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Иностранный язык в профессии.Английский язык(СР)

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РФ
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ
ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«ВОРОНЕЖСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЛЕСОТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ
УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ИМЕНИ Г.Ф. МОРОЗОВА»
ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК В ПРОФЕССИИ.
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Методические указания для самостоятельной работы для студентов
по всем направлениям подготовки (уровень бакалавриата)
Воронеж 2017
2
УДК 81.432.1
Маклакова, Е.А. Иностранный язык в профессии. Английский язык [Текст]:
методические указания для самостоятельной работы для студентов по всем
направлениям подготовки (уровень бакалавриата) / Е.А. Маклакова, А.А.
Илунина; М-во образования и науки РФ, ФГБОУ ВО «ВГЛТУ». – Воронеж,
2017. – 39с.
Рецензент:
зав. кафедрой общего языкознания и стилистики ВГУ
профессор, доктор филологических наук И.А.Стернин
ББК 81.432. 1
© Маклакова Е. А., 2017
© Илунина А А., 2017
© Воронежский
государственный
лесотехнический
университет
им. Г.Ф. Морозова, 2017
3
РАЗДЕЛ I
Контрольная работа № 1
Вариант 1
Задание 1. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
I think we first need to __________ the problem.
а) sell
c) buy
b) satisfy
d) identify
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The key purpose for using a visual aid is to help the audience understand the topic
_____ .
а) most
c) less
b) better
d) more
Задание 3. Дополните микродиалог
Have you got many plants for the production of your goods? - _________________.
а) Yes, we have got a great many people. c) Yes, that would be enough.
b) Nothing special.
d) No, just a few.
Задание 4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The Bank of England was founded in 1694 in _____________ by a royal charter
granted by William III.
а) the State of Delaware
b) the City of London
c) the United States
d) Windsor Castle
Задание 5. Прочитайте текст и определите, является ли выражение
The American economy based on free enterprise is characterized by private
ownership with the absence of government involvement.
4
а) истинным
b) ложным
c) нет информации в тексте
THE AMERICAN ECONOMY
The American economy is a dynamic and free-market system. The United States
is generally described as a mixed economy in which the federal government plays an
important part in the marketplace even though the great majority of productive
resources are privately owned.
By any standard, the American economy that has evolved over less than 250
years has been immensely successful. With less than 5% of the world's population,
the United States in the early 1990s produced about 25% of the world's output.
The US economy is more than twice as large as the next largest economy, that of
Japan. US productivity and standard of living remain among the highest in the
industrial world although other nations have experienced higher rates of growth in
recent decades.
Although the American economy has transformed itself over the years, there is
still the continuing debate over the proper role for government in a market economy.
An economy based on free enterprise is generally characterized by private ownership
and initiative, with a relative absence of government involvement. However,
government intervention has been found necessary from time to time to ensure that
economic opportunities are fair and accessible to all people.
Ever since colonial times, the government has been involved, to some extent, in
economic decision-making. The federal government, for example, has made huge
investments in infrastructure—from canals and post roads in the 19th century, to
interstate highways and orbiting Earth satellites in the 20th century.
The government has provided social welfare programs that the private sector
was unable or unwilling to provide. In a myriad of ways and over many decades, it
has supported and promoted the development of agriculture.
5
Задание 6. Перед Вами бланк. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
1) Name, surname
2) Date of birth
3) Place of birth
4) Nationality
а) 30 May, 1985
c) George Fox
b) Manchester
d) British
Контрольная работа № 1
Вариант 2
Задание 1. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
We will have to __________ with the problem of increasing prices.
а) identify
c) buy
b) satisfy
d) deal
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The market research indicates that _________ customers are using soft drinks.
а) highly
c) best
b) better
d) more
Задание 3. Дополните микродиалог
How long is the study expected to last? - ______________________________.
а) We began a pilot study on June, 5.
c) It is going to cost much more.
b) We should finish it in three weeks. d) It sounds great.
6
Задание 4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Last century Great Britain adopted a decimal currency system in which one _______
is worth one hundred pence.
а) pound
c) dollar
b) banknote
d) penny
Задание 5. Прочитайте текст и определите, является ли выражение
US productivity and standard of living remain among the highest in the industrial
world although other nations have experienced higher rates of growth in recent
decades.
а) истинным
b) ложным
c) нет информации в тексте
INTERNATIONAL AID
Most aid (= money, food and equipment) is given to the world’s poorest
countries to help reduce poverty. Projects paid for by aid money are often aimed at
improving local housing and water supply, agriculture, health and education.
Training local people is also a central part of many programs. A lot of aid money
comes from governments, but many development projects are run with the help of
non-governmental organizations.
The British government gives over 2 000 million pounds in aid each year to
developing countries. Britain, together with other countries, is helping to reduce the
debts of poorer countries and may under certain circumstances cancel these debts.
The US began giving foreign aid during World War II, when the Lend-Lease Act
made it possible to give military equipment to foreign countries. The US has
continued to spend large amount of money on foreign aid, but has often been
criticized for the way it decides who to help. In general, money goes to poor countries
that are important to the US for commercial or military reasons.
Formerly, the US gave money to countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America so
that they would not accept money from the Soviet Union. In 1998 US foreign aid
7
budget was over $7 billion. Much of this was spent on US equipment, food and
services to be sent abroad.
Two organizations are practically concerned with training local people. In
Britain Voluntary Service Overseas arranges for skilled people to work abroad for a
few years so that they can pass on their skills. They are paid at local rates by the
government of the country they are working in. The Peace Corps, a US government
agency, does similar work but pays volunteers living expenses and gives them a small
allowance.
