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Ин.язык.Деловой иностранный язык(09.04.02 15.04.04 05.04.06 35

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Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлениям подготовки
09.04.02, 15.04.04, 05.04.06, 35.04.02
Воронеж 2016
УДК 81.432.1
Маклакова, Е. А. Иностранный язык. Английский язык. Деловой иностранный
язык [Текст] : методические указания к практическим занятиям для студентов
по направлениям подготовки 09.04.02, 15.04.04, 05.04.06, 35.04.02 /
Е. А. Маклакова, А. А. Илунина ; М-во образования и науки ФГБОУ ВО
«ВГЛТУ». – Воронеж, 2016. – 63 с.
Печатается по решению учебно-методического совета
ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ» (протокол № 6 от 3 июня 2016 г.)
Рецензент д-р филол. наук, проф. кафедры общего языкознания
и стилистики ФГБОУ ВО «ВГУ» И.А. Стернин
Методические указания содержат пять модулей, которые включают текстовый
материал из аутентичных источников для аннотирования и реферирования, лексические и
грамматические задания, сгруппированные по отдельным практическим занятиям.
Методические указания предназначены для практических занятий студентов
по направлениям подготовки 09.04.02 – Информационные системы и технологии,
15.04.04 – Автоматизация технологических процессов, 05.04.06 – Экология и
природопользование, 35.04.02 – Технология лесозаготовительных и лесоперерабатывающих
производств, могут быть использованы для самостоятельной подготовки студентов к
контрольным проверкам знаний по английскому языку.
Модуль I .................................................................................................................... 4
Практическое занятие № 1 ...................................................................................... 4
Практическое занятие № 2 ...................................................................................... 7
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 10
Модуль II ................................................................................................................. 13
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 13
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 16
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 20
Модуль III ................................................................................................................ 23
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 23
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 27
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 30
Модуль IV ............................................................................................................... 34
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 34
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 36
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 41
Модуль V ................................................................................................................. 44
Практическое занятие № 1 .................................................................................... 44
Практическое занятие № 2 .................................................................................... 48
Практическое занятие № 3 .................................................................................... 53
Практическое занятие № 4 .................................................................................... 57
Библиографический список ................................................................................... 62
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
The preparation of the logs or trees to be skidded may be done manually with axe or
saw or mechanically with feller-bunchers, delimbers and feller-delimbers in the
stump area.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
Logging is the process in which trees are felled (cut down) usually as part of a
timber harvest. Timber is harvested to supply raw material for the wood products
industry including logs for sawmills and pulp wood for the pulp and paper industry.
Logging can also remove wood for forest management goals.
Pre-logging includes: planning, permitting, sale, accessing, marking.
Planning is identifying optimal timing, access, and layout of harvest.
Permitting means public notification, environmental assessment, taxes, and fees. As
for sale, many timberland owners employ their own loggers, while others hire or sell
the right to log to a logging company. Accessing is connected with logging roads,
logging camps, and weighing stations, which are to be built or repaired. Marking
includes measures for clear identification of the area or individual trees to be
Logging includes felling, processing, stump to landing route, landing to mill
During felling the standing tree is cut down or felled by chainsaw, harvester, or
feller buncher. In processing, the tree is turned into logs by removing the limbs
(delimbing) and cutting it into logs of optimal length (bucking). The felled tree or
logs are moved from the stump to the landing. Ground vehicles can pull, carry, or
shovel the logs. Cable systems can pull logs to the landing. Logs can also be flown to
the landing by helicopter. Landing to mill starts when the logs are transported to the
mill or port by truck. In the past, this was been done by train, by driving the logs
downstream, or by pulling them as a floating log raft.
Post-logging includes burning, herbicide, ground preparation, replanting, and
road deconstruction.
Burning logging debris and other woody material on the site can reduce future
fire risk and release nutrients.
Herbicide treatment is eliminating competing seedlings and brush to speed
growth of the planted seedlings. After ground preparation, replanting or dropping
seeds or manual planting of seedlings is taken place. Road deconstruction is also an
important post-logging process.
Felling is one of the most difficult and dangerous parts of the logging jobs. In
hand felling, an axe, saw, or chainsaw is used to fell a tree.
Felling is traditionally followed by limbing and bucking. In the modern
commercial logging industry, felling is typically followed by limbing and skidding.
Before putting an axe or saw to the tree it is necessary to size up carefully and
decide where the tree should be dropped. Frequently the choice is limited by the
layout of the operation and the location of the tree. Inexperienced woodmen may
make unnecessary work for themselves and take unnecessary chance of injury.
If the tree is leaning not more than 5%, has about the same size of limbs all
around and is not pushed by the strong wind, the fellers can drop it in any direction
they choose. Big trees that lean noticeably or have heavy branches on one side can
seldom be thrown in the opposite direction. It is always dangerous to fell the tree into
another one, either of it has dead branches. It is also unwise to fell the tree up a steep
Rotten trees present a difficult felling problem. It is very hard to anticipate the
time or direction of their fall. Serious accidents in felling occur in attempting to bring
down rotten trees.
A feller-buncher is a motorized vehicle with an attachment, which rapidly cuts
and gathers several trees in the process of felling them. A harvester performs the
tasks of a feller-buncher additionally doing the delimbing and bucking of the trees as
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Big trees that lean noticeably or have heavy branches on one side
____________ a difficult felling problem.
а) produce
b) present
c) include
d) identify
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Depending on the timber and operating traditions, skidding may ________ with
animals or with machines.
а) do
b) doing
c) be done
d) to be done
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
We were wandering if you could offer us a discount on crawler tractors? –
а) I’m sorry, that’s still too high.
b) That sounds fine.
c) Good. Let’s leave it at that.
d) Well, we could certainly discuss it.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
If you are not in an _____________country, such as in Switzerland or France, your
business lunch customs will naturally differ from American-style business lunches.
а) Spanish-speaking
c) English-speaking
b) French-speaking
d) German-speaking
Задание 6. Перед Вами бланк. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
a) Children
b) Surname
c) Marital status
d) Maiden name
Date of birth
15th October, 83
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
Timber rafting is a log transportation method in which logs are tied together into rafts
and drifted or pulled across water body or down the river.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
Limbing in logging is the process of removing branches from the stem of a
fallen tree. Options for cutting off the branches include axes, chain saws, harvesters,
and others.
The limb should be cut from its lower side, cutting from the base toward the
top of the tree. The stub of the limb should be left even with the surface of the bark.
Logs that have been carelessly limbed are hard to skid and hard to load. Some limbs
are large and some are small.
The danger of accidents from the axe is great than that is with clear chopping.
One good precaution is to clear away interfering branches before attempting to cut a
large limb. Wherever possible the axe man should cut limbs on the opposite side of
the log and swing away from him.
Logging with oxen was common in the Pacific Northwest region in the 1890’s.
After the turn of the century horses, which were faster, easier to handle, and they had
no horns replaced them.
Steam and cables were used in the logging industry around the turn of the
century in the Pacific Northwest. Gasoline powered internal combustion engines
gradually replaced steam power. Diesel engines in turn replaced these. Today’s
logger operates highly sophisticated machines with air controls and water-cooled
Before the railway was invented, logs were transported in large numbers from
the forest down rivers either freely or on wooden rafts. Balloon logging was first
attempted in Sweden using hydrogen-filled World War 11 barrage balloons.
The first reported testing on helicopters for logging was in Scotland in 1956.
Other tests were made in Canada (1957), Russia (1959) and Norway (1963). These
early attempts were not successful mostly because of the limited load carrying
capacity of the machines.
The operations in timber harvesting that involve the movement of products
from the forest are the most costly, because green products are heavy and the
application of animal or mechanical power is necessary. Moving the products from
the forest includes bunching, skidding, piling or decking, loading and primary
Bunching is the assembly of groups for skidding. It is done before skidding.
Bunching is assembling logs for skidding to the loading point. Bunching is done by
tractors or with small objects by hand; on rough ground, it is done by cable methods.
Bunching of tree products or tree length before skidding is not practiced as
widely as formerly when animals were common used. Bunching for cable skidding
can be used only when there is a large volume per acre over extensive areas.
Skidding is a transportation of logs or trees resting wholly or partially on the
ground. The preparation of the logs or trees to be skidded may be done manually with
axe or saw or mechanically with feller-bunchers, delimbers and feller-delimbers in
the stump area.
Depending on the timber and operating traditions skidding may be done with
animals or with machines (crawler tractors or cable skidders). Developing countries
use mostly animal skidding with horses. Horses are used little nowadays in temperate
A skidder is any type of heavy vehicle used in a logging operation for pulling
cut trees out of a forest, in which the logs are transported from the cutting site to a
landing. Here they are loaded onto trucks (or in times past, railroad cars or flumes),
and sent to the mill.
There are two main types of skidders: cable and grapple skidders. Both types of
skidders either theoretically may be used to skid tree lengths buts forward or tops
forward and complete trees buts forward.
Skidding is movement of single products or bunches of products for
comparatively short distances from stump to point of loading on primary
transportation facilities. The distance seldom exceeds ½ – 1 mile.
Sometimes skidding is performed in two stages by two different methods, such
as by cable from a swamp or steep or broken ground and then by tractor to loading
points. In such cases, the first stage is often called skidding and the second yarding.
Before the use of tractor for logging, cable skidding was much more widely used than
it is today.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In the modern commercial logging industry, _________ is typically followed by
limbing and skidding.
а) marking
c) burning
b) accessing
d) felling
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Before putting an axe or saw to the tree it is necessary to size up
carefully and decide where the tree should ____________.
а) drops
c) to drop
b) be dropped
d) to be dropping
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
Well, I am sure you will understand that is a reasonable offer. –
а) I hope you have noticed the difference.
b) It was impossible to sign such an agreement.
c) Yes, but I’m sure you could offer a bit more.
d) Everything is correct, but the sum is not calculated.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
These tax benefits in forest industry are created by the _______ Congress to encourage
investment in particular areas of the economy.
а) English
c) UK
b) British
d) US
Задание 6. Перед Вами бланк. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
a) Hobbies / activities
b) Address
c) Names of two referees besides employers
d) Next of kin
25 Tulskaya Street, Moscow, Russia
Tel daytime
(095)658 46 79
Tel evening
(095) 658 42 45
Mrs Antonina Serova, mother (see above
Moscow Secondary Gymnasium
school / university / college
Vera Ivanova, Paul Norman
Reading, chess, skiing, swimming
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
а) Loading operations
b) Traditional methods of secondary transportation
c) Types of roadside mechanical loaders
1) Secondary transportation is the movement of the wood from the roadside to
final landing. It can be a river, railroad, barge or mill. Before tree products are
transported out of the forest, they must be loaded on some kind of vehicle. Loading is
usually done mechanically. In some regions loading may be done manually.
Tree products can be reloaded from one type of vehicle to another when a
transportation system of two or more stages is used. Wood products may be left at the
stump for loading; or they may be bunched and loaded from one point; or they may
be concentrated along roads for skidding.
Generally, the greater the concentration of products to be loaded at one point,
the more highly specialized is the loading operation. Only small products are loaded
at the stump, because it would be too difficult to move a power loader from stump to
stump to load them. Animal power may be also used. Loading may be done with
elephants in some South-East Asian countries where these animals are used for
skidding purposes.
