when you
drive at night. Make sure you can stop within the distance lighted
by your headlights. Do not blind other drivers with your high beam
headlights. Dim your lights by switching to low beams before you are
500 feet (150 m) from vehicle coming toward you.
If you are following another vehicle, change to low when you
get closer than 300 feet (90 m). Use your high beams whenever
possible as long as it is legal. Drive as far to the right as
possible if a vehicle with one light comes toward you. It could be a
bicycle or motorcycle, but it could also be a vehicle with a missing
headlight.
In a very heavy rain or snowstorm, you may not be able to see
more than 100 feet (30 m) ahead. When you cannot see any farther
than that, you cannot safely drive faster than 30 mph (50 km/h). If
you drive in snowy areas, carry chains in case you find yourself in
conditions where you cannot drive without them. Slow down at the
first sign of rain, drizzle, or snow on the road. This is when many
road pavements are most slippery because oil and dust have not been
washed away.
You never know what is on the other side of a steep hill or a
sharp curve. If a car is stalled on the road just over the hill or
around a curve, you must be going slowly enough to stop. Sound your
horn when necessary to avoid accidents. Never honk because you are
angry or upset.
What is defensive driving? It is driving to defend you against
possible accidents caused by bad drivers, drunk drivers, poor
weather, and heavy traffic. If you look ahead, and keep your eyes
moving, you will spot a hazard more easily. Once you have seen the
hazard and decided what to do, act. Never «wait and see». Never
think that everything will be all right. Children playing in the
47
street may not see you. The boy on bike may ride in front of you.
The man opening a car door in your tour lane may not see you.
Remember,
you
can
prevent
most
accidents
if
you
drive
defensively. Most drivers hit the brakes first to avoid an accident.
Sometimes this locks the wheels (unless you have antilock brakes).
The car begins skidding, making things worse. Remember, you can do
three things to avoid an accident. You can stop quickly, turn, or
speed up.
• To stop quickly, apply trim, steady pressure on the brake. If
the car begins to skid, release the brake. Step on the brake again,
using firm, steady pressure. Repeat this process until the car
stops.
• Run off the road if you have to and if there is room if you
do not have time to stop-turn. Running off the road is usually
better than hitting another car. Try not to brake as you turn.
• Sometimes, you can speed up to avoid an accident. This may
work if a car is going to hit you on the side or rear. If you cannot
avoid an accident, protect yourself as well as you can.
If you are going to be hit from the rear, be ready to brake so
that you will not be pushed into another car. If you are going to be
hit from the side, brace yourself with the steering wheel. Perhaps
you can keep yourself from being thrown against the side of the car.
If you are going to be hit from the front, use your arms and hands
to protect you if you are wearing a shoulder strap.
If you are not using a shoulder strap, throw yourself across
the seat so that you do not hit the steering column or the
windshield. If you must drive near an accident, do not slow down or
stop just to look. You may cause another crash. Drive by carefully,
watching for people in the road. Obey any order from a police
officer. You must stop if you are involved in an accident. Someone
could be injured and need your help.
48
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант словосочетания
___________________are usually coordinated and timed with the speed
limit.
а) Traffic control at intersections
c) Right-of-way rules
b) Following distance
d) Traffic signals
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
New equipment _____________ since then, which helps us gather real-time
information.
а) have been installed
c) have installed
b) has installed
d) has been installed
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
How about discussing this question at the meeting? – _________________________.
а) I accept your invitation.
b) I have published my article in last issue.
c) His proposal is not bad, to my mind.
d) OK. Let us go to the club.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In the United States _____________, federally mandated fuel efficiency standards
have been debated regularly.
а) Parliament
c) Congress
b) Agency
d) Bureau
Задание 6. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения пропусков так,
чтобы они отражали особенности оформления служебной записки
а) FROM
b) DATE
c) TO
d) SUBJECT
1.____________: All members of staff, Central Branch
2.____________: George Pratt
3.____________: 5 December 2008
4.____________: PC USAGE
49
The board urgently requires feedback on your experience with PCs in Central Branch.