Задание 6. Перед Вами бланк. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
1) Occupation
2) Period of stay
3) Date of arrival
4) Country
а) three weeks
c) Marketing Manager
b) 30 May, 2007
d) China
Рекомендованная литература: 1. ОЛ (с.3-4).
Контрольная работа № 2
Вариант 1
Задание 1. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Sometimes government regulations discourage foreign companies from entering
__________.
а) mixed economy
c) home markets
b) sole proprietorship
d) cash payments
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
8
Before __________ the graph or chart, prepare the audience for it.
а) shown
c) showing
b) show
d) to show
Задание 3. Дополните микродиалог
What is your current job title? - _______________________________.
а) I am twenty years old. c) My salary is rather high.
b) I am a travel agent.
d) My interests include swimming and reading.
Задание 4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
In the United States, __________ , located in New York City, is the center of the
financial world.
а) Fleet Street
c) the City of London
b) Wall Street
d) Windsor Castle
Задание 5. Прочитайте текст и определите, какой из абзацев содержит
следующую информацию
а) Advantages and disadvantages of this form of business.
b) The motives to form a partnership.
c) The roles of partners.
PARTNERSHIP
1. There is a type of business organization called partnership. Partnerships are
voluntary combinations from 2 to 20 persons formed for the purpose of carrying on
business with a view of profit. This type of organization represents a logical
development from one-person business since the obvious method by which such a
firm may acquire further capital is to form a partnership. The motive, however, may
not be financial and partnerships are often formed in order to bring new ability and
enterprise into the business.
9
2. Partners usually specialize in one or more aspects of business, one may be
responsible for buying, one for selling, one for production, and so on. A person who
joins a partnership, supplying capital and sharing in the profits, but taking no part in
the management is known as a sleeping partner. The survival of a partnership
depends upon the continued harmonious relationship between a certain number of
people in situations which often give much cause for disagreement. In economies
where trading risks are very great, the partnership is not a very stable type of
organization.
3. The advantages of this type of firm are similar to those of one-person
business. It is a flexible organization which allows a greater degree of specialization
than the one-person business. Since it has greater access to capital, it can achieve
greater size than the sole proprietor. The great disadvantage is the fact that the
liability of the partners is unlimited and they are fully liable for the acts of the other
partners. There are, however, some limited partnerships. In such firms some partners
may have their liability limited to some specified sum, but at least one of the partners
must have unlimited liability.
Задание 6. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке
1)
2)
3)
a) I am enclosing a brochure and
4)
b) The reason I am writing to you is
price list for your consideration. I would that we have an exceptional new line of
like to call on you next week, give you cosmetic products that give long-lasting
some samples, and see if you have an improvement in skin and hair, and that
interest in learning more about our have been good sellers in many salons.
products. I look forward to talking to
you at that time.
Sincerely,
Sondra Kim
10
Enclosures: brochure, price list.
c) Dear Ms. Chan,
d) Asian Beauty Products
450 Sutter Street
My name is Sondra Kim and I am
Suite 102 San Francisco
an accountant representative with Asian
Beauty Products, Inc. in San Francisco.
March 12, 2001
Chan's Beauty Spa
125 Maiden Lane
San Francisco
Контрольная работа № 2
Вариант 2
Задание 1. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The exporter who requires ___________ from foreign buyers is likely to lose orders
to competitors.
а) home markets
c) sole proprietorship
b) mixed economy
d) cash payment
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
An owner can make decisions quickly without _______ to consult others.
а) have had
c) having
b) had
d) to have
Задание 3. Дополните микродиалог
What is your practical work experience? - ___________________________.
а) About $500, I think.
c) In a month’s time.
b) Five years.
d) It depends on the job.
11
Задание 4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The law of demand was discovered by A. Cournot (1801—1877), a professor of
mathematics at the University of Lyon, ____________________.
а) France
c) UK
b) London
d) USA
Задание 5. Прочитайте текст и определите, какой из абзацев содержит
следующую информацию
а) Advantages and disadvantages of this form of business.
b) The trends of the development of small business.
c) Profits and losses of the business.
SOLE PROPRIETOR
1. Many businesses are sole proprietorships, firms owned and operated by a
single person. When a person decides to open an independent business, that person is
then entirely responsible for its success or failure. Any profits go to the owner, any
losses are his or her responsibility as well. If the losses prove to be greater than the
investment, the individual is responsible for paying them, even if this depletes all
personal assets. In spite of its limitations, the sole proprietorship is well adapted to
many kinds of small businesses.
2. One of the advantages of a sole proprietorship is that an owner can make
decisions quickly and decisively without having to consult others. And an individual
proprietor, by law, pays fewer taxes and at a lower rates than does a corporation.
There are disadvantages to this form of business organization, however. A sole
proprietorship ends with the incapacity or death of the owner. The assets can be
inherited by a person who may then become the operator, but legally the business
dies with its owner. Also, it is dependent upon the amount of money the owner has
saved or can borrow from his or her family, friends or banks.
12
3. A small business is often the starting point for developing a new product or
service. One person tries out an idea. If it is successful, the business grows, or the
product may be bought by a larger firm. Small businesses often grow into large ones,
adding to the economic vitality of the nation. The small business can give an
individual a chance to gain experience, which the person may use later on a larger
scale. It and suits the temperament of many persons who like to exercise initiative
and be their own bosses. Small businesses are particularly well suited for meeting
specialized local needs. Small businesses provide a service where knowing one's
customers is important.