2) There are two types of roadside mechanical loaders: those with knuckle
boom and grapple and those with log fork (front-end loaders) or grapple. Both types
are mobile and most of the machines can be used to load short wood, tree length or
full trees.
Loading must be coordinated with cutting, bunching, skidding or hauling, so it
is a very important step in harvesting operations. When loading is slower than
hauling for instance the trucks lose time waiting. If loading capacity is greater than
hauling capacity, the loader and the crew are idle until an empty truck arrives.
Loading is the key stone of an efficient harvesting operation; as it usually determines
the size of the cutting, bunching, skidding crews and the number of transportation
3) Logging methods may be divided into three groups according to the nature
of the load in the initial transportation stage, as follows:
Tree-length method / Stem Only Harvesting (SOH). Trees are only branched
and topped at the stump, the trunks being bucked after skidding and transportation.
Full-tree method / Whole Tree Logging (WTL). Felled trees are skidded intact
with crowns on. The stump, where only felling is done is left free of slash. The timber
may even be hauled as full trees but more often it is branched and bucked or at least
branched and topped at the landing.
Cut-to-length logging is the process of felling, delimbing, bucking and sorting
(pulpwood, sawlog, etc.) at the stump area, leaving limbs and tops in the forest.
Harvesters fell the tree, delimb and buck it, and place the resulting logs in bunks to be
brought to the landing by a skidder or forwarder.
This method is available for trees up to 900 mm (35 in) in diameter. Harvesters
are employed effectively in level to moderately steep terrain. Harvesters are highly
computerized to optimize cutting length, control harvest area by GPS to archive most
economical results during harvesting.
Motor-manual short wood method is a traditional method, when trees are
felled, branched, topped and bucked at the stump using power saws.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The operations in ________________ that involve the movement of products from
the forest are the most costly, because green products are heavy and the application of
animal or mechanical power is necessary.
а) timber harvesting
b) testing on helicopters
c) load carrying capacity
d) herbicide treatment
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In processing, the tree ____________ logs by removing the limbs
(delimbing) and cutting it into logs of optimal length (bucking).
а) is turned into
b) is prepared for
c) is set aside
d) is taken in
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
What about the Draft Contract? – _________________________.
а) We are going to talk about the offer. c) I’ll certainly be there.
b) Oh, I have not finished it yet.
d) That sounds fine.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
London and many other British cities and towns still have some traditional ________
( = buses with two floors).
а) traffics
c) double-deckers
b) Customs points
d) underground stations
Задание 6. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке
Encl. 5 pages
If you have any suggestions about the themes, please do not hesitate to
contact us and we will try to make all the necessary rearrangements.
Yours faithfully,
Ms. Gillian Jones
Personnel Manager
Dear Mr. Green,
Re: Training program of 10-20 July, 2001
Thank you for your letter of 1 June and the list of the Participants of the
Program. In accordance with your request, we are sending you the list of the
lecturers and the themes they will cover in the lectures.
Your ref: JG/BC/3
date: 23 April, 2001
Mr. James Green
Sales Manager
BBB plc
55, Old St.
London E6 6HG
Our ref: 32/78
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
а) The dominant logging method in Sweden
b) Mechanized logging methods: advantages and disadvantages
c) The system applied almost universally
1) Tree-length harvesting systems are whose which deliver delimbed and
topped tree stems to roadside, i.e. only the merchantable part of the tree. The trees
may be felled by one of the several methods and delimbed in the stump manually or
with a delimbing machine, or they may be felled and delimbed with a single machine,
working in the stump area. The tree stems may be skidded or forwarded to the
roadside, bucked into short wood or loaded to the trailer.
The tree-length system may be applied almost universally. It is particularly
applicable in coniferous forests in both temperate and tropical forests. In plantations,
it may be applied in thinning operations with care and in the final cut. In tropical high
forests it is standard logging method, unless short logs have to be made because the
skidder cannot drag the entire stem. The system has some advantages: no problem
with branches accumulating at roadside; no loss of nutrients in the forest area; higher
person-day productivity and wider choice of final products than with the short wood
system; wider road spacing, and therefore lower road cost than with the full-tree
2) In short wood harvesting system all the work of converting the tree into the
form in which it will be delivered to the mill is done in the stump area. From that
point the wood is forwarded to roadside, piled down, and loaded on truck or trailer.
The short wood system has been practiced for generations and is still being widely
used. For example, about 85-90 percent of the harvesting operations in Sweden are
conducted in this manner. Much of the wood in eastern Canada – about 40 percent of
the wood produced in Quebec Province – particularly in small operations or rough
terrain is still being produced by the method. Much of it felled, delimbed, topped or
bucked with light power saws (the axe is rarely used nowadays). It is a very labour
intensive system unless multifunctional machines are used.
The main advantages of the system in its older form are its simplicity and its
low capital requirement. Its main disadvantage is the great amount of manual work
required to produce the short wood. In its newest form – cut-to-length method –
production with short wood harvesters – it requires large capital outlays. The shortwood method is the dominant logging method in Sweden today. Approximately 90
per cent of the cut is logged by this method.
The tree-length and full-tree methods account respectively for 9 per cent and 1
per cent of the cut. The methods are defined according to the degree, to which the
wood is processed before extraction. Today only one per cent of the cut is logged
using fully mechanized methods. However, in the 2020’s mechanization is expected
to increase rapidly so that by 2020 approximately 85 per cent of total cut will be
logged using fully mechanized methods. The relative importance of these logging
methods is not expected to change during the 2000’s.
3) Secondary transportation by truck and railroad is gradually gaining ground
at the expense of the river system. Approximately 60 per cent of transport is carried
out by truck and 25 per cent by train.
Fully mechanized logging methods bring changes, which may effect both
secondary transportation and delivery of wood to the mill. Mechanization also
reduces the importance of seasonal variations.
Depending on the logging methods introduced, the wood may be partially
barked, limbed to varying degrees of accuracy, and bucked to the lengths. The
introduction of fully mechanized logging methods has both advantages and
disadvantages for transport and delivery operations.
Some of the advantages are:
a) improved conditions for transport, planning and scheduling;
b) better possibilities for using more efficient vehicle combinations;
c) more efficient logging methods;
d) more efficient loading methods;
e) more regular use of transport resources throughout the year
f) reduced wood stocks at mill and roadside
g) reduced vehicle idle time and less over-capacity at the wood delivery point.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The marketing of _______________ is the final step in the cycle producing and
utilizing tree growth.
а) woodland products
c) medium sized forwarders
b) logging methods
d) manual planted seedlings
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Managers ____________ on this information to sell and promote their woodland
a) depend
c) carry
b) turn
d) look
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
I am calling about GT/152A contract on loading operations. –
а) Do you want me to pick them up? c) That would be fine.
b) Oh yes, how is it coming along? d) Right, see you soon.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Londoners call their underground train network «___________».
а) the traffic
c) the double-decker
b) the customs point
d) the tube
Задание 6. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке
Thank you for your letter of 11 th November, asking for to-date list of
addresses of our branches.
We have pleasure in enclosing the brochure, showing location of all our
branches and agencies at home and abroad.
Yours faithfully,
S.S. Carson
Reliance Holdings Group Organization
Messrs. Watson and Bruce
Hardware Dealers
14 Castle Road
For the attention of Mr. P. James
Dear Sirs,
Re: Up-to-date list of addresses
88 Martins Lane London EC2V 6BH Telephone 01-5883782
Your ref: LE/N
14th November, 2017
Our ref: HCD/RP
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
а) Wood-processing industry
b) The detailed treatment of one aspect of economic behavior
c) Problems of marketing of woodland products
d) Moving the products from the forest
The marketing of woodland products is the final step in the cycle producing
and utilizing tree growth. Without profitable disposal of products, there can be little
incentive to grow timber.
Naturally, an owner wishes to realize fully upon the material that he has for
sale. To do this he must have complete knowledge of the technical phases of the
problems peculiar to the disposition of woodland products. At the same time, he must
have the innate ability to plan and carry to completion a profitable business
The disposal of some products like railroad ties, poles, pulpwood, and even
sawn logs to the larger organizations with well-established purchasing regulations
and policies is relatively simple. The seller produces his material at some central
point in accordance with previously agreed to specifications, accepts the rulings of
the inspectors and is paid accordingly.
On the other hand, much of the material from the smaller woodlands is sold
locally to mills, wood-using industries, or to buyers of stumpage. In transactions of
this type, it is difficult to determine with exactness the costs and basic values because
of the variation in costs of harvesting and transporting the product. When logs are to
be sold at a mill or free on board (F.O.B.) railroad cars, their prices delivered are
known and agreed upon in advance.
Frequently an owner has valuable material for sale, but in such limited
quantities that the true worth of it is difficult to price. Certainly, it is uneconomical to
cut sound merchantable trees into small products and sell them in general mixture
with less valuable woods. In this connection, the advent of truck transport has made
possible a better opportunity for long-distance shipment than that which existed when
material had to be shipped in carload lots.
There are many examples of sales, whereby the owner has disposed of his
standing timber for a single sum without knowledge of the volumes involved. If
material is to be sold as stumpage, the seller should make an estimate of his standing
timber and thus be in position to know the amounts of each species available for sale.
The field of utilization deals with the uses of wood, the wood-using industries,
and the procedures of logging, milling, grading, and seasoning. If an operator carries
his work through the stages of manufacturing and selling sawed lumber, he will be
confronted with a need for information in each of these fields.
Knowledge of the uses of wood of the various species is of value for two
reasons: first, it enables the seller to get in contact with the industries using the kinds
of wood that he has for sale; second, it enables him to dispose of his wood to the
markets to which it is most profitably adapted.
Many woods are particularly valuable for special purposes; yet others, because
of lack of outstanding mechanical or physical properties, must be sold without regard
to special uses. The possibilities of the most profitable uses should be investigated
carefully prior to sale.
The wood-using industries are many and varied. Railroads, mining companies,
light and power companies, and many manufacturing concerns of a general nature are
in the market for special kinds and sizes of wood products.
The sale to local markets eliminates the expense and distance of long-range
shipment by either rail or truck. For material of average grade it will always be more
satisfactory if local markets are available. However, it may be profitable to sell
products of higher quality to specialized industries that want the better grades of
selected species. The cost of shipment must be weighed against the prices that are
Products to be sold based on specifications should be cut to conform to them.
The material should be skidded and otherwise transported with a minimum of both
expense and damage. Accurate records of expense should be kept. Generally, the
woodland owner is advised to dispose of his logs before they are sawed into lumber.
Otherwise, he may find himself with a large amount of sawed boards or planks on
hand and be unable to sell them to advantage.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант словосочетания
A significant and growing part of this __________ is transmitted to Japan via China,
where the logs are processed and significantly increase in value.
а) consumers of the forestry products
c) illegal exports
b) woodland cooperatives
d) raw hardwood flow
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The introduction of fully mechanized logging methods ________ both advantages
and disadvantages for transport and delivery operations.