I need to know for my report:
1. What do you personally use your PC for and your reasons for doing this?
2. What software do you use? Please, name the programs.
3. How many hours per day do you spend actually using it.
Please FAX this information directly to me by 5 p.m. on Wednesday 7 December.
If you have any queries, please contact my assistant, Jane Simmons, who will be
visiting you on Tuesday, 6 December.
Thank you for your help.
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 3
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите наличие или
отсутствие информации в тексте
No person of any age may drive on a highway or in a public parking
facility unless the person has a license.
a) информация в тексте отсутствует
b) информация соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте
с) информация противоречит фактам, изложенным в тексте
Town and city traffic conditions create many possible problems
for drivers. You are faced with different kinds of streets, and many
signs, signals and pavement markings. Then there are pedestrians,
bicyclists, street activities and outside noises. Finally, there are
other vehicles. You will have to be prepared to deal with all of
these at the same time.
In heavy city traffic, you may find your escape routes limited.
During rush hours, other vehicles may hem you in. In this type of
traffic, you should increase the distance between yourself and the
vehicle ahead, giving yourself room to see, maneuver and stop.
50
Avoid driving in another driver’s blind spot; if you cannot
see the inside, rearview mirror of the car ahead, he probably cannot
see you. Whenever possible, avoid driving side-by-side.
It is also important to look at least one block ahead –
whenever traffic allows you to see that far – and to keep your eyes
moving, scanning for possible problems. By looking a block ahead,
you can check the traffic signal at the next corner and «time» your
approach to reach the intersection with a green light.
In city traffic, it’s generally best to travel in the righthand lane. This avoids your being stopped behind cars turning left
and reduces conflict with oncoming
traffic. Stay in one lane
whenever possible and plan when you need to change lanes.
On the one-way streets, your choice of lanes depends on what
you plan to do. Use the center lane if you plan to travel several
blocks; use the outside lanes for turning. Traffic signals are
usually coordinated and timed with the speed limit.
By maintaining a constant speed, you can avoid frequent stops.
Resist the urge to speed up just because there is no oncoming
traffic.
Many of the hazards you will face in city driving require quick
decisions. Suppose child darts into the street, chasing a ball.
Alternatively, the door of a parked car suddenly opens, just as you
are about to pass by. Driving defensively, you may have predicted
these hazards.
Rural highways can be narrow two-lane roads or multi-lane
highways. Sometimes you can drive for miles on the open road without
seeing another vehicle. However, empty country roads can be just as
dangerous as heavy city traffic, because drivers may relax their
attention. You should be on the alert for hidden intersections,
curves, hills and different road conditions.
To give you advance notice of changes in the road watch for
warning signs posted along the highway. Watch for other vehicles,
51
especially trucks, oversize and slow-moving vehicles. It is just as
important
that
other
drivers
be
able
to
see
you.
Turn
your
headlights on earlier in the day, and signal all turns and stops
well in advance.
At highway speeds, a dangerous situation can develop very
quickly. Speed is the critical factor in highway driving. You will
have to adjust your speed to deal with each of the following highway
hazards.
Oncoming vehicles are just a few feet away when you meet on
undivided highways. If your escape route is limited by a narrow road
shoulder or ditch, you should reduce your speed. If you are meeting
a line of cars, watch out for drivers who may be attempting to pass
the line. To help them to see you, turn on your headlights. Move
near the edge of the pavement and look for possible escape routes,
just in case.
Advance warning signs are placed before the crossing. These
signs warn you to look, listen and slow down, because you may have
to stop. Railroad cross buck signs will be found at most crossings.
If there is more than one track, the sign below the cross buck will
indicate the number of trucks at the crossing.
Flashing light signals are used with cross buck signs at many
crossings. Always stop when the light begins to flash because a
train is coming. Do not proceed until you can do so safely.
If there is more than one truck, make sure all trucks are clear
before crossing. Gates are used with flashing light signals at some
crossings. Stop when the lights begin to flash (before the gate
lowers across your side of the road). Remain stopped until the gates
are raised and the lights stop flashing.