Задание 6. Расположите части делового письма в правильном порядке
1)
2)
3)
4)
a) Thank you for your help
b) Transmaster Innovations, Inc.
beforehand. We're looking forward to
18 West Avenue
your prompt reply.
Orlando, FI 32808
With best wishes,
Phone 407-555-8312
Foreign Sales Department
fax407-555-8313
Philip Burrow
c) Dear Mr. Katsumi,
d)
We're very much interested in an ad
Mr. Katsumi
September, 16, 2000
of yours that ran in a recent issue of
Katsumi Electronics, Ltd.
New Electronics.
10 Ichiban-cho
TI, Inc. is always looking for good
electronic
products
to
keep
our
customers happy and to attract new
ones. Would you please tell us more
about your latest PC. Also please send
your wholesale prices and your terms.
Рекомендованная литература: 1. ОЛ (с.9-12).
Tokyo 102,
Japan
13
Контрольная работа № 3
Вариант 1
Задание 1. Выберите правильный вариант перевода словосочетания
free competition
а) денежные поступления
c) свободная конкуренция
b) практическое применение d) разделение труда
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
You __________ use pauses to slow your pace down and make your sentences easier
to understand.
а) shall be able
c) might be
b) has to
d) can
Задание 3. Дополните микродиалог
Did Mr. Bridges receive you on the day of your arrival? - ____________________.
а) You don’t say so!
c) Yes, I was.
b) Yes, he did.
d) Yes, he received you.
Задание 4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The ______________ government became closely involved in industry after World
War II when the Labor Party nationalized major industries.
а) British
c) socialist
b) American
d) German
Задание 5. Прочитайте текст и определите основную идею текста
а) Role and responsibilities of the manager.
b) Economic activities in business organizations.
14
c) Types of business organizations.
Managers are coordinators of economic activities in business organizations.
Coordination of group efforts is an essential function in a company, and whoever acts
as a coordinator is a manager.
Managers do not perform physical tasks which are necessary to produce and sell
the goods and services that are the output of the company. All this is done by workers
and employees. On the other hand, the latter would be unable to achieve the goal of
the organization without the guiding hand of management.
There are literally thousands of decisions in a company about what is to be done,
who is to do it and how it is to be done. It is managers who make these decisions and
see that they are implemented.
The duties of a manager include:
 the determination of the best form of organization,
 development of a control system,
 budgeting and forecasting,
 marketing and sales policies,
 effective performance of the sales staff,
 development of improved methods for the planning and control of ordering,
 handling and sorting out of the materials and supplies,
 determination of wages and salaries,
 the establishment of incentives for good performance.
The work of managers is, by no means, confined to manufacturing industries. It
is indispensable in offices, banks, mercantile establishments, insurance agencies and
other similar activities. Management is the team of managers who are in charge of the
organization at different levels. Regardless of the specific job, most managers
perform five basic functions: planning, organizing, staffing, directing, controlling.
Planning involves determining overall company objectives and deciding how
these goals can best be achieved. Organizing is putting the plan into action. In
15
directing, managers guide, teach, and motivate people so that they reach their
potential abilities. At last managers control and evaluate how well overall company
objectives are being met.
Задание 6. Определите цель делового письма
а) Enquiry
b) Reply to enquiry
c) Offer
Electrical Supplies Ltd.
Coventry England, E.C.7.
20th May, 2005
Rossimport,
Moscow, Russia
Dear Sirs,
With reference to your enquiry of May 11th we confirm that we manufacture the
equipment you are interested in. Our equipment is not very expensive and it is in
great demand on the world market. We are doing business with many firms in Eastern
Europe and we have never received any complaints.
We can supply you with the number of engines you require. We are enclosing
with this letter our latest catalogue and leaflets where you will find all the technical
and commercial information. We also enclose our price-list and General Conditions
of Sale including the terms of payment.
Many thanks for your enquiry and we look forward to receiving your order in the
near future. If you have questions please do not hesitate to contact us.
Yours faithfully,
Tom Jones
Контрольная работа № 3
Вариант 2
Задание 1. Выберите правильный вариант перевода словосочетания
16
rate of interest
а) ценные бумаги
c) процентная ставка
b) контрольный пакет акций d) индекс фондового рынка
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
You __________ change the meaning of a sentence by putting the stress on a
different word.
а) shall be able
c) might be
b) has to
d) can
Задание 3. Дополните микродиалог
How was your flight, Mr. White? - ______________________.
а) Yes. Here we are.
c) I would prefer a morning flight.
b) I'm afraid not.
d) A little bumpy, but I am glad to be here.
Задание № 4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
Barclay's Bank, Lloyd's Bank, Midland Bank and National Westminster Bank are the
basis of the banking system of the ____________.
а) USA
c) Great Britain
b) UK
d) America
Задание 5. Прочитайте текст и определите основную идею текста
а) Role and responsibilities of the manager.
b) Economic activities in business organizations.
c) Types of business organizations.
Before starting your business there are a number of decisions you will have to
make. For example, who should you buy your supplies from? What premises will you
work from? How much control do you want to keep in the business? This last
17
question depends on whether you decide to work as a sole trader, a partnership or a
limited company.
Suppose you decided to work as a sole trader. It means that you alone have
responsibility for the business; you also take all profits after paying income tax on
them. What advantages do you have if you work as a sole trader? They are as
follows: you do not have to disclose details of your financial affairs except to the tax
authorities; you have the final say in any decisions that affect the company. The only
disadvantage is that you alone are personally responsible for any business debts.