а) had
c) has
b) is having
d) have had
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
I would like to meet you to discuss your needs in further detail. –
а) I would like to see it.
b) I am sorry, but I will not be available next week.
c) Oh yes, how is it coming along?
d) So, would I.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The highest managerial organ of a British Stock Company is the Assembly of
shareholders, which elects the __________________.
а) Personnel Manager
c) Board of Directors
b) Company Secretary d) Managing Director
Задание 6. Определите вид делового письма
а) Enquiry
b) Complaint
c) Offer
88 Martins Lane
Telephone 701-5883782250
2nd June 2017
Dear Sirs,
It is with great regret that we have to inform you that the material, delivered under
Contract No 1258 / 57 do not conform to the specification based on which the
contract was signed.
By separate mail, we have sent you a cutting from this material and one piece from
the material of the previous consignment, so that you can compare the two and see
the difference.
Because of this situation, we sustain heavy losses because we cannot fulfill our
contractual obligations to our clients. In this situation, we are prepared to retain the
goods if you will reduce the price, say, by 40%.
Awaiting your early reply,
We remain faithfully yours,
John Brown,
Department of Sales
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
а) The main factors of wood-processing production
b) A flow of factor services from forests to firms
c) Sale of standing timber
d) Consumers of the forestry products
Operating costs include those of logging, milling, and the intermediate steps in
handling. Labor costs, team hire, tractor costs, distances of skidding and hauling, type
and location of land on which the timber stands, and expense of milling vary widely,
yet every single item enters into the final determination of value.
Costs vary with the sizes of trees and logs handled and with species of timber:
Transportation costs are particularly important elements in appraising the value of
stumpage. There are certain steps in a complete woods operation, namely: the felling
of trees, sawing into logs, skidding of logs to central loading points, hauling of logs
to a mill, sawing of logs into lumber, piling of lumber for seasoning, transportation of
lumber to railroads or sales centres, piling in lumberyards.
Obviously, some of these steps may not be necessary. These are local
considerations and only the elements actually involving expense must enter into a
specific appraisal. Average figures are of little significance. Transportation costs are
the items subject to greatest variation. In milling operations, the largest single item of
cost is that of sawing.
Costs for piling, transporting, and loading will depend on whether or not
lumber is piled for seasoning, hauled to a railroad, and loaded on cars. If trucked
directly to a mill, the total cost should include the last expense incurred by the
operator. In every case, his costs will end when he disposes of the lumber either on
cars or at the yard of a plant where it is unloaded.
If the main products of an operator are other than lumber, the average costs
should be determined for the product in the form in which it is disposed of.
Regardless of the form of ultimate use, the principle of cost determination is the
Standing timber is sold in various ways. An owner may sell all his
merchantable timber or only a few designated trees. Between these extremes, the
sales might include all trees over specified diameter limits, or trees specially marked
by the owner for cutting, without regard for diameter classes.
When a sale is made on an area basis, the owner commonly sells all the
merchantable material in his woods for a specified sum. A common procedure is for a
mill operator to purchase the standing timber, move his mill to the woods, and then
cut all trees that can be used by him, skid the logs, and saw them into lumber.
Sales of this type were extremely common in the past, and in the majority of
cases the owner received considerably less than the true value of his timber. If an
owner contracts to sell, under definite restrictions of species, size, manner of cutting,
and other factors protecting his own interests, only those trees, which he feels are
mature and ready for removal, he then knows exactly what income he will receive
and is free from all further details of logging or merchandising. Previous agreement
can be made as to species and volumes that will be sold, and all details covered in
advance by a written and signed contract.
By another method, he contracts for sale all trees of certain species, above
specified diameter limits. This method is far better than selling all timber in a wood
but less satisfactory than that which permits the removal only of the trees marked in
advance by the owner.
If the owner's interests are properly safeguarded and if the forest's growing
stock is maintained at a satisfactory level, then the direct sale of selected stumpage
for even an entire wood may be a satisfactory method to use.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант словосочетания
The development of satellite navigation systems has proved to be of enormous
value to _______________ .
а) measurements of upper stem diameters c) forest surveys
b) seed bank studies
d) buyers of stumpage
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Corporate wood products tend to cost less because of the large volume and small
overhead costs per unit ___________.
a) sold
c) selling
b) is sold
d) having sold
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
As you may remember, we have to discuss the terms of delivery. – _____________.
а) Yes, of course. Could you manage on Monday?
b) I suppose that suits me too.
c) You do not say so! I hardly believe it.
d) Certainly, I will be present.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
_______________ school buses are a tradition in the US and parts of Britain.
а) White
c) Red
b) Black
d) Yellow
Задание 6. Определите цель делового письма
а) Complaint
b) Offer
c) Enquiry
Tom Jones
Sales Manager
225 Hartman Drive
Portsmouth, NH 03801
(603) 555-4606-18-15
January 22, 2015
Mr. Howard Speller
General Sales Manager
Speller Automobiles Ltd.
315 Rolling Woods Highway
NH 03723
We thank you for your letter of 28 June, and are glad to inform you that all the
items listed in your enquiry are in stock.
We are enclosing a proforma invoice for the consumer goods you are interested in.
We are enclosing details of our terms of payment.
The Head of our Sales Department would be happy to discuss discounts with you if
you would kindly let us know how large your orders are likely to be.
We can guarantee delivery in Melbourne within 3 weeks of receiving your
We are looking forward to hearing from you, and assure you that your orders will
receive our immediate attention.
Yours truly,
Tom Jones,
Sales Manager
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Укажите номер абзаца,
содержащего следующую информацию
a) Timber-sale contracts
b) Sales of logs
c) The main items of contracts
d) What is the farmer: a producer or a manufacturer?
1) Sometimes the owner cuts his own logs and sells them at a mill or some
other central point. Logs of different sizes are usually graded, and proportionately
higher prices are paid for the better grades of logs. Consequently, the seller should
know in advance the specifications of the purchaser. Its size (length and diameter)
and the number and type of its defects determine the grade of a log.
2) The principal products from farm woodlands sold by the individual piece are
railroad ties, poles, and piling. Piece products are bought upon the basis of
specifications established by the purchaser. Therefore, prior to cutting, the
specifications should be obtained, and the products manufactured in accordance with
3) Specifications for poles and piling are naturally entirely different from those
for railroad ties. Nevertheless, they state the kinds and quality of wood, dimensions
and grades of product acceptable, and methods of manufacture required. If a wood
can supply the better grades of piece products, the manufacturing of them is simple
and the sale problems are not difficult.
4) The sale of these products will frequently yield an excellent financial return.
Generally, the farmer is a producer and seldom a manufacturer. Besides, the selling
of lumber requires knowledge of markets, prices, and an ability to compete with
agents experienced in the sales field.
5) It is advised that this method of sale be disregarded and every effort made to
dispose of the products prior to their manufacture into lumber. It is possible for a
seller to receive payment based on the sawed contents of the delivered logs, but this
is usually an unsatisfactory procedure.
6) Contracts covering the terms and conditions of sale, signed by both the
buyer and seller, are essential if the transactions are to be carried out in accordance
with good business policy. The main items to be covered in a contract follow:
1. Description and location of timber.
2. Prices and manner of payment.
3. Conditions of cutting and removal.
4. Titles and methods of settling disputes.
7) The drawing of a contract is a matter of law, and therefore a lawyer should
prepare the papers. To illustrate the general way in which the items may be stated the
following contract is presented.
Agreement between______ called «the Seller», and_____ called «the
I. «The Seller» agrees to sell to the purchaser upon the terms and conditions
hereinafter stated, all the living timber marked by the seller, estimated.
II. «The Purchaser» agrees to pay the seller the sum of
III. «The Purchaser» further agrees to cut and remove said timber in strict
accordance with the following conditions _____________________________.
IV. In case of dispute over the terms of this contract, final decision shall rest
8) The sale of timber is a business transaction, and the owner should see
through frequent inspections that his interests and property are protected. A complete
understanding of all terms by both parties prior to the signing of the contract and
starting of the work will prevent later misunderstanding and difficulties. Naturally,
the financial rating and the reputation for good practice on the part of the buyer count
for as much in a sale of woodland products as in any other kind of sales transaction.
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
___________is providing assistance in park planning, satellite photography, park
rangers’ training, communications and infrastructure.
a) The studies
b) The sales of logs
c) The project
d) The retail banks
Задание 3. Выберите перевод относительного местоимения в предложении
The total timber volume in these forests is estimated to be 11,3 billion cubic meters,
of which 8,3 billion cubic meters is so-called mature and over-mature forest.
a) те, которые
b) одни из тех
c) из которых
d) некоторые
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
The first reported testing on helicopters for logging was in ________ in 1956.
a) Middle East
b) UK
c) Scotland
d) USA
Задание 5. Дополните диалог подходящей по ситуации репликой
A. – Reservations, may I help you?
B. – Yes, please. What do you have available for next week, from the 20th to the
A. –_________________________.
B. – Yes, I would like to make a reservation for a single room.
a) Do you have a room service?
b) I would like a non-stop flight.
c) Will this be for you?
d) Do you have any luggage?
Задание 6. Определите последовательность
Mr P. Barker
Purchasing Manager
Softchain Ltd
77 Brigham Street
10 April 2015
Your ref: AE/677
Dear Mr. Baker
I am enclosing a copy of our most recent catalogue details of our
product range, together with list price. I hope that the information will be of
interest to you, and look forward to discussing orders in the near future.
Yours sincerely
Marketing Manager
Encl. Compact catalogue, trade price list
96 Rosewall Drive, Southtown, S03 4BT
tel: 0927-423845 telex: 69364
Thank you for your letter of 5 April 2008 in which you asked details of
our range of business applications programs.
Because of the low price of our software we do not offer a quantity
discount; however, if you can give me an indication of the quantity involved,
I would be happy to discuss terms further with you.
Normally, we would be happy to offer you a 20 p.c. trade discount off
net list prices, as requested in your letter, and to accept your terms of
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Укажите номер абзаца,
содержащего следующую информацию
a) Forest rent definition
b) Cooperatives common in Europe
c) Where do economic values exist?
d) Woodland cooperatives’ principles
1) In theory, the marketing of woodland products through cooperative effort
seems to provide a solution to the sales problems of small owners. There is no reason
why it should not work out equally well in practice. Forest cooperatives are common
in Europe, but in spite of the recognized need for them, only limited progress has
been made in developing them. The success of existing organizations will stimulate
the formation of them in all woodland regions.
2) The problems in developing cooperatives are many. The exact form of
organization, the program of financing, the relation of sales to control of woodland
property, and the details of controlling and operating the cooperative are all involved.
Yet the fact that special problems exist in dealing with woodland products must not
prevent the establishment and successful operation of forest cooperatives.
3) Two basic principles are used in woodland cooperatives, namely, the one of
engaging primarily in sales work only, and the second that of combining with the
merchandising a control over the woods of each association member. Conceivably
the cooperative can be a merchandising organization and nothing more and render
great service to its members. Nevertheless, if there is no control of cutting policies,
there is distinct danger of heavy over cutting and an interruption of a continuous
supply of raw materials. Permanent operation of a cooperative requires that a steady
and constant supply of raw products be furnished.