Pavement markings, consisting of an X and RR, may be painted on
the pavement at the approach to some crossing. Slow down and be
prepared to stop. Look both ways and listen. Trains can come in any
52
time. Be ready to stop when you are following buses or trucks, which
have to stop at railroad crossings.
If your car stalls on the tracks, do not hesitate. Get yourself
and your passengers out and away from the car immediately. Never
start across the tracks unless there is room for your car on the
other side.
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
Another trend is the replacement of physical knob and switches for secondary
controls with____________________.
a) manual transmission
b) single-seaters
c) touch screen controls
d) brake lights
Задание 3. Выберите одну из безличных конструкций, подходящую по смыслу
данного предложения
________________a lot of state licensed professional driving schools
where you may take driver education (classroom training) and driver
training (behind the wheel) in.
a) There are
b) It should be noted that
c) It takes some hours to
d) It is important to note that
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
What began its life as a Roman fortification at a place where it was possible to cross
the River Thames?
a) Roman capital
b) Wales
c) Greenwich
d) London
Задание 5. Выберите реплику, соответствующую телефонному разговору
A. – This is Alfredo Santini from the Italian Consulate calling. _______________.
B. – I am afraid he is out to lunch. Would you like to call back later?
A. – I would like to leave a message, if you do not mind.
a) Could I please speak with Tom Brown?
53
b) How can I help you?
c) Would you spell your name, please?
d) Wait a bit, please, the line is busy.
Задание 6. Определите вид представленного документа
a) Cover Letter
b) Enquiry
c) Reply to invitation
d) Claim
NATIONAL INSTITUTION OF RETIRED PERSONS
May 13, 2016
Mr. John Clark
Attorney-at-Law
200 Center Str.
Freeport,
Vermont 66521
Dear Mr. Clark
I would like to thank you on behalf of my colleagues for your invitation to visit the
seminar in Moscow on June 24-25.
We consider this seminar as the further development of our mutually beneficial
relations. We enclose here in our proposals for the agenda of the seminar.
We should be very grateful if you would let us know your opinion at a suitable
time.
Yours sincerely,
Andrew Polessky
President
ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ЗАНЯТИЕ № 4
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите наличие или
отсутствие информации в тексте
The introduction of fully mechanized logging methods has both advantages and
disadvantages for transport and delivery operations.
54
a) информация отсутствует
b) информация соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте
с) информация противоречит фактам, изложенным в тексте
A forwarder is a forestry vehicle that carries big felled logs from the stump to a
roadside landing. Unlike a skidder, a forwarder carries logs clear of the ground,
which can reduce soil impacts but tends to limit the size of the logs it can move.
Forwarders are employed typically together with harvesters in logging operations.
Forwarders are categorized commonly on their load carrying capabilities. The
smallest are trailers designed for towing behind all-terrain vehicles, which can carry
around 250 kg to 500 kg. Agricultural self-loading trailers designed to be towed by
farm tractors can handle load weights up to around 4 tons.
Lightweight purpose-built machines used in commercial logging and thinning
operations can handle loads of up to 8 tons. Medium sized forwarders used in clearfellings carry between 12 and 14 tons with the largest class handling up to 20 tons.
Forwarders also carry them at least 2 feet above the ground.
Timber rafting is a log transportation method in which logs are tied together
into rafts and drifted or pulled across a water body or down a river. It is the second
cheapest method of transportation of timber, next after log driving. Both methods
may be referred to as timber floating.
Yarding or skidding with horses or oxen was in the past the only means of
moving a log from the forest to the mill site. Animal skidding is now limited.
Animals are used for direct skidding with grabs or chains, as well as with devices to
elevate the front end of the log. Horses work both singly and as teams depending
upon the size of logs, distance and topography. It is desirable to have three horses, if
only one is injured, a team is still available. Horses are alternated every two hours. It
is desirable to have a man for each horse.
The location of landings and skid trails is extremely important in animal
skidding. Horses must be located near a creek to provide drinking water. Horses are
the most widely used animals, their advantages over mules and oxen are as follows:
they are more active, more rapid and more intelligent; they are handled more easily;
they are adapted to a wide range of climate, especially, cold weather; they are
adapted to rough and rocky ground as well as to level topography.