Partnership. It is a group of between two and twenty people trading as one firm.
They share responsibility for debts, decision making and the profits. Partnership can
be useful, and effective when partners have skills in different areas. What are the
disadvantages of a partnership? All partners are personally liable for any business
debts, even if they are caused by mismanagement by another partner. So it is essential
to know your partners well and trust them.
A limited company (Ltd.). A company formed by two or more shareholders who
put money into the business in return for a share of the profits. They appoint directors
who control the company. A limited company must be registered. The advantages of
a limited company are: the financial liability of the shareholders is limited. If the
business goes bust the personal belongings of the shareholders cannot be taken to pay
the debts. You each lose only the value of the shares you own. The disadvantages are
as follows: you may find it difficult to get credit from suppliers or loans from banks
unless you give personal guarantees that you will pay your debts to them.
Monopoly. Monopoly is a market structure with only a single seller of a
commodity or service dealing with a large number of buyers. When a single seller
faces a single buyer, that situation is known as bilateral monopoly. There is
monopoly when there is only one seller in an industry, and there is competition when
there are many sellers in an industry.
Задание 6. Определите цель делового письма
18
а) Enquiry
b) Reply to enquiry
c) Offer
W. Jones & Sons, Ltd.
Queen Street, 285
London, E.C.4
10th January 2001
Rossexport
Lomonosova Street, 15
Moscow
Russia
Dear Sirs,
We learn from the Russian Trade Mission that you are producing for export
woolen handmade carpets.
There is a steady demand here for high-class goods of this type. Will you please
send us your catalogues and full details of your export prices and terms of payment.
We look forward to hearing form you.
Yours faithfully,
W. Jones.
Рекомендованная литература: 1. ОЛ (с.17-20).
Контрольная работа №4
Вариант 1
Задание 1.
Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
_________________ is the study of how we can best increase a country's wealth
with the resources that we have available to us.
a) Economic
b) Economy
19
c) Economist
d) Economics
Задание 2. Восстановите правильный порядок слов по приведѐнным
синтаксическим элементам предложения
of international bank payments / and documentary collection bills / letters of credit /
traditional instruments / are /.
Задание № 3. Вопрос страноведческого характера
What was the home of the nation's newspapers till the recent past?
a) Roman fortification
b) Fleet Street
c) Greenwich
d) Wall Street
Задание 4. Выберите реплику, соответствующую телефонному разговору
A- This is Otto Kunstler from Swiss Trading Associates calling for Tom Jones.
B- _______________________________________.
A- Yes: it is K-U-N-S-T-L-E-R.
a) Sorry, the line is busy.
b) One moment, please, I’m ringing.
c) Would you spell your name, please?
d) Yes, please
Задание 5. Определите главную идею текста
a) British Banking System
b) Fleet Street Companies
c) Marketing Research: Key Players
d) Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
The major actors in a company's microenvironment are the company itself,
suppliers, market intermediaries, customers and competitors. Let us consider the roles
of each of them. The company itself and all the departments within a company (e.g.
20
production, finance, and personnel) have an impact on the marketing department's
plans and actions.
The suppliers are also important. Changes in the supplier environment, such as
price and availability of raw materials, have a considerable impact on a company's
marketing operations.
The market intermediaries such as middlemen such as agents, wholesalers and
retailers, are powerful actors. In some cases they can dictate term and even bar the
manufacturer from certain markets.
Customers. The marketer needs to know what people are involved in the buying
decision and what role each person plays. For many products, it is not difficult to
identify the decision-maker. Men normally choose their own shoes and women
choose their own make-up. However, some products and especially new ones may
involve more than one person in decision-making.
Competitors. A company's marketing system is greatly influenced by a host of
competitors. The best way for a company is grasp the full range of its competition is
to take the viewpoint of a buyer.
There are four steps in the market research process: defining the problem,
developing the research plan, implementing the plan, and interpreting and presenting
the findings.
Задание 6. Определите вид представленного документа
a) Cover Letter
c) Order
b) Enquiry
d) Claim
Dear Ms. Robinson:
With reference to your Ad in today's Financial World, I would like to be
considered for the above-mentioned opening.
My recent position is a bookkeeper of finance department. I was hired by this
company eight years ago and have profound experience in this field. I appreciate the
21
opportunity to work on my own initiative and to take a certain amount of
responsibility.
Since my present position offers little prospect for advancement, I would prefer
to be employed in an expanding organization such as yours. I tailor to a position of
bookkeeper in your company.
Please find enclosed my resume where I present myself.
I hope to attend an interview at any time convenient to your. I can be contacted
at: 211-5762 after 6 p.m.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,
John Pogodin
Контрольная работа № 4
Вариант 2
Задание 1.
Выберите один из четырѐх терминов, который соответствует
приведѐнному определению
___________________ are the ones for buying and selling goods, currency or
securities available for immediate delivery.
a) Money markets
b) Bank loans
c) Retail banks
d) Spot markets
Задание 2. Восстановите правильный порядок слов по приведѐнным
синтаксическим элементам предложения
in money / is / a dealer / and in substitutes for money / a commercial banker .
Задание 3. Вопрос страноведческого характера
What ended the plague, but also destroyed much of the city in 1666?
a) Roman fortification
b) World War
22
c) Great Fire of London
d) Industrial Revolution
Задание 4. Выберите реплику, соответствующую телефонному разговору
A- Just a minute. I'll ring him.
B- Thank you.
A-_______________________________________.