4) Whether the cooperative should sell raw products or process the material in
its own plants is a moot point. Moreover, the type and extent of managing personnel,
the volume of business, and the current plans of business procedure indicate the
complex situation that the organizers of a cooperative association must face. Forest
cooperatives were organized with the principal objectives of increasing the annual
income to members and marketing forest products. At the start these organizations
handled pulpwood for pulp mills and had little investment in equipment. As they
expanded into the marketing of lumber, processing equipment was added. To cover
marketing and bookkeeping costs, 3 per cent of the sale price of all products at the
final point of delivery was deducted.
5) The basis of handling any forest property in which continuous operations are
taking place should be similar to that by which any current business is run. The gross
income, less the costs of operating, yields the annual net income. This net income
should be correlated with the property as a whole and not regarded as the income
from a specific unit. In dealing with the growing of timber, the elements of
compound interest have frequently been introduced. Such a conception may be
applied under certain conditions of forestry, but where sustained production takes
place, the element of compound interest should be disregarded.
6) The principle of determining the net annual income and applying it to the
property as a whole is in forestry called forest rent. Forest rent may be defined as the
net income from a forest organized for sustained yield without interest charges on the
forest capital. The gross incomes include the items of stumpage values, costs, and
profits. Since the owner did his own harvesting it probably would be impossible to
separate with accuracy these three individual values.
7) It is recognized that an additional factor of values is not taken into account,
namely, that factor which includes the value of the posts, fuel wood, and timber cut
for the owner's use. An accurate determination of all costs and all incomes is essential
for an accurate determination of capital value of property. In terms of production of
materials for use or sale, it is possible to determine the values in money and to make
financial comparisons of the various methods of future management. However,
economic values exist where woodlands prevent soil from eroding; protect buildings
and stock from excessive winds, intense heat, and cold; and provide cover and food
for wild life, though such values would be difficult to appraise in dollars and cents.
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
The _________________ of a forest stand can be defined as the bottom-to-top
configuration of above-ground vegetation.
a) central loading points
b) vertical structure
c) skidding of logs
d) short wood harvesting system
Задание 3. Определите значение наречного местоимения
Regardless of the form of ultimate use of piece products, the principle of cost
determination is the same.
a) такой же
b) некоторый
c) какой-нибудь
d) одинаковые
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
What covers an area in east central London north of the River Thames?
a) Nelson’s Column
b) Greenwich
c) Тhe City of London
d) Wall Street
Задание 5. Дополните диалог подходящей по ситуации репликой
A. – Do you have room service?
B. – Yes. I will send someone up right away.
A. – Thank you. _________________________.
B. – No, Madam.
a) Has anyone left any messages for me?
b) I’d like a non-stop flight.
c) Will this be for yourself?
d) Do you have any luggage?
Задание 6. Определите
Mrs. A. Everett
Compact Systems
96 Rosewall Drive
Dear Mrs. Everett
We would be much obliged if you could dispatch the goods so they
reach us not later than 30 July, and look forward to receiving your
Yours sincerely
P. Barker
Purchasing Manager
Encl. Ord. B7693
(head office), Foss House, Brigham Street,
Live Tel: 051-3876397 Telex: 79284
15 July 2016
Please find enclosed our order, Ord. B7693, for 100 IBM compatible
Compact Accounts packages, as discussed in our phone conversation of 12
We have decided to place an order for 100 packages and accept the 20
p.c. trade discount off net list prices as discussed. Payment will be made,
as agreed, 30 days after receipt of your invoice.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
The timber imported from Russia is mainly from natural forests, and is of good
quality and offer logs with bigger diameters.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
Across all of Russia, the past decade has witnessed a decline in domestic
timber production, the collapse of timber processing industries, and a drive to
increase timber exports. From 1993 to 2013, total timber production in Russia
decreased three-fold, while exporting timber abroad became the sole source of steady
revenue for many enterprises. Unfortunately, the threats to Russia's forests have
increased as corruption has riddled the timber industry and illegal exports have
The timber industry in the Russian Far East and Siberia currently relies on the
export of raw logs. Logging companies make a larger profit by exporting raw logs
than by selling them to local sawmills that cannot afford to pay high timber prices. In
1997, round wood comprised 85.3 percent of total production, while in 2005 this
number jumped to 90 percent.
Approximately 68 percent of that wood is exported to Japan, and 25 percent to
China. Total wood products exported from the Russian Far East and Siberia to the
Asia-Pacific in 2012 exceeded 10 million cubic meters. Currently, only about 10
percent of harvested timber is processed locally, and in some areas this volume is
even lower. In 2014, the industry was much more balanced: round wood output
comprised 40 percent of total industry production; wood processing made up 41
percent, and pulp and paper production 16 percent. At that time, almost half of all
wood products were used within the region, while one quarter was sent to other
regions of the former Soviet Union. Approximately 30 percent of wood products
were exported internationally.
Siberia and the Russian Far East are among China's major timber suppliers,
Russia as a whole ranked among the three main exporters of timber to China in the
past two decades, and has ranked first in recent years. There are five important
reasons for this significant increase. First, the timber imported from Russia is mainly
from natural forests, and is of good quality and offer logs with bigger diameters
(mostly over 24 cm). Second, the price is moderate, even cheaper than domestic
Chinese timber of similar species and specifications. Third, sources in the
northeastern part of China of good quality hardwood, such as Manchurian ash and
Mongolian oak for decoration, are almost exhausted. Fourth, geographical proximity
between the Russian Far East / Siberia and China encourages border trade.
About 90-95 percent of timber traded between China and Russia passes
through land border crossings. Finally, favorable tariff and tax policies on the
Chinese side have helped increase trade. Starting in 2011, the Chinese government
has adopted a series of policies that benefit importers. The temporary policy of
charging only half of value added tax (VAT) when importing timber from Russia is
especially significant.
Since domestic demand has shrunk while international, especially Asian,
demand has increased; the Russian Far East and Siberian timber industry is now
almost entirely export-driven and is therefore at the mercy of fluctuating Asian
markets. This fact is particularly significant for biodiversity conservation, as Russian
forests are directly affected by demand in Asia for particular species. For example,
ash and larch are prized by Japanese companies for housing construction. The
increase in Japanese demand has led to illegal logging of ash along protected river
basins, as well as over-logging in some regions of high protection and recreation
value formerly logged for the coniferous trees only.
A significant and growing part of this raw hardwood flow is transmitted to
Japan via China, where the raw logs are processed and significantly increase in value.
Additionally, Japanese plywood manufacturers have shifted their preference from
tropical liana to Russian larch. This change in the Japanese market will most likely
lead to long-term damage of the fragile permafrost areas of the Russian Far East's and
Siberian northern temperate and southern boreal forests. This trend could be reenforced by provoking the Chinese market to look for replacements for the larch
wood that now is going to Japan.
Like the Japanese market, the Chinese market has changed over the past years.
The demand for Russian wood has increased in part due to Chinese housing policies.
Under China's centrally planned economic system, the housing industry was
considered a non-productive sector and was formerly treated as a form of social
welfare that was the responsibility of state-owned enterprises. Since economic
reforms began in 1978, however, China has begun a process of radical structural
change and the reforms are still ongoing. In particular, they are developing the legal,
administrative and regulatory framework that will support a market economy. Many
housing reforms have been introduced since the 1987 when the Chinese government
granted control of a plot of land in Shenzhen to a real-estate developer.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
________________ in logging is the process of removing branches from the stem of
a fallen tree.
а) Limbing
b) Skidding
c) Bunching
d) Transporting
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
A complete understanding of all terms by both parties prior to the signing of the
contract and starting of the work _______ later misunderstanding and difficulties.
а) will prevent
b) to prevent
c) is prevented
d) to preventing
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
What rates on fallen timber are you charging these days? – ________________.
а) Of course, this price is high.
c) Here's my card, take it.
b) That depends on the size of a tree. d) Oh, it is very simple.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
__________________ identified the division of labor as the source of «the greatest
improvement in the productive powers of labor».
а) Karl Marx b) Ramsey Macdonald c) Immanuel Kant
d) Adam Smith
Задание 6. Соотнесите информацию в графах резюме под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
a) Other information b) Date of Birth c) Marital status d) Work experience
27 February 1985
Belova Margaret
18 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 128343, Russia
Education / 1990-2000 Specialized Secondary School
qualifications 23 Tushinskaya Street, Moscow, Russia
2000-2003 Johnson Bros Ltd, 35 Ostozhenka Street, Type of
Company: Retail Chain Stores. Post: Junior Secretary.
Responsibilities: Secretarial-work including typing, shorthand,
correspondence, taking minutes at meetings, copying reports .
tabulating data, answering customers' calls, mail distribution
and general office duties
2003-present Auto Importers Ltd., 38 Rostokino Moscow,
Russia. Type of Company: Car importers. Post: Secretary to
Assistant Director. Responsibilities: dealing with all correspondence, taking minutes at meetings and writing up Assistant
Director's reports, receiving customers and suppliers, dealing
with all kinds of enquiries.
While working I attended various evening courses for
business and information technology. My interests include
tennis, badminton, swimming and reading.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, является ли
Timber rafting is a log transportation method in which logs are tied together into rafts
and drifted or pulled across water body or down the river.
а) истинным (соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
b) ложным (не соответствует фактам, изложенным в тексте)
c) неподтвержденным (нет информации в тексте)
Half of the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod province falls on forests (51%).
Unfortunately, for decades this industry was not given proper attention, in the second
half of 1996 the new province administration took a decision to set up a specialized
division in charge of the forestry in the province. This administration unit was created
within the province department of the economy and forecasting. The new
administration became «a guardian» of firms involved not only in forestry but also in
the forestry-chemical and wood processing industries.
The disintegration of the Soviet Union and a resulted loss of partner links with
the former republics which used to be the basic consumers of the forestry products,
created a problem of new sales markets. Good business links have been developed
recently with the Ministry of Trade and Economy of Finland and with some local
companies. The visitors from a major British forest trading company, a French
company, and from Italy showed their interest in cooperation.
Theoretically, it can be said that the forestry complex includes two dependant
parts – forestry and forest industry. The success of each part directly depends on
successful partnerships. In addition, the forestry and wood processing firms are often
basic industries in their areas and they equally affect the local population,
employment level and infrastructure development. The links with foreign partners,
which underpin the whole complex, are essential for both of its parts.
The province was supplied with the most advanced timber production.
Harvester complex and two Forwarder complexes successfully applied in two
districts. The labor was trained to operate this equipment. A special attention is paid
to staff development. New specialists are trained in the forestry vocational schools,
the academy of agriculture run a forestry faculty. However, the main task is also to
upgrade the knowledge of the management staff, to help them to feel free in new
economic environment. To this end a range of seminars on effective managing skills
are ran and will be run by the best national and foreign experts targeted on the
managers of the forest committee.
We have all to learn to work effectively in the new environment. The main
achievement that was made by to-day is the integration of separate firms in one
whole, in a single complex; the real steps to improve the life of people in forest
settlements; the development of partnership spirit among the directors of forestry and
timber processing firms. The foreign economic links are widening, they help to
recover the forest complex from the frustration. There are many projects ahead too.