The advantages of using animals over tractors are as follows: their mobility;
soil damage is low; small landing can be used; no noise pollution; damage to leave
trees in particular cuts is low. In addition to logging, which is their principal use, they
55
are employed in logging jobs for: hauling sledge in northern winter logging and with
4 or 8 wheel-wagons; loading logs on wagons, logging railroad and motor trucks;
building forest-roads together with bulldozers and other mechanical devices.
The disadvantages are as follows: 1) horses work or not: horses must be fed on
weekends and then logging is done; 2) horses get tired and need breaks; this affects
production; 3) horses are limited to small logs and diameters; this affects production.
Animals now are used mostly only in difficult places to take out the logs.
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
Agricultural _______________designed to be towed by farm tractors can handle load
weights up to around 4 tons.
a) left-side hand lever
b) two-lane highway
c) self-loading trailers
d) chain saws
Задание 3. Выберите одну из безличных конструкций, подходящую по смыслу
данного предложения
_______________ the other driver may not see your car and could
change lanes and hit you.
a) It is important to
b) It should be noted that
c) There would be
d) There are
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
Logging with __________ was common in the Pacific Northwest region in the
1890’s.
a) oxen
b) dogs team
c) trains
d) bulldozers
Задание 5. Выберите реплику, соответствующую телефонному разговору
A – Would you mind telling him that I called? When is he expected home?
B – _______________________________________.
A – He can reach me at the Grand Hotel, Room 20.
a) Sorry, the line is busy.
b) One moment, please, I am ringing.
c) I am not sure when he will be back. However, I will let him know you called.
d) Would you spell your name, please?
56
Задание 6. Определите вид представленного документа
a) Cover Letter
c) Order
b) Enquiry
d) Claim
Mrs. A. Everett
Compact Systems
96 Rosewall Drive
Southtown
September 11, 2015
Dear Sirs
We recently attended the Software Trade Exhibition in Bath, and were impressed
by the range of software available through your company. We are a large chain of
business software retailers and are looking for a software house, which could supply
us with a range applications programs.
We would be much obliged if you could send us your current catalogue and price
list. We look forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours faithfully
P. Barker
Purchasing Manager
Библиографический список
Основная литература
1. Дубинина, Г. А. Английский язык: экономика и финансы (Majors)
[Электронный ресурс] : учеб. / Г. А. Дубинина, И. Ф. Драчинская,
Н. Г. Кондрахина. – М. : Альфа-М : ИНФРА-М, 2011. – 176 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
2. Маньковская, З. В. Английский язык в ситуациях повседневного
делового общения [Электронный ресурс] : учеб. пособие / З. В. Маньковская. –
М. : ИНФРА-М, 2012. – 223 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
Дополнительная литература
57
3. Кравец, В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Морфология
[Текст] : граммат. справ. / В. Е. Кравец. – Воронеж, 2010. – 124 с. –
Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
4. Кравец В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Синтаксис [Текст] :
граммат. справ. / В. Е. Кравец. – Воронеж, 2010. – 80 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС
«ВГЛТУ».
5. Маньковская, З. В. Идиомы и фразовые глаголы в деловом общении
(английский язык) [Электронный ресурс] : учеб. пособие / З. В. Маньковская. –
М. : ИНФРА-М, 2011. – 184 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
6. Минаева, И. Б. Иностранный язык. Traffic and driving safety rules
[Текст] : учеб. пособие / И. Б. Минаева, Ю. Ю. Дубровина. – Воронеж, 2014. –
107 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
58
Елена Альбертовна Маклакова
Анна Александровна Илунина
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК В ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЙ
ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлениям подготовки 23.04.01 – Технология
транспортных процессов, 23.04.03 – Эксплуатация
транспортно-технологических машин и комплексов
59
Редактор Е.А. Богданова
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Усл. печ. л. 3,44. Уч-изд. л. 4,1. Тираж 25 экз. Заказ
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Отпечатано в УОП ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ»
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