B- Okay. I'll hold for a couple of minutes.
a) Sorry, the line is busy. Would you mind holding?
c) One moment, please.
b) Yes, please.
d) Could you put me through, please?
Задание 5. Определите главную идею текста
a) New Banking Systems
b) The Concept of Business
c) Marketing Research: Types of Companies
d) Microeconomics and Macroeconomics
Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted
or needed. Nowadays, the concept and activities of business have increased. One
definition of business is production, distribution, and sale of goods or services for a
profit.
Production is the creation of services or processing of raw materials into
products. Example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. These products
need to be moved from the plant to the marketplace. This is known as distribution. A
car might be moved from a plant in Germany to a car dealership in Poland. Sale is the
exchange of a product or service for money. A car is sold to someone in exchange for
money.
Goods are products that people either need or want; for example, cars can be
classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities that a person or group
23
perform for another person or organization. For example, an auto mechanic performs
a service when he repairs a car. A barber renders a service when he cuts your hair.
Business is a combination of all three activities such as production, distribution,
and sale. However, there is another important factor which is connected with the
creation of profit or economic surplus. A major goal in the functioning of any
business company is making a profit. Profit is the money that remains after all the
expenses are paid. It is considered to be the primary goal of every business activity.
Задание 6. Определите вид представленного документа
a) Cover Letter
b) Invitation
c) Order
d) Reply to enquiry
P. Watson
Sales Manager
Pan Engineering
Unit 3
Dear Mr. Watson:
We have pleasure in inviting you to our annual conference. It will take place at
the Sheraton Hotel, Glasgow from 15 to 18 April. We enclose details of the
conference, accommodation arrangements and a provisional program.
We would appreciate it if you could confirm your participation at your earliest
convenience.
Yours sincerely,
J. Cooper
Conference Organizer
Рекомендованная литература: 1. ОЛ (с.25-26).
Контрольная работа № 5
24
Вариант 1
Задание 1. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
The efficient _________ can absorb large dollar amounts of securities without
destabilizing the price.
а) industry
c) competitiveness
b) market
d) product
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
I ______________ my presentation into three parts.
а) dividing
c) has divided
b) have divided
d) divides
Задание 3. Дополните микродиалог
Could you supply us with the latest information about it? - _____________________.
а) Most willingly.
c) Keep well. All the best!
b) Let me introduce myself. d) Yes, I am, the day after tomorrow.
Задание 4. Выберите правильный вариант ответа
_______________, the longest ruling monarch in Britain, who lived in 1837—1901,
is a symbol of the unity of the whole nation and the British Empire.
а) the Greenwich Meridian c) George Washington
b) Queen Victoria
d) the Independent Broadcasting Authority
Задание 5. Перед Вами резюме. Соотнесите информацию под определенным
номером с тем, что она обозначает
а) Career objective
c) Present address
b) References
d) Work experience
25
1. Name
John R. Pogodin
2.
1 Park Avenue, Ap. 32 New York, N.Y. 11298
Tel.: (312) 489-5671
3. Marital status
single
4.
A position as a bookkeeper.
5. Summary
of
skills
and 8 years of experience in all routine work in his
qualifications
field. Perfect knowledge of up-to-date computer
software and statistics.
6. Responsibilities
Compiled financial reports, balance sheets and
production planning forecasts.
7.
1994 - up to now SIGMA, Inc. New York.
Bookkeeper. In charge of account books and
statements.
8. Education
1988-1993 Moscow State University. Moscow,
Russia, Master (Economics).
1994 Courses in marketing.
9.
Available upon request.
Задание 7. Определите вид представленного документа
a) Cover Letter
b) Enquiry
c) Order
d) Claim
Mrs. A. Everett
Compact Systems
96 Rosewall Drive
Southtown
26
Dear Sirs
We recently attended the Software Trade Exhibition in Bath, and were impressed
by the range of software available through your company.
We are a large chain of business software retailers and are looking for a software
house which could supply us with a range applications programs. As we usually place
large orders, we would expect a quantity discount in addition to a 20 p.c. trade
discount off net list prices. Our terms of payment are normally 30 days after receipt
of invoice.
If these conditions are of interest to you, we would be much obliged if you could
send us your current catalogue and price list. We look forward to hearing from you
soon.
Yours faithfully
P. Barker
Purchasing Manager
Рекомендованная литература: 1. ОЛ (с.26-27).
Тексты для самостоятельной работы
Вариант 1
Text 1
27
In addition to the lumber cutting in the mill, presawing preparation of logs and
post sawing control of lumber seasoning and other general services are part of
sawmill activity.
Sometimes the outside-mill activity requires more than half of the total labour
force. Therefore it is important to have this outside-mill operation well-organized and
mechanized.
Usually the logs are cross-cut before entering the mill. For this operation the
portable electric chain saws are most convenient. It is preferable to debark some
species with heavy bark usually containing sandy particles. For such cases a
mechanical debarker should be used.
If a sawmill cuts a major portion of species susceptible to fungus or insect
attack, a mechanized tank for dipping treatment should be installed at the remote end
of the "green" chain.
Transport and stacking of lumber for air seasoning usually requires a sizeable
labour force. The most economical method is to stack the lumber for air seasoning
immediately after removing it from the "green" chain. The piles should be of a
convenient size for transport by fork-lift. Correct seasoning is a very important
sawmill's activity. Whether kiln or semi-artificial seasoning should be a part of the
post-sawing treatment, or natural air seasoning is enough, can be decided according
to particular requirements.