We feel supported by the local authorities. Therefore, we hope that our «forest folk»
will be the best well-off people as their colleagues in the rest of the world and
therefore we will be able to preserve and to add to our forest wealth of the province,
since we are responsible for it before the next generations to come.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In Finland and Sweden all the ________ are annually covered by middle-resolution
satellite images (10-30 m) for account of the state budget.
а) forest areas
c) wood-using industries
b) woodland products d) loading capacity
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
If the price of timber fails ___________, you have earned nothing because
commodities like timber do not pay interest.
а) moving
c) to have moved
b) to move
d) to be moved
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
How often do I need to make the monitoring of the regional forest settlements? –
a) Mr. Hamilton has signed the contract on monitoring.
b) Please, feel free to call me if you have any questions.
c) This fact is particularly significant for biodiversity conservation.
d) Semi-annually, I suppose, will be enough.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
It will help to protect its rare and endangered _______, and it will assist the efforts in
raising public awareness of the park and the multiple values associated with it.
а) species
c) woodland products
b) central loading points
d) wood-using industries
Задание 6. Соотнесите информацию в графах резюме под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
a) Current salary
b) Present address
c) References
d) Marital status
Date of Birth
27 February 1985
Belova Margaret
18 Leninsky Prospekt, Moscow 128343, Russia
While working I attended various evening courses for
business and information technology. My interests
include tennis, badminton, swimming and reading.
Mr. B. Norman, Assistant Director, Auto Importers
Ltd., 38 Rostokino, Moscow, Russia.
Mrs. A.Bunina, department head of Johnson Bros
Ltd., 35, Ostozhenka Street, Moscow, Russia.
$ 5,000 per annum
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите, какая часть текста
(1, 2, 3) содержит следующую информацию
а) System of area inspectors for forest protection
b) Illegal logging activities in KK
c) Pre-export certification scheme
d) Financial loss to society because of the smuggling industry
1) Krasnoyarski Krai is situated in Central Siberia, west of Irkutsk Oblast. Rich
in forest resources, the total forested area of Krasnoyarski Krai, including Evenkiiski
Autonomous Okrug, exceeds 100, 8 million hectares. The total timber volume in
these forests is estimated to be 11, 3 billion cubic meters, of which 8, 3 billion cubic
meters is so-called mature and over-mature forest. Larch is the dominant species in
29 per cent of forests in the region, pine – in 20 per cent, spruce and fir are dominant
species in 19 percent of forests, and Siberian cedar is the dominant species in 18
percent of the region's forests. Secondary forests consisting of birch and aspen
dominate 14 percent of the forests in Krasnoyarski Krai.
According to statistics provided by the State Forest Committee, forest
inspectors found 215 forest violations in 2007. The total cost of damages was
estimated to around 8 billion rubles. Investigations into the violations were initiated
in 71 cases. Three suspects were found guilty and sentenced because of the
investigations. Illegal logging activities have increased in the past six years. In many
cases, forest inspectors could not confirm who was behind the illegal logging.
Officials of the Krasnoyarsk State Forest Committee declared that in forestry
enterprises of some districts unknown criminals harvested more than half of the
volume of illegally logged timber.
It is extremely difficult to determine how much timber is exported from
Krasnoyarski Krai to destinations abroad. Export tariffs for timber in Krasnoyarski
Krai are many times higher than internal tariffs in Russia. For this reason, the
majority of timber companies in the region have partners in Chita Oblast, Buryat
Republic, Amur Oblast and / or other border gates that purchase timber from
Krasnoyarski Krai and then export the timber to, in most cases, China. Future work in
the region will focus on identifying companies that export timber from border towns,
but do not have their own harvest licenses and to monitor their connections to logging
companies based in Krasnoyarski Krai and Irkutsk Oblast.
2) Irkutsk Oblast is situated north-west of Lake Baikal, and is considered one
of the most forest rich regions in Russia. In Soviet times, this region produced about
12 million cubic meters of timber annually. Irkutsk possesses half of all coniferous
forests in Russia, or about 21 hectares per person. Although these riches legally
belong to the state and ordinary citizens, a group of criminal entrepreneurs controls
the majority. According to data reported by the police force, 1.5 million cubic meters
of timber is exported to Japan and China annually, although official statistics only
account for approximately half that figure.
According to the Deputy Chief of the East-Siberian Customs Department, each
rail wagon of logs contains more timber than reported, and at higher prices. It is
impossible to control the 2,600 logging firms operating in Irkutsk Oblast now.
Former pilots, teachers, police officers and athletes turn into occasional illegal
loggers stimulated by the government's emphasis on a free market economic strategy.
Periodically, government officials pass angry decrees to stop this practice, but do
nothing to implement and enforce them. Financial loss to society because of the
smuggling industry is estimated to be in the hundreds of millions of dollars a year,
enriching members of a well-run smuggling industry.
3) Chinese timber «managers» become familiar with and common on all the
Great Siberian Railroads, from Krasnoyarsk to Ussuriisk. They buy raw timber,
paying in US dollars and immediately sending trains loaded with timber to their
homeland for further processing, making a handsome profit.
Protecting forests is difficult; the fines and penalties that apply to illegal
logging are unreasonably small in light of the large amounts of hard currency
available in the illegal timber trade. To charge an illegal logger under the Criminal
Code, he has to be charged with stealing no less than 500 cubic meters of timber in
one operation. The methodology of the loggers formerly prevented them from being
charged under the Criminal Code.
The shipments of illegal logs are always small, moved quickly and based on
several truckloads of 10 cubic meters as a maximum. There are some opportunities to
use other sections of the Criminal Code, like «illegal management», but a charge of
this kind requires long preparation time, a high level of legal skills and a certain
amount of money, which governmental and inspecting agencies always lack.
4) Fortunately, a recent amendment to the Criminal Code, adopted by the State
Duma dramatically increased the punishment for illegal logging. Nonetheless,
according to many inspectors, they need a system where special licenses are required
and there is computer based monitoring of each logging permit until the final export
consignment to ensure that the initial license and the final consignment are
compatible in terms of amount of timber and quality.
The Chamber of Commerce in Irkutsk and Chita put in place a pre-export
certification scheme modeled on the operation in Buryat Republic. This step halted
many illegal operations, although it did not result in a slowing down of the rate at
which logging volumes increase. Due to contradiction with federal legislation, the
pre-export certification system, used in some regions of Siberia, was cancelled.
Lawyers and governmental officials explained that the scheme created too difficult
conditions for legal exporters and increased export prices for timber. Seemingly, the
free trade ideology is of more importance for the Russian legislators than real results
in the fight to combat forest theft.
5) Irkutsk Oblast police officials are considering recreating the system of area
inspectors for forest protection, particularly in the northern parts of region. One such
inspector will cost around $ 1,100 a year, which is not more than one truckload of
timber. Additionally, he may bring back to the budget much more stolen timber.
There is, however, always a risk that an inspector with such a modest salary may be
bribed, as is common with foresters.
Seven districts already found funding for such forest inspectors, and are
currently working on key timber routes. These inspectors are bringing some money to
the local budgets by uncovering illegal logging, although it is problematic to regard
confiscated timber as a resource to be sold to the market. Law can only sell
confiscated wood after 6 months, when the quality of the wood has already
deteriorated and the value is next to zero.
6) Other territories tried to establish other models to regulate the timber market
despite contradiction with federal legislation. Finally, the President of Buryatiya
adopted a certification scheme. The Chamber of Commerce provided certification
with the following parameters to be checked: existence of an export treaty, and a
copy of the logging license. These documents had to be stamped by a forest station
(leskhoz) and reflect the source of timber. The document was then to be presented to
customs officials.
Additionally, each wagon had to be supplied with a specification of contained
timber. Export prices were strictly checked to avoid dumping. Legal timber loading
sites were appointed and a State timber-export Commission was established and,
under the scheme, customs were obliged to compare their data to those of the
Chamber of Commerce before delivering the final permit on the customs declaration.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Some of the basic terminology connected with ______________ includes felling,
processing, stump to landing route, landing to mill route.
a) medium sized forwarders
c) logging
b) self-loading trailers
d) transportation of timber
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Good business links _________ recently with the Ministry of Trade and Economy of
Finland and with some local forest companies.
а) develops
c) should develop
b) have been developed d) will be developed
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
We can discuss different types of wood harvesting systems. –
а) Yes, they are, but not for Siberia and the Russian Far East.
b) Great. May I ask you a question first?
c) This fact is particularly significant for biodiversity conservation.
d) That depends on the size of a tree.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
About 90-95 percent of timber traded between _______ and Russia passes through
land border crossings.
a) USA
c) China
b) Britain
d) Japan
Задание 6. Определите вид деловой документации
а) Bill of Lading
c) Telex Message
b) Contract
d) Enquiry
The «Parties» shall co-operate and use their best efforts and good faith in the
consummation of the barter, purchase and sale transactions contemplated by this
«The Parties» agree to form an offshore company for trading commodities between
Russia and the rest of the world. The offshore company shall be responsible for
procuring any commodity required by «The Purchaser» at prices most favourable to
«The Purchaser».
«The Purchaser» shall be responsible for acquiring raw timber materials,
commodities and technologies which the offshore company will be required to sell at
prices most favorable to «The Parties».
Any of «The Parties» providing finance to the offshore company shall be entitled
to the prime interest rate charged by the Alma Bank in Moscow to its most favoured
customer plus four percent.
As soon as the offshore company has finance available it must repay any loans
provided by any of «The Parties» before it can declare a dividend.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
а) Remote sensing methods in forestry
b) Non-Timber Forest Products
c) Timber industry in RF
d) Tourism-Based Industry
Russia's timber processing industry was healthy last years. However, the
industry's positive development trend was accompanied by a worldwide cutback of
15% per year in forest industry investments. The only region where forest industry
production has increased sharply in the last ten years is Southeast Asia, mainly China,
where paper and cardboard production has increased 2200% since 1992. Russian
production trends are much closer to those of European and American producers:
world physical output of paper and cardboard has increased an average of 40%,
compared to 49% in Russia. Most of this increase occurred in the first years after the
crisis of 2005.
However, by the end of 2012 it was clear that industry's growth was primarily
the result of a favorable market situation and the effect of devaluation. In 2013,
average growth in the industry was only 1.5% vs. 7% in the economy as a whole. For
a long time, the timber processing industry has relied on mobilizing reserves of
processing equipment purchased abroad 25-30 years ago. Therefore, according to
analysts' pessimistic forecasts, in 2015, Russia, which possesses the world's largest
timber reserves, could turn into the largest importer of both pulp and paper products
and timber products as a whole.
However, this applies only to pessimistic forecasts. If the plans of the
industry's main players are implemented, the forest industry will not lose its place in
the Russian economy for at least the next five to ten years. In addition, the industry's
strategic objective in this period is to maintain its place on the world market and
promote increased demand at home. Moreover, apparently it will be achieved to the
greatest possible extent until 2015.
Russia's forest industry was in a unique situation. The government was so
enthusiastic about forestry reforms that the industry developed without state
intervention. At the same time, the use of the state apparatus as a weapon in the
«forest wars» was the main obstacle to the development of timber processing in
Russia. In the last years, the government anticipated that oil and aluminum magnates
would see related objects for investment in the forest industry and invest hundreds of
millions of dollars in it. An improved situation on the main forest product markets,
especially pulp and paper, as well improvements in the macroeconomic situation and
a surplus of spare cash in the resource industries, produced the desired effect.
By the beginning of 2010, forests had become a trendy object for investment.
However, the result was not a flourishing business, but forest wars – the main
industry topic from 2000s. The most important events in the Russian forest and pulp
and paper industries in the last ten years were the changes in corporate governance of
companies, the start of the formation of vertically integrated, specialized holdings,
and the search by investors for forest industry.
Prior to 2000, the majority of Russian forest industry companies were more
oriented towards the principle of «live for today, not for tomorrow». In addition,
although the forest industry is a long way from the principles of corporate governance
that oil companies, for example, have adopted, transparency, strict corporate
accountability, and division of management powers are regarded as targets for most
management teams. Nevertheless, despite the fact that forest industry companies are
mostly corporations, this can be considered a formality, since managers are often
indistinguishable from owners.
The development of long-range plans at Him Pulp, Archangelsk Pulp and
Paper Mill, Continental Management, and Segezhabumprom called for the formation
of holdings uniting timber-processing companies and raw material producers. The
process generally came down to the major players actively buying the regional
logging companies that supplied them with raw materials. However, as a whole,
major exporters did not become timber processors. They generally limited themselves
to securing 40-70 % of their own raw materials and buying the rest on the market as
Finally, in the period from 2000 to 2015, many investors, both Russian and
foreign, began an active search for unoccupied niches in the Russian timberprocessing market with considerable success. Russian companies also actively
expanded cardboard packaging production. There are already hundreds of smaller
projects worth $1-15 million in the forest industry. In spite of all the wars, private
investments in local timber-processing projects have become commonplace, and the
investment revival has led to a revival of nearly all the paper, pulp, and woodworking
companies that have existed since Soviet times.
Finally, certain improvements have also been observed in logging and timber
exporting, which are considered the most troubled sectors of the forest industry.
Despite the fact that most Russian timber exporters are still in the shadows, this is not
preventing them from moving into the light in small, very cautious steps. These
organizations are gradually becoming more public. In any case, the share of round
timber, especially the share of contraband timber, in total actual Russian forest
industry exports has slowly but steadily fallen.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Unless some ____________ are paid, investors may lose interest in the timber
exporting company.
а) quantity
c) capital goods
b) wages
d) dividends
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
It has been agreed that the company ________________ its prices on wood products.
а) is not raising
c) should not raise
b) have not raised
d) should not be raised
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
We can look at investments you can choose for your plans on logging operations. –
а) This is particularly significant for biodiversity conservation.
b) Yes, they are, but not for this type of forest.
c) Good idea. May I ask you a question first?
d) Yes, we have good business links with some local companies.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Logging with __________ was common in the Pacific Northwest region in the
a) oxen
c) self-loading trailers
b) dogs team
d) space imaging
Задание 6. Определите вид деловой документации
а) Bill of Lading
c) E-mail message
b) Contract
d) Enquiry
TO: German Shipping Lines (ABC 124)
FROM: Russline (DEF 450)
POSTED: 15 May, 2000 12.41
SUBJECT: Charter of the Orion
TEXT: Please confirm when the Orion will be in Rotterdam and charter rate of USD
32, 21 per ton.
DEF 450 – sent
end of mail.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
а) Illegal logging activities
b) Space imaging
c) Value-added wood processing
d) Pre-export certification scheme
Countries with biggest forest areas arrived at an understanding of the necessity
of the forest remote sensing monitoring a few years ago. Russia is slightly lagging
behind the other countries in this respect, mostly in sphere of the national information
policy. In Finland and Sweden all the forest areas are annually covered by middle-
resolution satellite images (10-30 m) for account of the state budget. The received
data are actively used in forest inventory, forest funds assessment and illegal logging
For example, in Sweden, annual satellite imagery (starting 2000) enabled to
reduce illegal logging from 10 to 2 per cent. The government is not only financing
the imagery, but also promoting up-to-date remote sensing methods to the forest
sector, providing for the proficiency training of the forest specialists and operators.
Already proven and implemented «Scandinavian» remote sensing technology can
enjoy even better success in Russia, taking into account the sizes of the Russian
The acting Russian Instruction on Forest Inventory (1994) provides for the use
of space images in decision-making within a wide range of tasks, especially when
managing unexploited forests of northern and eastern regions of Russia. For the years
past since the publication of this instruction both surveying equipment technology
and interpretation capabilities had a dramatic increase. Manuals written by the local
scientists for the use of satellite images in forestry are as good as the foreign tutorials,
however these works were regarded as experimental scientific studies for the past few
The situation started to change only in early 2005, when Rosleskhoz initiated
the introduction of satellite imagery into illegal logging monitoring practices.
Recurrent satellite imagery of the Russian territories will enable to resolve the
following forestry tasks on a new level: logging monitoring (including illegal logging
detection); forest fires damage assessment; forest health monitoring; inventory of
forest fund, forest blocks certification; reforestation assessment.
It should be noted, that all these tasks could be resolved independently on the
federal, regional, as well as on the major forest leasing companies' levels.
At the beginning of the Russian forest space monitoring system development
there were serious problems caused by myths. There were three principle myths:
1. Russian territories are being continually surveyed from space by a big
number of satellites, including Russian ones.
2. Imagery data can be downloaded from the internet free.
3. If you pay for the order, you can quickly get satellite images of any area and
date within a couple of days.
All these myths, having little truth at the bottom, are far from reality. For
example, regular space imagery of the Russian territories is indeed performed by
several satellites; however, their spatial resolution is very low (250 m and more).
Principal tasks of the forest sector cannot be resolved using such low-resolution
images. To date, none of the satellite operators does a complete and recurrent middleor high-resolution imagery of Russia. Such imagery is made only by order, therefore
the archive data is available in form of area and time fragments.
Until recently, the American satellites of the Landsat series performed regular
imagery of Russia at middle resolution. However, in 2003 the last satellite almost
became inoperable. For the past few years, French satellites, as well as Indian
satellites, became an efficient alternative to satellites of the Landsat series in many
countries (including Scandinavia). However, imagery of Russia using these satellites
is also made by order. Besides, for all these satellites (as well as for most of the
others) Russian imagery possibility and efficiency depend on the ground equipment.
In this context, all the arguments of some officials about the possibility of
purchasing the required data from the archives abroad looked inconsistent. As to the
free internet data (including the new Google Earth project), only small advertising
fragments or outdated images (over 3 years old) are available.
The following satellite system components are required for the forest fund
monitoring (including illegal logging control): ground stations network, covering the
whole territory of the country; availability of relevant licenses for the data acquisition
from satellites; data processing and archiving centers; special software for images
Russian Center ScanEx has a great experience in resolving complex remote
sensing tasks. This implies a comprehensive management control cycle: production
of different types of ground stations; license purchase and direct broadcasting from
various satellites; building of big space imagery archives; development of special
processing software. ScanEx personal ground stations constitute currently the
backbone of the Russian ground stations' «fleet».
Three UniScan stations are required for an efficient monitoring of most of the
Russian forest funds, whereas at least five UniScan series stations can provide for the
full coverage of the Russian forests. Nowadays, only two stations – one in Moscow
and one in Irkutsk – are acquiring data from the relevant satellites. Other stations of
the Ministry of Natural Resources did not receive enough funds over the last few
years, and many stations suspended the operation. Moreover, these stations need to be
upgraded in order to acquire middle and high-resolution images.
Another important issue of the monitoring system is the availability of relevant
licenses to receive the data from foreign satellites. It is obvious, however, that only
the government or big partnership between the government and a private agency can
finance a systematic imagery of the entire Russian forest fund – such tasks are not
affordable to a stand-alone private company.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант перевода словосочетания
The marketing of _______________ is the final step in the cycle producing and
utilizing tree growth.
а) woodland products
c) wood harvesting systems
b) illegal logging activities d) manual planted seedlings
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
If the above circumstances ________ more than six months, each «Party» shall have
the right to refuse the fulfillment of the contract.
а) will last
c) shall last
b) last
d) lasted
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
Is transportation (of all types including trucks, buses and cars) a major contributor to
air pollution in most industrialized nations? – _____________________________.
а) I hope, it does.
c) No, there is not.
b) It is usually a fruit of joint efforts. d) By all means, it is.
Задание 5. Восстановите правильный порядок слов по
синтаксическим элементам предложения
biodiversity conservation / this fact / significant for / is particularly
Задание 6. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения пропусков так,
чтобы они отражали особенности оформления служебной записки
a) Appointment of a New General Manager
b) Brian Lockney, Personnel Director
c) Anthony Hiller will be retiring at the end of this year
d) All board members
Date: 25 - 09 - 2015
1. TO: ____________________
2. FROM: _____________________
3. SUBJECT: _________________________
4. I am sure you are all aware by now,______________________________ , which
leaves us a little over two months in which to appoint a new General Manager.
The post is currently being advertised in both the national press and the leading
trade magazines and I intend to begin the first round of interviews in mid October.
The advertisements contain the following description of General Manager's duties:
• to have overall responsibility for the running of the plant;
• to coordinate the work of the management team so that the company's targets
and objectives are met;
• to advise on new product development;
• to negotiate with trade union representatives;
• to accompany the Sales Manager on overseas sales trips, whenever possible;
• to represent the company when the Manager Director is unavailable.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Определите основную идею
а) Consumers of the forestry products
b) Problems of marketing of woodland products
c) Natural resource-based project
d) The main components of wood-processing production
The Natural Resource-Based Economic Development Project has six
interrelated components.
1. Value-Added Wood Processing. The project is assisting in the development
of the region's value-added wood processing capacity. When the project was first
proposed, there was limited capacity for the manufacture of value-added wood
products in the Russian Far East, and the existing one was of poor quality. Even items
that were in high demand, such as building components and furniture, were either not
produced or simply not able to compete with imports. Local markets exist for
dimensional lumber, chairs, and tables, wooden crates for packaging perishables,
doors, window frames, and products for light construction.
Russian and Canadian value-added processing and marketing experts are
working to identify a small number of products that require minimal capital
investment and training to become more productive. These products are expected to
generate early revenues, build confidence, and strengthen the enterprise and its
partnerships. Training / has been provided in lumber drying techniques; in the
manufacture of furniture, thermal windows, and doors; and in the construction of
Canadian-style wood frame and round log homes.
2. Non-Timber Forest Products. The goal is to increase local production
capacity of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and to enhance their market
acceptance by improving the quality and presentation of the final products. This will
provide employment opportunities for aboriginal peoples and other forest dwellers in
rural areas where few economic opportunities exist. The Nanaisky Consumer
Cooperative is the largest partner organization in this component of the project, and it
has received assistance in developing a promotion and advertising plan for its
The project is assisting in the development of NTFP businesses. A business
plan has been developed for selected products and market opportunities are being
explored for birch sap, fir oil, berries, honey, and mushrooms. Studies are being
undertaken to determine the equipment needs of producers and eventually to assist
them in purchasing the equipment. The Canadian project team is providing assistance
with marketing, packaging, and production technologies. The NTFP component is
taking constructive steps to ensure that economic development of the forest resource
will be permanent and self-sustaining within the Nanaiski Raion region.