Text 2
The designer of a sawmill faces many limitations. He must consider the natural and
economic conditions and the limited choice of machines. These two factors usually
decide the size of the mill and the degree of mechanization.
28
So far as the equipment is concerned, we note the following:
1) Bandsaws are the most versatile. There is practically no sawing operation they
cannot handle. Selection of the size of the saws is made with a view to ensuring that the
strength of the blade is commensurate with the stress to which it is subjected. In the first
sawing of soft woods, six-foot bandsaws are always used, with harder woods bigger
saws are necessary. In resawing, a bandsaw with a rack carrier may be employed where
the use of a gang saw is not possible.
2) The circular saw has limited capacity. Its advantage resides in the fact, that it can
be fitted with high-speed steel teeth that make it possible to use it in the sawing of both
very hard and soft woods. Its use is limited, particularly in the second sawing,
because of the waste of raw material it entails.
3) The gang saw, like the bandsaw, can be used in either rapid or slow sawing. It is
very valuable in rapid sawing, which is rarely-done, except in the second sawing of
planks 20-50 centimeters thick. Slow sawing is almost obligatory in the first sawing. It
may, however be acceptable in certain other cases. Gang saws or frame saws, as they
are also called, gives the highest accuracy. So frame-sawn lumber can be used for
building purposes without previous planning which means a saving both in labour
and material.
Text 3
Historically, the first phase in the manufacture of wood products has been air
drying and kiln drying of lumber. There are many methods that have been used over
29
the years to dry lumber from the green state to a dry condition suitable to its end use.
There was an era when furniture factories air-dried their lumber for one year or more,
then placed it in dry storage for almost another year to bring the lumber down to a
moisture content with, which to make furniture. Degrade was rather high, but the
price of lumber was low.
The next step was the same air-drying. Then natural draft kilns were used to
shorten the time of drying and provide moisture content usable for furniture. These
natural draft kilns were generally cross-piled, and there are a few still existing. Most
of them have been modified.
The next step to further cut down time in the kilns was double-attack air drying
kilns with a new innovation, automatic control of heat, humidity and ventilation
For years the forest industry has used natural solar drying and steam drying of
lumber. Today a combination of air drying by means of low temperature kilns, or a
predrier, and the modern dry kiln has made drying of green hardwoods possible in a
relatively short time and with little or no degrade. Drying of hardwood lumber for
furniture manufacture is an expensive and time-consuming operation. Looses in
drying due to hecks, cracks, splits and warp can easily exceed the operating costs and
result in a loss of raw material and wasted time and labor. Extensive technology,
aimed at reducing degrade and drying, times, has recently been introduced to the kiln
industry. These innovators include the use of vacuum pressures, microwaves, heat
pumps. Four drying methods have come to use as ways to reduce drying losses,
shorten drying times and reduce costs. They are 1) Predrying, 2) Dehumidification
Drying, 3) Vacuum Drying, 4) Radiofrequency Drying.
Text 4
Solar drying kilns apply the principles used in a greenhouse to the drying of
timber. Heat is trapped inside a structure covered with a material which is transparent to
short wave radiation (light) and not transparent to longer wave radiation (heat) and
30
which at the same time reduces heat loss by conduction and convection. The differences
between a greenhouse and a solar kiln are, however, important. They are as follows:
1) A solar kiln may trap as much heat as possible whereas a greenhouse may not.
2) Air circulation is essential in a solar kiln to remove water from the wood
surface whereas convection gives sufficient air circulation in a greenhouse.
3) Temperatures increase and humidity decreases in a solar kiln as the timber dries
whereas, in a greenhouse, the more constant they remain the better.
Solar kilns vary considerably in size and design but most of them are
modifications of a simple greenhouse-type structure. The characteristics of solar kilns
are as follows:
1) Drying from green to 12 per cent moisture content takes 2-3 times as long as in a
convectional kiln (which is usually steam heated).
2) Drying is normally twice as fast as air drying and equilibrium moisture content varies
between 6 and 12 per cent.
3) Quality of drying in solar kilns is high for the following reasons: a) general rate of
drying is slow compared with convectional kilns, b) daily variations in temperature are
larger than with air drying but variations in humidity are much lower. It should be noticed
that with solar drying it is possible to dry timber to 8-10 per cent equilibrium moisture
content.
The advantages of solar kilns are therefore: high quality-drying particularly for
woods that are slow and difficult to dry, low coats and low level of skill required to
operate them. They are simple to erect and energy-saving. Their disadvantages are that
they are slow compared with convectional kilns and dependent on the weather.
Вариант 2
Text 1
31
Off-road transport of timber was traditionally based on use of the horse and
sledge in winter. When the mechanization in forestry began, farm tractors were tried
in off-road transport of timber. The farm tractor, however, required the opening and
leveling of a strip road. In horse transport, the sledge was taken right up to the stump,
whereas in tractor transport, it became necessary to carry pulpwood manually or
winch by tractor to strip road.
The farm tractor needed accessory equipment to perform off-road transport.
The most important were half-tracks, powered semi-trailers, winches and winchdriven boom loaders.
The four-wheel-drive cable skidders proved to be far superior to the farm
tractor. However, skidders were designed for the tree-length harvesting system, and
they were inefficient in transporting small-sized stems bucked timber.
Soon work began to develop a tractor better suited to forest management
systems and thinning operations. In the mid-1960s, a large-wheeled, load-car ring
forwarder, typically equipped with a hydraulic knuckle-boom loader, was created.