3. Tourism-Based Industry. There is a great-undeveloped potential for tourism
in the Russian Far East. Of greatest potential is the sport fishing, outdoor adventure,
and cultural tourism activities primarily enjoyed by Western tourists and, to a lesser
but growing extent, Russian tourists. The project team is working with the local
tourism industry to increase the economic importance of this sector to the region. To
do so, they are collaborating in developing a regional tourism strategy, improving
infrastructure, and identifying opportunities for new businesses.
Studies are being undertaken to determine the potential to attract tourists from
both North America and Russia. In addition, promotional materials are being
prepared to target potential clients. Russian travel agents and tourism officials have
participated in a study tour of British Columbia to become familiar with the operation
of Canadian facilities offering similar attractions. Similarly, Canadian tour operators
have visited the Russian Far East to become familiar with the opportunities there and
to offer suggestions to Russian entrepreneurs on how they can make their operations
more attractive to international travelers.
Because of the efforts of the project team, it is expected, that the Russian
tourism operators will be able to offer a variety of experiences to meet the needs and
tastes of Western travelers. There is now a nucleus for expanding tourism between
British Columbia and Khabarovsk Krai / Nanaiski Raion. This will support the
sustainable long-term economic development of the tourism industry and enhance the
economic relationships between Canada and Russia.
4. National Park Creation. The governor of Khabarovsk Krai has decreed that
400,000 hectares in the Nanaiski Raion are to become Amur National Park, the first
of its kind in Khabarovsk Krai. As a national park, the area will be protected from
future development that could adversely impact its ecosystems and threaten the
continued existence of its rich endemic flora and fauna. The park is home to rare
species such as the Siberian tiger and the Himalayan bear. It is part of protected areas
that form ecological corridors for the movement of wildlife.
The park will also be the focal .point for the implementation of the regional
tourism development strategy. As part of a balanced strategy for sustainable growth,
the creation of protected areas will set an example for other areas in Russia of the
possibility for local-level initiatives to pay environmental dividends to current and
future generations.
The project is providing assistance in park planning, satellite photography, park
rangers’ training, communications and infrastructure. The boundaries of the park
have been established, and ongoing work includes the preparation of promotional
materials, including a video and still photography. The project is also assisting in the
preparation of satellite-based maps that will form an important tool for the
preparation of a comprehensive management plan for the park. It is anticipated, that
the construction of a tourist camp on the Amur River and the development of an
interpretative trail to display aboriginal people's traditional knowledge of medicinal
plants will enhance the tourism value of the park.
The park component of the project will contribute to safeguarding the integrity
of the ecosystems and the biodiversity of the area. It will help to protect its rare and
endangered species, and it will assist the efforts of Russian stakeholders in raising
public awareness of the park and the multiple values associated with it. The
development of tourist destinations with appropriate infrastructure will create
economic opportunities for the region.
5. Business Ties between Canadian and Russian Indigenous Groups. This
component facilitates the establishment of commercially viable projects by Canadian
and Russian indigenous peoples. Since 1995, they have been working together to
identify opportunities for joint economic and cultural projects that will strengthen
each of their communities. Successful new businesses will create much-needed
employment and income.
Currently, the most promising businesses are based on traditional handicrafts.
A business plan has been developed to promote embroidery and sewing crafts and an
arts-and-crafts bazaar by local women. As a starting point, the project has been
assisting the Nanai people to improve the marketing of their existing crafts in Russia,
Western Canada, and the United States. A study tour was organized to give Nanai
representatives exposure to the industry as it is practiced in British Columbia. It is
hoped, that this will help foster greater capacity within Russian indigenous
Numerous participants have been trained in basic business management skills.
They are now better qualified to plan and manage their businesses in the future,
basing them on sound market research and financial management. This will lead to
more business opportunities and increased productivity. The project has also assisted
stakeholders to attend seminars to develop further their skills in project-related
activities. Strengthening the entrepreneurial skills of the Nanai people will allow
them to increase sales and diversify their products, resulting in greater wealth and
employment for both women and men.
6. Development of the Project. From the beginning of the project, there has
been a conscious strategy to share the results of the project with other groups in
Russia. To do this, the project has strived to document clearly, what has been done
and to share its experiences and lessons learned with others in the country.
Plans are underway to train people in small business development by
contracting and Training a local entrepreneurial development officer who will
provide continuity after the project is finished. Business connections are being
established by building a network of contacts through Canadian business
development missions to Russia and by assisting Russians to attend business
expositions, seminars, and conferences. The replication of the project's approach in
Russia is being facilitated by the development of a decision-making tool that will aid
in determining where and how this approach can be introduced successfully
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант словосочетания
It was clear that ____________ was primarily the result of a favorable market
situation and the effect of devaluation.
а) tourism-based industry
c) forest industry's growth
b) pre-export certification scheme d) woodland cooperatives
Задание 3. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
If any provision of this Agreement is held to be invalid or illegal, it ___________
severed from this Agreement.
а) is considered
b) shall consider c) considers
d) shall be considered
Задание 4. Дополните микродиалог
I see. How many employees are there? – ___________________________.
а) Yes, they are.
c) None of them.
b) There are six of us. d) Some partners may be appropriate.
Задание 5. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Subsequently, the role of the government in US has increased considerably since the
________________ of the 1930s.
a) Great Depression
c) Treaty of Rome
b) World War II
d) Confederacy
Задание 6. Выберите слова или сочетания слов для заполнения пропусков так,
чтобы они отражали особенности оформления служебной записки
b) As agreed, your presentation will take the following form d) TO
Date: 9 January 2015
1.________: Sales Manager, England and Scotland
2.________: Chairman
3.________: Sales Presentation – 20 January 2008
4. Following our telephone conversation, I confirm that you – and members of your
sales team – will be making a sales presentation to members of the Board at 2 p.m. on
20 January._______________________:
1. Total timber sales for the year ending 2014. The trend in total timber sales over the
period 2012-2014.
2. The regional distribution of sales, with indications of areas of growth and problem
areas. Sales forecasts.
I hope you and your team will give the Board a clear picture of our timber sales
performance. May I remind you, finally, to provide 12 copies of any graphs or other
visual material which you may wish to circulate to Board members.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выберите заглавие, подходящее
по смыслу к данному тексту
a) Problems of marketing of woodland products
b) Satellite monitoring of forests
c) Motor-manual short wood method
d) The main factors of wood-processing production
Space imaging is a new method of getting data about the Russian forests. The
interest to the space imaging data is currently increasing due to an active introduction
of the Russian forest resources into the world economy, as well as due to the activity
of the international and Russian nature protection organizations. Typical signs of
globalization are the appearance of major foreign timber companies on the Russian
market, introduction of international certification standards, and involvement of
Russia in the process of illegal logging control, especially within the frames of the
Big Eight.
All the urgent problems of the forest sector (leasing relations development,
certification, old-growth forest protection, illegal logging control) require the most
up-to-date and independent information about the forest for decision-making. There
are very few sources of such information. Topographic maps are updated less than
once in 10 years and contain almost no data about the forests, whereas detail maps at
the scale of 1:100 000 and larger are still «classified». Similar forest inventory data
on many regions is desperately obsolete, since even during the Soviet Union the
forest inventory was performed once in 10-20 years.
In some regions, even these terms were exceeded. Fresh forest inventory data
(in case it was recently performed) is not accessible for its users – forest business
enterprises, local authorities, scientific and nature protection organizations. Typically,
even forest administration authorities can experience problems with receiving forest
inventory data (especially electronically). In this situation satellite imagery turned out
to be in great demand and the most accessible kind of data. Which features make
satellite images in the demand in the current Russian conditions in the first place?
Each space image is a document, reflecting actual condition of the area for the
time of imaging. For example, the size and direction of the logging area detected by
the image are independent on the land allotment in the leskhoz in subject. Image
falsification is a useless effort, because many other operators are making their own
images of the same spot and the «faked images» can be easily revealed. Satellite
imagery gives an opportunity of an independent cross check of the forest sector by
different Russian and international organizations, including the Rosprirodnadzor
(Federal Service for Supervision of Natural Resource Usage) and Rosleskhoz (State
Forest Service).
Satellite data can be obtained for the images of different acquisition dates. As a
rule, the archive history of the middle resolution images (around 1:25 000) for the
Russian forest territory does not exceed 1-2 years. Middle- and high-resolution
satellite imagery can be usually ordered within several weeks. Modern general scale
imaging enables to take the image of vast territories in quite high details. Thus, for
example, the size of one scene of the new IRS-P6 satellite is 740x740 km. Such scene
covers almost half of the European North of Russia, whereas the 55 m resolution
images enable to detect the cutting areas starting from 5-10 ha.
Imaging areas are not bound to the state or administrative borders; no permits
are required for imaging. All this allows the operator to receive unified data on the
forest status in different leskhozes, federation subjects, on this and that side of the
border. This is perhaps the most important reason of active use of satellite images for
the past years. (In the former Soviet Union times, images were accessible only to a
narrow circle of specialists of the closed high-security organizations). Currently, all
the data on satellite images with 2 m resolution and lower is free to use. The
procedure to order and to obtain such images is simple and is described in details in
the internet on the sites of the internet service providers.
In 2005, remote sensing monitoring of the forest use covered over 52 mln ha of
forest within the areas of intensive logging on the territory of seven federation
subjects. Around 16 000 fellings were inspected, about 100 000 ha of large-scale
ground truth aerial photo surveys performed. According to the press-service of the
Russian Ministry of Natural Resources, the total amount of revealed penalty costs
constituted 900 min rubles, with 500 min rubles claimed by December. The offenders
volunteered to pay off 50 mln rubles of the total. In 2016 Rosleskhoz is planning to
cover the entire territory of the intensive logging in Russia by aerial survey and
satellite-based monitoring (about 100 mln ha of the forest fund).
Federal budget is allocating 200 mln rubles for this purpose. Satellite imagery
has the lowest costs in remote sensing monitoring – in 2005 satellite imagery
expenses did not exceed 12% of the total project funding. The most important result
of the year was the fact that for the first time Rosleskhoz obtained the data on the
main types and volumes of infringements directly after the independent interpretation
of space images, rather than via their own local authorities and leskhozes. In most
cases, the results were shocking. Both logging operators and leskhozes make flagrant
violations. For example, in Permsky Territory a random inspection of leskhozes
revealed the absence of logging plans, nonconformity of logging cycles (up to one
third of all logging sites) and of logging area condition to their certification acts. To
the credit of Rosleskhoz leaders, all these facts are taken into account and serve as
guidance for response actions.
Pictures, showing the frontal moving of the logging operators onto the intact
frontier taiga in Arkhangelsk Region made a dramatic impression on the forest
inventory officials and forestry executives. Greenpeace representatives were
demonstrating such images many times before. However, only after the start of their
own remote sensing monitoring program the forest inventory enterprises performed
the analysis of leased areas and cutting sites location, showing how the manipulations
with the annual allowable cut are resulted in extensive and destructive
('concentrated') clear-cuts within a few years in terms of their scale. Consequently,
the question of changing the annual allowable cut definition rules was put in the
nearest plans of the Russian Forest Agency.
Monitoring of illegal logging program became the first acting governmental
high-resolution remote sensing monitoring program in the country, in this respect
putting the importance of this project far beyond the frames of the forest sector
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
Lightweight purpose-built machines used in commercial logging and thinning
operations can handle ________ of up to 8 tons.
a) direct skidding
b) roadside landing
c) loads
d) building forest-roads
Задание 3. Восстановите правильный порядок слов по приведѐнным
синтаксическим элементам предложения
in his woods / for a specified sum / the owner / all the merchantable material /
commonly sells
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
The word pub is short for _________________ , but the full name is rarely used.
a) public library
b) public corporation
c) public house
d) publication
Задание 5. Дополните диалог подходящей по ситуации репликой
A. – I would like a non-stop flight from New York to Paris leaving April 15. Can you
tell me what is available?
B. – _________________________________________.
A. – Yes, myself, and I would prefer a morning flight.
a) Do you have a room service?
b) I would like a non-stop flight.
c) Would this be for one person?
d) Do you have any luggage?
Задание 6. Определите последовательность
Mrs. A. Everett
Compact Systems
96 Rose wall Drive
South town
2 August 2016
Dear Mrs. Everett
Yours sincerely
P. Barker
Purchasing Manager
(head office), Foss House, Brigham Street, Liverpool
L Tel: 051-3876397 Telex: 79284
On 15 July, we placed an order for 100 IBM compatible Compact
Accounts packages.
A consignment was delivered on 30 July, but upon inspection, we found
that the packages were not IBM compatible.
As this is our first transaction with your company, we are disappointed that
we have got off to such a bad start.
Therefore I would be much obliged if you could send us the correct goods
as soon as possible, and arrange for the collection of the incorrect ones.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Выберите заглавие, подходящее
по смыслу к данному тексту
a) Marketing of woodland products
b) Forest use
c) Timber harvesting operations
d) Important factors of wood-processing industry
Forestry is a type of human activity that includes all aspects of interrelations
between humans and the forest. The major interests of forestry are: studying and
inventorying forests; forest reproduction; fire and pest control; forest exploitation;
and control over forest exploitation. A specific feature of forestry is a long production
cycle (more than 100 years) that is largely determined by the growth of the forest
type. Forestry in Russia has been based on the principles of stability and
sustainability. There are about 20 general criteria for sustainable forest exploitation.
The major ones are: maintenance of productivity; maintenance of appropriate sanitary
conditions; maintenance of the protective functions; biodiversity conservation and
maintenance of forests in the global carbon cycle; maintenance of social and
economic importance; availability of legislative instruments for forest conservation
and sustainable forest management.
Forestry is regulated by the Forest Code of the Russian Federation, Forest
Codes of Subjects of the Russian Federation, and other legislative and technical
documents. The forest reserve is the object of forestry. Forests of the country are held
as Federal property according to the Forest Code. However, the legislation does
provide an opportunity to transfer a part of the forest reserve to ownership of subjects
of the Russian Federation. Forest management is largely concentrated at a regional
level. The major unit of forestry management in Russia is a regional unit – leskhozes
(about 8,000 exist) that in its turn is subdivided into forest districts – lesnichestvos
(there are about 8,000). During the past decade, the total number of the employees in
this sphere has been about 200,000 (60% of them, state forest guard).
The system of forest works in Russia includes forest management and the
inventory of forests by means of remote sensing, monitoring, and various types of
investigations (e.g., forest-pathological investigation). Forest management includes
periodical inventory of forests (at intervals of 10-15 years) and development of longterm plans of harmonious forest exploitation for regional forest units. Inventory of
forests by means of remote sensing is performed in distant sparsely populated
regions. Forest areas covered by the inventory have decreased sharply; they made up
30,000,000 to 40,000,000 hectares annually during the past decade.
The objectives of monitoring are the situation tracking of the forest status and
tendencies of forest development, the prevention of and control over natural and maninduced disturbances in the by an undesirable change in tree composition. For
example, such pioneer species as birch and aspen can move into the burnt-out or
felled areas that had been primarily occupied by dark coniferous tree species.
Forestry has worked out a considerable number of procedures to further natural
It is of the greatest importance to conserve the young forest generation, i.e., the
undergrowth, when cutting the mature standing trees. This can be achieved through
the implementation of special kinds of cuttings (selective or gradual) or progressive
technologies that conserve undergrowth under final cutting. Southward, in the foreststeppe and semi-desert zones, natural afforestation usually does not take place. Manplanted forests are required in that case. Forest plantations are formed mainly by
means of seedlings.
In 1960-2000, afforestation was performed in Russia within an area of 1.6 to
1.8 million ha, including sowing and planting of forests within 600,000 to 700,000
ha. The quality and integrity of the plantations were not always satisfactory. In 2005,
only 15.36 million ha of the forest plantations were maintained. In addition to
afforestation, forest planting on barren lands and lands of low productivity beyond
the area of the forest reserve was performed within an area of about 100,000 ha,
mainly with a view to protecting agricultural lands. In the past years, areas of
afforestation and forest planting have decreased significantly. For example, in 19961997, these operations were performed annually within an area of 1,100,000, ha
including annual sowing and planting of the forest crops within the area of not less
than 300,000 ha.
Forest fire control and forest management control are losing ground. In 1988,
1,910 km of forest roads were built; in 2010, this number was only 0.480 km. The
scope of irrigation and drainage construction was reduced by ten times and the
planting of forest shelter belts on agricultural lands decreased by four times over the
same period. The number of aircraft used for forest protection decreased from 598 in
1988 to 378 in 2004, and the number of flying hours shrank by 5.4 times over this
There are fire, forest-pathology, and other kinds of monitoring. There are 44
forest expeditions belonging to 13 state forest management enterprises, which
perform inventory of the forests. The first pan-Russian inventory of forests was made
in 1957. Data on the state of all forests in Russia are presented in the materials of the
State Inventory of the Forest Reserve that are performed each 5 years.
Multi-purpose forest exploitation includes complex utilization of all forest
resources and numerous environmental and social utilities of forests. Use of forest
resources includes the harvesting of timber, galipot, auxiliary wood, medicinal raw
materials, wild fruits, nuts, mushrooms, berries and side utilities such as hay making
and hunting. Timber is harvested by means of final felling (felling of the mature
forest, about 85% of total volume of the harvested timber) and intermediate felling
(thinning and sanitary felling). Final felling is performed only in the forests under
exploitation. The quota of the sustainable final felling is set based on the annual cut
that, in turn, is determined by dominating species within the regional forestry unit.
Over the past years, the annual cut has slightly exceeded 500,000,000 cubic meters.
Actual felling made up about 300 to 350 million m3/year of saleable wood in the
1970s to 80s. In the past decade, only 20% to 30% of the annual cut has been used
because of economic crises. This fact caused great social and economic problems,
especially in the regions, where forestry was a major sector of employment. Thinning
is of the greatest importance. In 1988, thinning was performed in an area of
1,270,000 ha. In 2002, this operation covered only 610,000 ha.
There are great prospects for harvesting the non-wood resources. About 2,500
of the more than 20,000 vascular plants growing in Russia are of medicinal
importance, and about 300 of them are included in the state pharmacopoeia. The
potential reserve of food is in the range of hundreds of thousands of tons. However,
currently an insignificant part of these reserves is used. In 1998, forestry enterprises
harvested 16.8 million tons (t) of wild fruits and berries, 1,800 t of mushrooms,
2,600 t of medicinal herbs, and 7,000 t of honey. In years past, the volumes of these
products have been reduced by three to ten times and even more in some cases. At the
same time, actual volumes harvested by the local population have increased,
especially in the distant forest regions, where these resources are of survival
Afforestation on the deforested areas (fire sites, cleared spaces, etc.) is one of
the most important objectives of forestry. Afforestation can be natural, through seeds
and springwood. The intensity of natural afforestation depends on the specific region,
forest type, causes and areas of disturbances, availability of seed sources, and
ecological features of the tree species. In the forest zone, especially in taiga, natural
afforestation is completed successfully.
Задание 2. Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
Monitoring of ____________ program became the first acting governmental highresolution remote sensing monitoring program in the country.
a) consumers of the forestry products b) illegal logging
c) motor-manual short wood method
d) tourism-based industry
Задание 3. Восстановите правильный порядок слов по
синтаксическим элементам предложения
level / maintained / is / at a satisfactory / growing stock / the forest's
Задание 4. Вопрос страноведческого характера
Do you know what Greenwich is?
a) Roman fortification
b) a very beautiful parkland on the outskirts of London
c) English-speaking country
d) a street on the bank of the River Thames
Задание 5. Дополните диалог подходящей по ситуации репликой
A. – ________________________________.
B. – Yes, it does. We offer a full breakfast every morning from 7:30 to 11:30.
A. – Sounds good.
a) Do you have a room service?
b) Will this be for you?
c) Does that rate include breakfast? d) Do you have any luggage?
Задание 6. Определите последовательность
November 20, 2015
Dear Sir / Madam
Yours sincerely,
David Grow,
Biotechnology Lab, R. 237,Westbrook Building, 6174 University Boulevard,
Vancouver, B. C. Canada V6T IW5
Thank you for your letter enquiring about a position with the
Biotechnology Laboratory at the University of British Columbia. I regret that
we have no positions available, which require your qualifications.
Библиографический список
Основная литература
1. Дубинина, Г. А. Английский язык: экономика и финансы (Majors)
[Электронный ресурс] : учеб. / Г. А. Дубинина, И. Ф. Драчинская,
Н. Г. Кондрахина. – М. : Альфа-М : ИНФРА-М, 2011. – 176 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
2. Маньковская, З. В. Английский язык в ситуациях повседневного
делового общения [Электронный ресурс] : учебное пособие / З. В. Маньковская.
– М. : НИЦ Инфра-М, 2012. – 223 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
Дополнительная литература
3. Кравец, В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Морфология [Текст]
: граммат. справ. / В. Е. Кравец. – Воронеж, 2010. – 124 с. – Электронная версия в
4. Кравец, В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Синтаксис [Текст] :
граммат. справ. / В. Е. Кравец. – Воронеж, 2010. – 80 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС
5. Литвинова, Ю. А. Английский язык. Information technologies.
Информационные технологии [Текст] : учеб. пособие / Ю. А. Литвинова,
И. В. Милованова, А. А. Илунина. – Воронеж, 2014. – Электронная версия в ЭБС
6. Маньковская, З.В. Идиомы и фразовые глаголы в деловом общении
(английский язык) [Электронный ресурс] : учебное пособие /
З. В. Маньковская. – М. : ИНФРА-М, 2011. – 184 с. – ЭБС «Знаниум».
7. Милованова, И. В. Английский язык. Терминологический словарь по
лесному делу и ландшафтной архитектуре [Текст] / И. В. Милованова. –
Воронеж, 2014. – 180 с. – Электронная версия в ЭБС «ВГЛТУ».
Елена Альбертовна Маклакова
Анна Александровна Илунина
Методические указания к практическим занятиям
для студентов по направлениям подготовки
09.04.02, 15.04.04, 05.04.06, 35.04.02
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