The forwarder, solved the problem of mechanization of off-road transport. Today
most limber is brought to the road side by medium-sized 10-12t forwarders. In the
late 1980s, lighter forwarders and light rubber-tracked, load-carrying crawlers were
developed primarily for peat land logging and for early commercial thinnings.
The forwarder has become an internationally recognized forest machine. It is
characterized by high
productivity, flexible mobility from site, and is
environmentally considerate.
Text 2
Forest industry companies purchase most of their timber standing. The
purchasing forest industry is responsible for the planning and organization of the
logging operations. The manual labour, forest machine contractors, and truckers are
32
hired separately. The other part of the wood raw material is delivered as timber
assortments at the road side by small forest owners.
Traditionally and still today, sub-operations of a logging system are kept
independent of each other by using buffer storage at the stump or road side. This cold
decking helps to increase the operational ability and system productivity. Hot logging
schedules are avoided.
The tree-length method today represents little of the off-road transport of
timber. The log-length method and load-carrying tractors have proved their
superiority. Due to the small size of the forest holdings there is generally a shortage
of landing areas.
Forwarders are capable of storing the timber with the crane in up to 4m high
piles thus reducing the landing area requirement radically. In the longlength method
the load-carrying tractors sort tne timber and pile it in conjunction with unloading site
according to assortment. This cold decking makes it easy for the trucks to deliver
different assortments to different mills. Thus, loading time is decreased, criss cross
transport is reduced, and handling of timber at the mill yard becomes easier.
Modern logging machines apply advanced technology and require high
operator skills and careful maintenance. The operators must be able to carry out
emergency repairs.
The long-distance transport always starts with a truck, generally equipped with
a full trailer. When the hauling distance is long, the truck transport often continues by
rail or floating.
Text 3
In motor-manual methods the tree is felled, delimbed and bucked in to final
lengths with a chainsaw at the site in accordance with the quality requirements
33
applied, and small-sized pulpwood logs are bunched. The length of pulpwood varies
usually between 3-5m and that of sawlogs between 4-5m.
In mechanized methods multi-function machines which are classified in three
main groups replace chainsaw operators: feller-bunchers, processors, and harvesters.
The feller-bunchers perform only felling and bunching. Processors carry out
delimbing and bucking, thus chainsaw operators or feller-bunchers are required for
felling. Harvesters are also of felling the trees.
The first generation of these multi-function machines were double-grip
harvesters, which first sever the tree from the stump with a crane-mounted felling
head and then transfer it for further processing to a separate mechanism mounted on
the base carrier. A more common option is presently the single-grip harvester, which
uses a relatively light, crane-mounted head for both felling and bucking. The majority
of the new machines are crane-mounted single-grip harvesters. Double-grip
harvesters have their primary application in larger trees because of their robust
structure and higher productivity.
Compared
to
motor-manual
methods,
multi-function
machines
are
economically competitive particularly in final fellings, in large-scale operations, for
large trees, and especially for trees with a long live crown such as spruce. However,
light multifunction machines, designed for smaller trees and thinning conditions, are
also becoming more competitive.
Text 4
The productivity and cost-competitiveness of multi-function machines are
typically very sensitive to tree size. The productivity of forest tractor-mounted
harvesters in late thinnings and clear cuttings varies between 15-50 m timber
operating hour depending on tree size and the type of machine. The smallest
harvesters mounted on light rubber-tracked vehicles may produce 4-5 m timber per
operating hour under difficult conditions of early thinnings. Haulage to the road side
is performed with a load-carrying forwarder, equipped with a long-reach hydraulic
34
crane. Except early thinnings, typical logging operations produce pine sawlogs,
spruce sawlogs, birch veneer logs, and pulpwood from each of the three tree species.
The forwarder sorts different timber assortments to their own piles at the landing site.
Depending on the hauling distance, terrain, site conditions, type of equipment, and
the skill of the driver, the output varies generally from 8 to 15 m per operating hour.
For small rubber-tracked vehicles the transport output remains significantly lower.
The most common type of off-road transport machine is a six-wheel 10-12t
forwarder. Due to their better environmental properties, the number of eight-wheel
forwarders is increasing. The newest forwarders are light and have a long crane
reach.
Long-distance transport is done with a self-loading truck-trailer unit. To
increase the load capacity, the truck's own crane is usually detached and left at the
landing site after completing the loading.
The most common timber haulage combination is composed of a three-axle
truck, equipped with a three-axle full-trailer and a detachable grapple loader.
Вариант 3
Text 1
Market economies are directed by prices. As the price of an item rises, sellers are
encouraged to increase production, and consumers are discouraged from purchasing
the item. When the price falls, the opposite is true. In this way prices send out
«signals» to buyers and sellers, keeping the economy responsive to the forces of
supply and demand.
In a free market economy, prices are determined by the interaction of the forces
of supply and demand. Perfectly competitive markets are those in which many buyers
and sellers, with full knowledge of market conditions, buy and sell products that are
identical to one another.
35
Demand is the quantity of goods or services that buyers would purchase at all
possible prices. Demand varies inversely with price. That is, at a higher price fewer
items would be bought than at a lower one. The degree to which price changes affect
demand will depend upon the elasticity of demand for a particular item.
Supply, which is the quantity of goods or services that sellers would offer for sale at
all possible prices at a particular time and place, varies directly with price. In other
words, at a higher price, more goods and services will be offered for sale than at a
lower one, and vice versa.
Text 2
A MIXED ECONOMY
A mixed economy is one in which there exists a mixture of free enterprise and
government control. In some areas of a mixed economy, the government may even
have a monopoly. Most of the developed countries of the world have a mixed
economy. The mixture of two different economic philosophies can imply a variety of
consequences for a country, some of which are seen as beneficial, while others are
neutral or detrimental. Mixed economies are also known as dual economies.
In a typical mixed economy, the government may run such things as the postal
service, rail lines, libraries, and in some cases, the health care service. Even in
industries which are not owned or run by the government, its influence is very
noticeable in the form of taxes and regulations like wage controls.
The economy of the United States is one of the more prominent examples of a
mixed economy in the world. This is so because both private enterprise and
government regulation have come to be integral and important to the economy as it
now stands. For example, the principle of free enterprise is alive and well in the U.S.
Businesses reserve the right to incorporate, and to employ and deny employment to
whoever they wish, provided they do not engage in discrimination or other illegal
36
employment practices. The means of production are still mostly privately owned, and
private citizens can buy, sell, and invest any way they choose.
Text 3
The most important aspect of the bank teller job description is to cater to the
financial needs of the customers. The bank tellers work in different banks in urban
and rural or under developed areas. The salary for the bank tellers can grow steadily
with consistent performance, acquiring new skills and having proper educational
qualifications.
The bank tellers perform various tasks at the counter of the bank in which they
work. The main duty of a bank teller is to receive the payments in the form of cash or
checks from the customers. They also give the money to the customers from their
accounts by completing the formalities and standard procedures. The bank teller job
description also involves checking and evaluating minor details during deposit or
withdrawal transactions made by the customers. They have to check whether the
details
written
on
the
withdrawal
slip
are
correct
or
not.
The bank teller job description also involves solving various problems faced by
the customers regarding the transfer of money, withdrawal and deposits. If there are
problems in the statement of the accounts, the bank tellers solve these problems by
carefully analyzing the problem and finding solutions fast. Once the normal banking
hours of the bank are over, then the bank tellers have to fill up a settlement sheet in
which they are supposed to mention all the financial transactions carried out by them
during the entire day.
Text 4
Unemployment is an economic condition where an individual or individuals
seeking jobs cannot manage to get themselves economically employed. The level of
37
unemployment differs with economic conditions and other market forces. Basically,
there are five types of unemployment.
Frictional Unemployment: Frictional unemployment is a temporary condition. This
unemployment occurs when an individual is out of his current job and looking for
another job.
Structural Unemployment: Structural unemployment occurs due to the
structural changes within an economy. This type of unemployment occurs when there
is a mismatch of skilled workers and occupational vacancies in the labor market.
Classical Unemployment: Classical unemployment is also known as real wage
unemployment or disequilibrium unemployment. This type of unemployment occurs
when trade unions and labor organization bargain for higher wages, which leads to
strikes and lockouts and result in the fall in the demand for labor.
Cyclical Unemployment: Cyclic unemployment occurs when there is an
economic recession. When there is a downturn in an economy, the aggregate demand
for goods and services decreases and demand for labor decreases. At the time of
recession,
unskilled
and
surplus
laborers
become
unemployed.
Seasonal Unemployment: A type of unemployment that occurs due to the
seasonal nature of the job is known as seasonal unemployment. The industries that
are affected by seasonal unemployment are hospitality and tourism industries and
also the fruit picking and catering industries.
Рекомендуемая литература
Основная литература
1.Маньковская З. В. Деловой английский язык: ускоренный курс [Электронный ресурс]:
Учебное пособие / З.В. Маньковская. - М.: НИЦ ИНФРА-М, 2014. - 160 с. - ЭБС «Знаниум» Режим доступа: http://www.znanium.com/ - Загл. с экрана.
38
Дополнительная литература
1. Маньковская З. В. Английский язык в ситуациях повседневного делового общения
[Электронный ресурс]/ З.В. Маньковская. - М.: НИЦ Инфра-М, 2012., 223 с. - ЭБС «Знаниум»
2.Кравец, В. Е. Грамматика английского языка. Морфология [Текст]: граммат. справ. / В. Е.
Кравец;
Фед.
агентство
по
образованию,
Гос.
образоват.
учреждение
высш. проф. образования "Воронеж, гос. лесотехн. акад.". - Воронеж, 2010. - 124 с. –
электронная версия - Электронная версия в ЭБС ВГЛТУ.
3.Кравец В.Е., Грамматика английского языка. Синтаксис [Текст]: граммат. справ. / В. Е.
Кравец ; В. Е. Кравец; Фед. агентство по образованию, Гос. образоват. учреждение высш.
проф. образования "Воронеж. гос. лесотехн. акад.". - Воронеж, 2010. - 80 с. - Электронная версия
в ЭБС ВГЛТУ
4. Мюллер В. К. Англо-русский словарь [Текст] : 40 000 слов / В. К. Мюллер, С. К. Боянус . М. : Локид-Пресс, 2003. - 687 с.
5. Литвинова Л. А. Иностранный язык. Caring for natural resources. Охрана природных
ресурсов [Текст] : учеб. пособие / Л. А. Литвинова; ВГЛТА. - Воронеж, 2014. - 71 с. Электронная версия в ЭБС ВГЛТУ.
6. Зайцева Л. В. Иностранный язык. English for nature managers [Текст] : учеб. пособие / Л.
В. Зайцева; ВГЛТА. - Воронеж, 2013. - 176 с. - Электронная версия в ЭБС ВГЛТУ.
Маклакова Елена Альбертовна
Илунина Анна Александровна
Английский язык в профессии
39
Методические указания для самостоятельной работы для студентов по всем
направлениям подготовки (уровень бакалавриата)
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